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Unit 3

Unit 3 : OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT: Importance, Types of production, Applications, Work study,
Method study and Time study, Work sampling, PMTS, micro-motion study, rating techniques, MTM, Work factor
system, Principles of Ergonomics, Flow process charts, string diagrams and Therbligs.

The methods of production can be of the following types:
(1) Intermittent (interrupted) production which includes:
(a) Job production
(b) Batch production
(2) Mass and flow line production

In this method of production, every job is different from the other in terms of type, cost,
efforts, consumption of materials, or its specifications. As a result, product design could
consume a lot of time.

The quantity of each job could be small and hence, the large scale economies cannot be

This method involves special machinery and special training for the labour.

Mechanization and divinization of labour cannot be advantageously employed in view of
the wide differences in specification of each job.

Because of the above reasons, it can be seen that the job-production method is the

Examples of products manufactured under job production include: Large turbogenerators, special purpose machines, special heat treatment furnace etc.


Here, all the products manufactured under a batch are similar in terms of type, cost,
efforts, consumption of materials or their specifications.

Though the product design consumes a lot of time, the cost of product design per unit
comes down. The economies of production can be realized relatively better than in job

1Prepared by Prof. T.S.Nageswara Rao, Department of Management Studies, DVR &
Dr HS MIC College of Technology, Kanchikacherla as a teaching notes. Adapted from
various sources.

the cost of production per unit in batch production could be lower. This method calls for efficient maintenance of equipment and production control systems. • The production processes have to be carefully monitored as idle machinery results in wastage of resources. scooters etc. sheet-metal presses. • In mass production. MASS PRODUCTION • This is also called flow production. process layout can be advantageously used. • Examples of products manufactured under mass production include products such as TVs. tools and material handling need special monitoring. 2 . • The main advantage of the mass production process is the lowest unit cost of production. cars. • In this method. air conditioners. Here. readymade garments.Unit 3 production. the following factors can be advantageously applied: (a) Large-scale economies. (b) Sophisticated material handling systems to minimize the material handling costs. Automation and mechanization may be advantageously employed. paints and many consumer products such as mineral water bottles etc. the production is undertaken on large and specialized machines and processes. (d) Mass production calls for certain special care. when compared to the costs in job production. (c) Work study techniques and sophisticated quality control techniques. Methods. • Examples of products manufactured under batch production include pharmaceuticals. Thus. • The plant layout should be designed to suit the requirements of various stages in the manufacture of the product.

the design differs (2) Design (3) Cost per unit Cost per unit changes from job to job (4) Material/equipment handling costs (5) (6) (7) Plant layout Work In Progress Time required to set up machine (8) Degree of planning Every job requires different materials and/or equipment and hence handling costs are likely to be significant Process type Likely to be large Every time job changes. say 100 or 1000 are produced From batch to batch. All units produced are based on one particular design Cost per unit is the lowest of all methods Significantly lower Process type Likely to be high Relatively less time Product type Likely to be less Once the machines are set. Description Job Production (1) Number of units produced Every time.Unit 3 SUMMARY OF METHODS OF PRODUCTION S No. production continues Larger degree of planning is required Control needs to be exercised at every critical point in manufacturing Likely to be good Meticulous degree of planning is required Simplified to a large extent Likely to be very high . Every batch has identical products Cost per unit is relatively lower when compared to job production. setting up machines may also change. time required for setting up machines is more Moderate degree of planning is required (9) Degree of control Control needs to be exercised in a greater detail (10) Accuracy of product quality Tends to be satisfactory 3 Batch Production Every time. Hence. only one product or service can be produced From product to product. a few. But changes with batch to batch Moderately lower Mass Production It is a continuous production process There is no change in design. the design differs.

STEP 1: SELECT • Here. • The primary objective of work study is the elimination or reduction of ineffective production time. METHOD STUDY   Method Study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs. not only measures but also provides information about the processes involved. (3) EXAMINE. (5) INSTALL and (6) MAINTAIN. work study results in improvements in productivity without further large capital investments. whose purpose is to quantitatively measure work. by improving the use of existing resources. (4) DEVELOP. 4 . called the standard time. (2) RECORD. work study establishes the time that a given task would take when performed by a qualified worker working at a defined level of performance. Work Study is divided into two areas: (1) Method Study (or) Motion Study.Unit 3 WORK STUDY • Work study is the discipline of industrial engineering that uses various techniques to quantitatively measure or estimate work to increase the amount produced from a given quantity of resources. • Properly executed. There are six steps in the process of method study: (1) SELECT. the job be studied is selected. It uses work measurement as the basis to eliminate or reduce the ineffective use of productive resources. • In the process. and (2) Work Measurement (or) Time study. whose purpose is to simplify the job and to develop better methods of working. Economic and technical considerations are the basic criteria to be taken into account while selecting a job for method study. • Work study.

number of alternatives would emerge. The final alternative. is chosen: (1) PURPOSE: What should be done? (2) PLACE: Where should it be done? (3) SEQUENCE: When should it be done? 5 . and (iii) change the sequence of activities so that work delay is reduced and the activity is simplified to reduce the work content or time consumed. STEP 3: EXAMINE This step aims to: (i) eliminate the activity altogether if it is unnecessary. concise and correct. • The success of the whole procedure depends upon the accuracy with which facts are recorded. STEP 2: RECORD • The next step. one should first examine ‘bottle-neck’ operations such as operations involving movement of material over long distances and operations involving repetitive tasks. (ii) combine with other activities. after selecting the job to be studied.Unit 3 • Using these as the guidelines. commonly known as charts and diagrams. which gives the best answers to the following questions. material or details of various processes. The recording may trace the movement of men. by direct observation. Here. • Using recording techniques. is to record all the facts relating to the existing job. the following questions are asked: (1) PURPOSE: What is the purpose of this activity? Why is it necessary? What else could be done? (2) PLACE: Where does the activity take place? Why there? Where else could it be done? (3) SEQUENCE: When does it occur? Why then? When else could it be done? (4) PERSON: Who carries out the work? Why that person? Who else could do it? (5) MEANS: How is the purpose achieved? Why that particular way? How else could it be done? STEP 4: DEVELOP Based on the questions asked in the examine stage and the subsequent examination. Records must. therefore. be clear. the facts are recorded.

The standard time is the amount of time a qualified worker. AREAS OF APPLICATION OF METHOD STUDY (1) Improved layout of office. The amount of time that a job is expected to take is expressed as time standard. Periodical preventive maintenance measures for the equipment and machinery are undertaken. the management is apprised of the costs and benefits of the new system. work standard. working areas of factories. STEP 6: MAINTAIN  The newly installed system is maintained. the system is installed. Employees are encouraged to make the most of the new system. labour standard.Unit 3 (4) PERSON: Who should do it? (5) MEANS: How should it be done? STEP 5: INSTALL  After the system is developed. (5) Improved flow of work. • After the management is convinced. (8) Better working conditions. 6 . (2) Improved design of plant and equipment. plant. (6) Standardization of methods and procedures. (4) Most effective handling of material. equipment and manpower. The employees are trained in the running or functioning of the system. will require to perform the specified task. WORK MEASUREMENT Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the work content of a specified task by determining the time required for carrying out the task at a defined standard of performance by a qualified worker. (7) Improved safety standards. (3) Improved use of materials. production standard or standard time. It may be expressed as minutes/unit of output or units of output/hour. working at a normal rate of speed.

7 .Unit 3 A qualified worker is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes. quantity and quality. possessing the required intelligence and education. and having acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standards of safety.

STEP 2: Observe the time for appropriate number of cycles (such as 25 to 50 cycles) using a stop-watch. (1) TIME STUDY METHOD In this method. (c) Inform the worker and define the best method. (3) Analytical Estimating Method. the actual time taken by the operator to perform each element of the job is measured using a stop-watch. operation or product under ordinary working conditions. (4) Predetermined Motion Time System.Unit 3 BENEFITS OF WORK MEASUREMENT Work measurement helps: (1) To develop a basis for comparing alternate methods developed in method study by establishing the work content in each method. METHODS OF WORK MEASUREMENT (1) Time Study. (2) To prepare realistic work schedules by accurate assessment of human work. (PMTS) (5) Work Sampling. (3) To set standards of performance for labour utilization by establishing labour standards for an element of work. 8 . Procedure for measuring the time STEP 1: (a) Select the job to be studied. (4) To compare actual time taken by the worker with the allowed time (standard time) for proper control of labour. (b) Breakdown the work content of the job into smallest possible elements. fixation of selling price and assessment of delivery schedule. (5) To assist in estimation of labour cost. (2) Synthesis Method. and (6) To provide information related to estimation of tenders.

both hands stop.Unit 3 STEP 3: (a) Determine the average cycle time (CT) (b) CT = ∑ (Times) / Number of cycles. This watch has two hands. getting materials from stores etc. The small hand makes one revolution in 30 minutes. (5 %) (c) Special allowance: Interference allowance is given when a worker is looking after 2 or 3 machines. As one element is completed. which makes one revolution per minute. When it is pressed once. a second pressing of the knob restarts the stopped hand and the two hands move together. 9 . After the time taken for the first element is recorded on the observation sheet.% allowance)  Here. STEP 4: (a) Determine normal time (NT) NT = CT X PR where PR = Performance Rating STEP 5: (a) Determine standard time (ST) ST = NT X AF where AF = Allowance factor AF = 1/ (1 . allowance factor is to be calculated taking the following allowances into consideration: (a) Relaxation allowance: Time needed for physical needs and physical and mental fatigue involved (10 to 15 %) (b) Contingency allowance: Time needed for non-repetitive activities such as sharpening of tools. Stop-Watch The stop-watch used to measure the time in the above method can be of two types: (i) In the ordinary type stop-watch. the split-hands type stop watch is used. (d) Periodic activity allowance: Time needed for setting up a tool on a machine. there is a long hand. (ii) When two elements are to be timed successively. both hands start moving. pressing the knobs makes one hand to stop while the other hand keeps moving. When it is pressed a second time.

10 . Standard Data    Standard data is a catalogue of normal time values for different elements of jobs. Standard Time = ST = NT X AF where AF = Allowance factor AF = 1/ (1 . it is always economical to use the standard data.36 minutes. Determine the standard time.432 X 1 / (1-0.Unit 3 Example for Time Study The following are the cycle times observed: Cycle Time Number of Observations (Minutes) 20 6 24 8 29 10 32 1 Total No.% allowance) = 30.15) = 35.80 minutes. Normal Time = NT = CT X PR where PR = Performance Rating = 25. This catalogue is prepared by compiling the timings of a number of standard elements. Since many similar elements or movements are involved in many jobs. (2) SYNTHESIS METHOD Synthesis is a technique of work measurement for building up the time required to do a job at a defined level of performance by synthesizing or totalling elemental time values obtained from previous time studies on other jobs containing similar job elements or from standard data.432 minutes.36 X 120 % = 30. of 25 observations The worker is rated at 120%. Allowance = 15 %. Cycle Time = CT = ∑ (Times) / Number of cycles = (20X 6 + 24 X 8 + 29 X 10 + 32 X 1) / 25 = 25.

(5) Add the time values obtained in steps (3) and (4) to get normal time. time study and the use of standard data. (ii) Standard procedure to do the job. (iii) Job conditions: Illumination – Poor / Bright Temperature . The standard time is then determined by multiplying normal time with the allowance factor. Depending upon the movements in the job whose work is being measured. motion study. plan. select. refer to the standard data catalogue and obtain the normal time for each element and add (= synthesize) them up. The standard time is then determined by multiplying normal time with the allowance factor. (4) Estimate the time values for the remaining elements from past knowledge and experience. the estimator must have adequate experience of estimating. transport (empty). the times are noted and then added to come up with the normal time.   11 . (6) The standard time is then determined by multiplying normal time with the allowance factor.Unit 3   Once the standard data catalogue is built up. (3) Select time values from standard data catalogue for as many elements as possible. (4) PREDETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS)  In this system. one requires to list the job elements of an operation. inspect. hold. Steps:  (1) Find out the job details such as: (i) Job duration. rest  Tables of data provide a time. avoidable delay. find. position. at a defined rate of working for each classification of each movement. unavoidable delay. (3) ANALYTICAL ESTIMATING METHOD Here. use. grasp.High / Low Environment – Hazardous / Safe Availability of tools (2) Break the job into elements. preposition. transport (loaded). work measurement is based on the analysis of work into basic human movements such as: See. disassemble. release load.

Performance rating = PR = 120%.= 0. Solution: p = [number of observations during which “working’ occurred] = [350/400] = = 0.875 Total number of observations Normal Time = p X Total Shift Time X PR. recording whether he/she is working or not. Allowance factor = 15%. Number of units produced = 60 units. Steps for determining Standard Time by Work Sampling (1) Decide what activities are defined as “working”. But it is based on simple random sampling techniques derived from sampling theory. Units produced (5) The standard time is then determined by multiplying normal time with the allowance factor. It provides an estimate of what proportion of a worker’s time is devoted to work. Example Total number of observations = 400. Number of observations of ‘working” = 350.Unit 3 (5) WORK SAMPLING   Work sampling does not involve stop-watch measurements.875 X 480/60 X 120% = 8. Number of working hours in the shift = 8 hours = 480 minutes.4 minutes Units produced 12 . (3) Proportion of a time a worker is working is calculated as follows: p = [number of observations during which “working’ occurred] Total number of observations (4) Normal Time = p X Total Shift Time X PR. (2) The worker is observed at selected intervals.

of the work performed by qualified workers on the shop floor at the Westinghouse Brake and Signal Corporation. This system considers four factors independently:  Skill – Proficiency in following the given method  Effort – The will to work  Conditions – The general work surroundings  Consistency – of performance 13 . system used was the Westinghouse or LMS system – so called after its originators Lowry. Other systems based on MTM have been developed for particular work areas by National Associations. a further simplification. The original MTM system is now commonly referred to as MTM-1. running at 16 frames per second.88 minutes.15) = 9. JL Schwab and GJ Stegemerten of the Methods Engineering Council during a consultancy assignment at the Westinghouse Brake and Signal Corporation. Maynard and Stegemerten. USA in the 1940s. These ratings had to agree within a close band. extended. defined.Unit 3 Standard Time = Normal Time X Allowance factor = 8. This data and the application rules for the MTM system were refined. was developed in 1970.  Other MTM based systems have since been developed. Each sequence was rated during filming by three qualified Industrial Engineers. as a product of that analysis. otherwise the sequence was not used. set the standard time in which a worker should complete that task History of MTM  The basic MTM data was developed by HB Maynard. a second generation system was developed under IMD auspices in 1965. MTM-2. MTM–3.4 X 1/ (1-0. industrially tested and documented as a result of further work in later years. METHODS-TIME MEASUREMENT (MTM) Methods-Time Measurement (MTM) is a predetermined motion time system that is used primarily in industrial settings to analyze the methods used to perform any manual operation or task and. Methodology of MTM Films were taken using constant speed cameras. The rating. or Levelling.

“B-“. more or less. equipment. This reduces the possibility of “clock rating” and ensures that all factors are considered in the composite rating. ergonomists study human capabilities in relationship to work demands. These Basic Motions were Reach. Release. time-determining variables.Unit 3 Each factor is assigned an alpha rating. distances. gave the table of Body Motions. Ergonomics looks at the behavior of the person performing the job. Position. Layout. the structure which the manual motions of MTM-1 have today. matching the physical requirements of the job with the physical capacity of the worker. work methods. 1 hour = 100. Move.  As early as 18th century doctors noted that workers who required to maintain body positions for long periods of time developed musculoskeletal problems.000 TMU PRINCIPLES OF ERGONOMICS ERGONOMICS  The word “Ergonomics” is derived from two Greek words: “Nomoi” meaning natural laws and “Ergon” meaning work. Plots of the levelled times for the various motions were drawn. “A”. Later work. by means of a frame count.g. which has a numeric value which is applied later. etc. The films were then projected frame-by-frame and analysed and classified in to a predetermined format of Basic Motions. using Time Study. Analysis determined the best definitions of limits of motions and their major. etc. Grasp. “C+”. The unit in which movements are measured for MTM is TMU (time measurement unit): 1 TMU = 36 milliseconds. and resulted in.  Ergonomics is used to design an environment (layout. A motion was taken to begin on the frame in which the hand first started performing the motion and was taken to end on the frame in which the motion was completed. This allowed a time for each recorded motion to be calculated in seconds. Hence.  Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker. and then “levelled” to a common performance. 14 . noise. e. sizes of parts and tools and tolerances were accurately measured and recorded on the shop floor to complement the later analyses. etc) which is compatible with each individual’s physical and behavioral characteristics.  Good ergonomic design makes the most efficient use of worker capabilities while ensuring that job demands to not exceed those capabilities.

Now factory equipment is adjustable to fit the different employees who work there. Now most chairs are adjustable. equipment was built to do a job not to fit a person. Most factory jobs needed a tall person with long arms to work the equipment.Unit 3  Many years ago. 15 . Another example is the old clerical chairs that were stationary.

  Worker is anyone who performs the task: office workers. tool shape. bright light. inspection. tendons.layout. physically demanding. heat. The environment is not completely controlled. materials or equipment are analyzed into operation. rest breaks. furniture. training. Each brings his/her height. new technology. Does it fit the worker? Does the tool apply pressure on tissues. support systems. weight. temporary storage (delay). strength & ability (2) Tools . operator. humidity. size. Etc.What they bring to the worker. production quotas.repetitive. CHARTS USED IN RECORDING Charts (1) Operations flow chart (2) Flow process chart (3) Two-handed process chart (4) Multiple activity chart (5) Man-machine chart Diagrams (1) Flow diagram (2) String diagram Information Recorded Activities of men. ambient conditions. management system. biomechanics. It is not a vacuum. speed. change. custodial.   Environment for the employee and the machine.   Task. job satisfaction. work surfaces. shift work. but a complex environment that includes the work station. materials and equipment on a scale model Same as the flow diagram except for the variation that it uses a string to trace the path 16 . noise. and can include the relationship between management and employees.machine design.What the worker must do. permanent storage and recorded Movement of two hands of the operator Simultaneous / Inter-related activities of operators and / or machines on a common time-scale Information Recorded Path of men. low light. cold. transportation. “specialized”.The conditions surrounding the worker and the tool. new for the employees.What they bring to the job. (4) Environment.Unit 3 ERGONOMIC STUDY AREAS (1) Workers . muscles. Poorly designed tasks such as those requiring personnel to repeatedly place their bodies or extremities in awkward positions can cause problems. reach. nerves or blood vessels? Does the tool vibrate the body or part of the body? (3) Tasks . software design.     Tool.

A basic motion element is one of a set of fundamental motions required for a worker to perform a manual operation or task. The basic motion elements: The 18 therbligs.))  Grasp (G): grasping an object by the active hand.cycle graph Information Recorded Movement of hand obtained by exposing a photographic plate to the light emitted from small bulbs attached to operator’s fingers On a process chart.Unit 3 Photographic Aids Cycle graph and chrono. The set consists of 18 elements.  Transport loaded (TL):moving an object using a hand motion. it should be the focus of any streamlining efforts Permanent Storage THERBLIGS Therbligs are 18 kinds of elemental motions used in the study of motion economy in the workplace. This symbol represents non-value added activity. SYMBOL ACTIVITY Operation (Action Step) Inspection (Decision required) Transport D Temporary Storage (Delay) DESCRIPTION Indicates that the material. part or product concerned is modified or changed during the operation Indicates an inspection for quality and/or check for quantity Indicates either transportation of material or movement of the employee from one location to another Indicates a delay in the sequence of events such as jobs waiting between consecutive operations or any object laid aside temporarily Indicates a storage activity such as storing raw material that is brought into the factory. 17 . with the results used for optimization of manual labor by eliminating unneeded movements.  Release load (RL): release control of an object. It is a reversal of the word Gilbreth. ((called now (reach). The word therblig was the creation of Frank Bunker Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilbreth.  Transport empty [unloaded] (TE): reaching for an object with empty hand. with 'th' treated as one letter. each describing a standardized activity. So. facts about a job or operation are recorded using five symbols which together serve to represent all types of activity. storing a sub-assembly during the manufacturing process. A workplace task is analyzed by recording each of the therblig units for a process. American industrial psychologists who invented the field of time and motion study.  Hold (H): holding an object.

 Unavoidable delay (UD): waiting due to factors beyond the worker's control and included in the work cycle.  Search (Sh): attempting to find an object using the eyes and hands.  Plan (Pn): deciding on a course of action.  Select (St): choosing among several objects in a group.  Disassemble (DA): separating multiple components that were joined. consisting of a pause in the motions of the hands and/or body during the work cycles or between them.  Rest to overcome a fatigue (R): resting to overcome a fatigue.  Inspect (I): determining the quality or the characteristics of an object using the eyes and/or other senses. Seldom used Effective and ineffective basic motion elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 EFFECTIVE Reach Move Grasp Release Load Use Assemble Disassemble Pre-position INEFFECTIVE Hold Rest Position Search Select Plan Unavoidable Delay Avoidable Delay Inspect 18 .  Use (U): manipulate a tool in the intended way during the course working.  Assemble (A): joining two parts together.Unit 3  Preposition (PP):positioning and/or orienting an object for the next operation and relative to an approximation location.  Find (F): A momentary mental reaction at the end of the Search cycle.  Avoidable delay (AD): waiting within the worker's control causes idleness that is not included in the regular work cycle.  Position (P): positioning and/or orienting an object in the defined location.

His eye finds it and comes to rest -." Fifth is "transport loaded." bringing the razor up to his face. but first he must locate it with his eye. Suppose a man goes into a bathroom and shaves. That is "search". He knows where the razor is. "grasp. There are eleven other Therbligs -. the second Therblig." getting the razor set on his face. Third comes "select". the process of sliding the razor prior to the fourth Therblig. the first Therblig.the last one is "think"! 19 . and sixth is "position.that's "find". We'll assume that his face is all lathered and that he is ready to pick up his razor.Unit 3 Example: Here is an example of how therbligs can be used to analyze motion.