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BIOLOGY

Topic I: Cells and Molecules of Life

Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education
(HKDSE)

Notes & Exercises
Chapter 1 to 6

ANDY WONG S.T.

................................................... 6 4................ Movement of substances across cell membrane ............................................................................................................................................ 18 Sites of respiration ........................ 18 REFERENCES ..................... Metabolism ....................................................................................................... 4 3.................................................... Meiotic cell division ............................................................................. 17 Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis . 3 3............................................... 9 3.................. 3 1................................................................................. 17 Sites and requirements of photosynthesis ............................................................................................................ Basic structure of a cell ..................... Levels of organization................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 *CHAPTER 5 PHOTOSYNTHESIS ........................................................................................................................................ Mitotic cell division ................................................................................................................ 11 4................................................... 17 Photochemical reactions ............. 4 2..................................................................................................................................... 19 *These topics are not required in biology part of HKDSE Combined Science curriculum.................................... 18 Glycolysis ..................................... 3 2.......................................................................................... Chromosomes............................................................ 4 1................................................................................................................... 9 2.......................... 13 1................................................................................................................. Cell membrane ..................................TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . 11 CHAPTER 4 CELL CYCLE AND DIVISION.......................... Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells ......................... 7 5............. 17 Carbon fixation: Calvin cycle .......... 2 ...................................................................................................................... 18 Aerobic respiration .................................. 8 CHAPTER 3 CELL ACTIVITIES ......... 18 Anaerobic respiration ........ 13 2.... Discovery of cells .................................................................... Characteristics of organisms ............................ 13 3..... Enzymes ................................................................................................................................ Scientific method ...................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2 THE CELL AND THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE.............................................. What is biology? .. Chemicals of life ........................................ 17 *CHAPTER 6 RESPIRATION ........................ 9 1.....................

Characteristics of organisms All organisms show the following seven common characteristics: (1) Nutrition: Organisms need to obtain food for energy and maintain life. (2) Respiration: Organisms can break down food to supply energy for body activities. (The hypothesis may become a theory with increased evidence and acceptance in the scientific community. molecular biology. These usually involve: (1) making observations.) 3 . (4) drawing a conclusion to support or reject the hypothesis. Scientific method Scientists study biology by using scientific methods. Plants usually move by growing.Topic I CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. (5) Excretion: Organisms can remove waste produced from chemical reactions inside their bodies. (4) Irritability: Organisms can respond to changes in the environment. ecology. (3) Movement: Animals can move from place to place. taxonomy. (6) Reproduction: Organisms can produce offspring to allow the species to continue through time. It can be divided into different branches including cytology. (2) proposing a hypothesis. (7) Growth: Organisms increase in size and complexity. What is biology? Biology is the study of living things (organisms). 3. 2. anatomy. (3) doing experiments to test the hypothesis. etc.

g. magnesium. medium for chemical reactions/transport  acts as a cooling agent (help regulate body temperature by sweating/transpiration)  acts as a reactant. iv) Nucleic acids  deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) carries important genetic information  controls cell activities  determines features of organisms.CHAPTER 2 THE CELL AND THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE 1. ii) Lipids  act as energy reserve (fats and oils)  make up cell membranes and membranes of organelles (phospholipids). calcium. e. which states that: (1) all organisms are made up of one or more cells. 4 . nitrate.g.g. e. enzymes and antibodies. 2.g. provides buoyancy. Schleiden and Schwann proposed the cell theory. “Cells” are said to be discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. (2) the cell is the basic unit of life. In 1839. glucose  storage of energy in plants (starch)  make up plant cell walls (cellulose). The modified cell theory also states that all cells come from pre-existing cells. Inorganic chemical constituents i) Water  acts as a basic solvent. more details of the cells are observed. iii) Proteins  fibrous proteins build up body structures  globular proteins. e. etc. Discovery of cells After the invention of microscopes. Chemicals of life A. iron. Organic chemical constituents (biomolecules) i) Carbohydrates  provide energy. in photosynthesis/digestion of food  gives shape and support. e. ii) Inorganic ions  keep organisms healthy. B.

specimens are often stained with methylene blue solution (for animal cells) or iodine solution (for plant cells)  easier to be observed. The image observed is always inverted. Magnification Area of specimen observed Details of image Brightness of image Low High Larger (more cells) Less Brighter Smaller (fewer cells) More Dimmer Total magnification of the microscope = magnification of the eyepiece  magnification of the objective When preparing temporary mounts. not coloured ones. B. 5 . Electron microscopes i) Transmission electron microscopes: produces 2-dimensional images ii) Scanning electron microscopes: produces 3-dimensional images *All electron microscopes give black and white images.Topic I A. Light microscopes Source: Certificate Biology: New Mastering Basic Concepts It is the most commonly used compound microscope in the school laboratory.

nucleus. e. bounded by a double membrane  inner membrane is folded into finger-like projections  main site for energy release in respiration. red blood cells. ii) Cytoplasm  jelly-like substance made up of water.3. Basic structure of a cell A. 6 .g. e. some do not have a nucleus.g. vi) Vacuole  a sac containing water and dissolved substances. iii) Nucleus  surrounded by nuclear membrane  contains DNA and controls all cell activities. food  bounded by a differentially permeable membrane. Most animal cells have a few or even no vacuoles. v) Mitochondrion  rod-shaped. mitochondria)  cellular chemical reactions take place here. e. proteins. and etc.g.  holds organelles. Animal cell i) Cell membrane  thin and flexible membrane  differentially permeable  controls movement of substances into and out of the cell. iv) Endoplasmic reticulum  a network of interconnected membrane-bounded sacs  forms a link between cytoplasm and nuclear membrane  rough ER has ribosomes attached to its surface  sites for protein synthesis  smooth ER is responsible for synthesis and transport of lipids.

g.g. e. supports and gives shape to plant cells. food. except: i) Cell wall  thick. Plant cell The basic structure of plant cells is similar to that of animal cells. iii) Chloroplast  bounded by a double membrane  contains a green pigment chlorophyll  absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.Topic I B. Some plant cells do not have chloroplasts. They work together at three levels of organization: cell  tissue  organ  system  organism 7 .g. ii) Vacuole  usually large and located at the centre of the cell  contains cell sap (a solution of dissolved substance. epidermal cells. xylem cells. pigments)  gives support to the plant if full of water. e. 4. Levels of organization In multicellular organisms. rigid layer made up of cellulose  fully permeable  protects. some do not have a nucleus. e. cells are specialized to perform functions.

but no cellulose Yes (plants)/ No (animals).5. cellulose present 8 . Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Size Usually smaller Usually larger Nuclear membrane No (no true nucleus) Yes (true nucleus present) Genetic materials (DNA) Lying free in the cytoplasm Enclosed in the nucleus Organelles with double membrane No Yes Endoplasmic reticulum No (ribosomes lie freely) Yes Cell wall May be present or absent.

water-soluble substances (e. certain proteins) and certain ions. (4) distribution of substances throughout cytoplasm. glucose.g. iii) Cell membrane is strong enough to support the contents of the cell  proteins are interspersed among phospholipids in a mosaic pattern. It can change its shape and seal back on itself during growth and cell division  phospholipids and some proteins can move laterally (has a fluid nature). some act as carriers for active transport (carrier proteins). Properties and structure of cell membrane i) Cell membrane is differentially permeable  phospholipids have a water-loving (hydrophilic) “head” – phosphate group.Topic I CHAPTER 3 CELL ACTIVITIES 1. Singer and Nicolson proposed the fluid mosaic model to explain the structure of cell membrane. iv) Some proteins (1) help receive chemicals. (2) a higher temperature. alcohol) and simple/small molecules (e. e.g. 2. (3) some have carbohydrate molecules attached to form glycoproteins for recognition purpose. small/lipid-soluble molecules into the cell. oxygen. when white blood cells identifying „foreign‟ cells and destroy them.g. (3) smaller/lipid-soluble particles.  importance: (1) transport of oxygen. which is  only permeable to lipid-soluble substances (e. carbon dioxide). and a water-repelling (hydrophobic) “tail” – fatty acids. (3) transport of simple ions across cell membrane. Cell membrane In 1972. 9 .  Large molecules (or those do not fit the shape of the carrier proteins) cannot pass through the cell membrane. Movement of substances across cell membrane I. then stimulate certain cell activities.  impermeable to water molecules.  some proteins act as channels for transporting water-soluble substances (channel proteins). Diffusion  net movement of particles down a concentration gradient  not requiring additional energy  diffusion rate is higher for (1) a steeper concentration gradient. (2) transport of carbon dioxide/waste out of the cell. which states that the cell membrane is mainly made up of phospholipids and proteins. ii) Cell membrane is flexible. (2) some act as enzymes to speed up reactions.g. Phospholipid = glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group They are arranged tail-to-tail in the phospholipid bilayer.

[Water potential  is measured in Pascal (Pa).II. Osmosis  diffusion of water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane  net movement of water molecules from less concentrated to more concentrated solution (i. (2) transport of substances along concentration gradient at a higher speed (e.e. IV. (2) transporting water through living tissues. 10 .] III. Solute particles would lower the water potential of a solution (negative value). (2) particle enclosed in a vacuole. glucose).  importance: (1) entry and exit of water into and out of the cell (especially in plants). from higher water potential to lower water potential). Source: Certificate Biology: New Mastering Basic Concepts *Pure water has the highest water potential (zero). Active transport  movement of substances (usually) against a concentration gradient with the use of energy  occurs at carrier proteins (for living cells only)  cyanide/lack of oxygen might slow down/stop active transport  importance: (1) transport of minerals in plants. Phagocytosis  uptake of large particles with the use of energy  process: (1) forms a pit (or pseudopodia) at the cell membrane to engulf particle.g.

(4) They are proteins. which then breaks down to form product(s).g. B. where complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones to release energy (catabolic process).  importance: (1) nutrition of some single-celled organisms. The enzyme is released in its original form. (3) They are required in a relatively small amount. 11 .g. It consists of: (1) Catabolism: all breaking-down reactions. Enzymes A. Factors affecting the rate of enzymatic reactions i) Temperature  at low temperatures. molecules have more kinetic energy. 3. so they are easily affected by temperature or pH values. Enzyme combines temporarily with substrates in a reaction. Amoeba. it thus increases the chance of collision to form an enzyme-substrate complex. reaction rate increases. 4. and reaction rate is low.  specificity of enzymes can be explained by lock-and-key hypothesis  the active site (with specific shape) of an enzyme combines the substrate molecule(s) to form an enzyme-substrate complex (greatly lowers the energy barrier). e. ii) pH value  enzymes work within a narrow range of pH values (different enzymes have different working ranges). Each enzyme only catalyses one type of reaction. enzymes are inactive. reaction rate decreases as enzymes are denatured. Properties and roles of enzymes (1) They are biological catalysts. Most of them are denatured at high temperatures and extreme pH values.  as temperature rises. (2) Anabolism: all building-up reactions.  as temperature continues to rise. Metabolism Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that take place in an organism. (4) digested products diffuse to cytoplasm.Topic I (3) enzymes released to digest particle. (5) Their actions are specific. (2) They can be reused. e.  they work best at its optimum pH. (2) body defence against diseases. and without being changed or used up.  reaction rate reaches its maximum at the optimum temperature. phagocytes engulf pathogens. where complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones with the use of energy (anabolic process). They speed up reactions by lowering energy barrier.

e.g.  non-competitive inhibitors: attach to other parts of enzyme and changes the structure of active sites. making bread.  competitive inhibitors: chemicals with similar structures to substrate(s). cyanide/heavy metal ions such as mercury ions  No effect on reaction rate even if substrate concentration is higher.Source: Certificate Biology: New Mastering Basic Concepts iii) Inhibitors  rate of enzymatic reactions decreases by certain chemicals. they compete with substrate(s) for active sites. meat tenderizers. leather industries. stonewashed jeans. Applications of enzymes: Biological washing powder. etc. 12 . C. thus lowering the chance to form an enzyme-substrate complex  their effects can be reduced if substrate concentration is higher.

iv) Diploid (2n) cell  a cell that has two sets of chromosomes  formed by mitotic division. (e. In each cycle. Chromosomes Cells are capable of forming new cells in a process called cell division. liver cells: ~1 year). skin cells: ~24 hours. Definitions of some terms are as follows: i) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  carries genetic information. It consists of two stages: (1) Cell growth: it includes first growth phase (G1). The number of chromosomes varies with each species of organisms. which is a process that a cell (parent cell) divides to form two or more new cells (daughter cells). iii) Homologous chromosomes  a pair of chromosomes of the same shape and size  the one comes from male parent is called paternal chromosome  the one comes from female parent is called maternal chromosome.  when a cell prepares to divide. v) Haploid (n) cell  a cell that has one set of chromosomes  formed by meiotic division. but there is no relationship between the size or complexity of an organism and its chromosome number. Species Chromosome pairs (number) Roundworm Mouse Human Potato Dog Shrimp 1 (2) 20 (40) 23 (46) 24 (48) 39 (78) 127 (254) 2. ii) Chromosomes  usually appear as a thin thread called chromatin  cannot be seen under a microscope.g. Mitotic cell division The cell cycle refers to a sequence of events happened in a cell between one mitotic cell division and the next. synthesis phase (S) and second growth phase (G2). (2) Mitotic cell division: starts with nuclear division and followed by cytoplasmic division. present in the nucleus of a cell  double helix structure (two chains twist around each other)  coils around some special proteins to form a chromosome. 13 . genetic material replicates  chromosomes become thicker and shorter and are more clearly seen  each chromosome is seen to consist of two threads called chromatids joined at a point called centromere. mitosis only accounts for about 10% of cycle time.Topic I CHAPTER 4 CELL CYCLE AND DIVISION 1. Different types of cells also have different cycle time. This process is important for growth and reproduction of organisms.

grows outwards from the centre to form 2 new cells (for plant cells) Stages Process Interphase DNA replicates (still appears as invisible chromatin) (cell growth) Prophase  Chromosomes become thicker and shorter (visible).g. which consists of 4 main stages  retain chromosome number after division  2 identical diploid nuclei are formed  cytoplasm then divides into two equal halves (this process is called cytokinesis)  cell membrane constricts inwards to form 2 new cells (for animal cells)  cell plate (made up of new cell walls and cell membranes) forms between two nuclei. interphase) a stage to prepare for mitotic cell divisions  first growth phase (G1): new organelles (e. Mitotic cell division  nuclear division is called mitosis.k. mitochondria) and proteins are synthesized  synthesis phase (S): DNA molecules are replicated  second growth phase (G2): energy stores increase and cell grows to its maximum size.a. Cell growth  (a.I. each consists of 2 chromatids  Nuclear membrane disintegrates Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the middle (equator) of the cell Anaphase  Chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to opposite poles of the cell  Cytoplasm starts to divide Telophase  New nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes  Chromosomes uncoil to become invisible chromatin again. II. Figures 14 .

Meiotic cell division Meiotic cell division reduces chromosome number by half to give 4 genetically different haploid daughter cells. each starts with nuclear division (called meiosis) and followed by cytoplasmic division. and asexual reproduction (e. anther and ovaries (plants). testes and ovaries (humans). It is important for growth.Topic I Mitotic cell division produces daughter cells that are exact copies of parent cells.g. repair. bacteria). Meiotic cell division consists of 2 divisions. Stages Process Interphase DNA replicates (still appears as invisible chromatin) (cell growth) Prophase I (first meiotic cell division) Figures  Chromosomes become thicker and shorter (visible). e. each consists of 2 chromatids  Members of each pairs of homologous chromosomes pair up  Nuclear membrane disintegrates Metaphase I Homologous pairs line up in the middle (equator) of the cell Anaphase I  The 2 members of each homologous pair separate and move to opposite poles of the cell  Cytoplasm starts to divide Telophase I  New nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes 15 . 3.g. It mainly occurs in sex organs.

When male and female gametes fuse at fertilization to form zygote. Radom distribution and independent assortment of chromosomes produces gametes with different genetic combinations. Source: New Senior Secondary: Mastering Biology Meiotic cell division produces haploid daughter cells called gametes (sex cells) for sexual reproduction. each having one member of each homologous pair  Chromosomes uncoil to become invisible chromatin again.Prophase II (second meiotic cell division) Nuclear membrane disintegrates again Metaphase II Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell Anaphase II  Chromatids of each chromosome separates and move to opposite poles of the cell  Cytoplasm starts to divide Telophase II  New nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes  4 haploid daughter cells are formed. 16 . This causes genetic variations within a species which increases the chance of survival as environment changes. diploid number of chromosome can be restored.

Topic I *CHAPTER 5 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Sites and requirements of photosynthesis Photochemical reactions Carbon fixation: Calvin cycle Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis 17 .

*CHAPTER 6 RESPIRATION Sites of respiration Glycolysis Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Applications 18 .

M. Yung H. (2003). 19 . Cheung L.. Pan K.. Book 3.M.. Tam K..W. New Senior Secondary: Mastering Biology.W.Topic I REFERENCES Pan K.K. Book 3.. Ho K.K. New Senior Secondary: Mastering Biology. (2009).H.H. Book 1.P. (2010). Tam K. Certificate Biology: New Mastering Basic Concepts.C.C. Yung H. (2004). Ho K..M. Ho Y.. Tong L.. Certificate Biology: New Mastering Basic Concepts. Tong L. Book 2.P. Ho Y..