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Author(s): SALIH ÖZBARAN and Dom Manuell de Lyma
Source: Journal of Asian History, Vol. 6, No. 1 (1972), pp. 45-87
Published by: Harrassowitz Verlag
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(Universityof Istanbul)





There were in the sixteenthcenturytwo great powers which came to
have an interestin the affairsof the Persian Gulf. Of these powers the
firstwas Portugal. The Portuguese reached westernIndia at the end of
the fifteenthcenturyand established themselves at various strategic
points around the Indian Ocean, seeking to dominate the ancient
trade which ran fromIndia throughthe Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
to the Mediterraneanworld. The second power, the Ottoman Turks,
conquered Egypt in 1517 and took control of the Red Sea. Towards
the middle of the sixteenth century,duringthe reign of Süleyman the
Magnificent,they conquered Baghdad and made contact with the
Persian Gulf.



The motives which led the Portuguese to undertake such a great
adventure are various. The economic factor, i.e., the search for the
Guinea gold and forspices, the crusadingzeal inheritedfromtheirpast
history,and the quest forthe legendaryPrester John,are some of the
* This articleis thesummary
ofa thesispresented
forthe degreeofPh.D.
in theUniversity
ofLondonin October1969.The workwas carriedout under
the supervision
of Mr. V.J. Parry.I am greatlyindebtedto Mr. Parrywhose
and untiringguidancewere always of exceptional
C.R. BoxerofYale University
valueto me.I am also verygrateful
to Professor
to thestaffofthe TurkishStateArchives
and of the Torredo Tomboof Lisbonfortheirkindco-operation.
sincerethanksaredueto theGulbenkian
Foundationwhichenabledmeto carry
out myresearchin Lisbon.

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reasons underlyingPortuguese penetrationinto the lands of the East.1
Pero de Covilhão, an Arabic-speakingPortuguese,had visited Hormuz
in about 1488-1489 and collected informationon the trade routes of
Asia. Then, in 1498, after circumventingthe Cape of Good Hope,
Vasco da Gama with the guidance of Ahmad ibn Madjid, an Arab
pilot, reached Calicut in India. The Portuguese obtained fromHormuz
a nominal submissionin the year 1507 during the time of Francisco de
Almeida, the first Portuguese viceroy of India (1505-1509). It was
Afonso de Albuquerque who, well aware of the strategicimportanceof
the island, went now in earnest against Hormuz. He did not findhimself strongenough to take it ; but he plundered a number of towns on
the coast of Oman, e.g., Khorfakkan,Muscat and Karyat. Albuquerque, having become governor of India after Almeida, took Goa in
1510 and made it the main centreof the Portuguese in India. In 1515
he sailed again to Hormuz with twenty-sevenvessels and 1500 Portuguese and also some Indian auxiliary troops fromthe Malabar. The
fortressof Hormuz was surrenderedto him and the Ra'is Hamid, the
vizier, was killed. The Portuguese controlthus established at Hormuz
was to last until 1622. The Shah of Persia, although claiming to be
suzerain over Hormuz, could do nothingbut acquiesce in the presence
of the Portuguese.2
Only a few details are available about the agreementmade by Albuquerque with Turan Shah, the ruler of Hormuz, and Nur al-Din, his
vizier (guazil in Portuguese sources) in whose hands the real power lay.
It is known that Turan Shah had to pay a tribute of 15,000 xerafins
each year to meet the expenses of the Portuguese fortressand garrison
at Hormuz.4 The fortresswas entrüstet to a Portuguese Governor
( governador
In 1521 the influenceof the Portuguese was felt in Bahrayn and
in al-Hasa (Lahsa) in the northeast of Arabia. A certainMukrim,the
1 The literature
on thePortugueseconquestsis large.Two recentauthoritaSeaborneEmpire
tive surveyswill be foundin C. R. Boxer, The Portuguese
V Économiede
, (London, 1969); and in V. Magalhães-Godinho,
VEmpirePortugaisaux XVe etXVIe Siècles, (Paris,1969).
* TheCommentaries
, trans.Walterde Gray
Birch,I-IV (London,HakluytSociety,1884),IV, pp. 132ff.
s Xerafinor a?ara/wn-Portuguese
expressionfor a coin called in Arabic
. A xerafin
ofHormuzwas worth300 reis (cf.S. R. Dalgado, I-II, Glosashrafi
sárioLuso-Asiático,(Coimbra,1921),II, pp. 424-425).
4 SimãoBotelho,"O Tombodo Estadoda India" inSabsîdiosparaa História
da India Portugueza
, (Lisboa,1868),p. 78.

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ruler of al-Hasa, son of Zamel, refusedto pay to Hormuz the tribute
expected of him. He was also molestingships sailing between Basra
and Hormuz. For this purpose he had acquired vessels with oars made
for him by some Turks, "alguns Turcos."5 Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
who had been appointed as governor of India in 1518, was then at
Hormuz and agreed to send his nephew Antonio Correa against
Bahrayn. During the ensuing battle Mukrimwas killed and the Portuguese compelled the people of Bahrayn to give to Hormuz the tribute
due fromthem.6
The King of Portugal, D. Manuel, had decided earlier that Portuguese officialsshould take the place ofthe native officialsat the customs
house in Hormuz. Turan Shah resistedthis change but in vain. He was
assassinated and a young prince,Muhammad Shah, was raised to the
throne.7On 15 July 1523 D. Duarte de Menezes, governor of India,
concluded with the new prince,with his vizierSharaf al-Din and with
other amirsan agreementstipulatingthat the annual tributeshould be
raised to 60,000 xerafins.8 This agreementalso contained a number of
regulationsthroughwhich the Portuguese sought to consolidate their
own position at Hormuz and also controlto their own advantage the
flowof trafficto and fromthe island. The Portuguese assured freedom
of navigation in the Indian Ocean to the ships and merchantsof Hormuz providing they became vassals of the King of Portugal. They
5 "... que Mocrimtinhafeitoalgunsnaviosde remoporindustria
de alguns
Turcos"(Joãode Barros,Da Asia, (Lisboa,1778),DecadaIII, LivroVI, p. 27).
to discernfromits use in
word,theprecisesenseofwhichis difficult
the Portuguesesources.Sometimesit seemsto meanlittlemorethanMuslims
ormenfromthelandsunderOttomanrule.The Portuguese
also madeuse ofthe
Rumesi.e., menfromthe landofRum, men,in short,fromtheterexpression
6 Mukrim
had at his disposal12,000men,amongthem300Arab horsemen,
400 Persianarchersand 20 Rumesespingardeiros.
is, in Turkish,
, an arquebusier(see V. J. Parry,in EI2, s.v. Harb).The espingardeiros
wereengagednot onlyto fight,
but also to teachsomeof the local population
theuse offirearms:"... trezentos
de cavalloArabios,e quatrocentos
comoutrosda terraa que ellestinham
Parseos,e vinteRumesespingardeiros,
ensinadoesteuso" (Barros,Dec. III, Liv. VI, p. 33).
7 Ibid.,Liv. VII, pp. 113ff.
8 As notedabove, it was 15,000xerafins
in the timeofAlbuquerque(15091515),and 25,000in the timeof Lopo Soarez (1515-1518).It was morethan
in the middleof the sixteenthcentury(cf.G. Schurhammer,
Die Zeitgenössischen
Asiens und seiner
Quellenzur Geschichte
, 1538-1552,(Romae,1962),no. 4693).

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Powerin India. sent Belchior de Sousa Tavares to Basra with two brigantines(bargantijs) and a force of fortysoldiers (homens de peleja). and not to Sofala and the adjacent shore of East Africa. .pp. did not findit difficultto maintain controlover Hormuz.smalland light(cf.1958). Against him stood "el Rey de Gizaira. Three years later. into the Red Sea.10 It was in 1529 that the Portuguese intervenedforthe firsttime. the Muslim population residentthere.p. the Portuguese imprisonedthe guazil of Hormuz. Whiteway. Leitãoe J. Christavão de Mendoça.. The Arabs fromJezayir surrenderedto Basra two fortswhich had fallen to them earlier and also undertookto give an annual tributeto Basra. 222-223. a typeofoaredship. to his own ends and in a manner hostile to the interestsof Portugal. Muhammad Shah. (Barros. III. In 1526 a movement of resistance against them.TheLinguaFrancain the Levant . the Ra'is Sharaf al-Din.cit. then governorof the Portuguese fortress at Hormuz. embracingKalhat and Hormuz itself.p. in the affairsof Basra. . 11The termGizairaand also Gizaresderiveperhapsfromthe termJezayir . pes. (London.Dec. 13Fusta-i. the name appliedhereto the area aroundKurna wherethe riverTigrisand Euphratesflowtogether. The Portuguese asked Rashid to hand over to them seven fusta13then 9 Botelho.118.12. V.48 salíh özbaran placed the reservationthat such vessels and merchantsshould not sail through the 'estreito de mequa'.Belchior de Sousa broughtto an end the hostilitiesbetween Basra and the Jezayir.There was also a clause limitingthe use and practice of arms among the Mouros of Hormuz.1967). de Ali MogamexRey daquella cidade.para o ajudar a peleja a requerimento defender d'El Rey de Gizairaseuvizinho. S.1963). 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . i. in 1529.e. .op. 12". in the years which followed these events. who had been manipulating the young prince of Hormuz.e. 217.was suppressed without much trouble. A certain Rashid ibn Megamis was in control of Basra under a loose dependence of the Shah of Persia. 79ff. p. 331).226 on Sat. chegoude BasçoraBelchiorde Sousa Tavarez."11 the Arab chieftainwho dominated the region of Jezayir. TheRiseofthePortuguese pp. 235.. (Lisboa. The revolt had arisen from the exactions of Diogo de Mello. Rashid rejected this demand and appealed for aid to the Portuguese at Hormuz.Dicionárioda Linguagem On otherusesofthewordfustasee Kahaneand Tietze. 10R. LodeMarinhaAntigae Actual. This content downloaded from 152. the governor of Hormuz.9 The Portuguese. Liv. IV.148.que o capitãoChristoe querantahomensde vão de Mendoçatinhala mandadocomdous bargantijs. This chieftainhad demanded tribute from Basra.H. (Urbana..

148.IN THE PERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE PersianGulfin the SixteenthCentury(Northern Section) Scale 1:4. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 49 .118.226 on Sat.000 This content downloaded from 152.000.

Liv. At this time Belchior de Sousa. Liv.Dec.148. THE OTTOMAN TURKS IN THE COASTLANDS OF THE PERSIAN GULF In 1534 the Ottomans entered into a new conflictwith Persia.226 on Sat.Liv. IV. capitulosIII and IV.Históriado e Conquistada India pelosPortugueses Descobrimento . The Portuguese now bombarded the fort.1862).14 Also in the same year.on a lateroccasionin ofLahsa was engagedin a campaignagainst 1559. (Lisboa. Belchior de Sousa burnt the settlementslocated on the adjoining coast and withdrew to Hormuz. The ruler of that island.Da Asia.was also patrollingin the waters adjacent to the island. GasparCorrea. (Lisboa. with six oared vessels.1833). 15The sourcesstatethattheeast windblowingin September oftenbrought withit or causedoutbreaksofsickness-as.Lendasda India. Sharaf al-Din. IV. It also saw the conquest of the two Iraqs. These fustawere well armed with guns and had fiftyRumes on board. Iraq-i Ajem (Persian Iraq) and Iraq-i Arab (Arab Iraq). refused to surrenderthe fortressof Bahrayn. pp.Dec. having refused to pay the tribute due from him. with some eight hundred Persians under his command. III.118. On 8 September 1529. I-IV. pp. III.Dec. IV. despatched his brother. The campaign of 1534-1535 brought them substantial gains in Eastern Asia Minor. IV. 1529. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .50 salíh özbaran at Basra. but in vain-a shortage of powder and an outbreak of sickness15compelled them to withdrawto Hormuz. was in revolt against Hormuz. A numberof considerations 14Barros. The Ra'is. 362ff. 348-350. the Portuguese governor of India. 325ff. This content downloaded from 152. capitulosCII-CIII. But the patternof relationsprevailingthus farbetween Christiansand Muslims in the Persian Gulfand in the adjoining territorieswas soon to undergo a notable change. A new factor would influencestronglythe future course of events. 16Barros. VII.Simão da Cunha.whentheOttomanbeylerbey theBahrayn.16 The years after 1529 saw little of note occuringat Hormuz. pp.III.Diogo do Couto.forexample. seeking to prevent the Ra'is Badradim fromrecruitingtroops in the coastal areas of Persia. the Portuguese sent a forceto Bahrayn. the Ra'is "Barbadim" (Baha al-Din or Badr al-Din?). When Rashid ibn Megamis declined to do so.FernãoLopes de Castanheda. Nuno da Cunha. 1778). a nephew of the guazil of Hormuz. with fiveships and almost fivehundred men to Bahrayn. (Lisboa. Liv.

H.1970). (Ankara.V. H."The OttomanTurksand the Routesof OrientalTrade.II. Aftera difficult march from Tabriz. Cook(ed.J. firsttook Tabriz in July 1534. pp. trans.148. the Safavid commanderhad fled.Studiesin the EconomicHistoryoftheMiddleEast.1957). Ulama Khan. (London.19The extension of Ottoman control in Eastern Asia Minorto such areas as Erzurum and Lake Van must have seemed to Sultan Süleyman and his viziers eminentlynecessary. Heilert. Lybyer. The immediate pretext for war was the desertion to the Safavids of the Kurdish chieftainSharaf Khan of Bitlis and the accession to the Ottomans of an important Safavid frontierbeg. Tevârih-i Âl-i Osman.University Library. EI2.1826).205r.MS.1949). 449ff.118. 17Cf. ínalcik. nu. This content downloaded from 152. 20On thecampaignof IbrahimPasha see T. 202ff.. Uzunçarçili.21The local chieftains of Jezayir."in Belleten . 209if.17 and the "spice route" extendingfromBasra to Baghdad and Aleppo18must be counted no doubt among the reasons for the campaign. To settle the Turco-Safavid problem. Ibrahim Pasha. (Ankara.1915). "Arzve Raporlarina Göre IbrahimPaça'nm IrakeynSeferindeki Ilk Tedbirlerive Fütuhati. 18A. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 19 î. Gökbilgin.This campaign gave to the Ottomans possession of the region around Erzurum and also of northernand centralIraq.pp.pp.HistoiredeVEmpireOttoman .IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 51 led the Ottomans to begin this war against the Safavids. of Garraf.A. who now entered the Ottoman service. 577-588. During his stay at Baghdad (December 1534-April 1535) the Sultan received the submission of Rashid ibn Megamis. The desire to win a more effectivecontrolover the important trade routes-e. XXI. As yet theirinfluencedid not extend to the regions of Basra and Lahsa.g. LXX.20 In September Sultan Süleyman joined the Grand Vizier. the "silk route" runningfromTabriz to Erzurum. He sent his son Man'i to the Sultan with the keys of Basra and with a fulsome assurance of his loyalty. 21RüsternPa§a( ?).). s. in December the Ottomans entered Baghdad whence Tekeli Khan.v. (London. pp.H. On the political and militarysides the occupation of Iraq can be viewed as a logical complementto the Ottoman conquest of Syria and Egypt in 1516-1517. I-IV. 2438. 336ff.fol. (Paris. the Ottoman Grand Vizier.J. vonHammer."in M. also hispaper"The OttomanEconomic Mindand AspectsoftheOttomanEconomy. Tokat and Bursa. There existed in the eastern frontiersin Asia Minor a continuingfrictionbetween pro-Safavid Shi'i elements and the Ottoman frontier authorities.pp.Istanbul.226 on Sat." in EnglishHistoricalReview . and also having in mind a campaign against Baghdad.J. Bursa.

the Banu Mushasha. however."Em tornodo primeirocerco de Diu".1925). Longrigg..Cartasde Ormuza D . 25. Sheikh Yahya of Basra fell into furtherdisfavorwith the Ottomans when.38r).in 1545. the Friday prayer.148. in 1546. H. 26Ibid.. 1964). Casa Forte. the sheikhofthe Banu Aman. I.1238/1866 25RüstemPasa.26In the end Sayyid Amir was overcome.240v.L.. (cf. 207). Zakiyya came under direct Turkish control and thus the road to Basra was open.dated 10 January1546. Not much informationis available about his rule at Basra after this time. and Basra received the titular status of an eyalet (or beylerbeylik). who had fled to Basra fromcentralIraq. all these small states needed protection from or allies against the Portuguese. TarihjIstanbul.25Yahya aligned himselfwith Sayyid Amira notable who had separated fromhis tribe.239v. do da Torre Nacional Tombo. see also theletterofLuis Falcão. XIII-XIV. 22S. p. fol. thegovernor whosenameis notgivenin theletter information througha certainmerchant. also gave theirallegiance to the the decisionof the councilof local notables (icma'-i vilâyet mû§âveresi) at Basra was forced to yield his position to Yahya.24 He was expected to obey the ordersof the Pasha of Baghdad and to maintain the shari'a law. in Studia. Ribeiro.fol. Man'i. Rashid ibn Megamis was confirmedin his position at Basra.Arquivo Joãode Castro .e. Luis Falcão obtainedhis muz. a place of some strategic importance on the bank of the Euphrates.near Khuzistan.cit. against Hurrem Bey whom the Pasha of Baghdad had sent to build a fortwhich would control the region of Zakiyya. Four Centuries ofModemIraq. 24"Mâh-imezbûrun 1saltanat namusyirmiyedincigünüdiván-1hûmâyûnda muktezasinca padiçahiile mûçerref ziyâfetolunubve takbîl-irikâb-ihûmâyûn-i olub Basra hûkûmetieyâletünvaniylakendiyeinayetolunub. he ignored an order fromthe Sultan to return certainrefugeesto Baghdad. D.pp..p. (Lisboa. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .22Also in December 1534 therecame to Baghdad fromthe sheikhsof Katif and of the Bahrayn envoys bearing messages of welcome to the Sultan.23 Whatever their feelingsmight have been.118. thegovernador ofHorofIndia.52 SALÍHÖZBARAN of Luristan and of the Huwaizah marches. These two chieftainsturned.226 on Sat. (Oxford. . A. and had received fromSultan Süleyman the town and districtof Zakiyya. fol. (Peçevî. 23Even thevizierSharafal-DinofHormuzsenta letterto SultanSüleyman askinghimto send help againsthis Portuguesemasters(cf. This content downloaded from 152. Rashid was succeeded by his son Man'i. 102-103. op. In Basra it was not until 1538 that the name of the Sultan appeared on the coinage and was read in the Khutba.

118.IN THE PERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE PersianGulfin theSixteenthCentury(SouthernSection) Scale 1:5.000 This content downloaded from 152.226 on Sat.000.148. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 53 .

. Manuelde Lima refersno doubtto the northern part of al-Hasa.He wrotethatYahya had oppressed Yahya ofBasra in a letterwritten translation in thePortuguese all thepeopleunderhisrule. The lettermade clear the intentionofthe Ottoman authorities in Iraq. the chief Ottoman officialin Iraq. beylerbeyli giniverdi"(Rüstern in Europe op. .1143/1730). was now ordered to punish Yahya. AyasPaça'ya 200. dix I). the then beylerbey of Baghdad. 32Ibid.27Ayas Pasha.62v.226 on Sat. 243v . whichcoveredmostofnorth-eastern This content downloaded from 152.Yahya is mentioned ofBilal Mehmed'sletteras xequeHaya (ArquivoNacionalda Torredo Tombo. went to 27Bilal MehmedPasha. Colecçãode São Lourenço 28Cf.29 Basra itself became a beylerbeylilc control.. theletterofManuelde Lima (seeAppenHulefa. also Nazmi-zâdeMürteza.fol. . was determined to make Basra prosperousforthe merchants. made an amicable approach to the Portuguese.000 akçe as under direct Ottoman terakkî.000akçeterakkîve Bilal MehmedPaça'ya on kerreyüzbinakçeile Basra vilâyetinin Paça. well aware of the significanceof the trade through the Persian Gulf. a detreminação de ayaz baxa era fazerbaçoramuitoprosperade mercador.. 30"Padiçah.. Haj ji Fayat. wrote that Ayas Pasha. whom Manuel de Lima sent to Basra to gather information. Manuel de Lima. who was givencommandof Basra afterthe Ottomans had taken it. IV. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .meaningherean additionto his annualsalary. Akçeis theTurkishtermfora silvercoinexpressed as asper.148. Manuel de Lima.cit. The Ottomans thus enteredBasra on 21 Ģevval 952/26 December 1546. the son of the formerruler of Lahsa.cit. For this success he was given 200. Very littleis known about the Ottoman penetrationinto the region of Lahsa.stated that the capitão of Lahsa was a certain Abdullah (Abedela).141r). This man. Arabia.. Ayas Pasha returnedto Baghdad.(Istanbul. was sent with a letterto the Portuguese governorof Hormuz.31 At the same time the Ottomans sought to establish themselves on the shores of the Persian Gulf.foi. 29Terakkî.118.243v).the officebeing conferrednow on Bilal Mehmed Pasha. an Arab merchant." (see AppendixI). RüsternPa§a.Gül§en-i fol.28Afterappointing Bilal Mehmed Pasha to be muhafiz (governor) of Basra.30 Immediately afterthe conquest of Basra the Ottomans. . explainedthe reasonsforthe campaignagainstSheikh in 1547. Manuel de Lima states that the Ottoman Turks took Lahsa immediatelyaftertheircapture of Basra. 81"A setede Julhoveio o seu embaixadorcomhua cartapara mimo qual embaixadorhe humarabiomercadorque se chamahagyfayat. reportingto the governor of India. foi.54 SALIRÖZBARAN The refusalmarkedthe end of his rule. op.32 Domingos Barbudo.

cit. The letter also gives the informationthat there were. a kindofTurkishfief.000 ahçe per annum.v. i.p. (Romae. The Arabs made no resistance and yielded theirfort to the Ottomans. 69.34 Within a few years. The Ottoman forces included a considerablenumberof Gönüllü. 1.. 86Cf. VI. taxes gatheredin the eyalets. In the salyaneli eyaletsthe salaries of the the soldiers and other functionariescame fromthe annual beylerbeys. 218. Wicki(ed.e. 142. In a letter.Z8 The eyaletof Basra. in addition.. each sanjak was under a sancak beyi.IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 55 that region with the Ottoman expedition prepared forthe occupation of that area.e. of volunteerswho were under the command of an aga. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .e.000 of them were espingardeiros stationed in the actual fortof Basra and 700 of them in the town itself. s. fustasand 500 horsemen op.Dec. These troops were describedin the Portuguese letteras . The two eyalets(beylerbeylïks ) with which we are most concernedhere are Basra and Lahsa-both of them being salyaneli eyalets. namely the timar system.H. arquebusiers. 243.).fol.but was collected directlyfor the treasury. consisted of a number of sanjaks (Uva ) . A number of Ottoman troops. Defterleri.thepossessorsofwhich mountedto go warand supplysoldiersforwar. The himselfwas at the head of the actual sanjak of Basra.226 on Sat. Eyalet.. provinces where a portion of the revenues was not distributedin the formof timars.116r.118.148. with some artillery. IX. afterthe conquest of Basra in 1546. as faras we can judge from 38Cart.1950). Liv. was then stationed at Katif. which beylerbey was called pasa sancag%ģ The othersanjaks. 88Cf. i. The firstwas yilliJcsiz(salyanesiz).Documenta Indica..Ormuz. I.wrotethatthe Turkswentto Katifwith200 menin six on land (cf. II. IE2.dated24 November1550. i..35The second was yillikli (salyaneli).nu. in 1550.e.Couto. 84Cf. 4539).™ Bilal Mehmed Pasha was appointed as the firstbeylerbeyof Basra with an income amounting to 200.Liz ThoméSerrão.KâmilKepeciTasnîfi.000 Turkish horsemen at Basra. the Ottomans introduced and set on firmfoundation the eyaletsystem in the newly conquered lands. 87See AppendixI.200 Ottoman troops in Basra in 1547.p. under the control of a beylerbey . There were two kinds of eyaletin the empire. demanded the surrenderof the fortof Katif.Schurhammer. According to the letter37of Manuel de Lima there were 2. înalcik.forexample.33The Pasha of Basra. This content downloaded from 152.Ruûs nu. 85 Timar.IstanbulBa§bakanlikAr§ivi. ouvidorof the King. We are told that 1. i.

YüzyildaBasra KörfeziSâhillerinde Osmanlilar. Katif played a very importantpart in the conflictwith the Portuguese. Cf. citedin C. Akçakal'e. 167. 222 (seeAppendixIV) . (Istanbul. a town situated on the southernedge of the Taurus range in Southern Asia Minor.).44 89Cf. which extended Mir-i Miran . consistedofthe sanjaks ofKatif.). 70.Saffā. Jesha (*£*-).also S. Paris.the biggesthavingtwenty-twobenchesforthe oarsmen 41..118.forexample. See the ofPrintedMa/psin theBritishMuseum." 41As Gavetasde Torredo Tombo . Vāki. Hama. Mantran."OsmanliDevNakDicle ve FiratNehirlerinde rindeNehirNakliyatiHakkindaAra§tirmalar.(Istanbul.Keyn Kinād( ?). timber for the building of new ships was brought from the mountains of Maraç.Ruûs 238. 44Cf. nu.39 The Ottomans had a tersane (dockyard) at Basra. mentionedin the Vera DelineatioCivitatisBassoras. liyat.1965). S.pp. quotingfromMD.Jabrayn.1967).49475(1). Koguçlar888.MühimmeDefterleri(MD)."TarihDergisi.e.56 SALÌHÖZBABAK the documentsexistingin the State Archivesof Istanbul. Catalogue liginin Basra Beylerbey "XVI."The OttomanProvinceof al-Hasa in the Sixteenthand Sevenin JournaloftheAmericanOriental teenthCenturies. p.Kobān. thistime.p. 40 IstanbulBaçbakanlikArçivi. II. (Lisboa.43The eyaletof Lahsa. AfterBasra. XVII/22. Özbaran.(Leiden. Arja. Some of thesenamesseemto have indicatedthe Arab tribesin the Jezayirdistrict. Kinãhiyya." . who was allowed by the pasha of Basra to visit the tersanein 1563.p. 140. Tahammiyya and Uyun.40 Simão da Costa. 57ff. 90/3. It was a second base on the coast of the Persian Gulf. Hemmar. 1963). 263. III.Ruûs 225.p.42 A document dating from the year 967/1555 reveals that sometime previously the sanjak bey of Lahsa had been raised to the status of . XXII. p. This content downloaded from 152.Mostof themare.25 (Istanbul.(1970). Mandaville. A certainMehmedBey heldtheappointment 48C.1971). were Garrāf.Sharir and Jarūr. Içiksal." in JournaloftheEconomic to findsome .290. Ma'dan. in Tarih .Kurna. Fethiyya.MS. 146(dated6 Çewal 988/14November1580). i.pp. Muharri. also MD. also thekanun-nâme La Province fiscauxottoman. 102r. 42 IstanbulTopkapiSarayiKütüphanesi. Rahmäniyya. of beylerbey as faras Qatar. 79.226 on Sat.Madina. pp.It is difficult of theOrient of the namesof the sanjakson the map. Orhonlu."Règlements and SocialHistory de Bassora(2emoitiédu XVIs. ofBasra of 1574-75in R. Sadr Sevib. 1680(?). X/2-3. V.p. 6. fol.p. At Katif was included among the sanjaks of the beylerbeylik a rank of held the Lahsa of firstthe Ottoman governor sanjak bey.See also J. a Portuguese agent. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."1559 BahreynSeferineAid Bir Rapor." in Tarih Dergisi. Orhonluand T. however. Kuruluçu. Society 488. p.1967).148.Zakiyya. Mubarriz( j >. down to Iraq throughBirejik on the River Euphrates. DergisiXIII/17-18. reportsthat he saw there fivenewly made galleys. of Lahsa. Turra-i Jezayir. Taçkôprû. 224-277.

p.TURKSANDPORTUGUESE IN THE PERSIANGULF The copyofSultan'sletterto theKing ofPortugal(MD. v. 70) This content downloaded from 152.226 on Sat. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 57 .118.148.

48 D.118.45 In fact the Portuguese were to have littlesuccess in theirattemptsto pass through the Bab al-Mandab.thePortuguese governor 141r and 493r-494r.therefore.226 on Sat. 1963). See also Faria e Sousa. Afonso de Noronha. This event alarmed the Portuguese and induced them to take advantage of approaches coming fromthe Arab chieftainsof Basra. could send naval assistance.theKingofPortugal]o sentiomuitopela perdahumafortaleza tão importa. (1962). Busquets de Aquilar. Aden came into the hands of the Ottomans in 1538 and ten years later the town was broughtstill more closely under Ottoman influence. 48The copiesof the lettersfromAli ibn Ulyan and SheikhYahya to Luis ofHormuz. .C. . 47"El Rey [i.are in Col. had sought the interventionof the Portuguese. now appointed D. The Ottoman Turks. IX.XII/16. p.offering to theGovernor SheikhYahya).pp. It was importantfor them to maintain a firmhold over the waters of the Red Sea. Asia Portuguesa ."in TarihD ergisi."XVI. (Porto.even beforethe Ottoman capture of Basra in 1546. IV. The Portuguese saw the Ottoman occupation of Basra as a threat in the Persian Gulf.e. pp. Serjeant.saysthathe sentambassadors to the Portuguesea fortin the harbourofBasra (Dec.58 salíh özbaran THE OTTOMAN-PORTUGUESE RIVALRY IN THE PERSIAN GULF As shown above.Dec.the Portuguese were on the alert. fols139rFalcão. fact. p. Orhonlu.148.I-VI.VI.wheneverneeded. Liv.Lourenço.ThePortuguese offtheSouthArabianCoast..200 men and seven galleys. wishing to exploit the advantages arising from theirpossessionofBasra.. fromthe Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Arabs of Katif yielded theirfortressto the Ottomans. Antão de Noronha to command a force of 1.1945). orderinghim to move against the Ottoman Turks in 45Cf.46In 1550 a furtherevent occured in the Persian Gulfwhichled the Portuguese to undertakea campaign of some importance. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 227.U. the Portuguese governorof India. At this time. IX.Couto. Liv. (O. in 1547 the Ottomans had made an amicable approach to the Portuguese governor of Hormuz. 244)." (Couto. 48R. VI. pp. 244245).M. From the political point of view the efforthad been fruitlessfor the simple reason that the existence of the Turks in the Persian Gulf was against the interest of the Portuguese who wanted to control the trade to Basra. AsrinIlk YarismdaKizildanizSahillerinde Osmanlilar. 107-108.P.47 Some of the local Arab chieftainsin that region. 5ff. ofIndia. This content downloaded from 152. B.referring to the 'King of Basra' (perhaps. trans.

some fourhundredstrong. 334ff.Dec. This base had been inheritedfromthe Mamluks of Syria and Egypt. Noronha now destroyedthe fort of Katif and resolved to go against Basra. Magostãoor Mina as Moghistan orMughistan.pp. Liv. (Minam). 50Couto givesthe name of this beylerbey as Ali Pasha whereasthereis a mentionofKubad Pasha in an Ottomandocumentas earlyas 1550(Ruûs 209. IX. a Turkish captain in the service of the Mamluks. p.i.XXXXVII. The Turks there. also served the Ottomans after 1517.s. He achieved verylittlethere.and to the troopsfromHormuzas Aramuzanos(Ibid.148. III. accompanied by Ra'is Sharaf alDin of Hormuz and Amir Majid of Moghistan49with three thousand men."SelmanReis Lâyihasi.337).forthe beylerbey of Basra50carried out a clever plan.op. 331.p. There he learned that he had been deceived.but surrenderedto the Portuguese aftera siege of eight days. 11. the beylerbeyof Egypt. This content downloaded from 152. (Istanbul. IV. Selman Reis. beingat a distanceofsix or sevenleaguesfromHormuz(I. Turan Shah. Ibrahim Pasha. Antão de Noronha set sail forKatif. He seems to have been the firstOttoman High Admiral of the Red Sea (Kapudan-i Bahr-i Ahmer). Suez became the base for the Ottoman naval activities directed towards the Indian Ocean. a report presented in 1525 to the Ottoman Grand Vizier.IN THEPERSIANGULF TÜRKSANDPORTUGUESE 59 the Persian Gulf.defendedthemselves bravely. he underlined the importance of the trade in the Indian Ocean. cit.a namewhichappearsin modernhistories and whichis describedin the letterof GonçaloRodriguez. Thereforethe ships. L. Hormuz. Kurtoglu. Persians.226 on Sat. 37. Antão de Noronha decided to withdraw to EI 2. 67-73. Cf. p.51 As yet the Ottomans had no adequate naval facilitiesin the Persian Gulf. led a strong Ottoman armada into the In49Coutorefers to thetroopsfromMagostãoas Perseos.v.also Barros. 51For thefullstoryofthecampaignsee Couto."in Deniz Mecmuasi. In his famous lâyiha.e.. VI. 51).118. and the naval equipment employed for their firstsea campaigns in the waters of the Gulf came from their naval bases in the Red Sea. Lockhart. 326). 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .52 The first and the most ambitious Ottoman attempt to intervene against the Portuguese came in 1538. and it had played a significantrole in the years before the Ottoman conquest. p.1934). pp. was also asked to reinforcethem with three thousand men for the venture of Katif. 52F. He made the Portuguese commander believe that the Turks and the Arabs of Basra had formedan alliance against the Portuguese-whereuponD. the ruler of Hormuz. Wicki. Afterthe conquest of Egypt in 1516-1517.Dec. In that year Hadim Süleyman Pasha.dated 31 August 1552..

publishedin C. 405-406.thePortuguese agentat Hormuz. Orhonlu.but it left a strongimpressionon the Portuguese of the potential danger of the Ottoman naval forces at Suez. VI. D. The governor of Hormuz was Álvaro de Noronha who had held this appointmentsince 1550. having now. 68Lopez Lobato.states that the main purpose of this campaign was to secure "the strait of Basra. Alfonsode Noronha.226 on Sat. and sailing to the western coast of India. 8#Ibid. Kubad Pasha.over the southern coast of Persia along the strait of Hormuz and also over certain territorieson the shore of Arabia. He was to capture Hormuz and then.p.held sixty Portuguese.mentions to handthetownover.. 408. pp. but without success.TherulerofKalhatrefused Thenthe Turkssailedto Muscatand set it on fire(Col.p. set sail fromSuez withtwenty-five galleys (kadirga).theguazilofHormuz(see AppendixII). arriving there on 19 September. 487v. XXXIV. Liv.60 SALIRÖZBARAN dian Ocean. 479r. The Ottoman control over Aden and Zebid in the Yemen was also established on this occasion.66the son of Pîrî Reis. Hmt Kaptanligive Pîrî Reis. 407. the son of the famous Vasco da Gama. The Portuguese governor had almost complete control of the island. Pîrî Reis. Koguçlar888. in addition to Suez. in the beginningof August the Ottomans appeared before Muscat. fol. then Pîrî Reis himself. to take the island of Bahrayn. This content downloaded from 152. 84Koguçlar888.488r. i. 1546to calayate.1970). fourgalleons (kalyon) and one othership carrying850 soldiers. sets forththe instructionsto of the beylerbey be given to Pîrî Reis.Muscat was defended by João de Lisboa. First came Mehmed Bey. Kalhat.fol. although therewas a prince (Shah) and his vizier nominally rulingover Hormuz itself.485r). São Lourenço ."65 However. IV. The fort. Estavão da Gama. Cf. He visited Aden. with five galleys. the Portuguese historian. sailed up the Red Sea to attack Suez. Three years later. had sent to build a fortressforthe greatersafetyof the Portuguese.took the garrison as prisoners and proceeded to Hormuz.57The Ottomans capturedMuscat without difficulty. The Ottomans thus remained masters of the Red Sea.An ordersent out fromIstanbul to Basra-dated 18 Zilhicce/6 November 1552-forthe information of Basra.dated 31 October1546.118. fol. The siege was unsuccessful. whom the governorof India.53 In Cemazielevvel 959 /April 1552 the veteran that hisletterto thegoverthatfourTurkishshipswentin norofIndia. also the letterof Ra'is Sharafal-Din. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . besieged Diu in Gujarat. 88Dec. p. (Ankara. 87Couto. a second naval base at Aden." in BeiUten .e.54Couto.if possible. 279.148. X.

IN THE PERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE The FirstPage ofD.226 on Sat. Manuelde Lima's Letter(1547) This content downloaded from 152.148.118. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 61 .

having been informedthat the richestpeople of Hormuz residedthere. 427. VI. X. p.000 cruzados in gold.64 68See AppendixII.Pîrî Reis then withdrewto the island of Kishm. 2).61Towards the end of October. taking with him on three galleys all the spoils that he won duringthe campaign includinghis Portuguese prisoners. Liv. also Couto. D. When he learned that Kubad Pasha's report was unfavourable to him. Instead he sent his nephew. D.2v. sent the Sultan a report about Pîrî's activities. (Lisboa. On his arrival at Diu he learned that the Ottoman fleethad sailed to Basra.60There was also a Spanish Jew who alone had no less than 80. .at the head of a squadron consistingof twelve large ships and twenty-eightlight ones. Tombo. Dec. 61Coutomentions This that20. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 426). VI. Ia.148. fol. 63Ibid.000peoplein theislandweretakenprisoner.000 cruzados. Liv. Antão reached Hormuz towards the end of November and found it relieved fromall danger.p.118. p. high(j figure 62Ibid.63 of On the arrival of Pîrî Reis at Basra.226 on Sat. 1945).III.but never ventured out to attack the Turks. The rich communityof the island consisted of some thirty merchants who had an average capital of 20.58According to Portuguese sources.. The Turks captured the city of Hormuz and bombarded the castle intermittently.62ThereforeAffonsode Noronha decided to sail to Hormuz with more than eightyships (over thirtyof them being of large dimensions)and with several distinguishedsoldiers at his side.The Portuguese.. So he decided not to go in person to Hormuz. defended themselves. Pîrî departed fromBasra.p.59 He foundno resistanceon the island. Meanwhile. 426. But he saw visible signsof the damage inflictedduring the recent siege. Pîrî Reis sailed forBasra with all the spoils. 729. .62 salíh özbaran Álvaro de Noronha was well informedabout the activities of the Ottoman fleetand had made all the necessarypreparationsfor resistance.. 80Cruzadowas a Portuguesecoin of thistimeworth400 Reis (Antóniode Dicionárioda Lingua Portuguesa MoraisSilva. 468). 439 and 465.col.Goa had also heard of the impending Ottoman threat. the beylerbey that province. Maço Documento9.CorpoCronologico Dec. 64The spoilsare said to havebeenworthmorethana millionofgold: 4mais de hummilhãode ouro" (Ibid.Granda. Kubat Pasha. 59Cf. p.The LetterofAlvarode Noronha» in theArquivoNacionalda Torredo Parte 89. This content downloaded from 152.pp. much too no doubt is X. seven hundred in number (it is also said that they numbered more than the Turkish besiegers).Antão de Noronha.

7° Terrada.69 In spite of this setback the Sultan still wanted to have the fleet broughtback to Suez. (Istanbul. D.p. then at Muscat. Fernando de Menezes. 66Couto.1895).Dec.e.118. to bringback fifteengalleys.p.hereto be understood no doubtas ArabsfromtheShattal-Arab area ofIraq.cit.65 This episode was in no way the end of the Ottoman attempt to gain controlof the Persian Gulf. 352. 468. He set sail fromBasra on 2 July 1554 with his fifteenships. who had been a notable Ottoman geographer and cartographeras well as one of the most famous of Turkish seamen. 13.TURKSANDPORTUGUESE IN THEPERSIANGULF 63 Afterhis arrival at Suez.e. having been informedthat the Portuguese had only four ships in the Persian Gulf. Seydi Ali Reis.66The Sultan thereforelost no time in appointing a new captain to bring back to Suez the Ottoman vessels still at Basra. In fact. the attempt of the new Jcapudan .was now appointed to undertake the same operation.68The Portuguese with their naval commander. p. Couto.148. X. However. There was now a considerable fear that the Portuguese might take reprisals for the harm which the operation of Pîrî Reis had caused them.Mirât.Tarih. a smalloaredshiphavingsails also-itwas muchused in India (Leitãoand Lopez. 487-494. p.op. encounteredthe Ottoman fleetin the strait of Hormuz near the Persian coast.. Peçevî. 13.226 on Sat. «7 Terranquim . VI.i. the Portuguese fleet under Pero de Taide Inferno was patrollingin the Red Sea area. The Portuguese. 485.D. Diogo de Noronha. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . again obtained informationfrom some terradas70 that Seydi Ali was 65SeydîAli Reis.. 68Mouros .p. 69SeydîAli Reis. 385). Couto. Pîrî Reis.pp. was arraigned for his lack of success in the Persian Gulf and was beheaded in 1553. a kindofshipthatwas muchusedin thePersianGulfand in theRed Sea (Leitãoand Lopez. one galleon and one other vessel to Suez was unsuccessful. Success would depend on Ottoman land forces in Basra and in the Lahsa districtand on Ottoman naval facilitiesin the arsenal of Basra ratherthan on the Suez fleetwhichhad been leftby Pîrî Reis at Basra.MiratïClMemâlik . the well known Turkish geographer.Thewordterrada is derivedfromArabic This content downloaded from 152. i. Liv.The Portuguese had all the informationabout his 67 journey froma captured terranquim with its crew of Mouros. with theirfleetcommander. Murad Reis.. Their effortto possess the eastern shore of Arabia. p. 385). During the battle the Ottomans received considerable damage and Murad Reis thereforedecided to sail back to Basra.p. to win the island of Bahrayn and to keep open the strait of Hormuz was now to become moresustainedthan it had everbeen before.

75Thus the Ottomans were now better established in the Red Sea and strong enough to control it against their Portuguese rivals. XV/20. 21. Eventually he went to Gujarat and remained there for some time. 76C.Mirât. p.drivenby the westerlywinds to the coast of India. IV. 74Later. p. Sultan Süleyman sent out another admiral. But the Portuguese armada retreated and was refitted.p. Uzunçarç 1559. A grabwas a kindofoaredship. 19. Liv.1965).i. Seydi Ali sailed for Yemen.the Muhit-& guide to the navigation of the Eastern Seas. The Portuguese fleet. 1935). Seydi Ali Reis.148. embracingthe ports of Massawa organiseda new beylerbeklik and Sevakin. p. In May 1557 he arrived once more at Istanbul."in Tarih Dergisi.H. (Zwickau.op. Kindermann. leavinghis former postas captainofthevesselsstationed at Mocha. There. to the Portuguese. p.1948). on 9 August 1554. Serjeant. 461.(Istanbul. p. for at torrad(see H. However. Sa. According to Diogo do Couto. counts this first meeting as a a certainMustafa(MD. Seydi Ali. p. . In Gujarat he wrote his famous work. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . SeferReis ("Cafar Capitão") to look forthe Ottoman fleet.Largegrabs resemblelargegalleys. The Portuguese were forcedto retreatto the Gulf of Lima.73at the time when Seydi Ali Reis was operating in the Persian Gulf.11encounteredthe Ottoman vessels near Khawr Fakkan. 46. (Ankara. in his account of this event. 72SeydîAli Reis.OsmanliDevletinin cit. however."OsmanlilarinHabeçistanSiyâseti. This having been done.118.and smallones are shapedlike oaredgalliots(cf. "Schiff"im Arabischen 56-57).consistingof twenty-five ships includingsix caravels and twelve grabs.pp. the Ottomans and the Portuguese foughtone of their most violent sea battles. at the command of the Sultan. Fernando de Noronha emerged with thirty-fourships and engaged the Ottomans once more.226 on Sat. On 6 July 1555.. This content downloaded from 152. 45.1554-1560.64 salíh özbaran beginninghis voyage. on the coast of Oman. Î.72 With nine ships left.74With his two galleys and one brigantinehe was only able to capture some Portuguese ships which were sailing from Hormuz to Diu. I. This time the Ottomans sufferedheavy losses. 73Dec. Merkezve BahriyeTe§kilâti . 143). 51). Orhonlu.Mirât. describes the battle as much more terriblethan those of Barbarossa. He was. Özdemir Pasha of Habes. in his Miratü'l Memâlik. VII. the Persian Gulf was open.SeferReis was appointedhighadmiralof the Red Sea (Süvey§Kapudani). 71SeydîAli Reis. D. the famous Ottoman admiral with whom he had served in the MediterraneanSea.

226 on Sat. Manuelde Lima's LetterwithHis Signature This content downloaded from 152. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 65 .TURKSANDPORTUGUESE IN THE PERSIANGULF The Final Page ofD.148.118.

depending on which one offeredmore advantages. Mukrim. driving back the Portuguese to Hormuz with no achievementto theircredit.148. was given this status. Couto states that one purpose of this Portuguese expedition of 1556 was to help the Arab chieftains against their Ottoman masters. situated between al-Hasa and Qatar. after defeatingthe local ruler. This content downloaded from to misrepresent about journeytowardsHormuz.the Ottomans had no naval resourcesthere sufficientto encounter the advance of the Christians. where the beylerbeylik created. (Urbana111. 139.78 Even so. thePortuguese 78MD. On the other hand. Ra'is Murad. shores Ottoman controlwas now well established on the north-western of Lahsa had just been of the Persian Gulf.however.In 1554.. For these reasons.the Portuguese had exerted some degree of influenceupon the island.226 on Sat. offeredno resistance. the influenceof the Portuguese on the island was not negligible. Since 1521. Liv. was at this time an intermediatepoint of some importanceon the sea route between Hormuz and Basra.1942). In 1535.In fact. the island oftenattracted the attentionof its more powerfulneighbors. III. For example in 1559 the then ruler of Bahrayn. The ruler of the island turned now to the one and now to the other of his two powerfulneighbors. 78Dec.66 salíh özbaran this moment. sailed towards Basra. VII. p.118.the rulerof Bahrayn sent his submission to Sultan Süleyman just afterthe Ottoman conquest of Baghdad. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I.SeydîAliReisobtainedat Bahrayninformation fleet. a Portuguese admiral (capitão mór) from Goa. however. It was also the center of pearl fishingin the Persian Gulf. In 1556 D. their fleet lost in course of recent operations.duringhis conqueredBahrayn. Striplinghas done (The OttomanTurksand the Arabs1511-1574 . 77To write. 94) thatby 1554the Ottomanshad theactualsituation.77With the arrival of the Ottomans on the north-westernshores of the Persian Gulf.When the Portuguese fleetcame offthe Shatt al-Arab a storm broke out.the local rulerswho had submittedto the Ottoman Sultan received fromIstanbul the title of Sancak Bey. Álvaro da Silveira. p. 206. most of the Portuguese ships were considerablydamaged by the storm. STRUGGLE FOR THE ISLAND OF BAHRAYN Bahrayn. This furtherexpedition of the Portuguese to Basra was also unsuccessful.76The Ottomans.

and ample supplies and munitions.79He had not been able to realize these aims. In this year. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 200 mounted troops and 400 arquebusiers had been sent fromBasra to Lahsa. "Bahreyn'deBir Vak'a. 1-16. and a Portuguese fleetconsisting of twenty-two grabs was sent to save the island. 1142).nu. Mustafa Pasha. Their capitão mor was D. The news of the Ottoman descent on Bahrayn reached Hormuz. the Portuguese set on firethe Ottoman supply ships and capturedthe two Ottoman galleys.. VII. Liv. bringing with them malignant fever and causing numerous deaths among the Portuguese and the Ottomans.. according to Couto." (see SaffetBey.fol. also had reason to put an end to this rivalry. VII.148. Orhonlu.81A Turkishdocument82froman Ottoman bey who foughtin this campaign mentionsthat beforethe expedition set out. 82TopkapiSarayiMüzesiAr§ivi. Accordingto an orderof Sultan Süleyman.E. Confrontedwith a shortageof supplies and munitionsand the death of their beylerbey . undertook a campaign against the island.He had with him. but also Bahrayn.. It was not until 1559 that the Ottomans made a serious effortto establish themselves in Bahrayn. the fortressof Bahrayn.200 soldiers includinga certain number of Janissaries from Baghdad.80Mustafa Pasha went against the island with two fightinggalleys (kadirga).. on the northerncoast of the island.. This content downloaded from 152. 3004. This campaign was undertaken.487v." in Tarih-iOsmani EncümeniMecmuasi . João de Noronha. Portuguese on the otherhand.226 on Sat. however. the Turks began to besiege Manama. seventy light ships of various kinds and one brigantine. 81Dee. withtheirfleetin complete controlof the island. Mustafa Pasha. p. a captain endowed with a long experience of navigation in the Persian Gulf.1559 Bahreyn.. ordered him to bring under Ottoman control not only Hormuz. 110. 1.118. With the aid of João de C. On 26 Ramazan 966/2 July 1559. (Istanbul. 80". N.with no permissionfromthe Sultan. Under these circumstancesthere was little 79Koguçlar888.The east winds (os levantes) had begun to blow. p.pp. haliya Lahsa beylerbeyisi olan MustafaSüdde-iSaadetimearz ve ilâm itmedenfuzûlibazi ümerave asakirletaht tasrifinde olan Cezire-iBahreyn'egeçib. III. the nephew of the Portuguese governorof Hormuz. the Ottomans decided to end the The struggle.1328/1910).. the Sultan made specific referenceto the fact that Mustafa Pasha had acted withoutordersfromIstanbul. the beylerbey of Lahsa.IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 67 The instructionsgiven to Pîrî Reis forhis campaign of 1552. sent to the ruler of Bahrayn and dated 28 Zilhicce 966/1 October 1559.

This content downloaded from 152. reveals what the actual policy of the Ottomans was. Sultan Süleyman told him that he asked for peace fromno 1566 and also in 1567 the Portuguese 83Couto. The Ottomans surrenderedtheirarms to the Portuguese and gave a payment of 12. 180-181. Realizing that it would be more advantageous to encourage the flow of trade to and ofBasra in 1562 sent an envoy to fromthe Ottoman lands.148.Dec.000 cruzados.118. The letterasked the King to ensure secure passage on land and on sea forthe people and merchantsof the Ottoman Empire trading to and fromthe lands under the Portuguese domination.85The viceroy of India (then the Conde do Redondo) also sent a certain Antonio Teixeira to the Sultan. p.. and the Ottomans failed to win controlover the strait of Hormuz. The Portuguese were unable to establish themselves on the shores of Basra and Katif.86At Istanbul." Brancos Turcos** Moreover. however. amongst them.I. Liv. a number of "white Turks.cit. p." (in As Gavetasda Torredo Tombo . the Persian Gulf had been the scene of conflictbetween the Portuguese and the Ottomans. dated 28 Muharrem972/6 September 1564. 84Cf. 60ff.op.Dec. Wicki.IV.. 88Couto. There is mention of a Portuguese attack in February 1565 on a big Atjehnese ship sailing off Hadramawt and having on board four hundred men.68 salíh özbaran recourseleftto the combatants save to make peace at last.On the whole.83 Since the Ottoman occupation of Basra in 1546. In return. VII.226 on Sat. VII. p. which the Sultan sent to the King of Portugal." The letter. according to Couto. the conflict had been harmful to Ottoman interests. "If the King of the Portuguese required peace. he should send to Istanbul a great man from his court to discuss the matter. 87See AppendixIII. 145. Friendship between the two powers would be established if the King complied with his request.the Portuguese undertookto transportthe remainingOttoman troops back to the mainland. 44. Bahrayn remained as a "buffer"island separating the rival powers and their limits of influence. p. 137). 88Dec. Teixeira was given an audience with the Sultan and according to Couto. pp.. 85"Ho ano de mylle quinhentos e sasentae dousveoha Ormuzhumembaixador do turquoenvyadopelo baxa de Baçora . VII. VII. V. the beylerbey Hormuz to negotiate with the Portuguese fora resumptionof commercial relations through the Persian Gulf. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .87 From time to time "incidents" in the waters of the Indian Ocean continued to disrupt Ottoman-Portugueserelations.

A. 43. XXII.148.118.note98). 93MD Zeyli. 322. in thesamejournal (pp.what preparationswould be required forsuch an enterprise. 94Ruûs 231.A document of 23 Receb 985/6 October 1577. p. On 21 Receb 985/4 October 1577 Mahmud.89 In 1573 the Portuguese sailed to Bahrayn.'' "SixteenthCenturyTurkishInfluence 90MD. 184. 96MD. p. seized several merchantships and captured an envoy fromLaristan. AsianHistory 1540-1600.and also C.96 reveals that the KefereArabian caused so much damage to the local marketsin Katif that the merchantshad moved to Bahrayn. to watch the harmful activities of Kefere Arabian . p. 76 and 81 (see AppendixV). 418. X. however. i. captain of the vessels stationed on the shores of Lahsa. MD Zeyli. XXXIII.93 But all these initial preparations eventually came to nothing. Bahrayn became once more the object of Ottoman ambition. p.91 The Ottomaninterestin Bahrayn increasedeven more in the year 1575. had. 91MD.p. This content downloaded from 152. It seems. pp. however. A raid on Muscat in 1581 which was carried out by Ali Bey came from the Red Sea. p. A document dated 23 Muharrem 981/ 25 May 1573 asks the beylerbey of Lahsa whetheror not the reduction of Bahrayn was feasible. Ali Bey."in JournalofSoutheast ..affectthe flowof trade whichhad been flourishing 1560's. Lahsa and were Baghdad to prepare for the coming expedition. 128. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .226 on Sat.92The beylerbeys to keep watch over the coast of Lahsa. p. 68ffand 102ff. relationssee. plundered the town.and what would be the most opportune time for it. 166. These minorincidentsdid since the not. Boxer. addressed to the beylerbeyof Basra. Reid.90As for the Ottoman government. a Turkish corsair.below. 338.e. On Turco-Achehnese in WesternIndonesia.94 He was. though far from being sufficientfor a large-scale campaign.been increased. XXXI. 127. 395-414). the officerin charge of the fleet( Donan ma-i Hümáyun Ketliudasi) at Basra was appointed to be Lahsa Kapu dam .III. that the Ottoman naval facilities at Basra. of Basra and Lahsa and wanted it now soughtto activate the beylerbey to returnto a more aggressivepolicy. XXVII. 92MD. R.95 now mentionedin correspondence. nevertheless."A Note on Portuguese Reactionsto the Revival of the Red Sea Spice Trade and the Rise of Acheh.IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 69 tried to interceptAtjehnese vessels bound for the Red Sea.p. p. MD. went against Muscat with fourgalleys. The central governmentwanted the beylerbeysof fact.III. (December1969). XXII. and made his way back 89Ibid. 96Theseare perhapsnautaquesor nodhakisoperating in thewatersnearthe Bahrayn(cf.

W.This was not withoutsome degree of influenceon the of Basra. It would be superfluousto adduce here evidence to demonstrate the revival of spice trade during the But it should be noted. . thatis whattheyliveon. and encouraged the flowof trade via the Persian Gulf. had been the cause of much damage and destruction.F. (London.D. W. The Book of DuarteBarbosa.1944).Dec." CONCLUSION When the Ottoman Turks arrived at the head of the Persian Gulf they found the Portuguese well established at Hormuz. I. 764ff. I. pp.p. 493£i.1918).. HakluytSociety.I. Theyare archers.1966). the key point and the centre of seaborne trafficfromIndia. Boxer. Liv.Dec.101 through the Gulf. 415-428.p. pp. Braudel. F. Sinclair. C. forexample.. 87 statesthattheywereBalochi. Their naval campaigns directedagainst this point and also against Bahrayn were unsuccessful -the Portuguese seamanship was superiorto Turkish.148. (ed.La Méditerranée et le MondeMéditerranéen à l'ÉpoquedePhilippeII (revisedandenlarged edition.226 on Sat. Thus they controlledthe overland trafficto and fromAleppo. But the districts of Basra and Lahsa did come to direct Ottoman control. This content downloaded from 152. . 99Couto. by reason of their piracy. unlike that in the Red Sea. .Towards the end of the centuryit was more flourishing. Reactions. sometimes theyget as faras Ormuzand enterthe straitsin theirmarauding. X. p. L. On theBaluchis see The Cambridge 1968).70 SALITIÖZBARAN to the Red Sea. pp. 100See.Paris. Fisher)." pp.London. p.97 The Portuguese under D. R. ed. HakluytSociety. 1414. Luis destroyed some towns and burned many terradason the costa dos Nautaques .).118. 21) callsthemArabswhodwellon the Persianshore. as middle decades of the sixteenthcentury. was not very much affectedeither by the Portuguese interventionor by the local piracy during the sixteenth century. Teixeira(The TravelsofPedroTeixeira . Dames (ed.1902. B. Liv.and as manyas twohundredput to sea and rob . . 99. (London. 86if. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 98OftheNautaquesit is written intheSumaOriental ofToméPires. X. 31 that"MostofthemaxePiratesand go in light boats. HistoryofIran. Turkish authoritiesin the beylerbeylik 97Couto.M." P. ."A Note on Portuguese 101L'Économiede VEmpirePortugais.(Cambridge.HakluytSociety. I.I.I. . p. Luis de Almeida failed in their pursuit of the Ottomans but turned now to attack on the nau 98 taques who.100 that the commerce Professor clearly shown by Magalhães-Godinho.

which was [indeed a month more]. one of his principal men. and it was already some months that he had been there with his encampment at certain wells fromwhich this city of Hormuz draws its water. Governorof India: Hormuz. S. Our Lord. fearingthis people. This content downloaded from 152. 2 V.I was informedthat the capitão*of Basra. Ormuz. VossaSenhoriameaning'Your Lordship. I arrivedat this fortressof Hormuz on 18<*May [but] I did not take charge of the fortressfor one month.e. 88r-92r. 23 June 1547 Senhor. in addition.118. And the people of Moghistan [Mogostão]. He is a * I amverygrateful to SenhorLuis de Sousa RebelloofKing'sCollege. fol. because Luis Falcão wanted to complete his time [as governor].2 knows and. Moreover. having in it not even one merchant nor anyone else buyingbeatilha1or any kindof spices or any othermerchandize. i. was located opposite this island [of Hormuz]. to go with their merchandize to Basra. finelinen. On 7thJulyhis ambassador came with a letterforme. 1 Beatilhai. I took charge of the fortresson 19thJune and I found the place veryuneasy. Luis Falcão had given permission to certain terrados. With regardto Basra..IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE APPENDIX 71 I* Cart. thingsare as V. And since my arrival in this city [of Hormuz] he has also allowed some [other] people to go therewith nine terrados. When I reached this city.226 on Sat. with many horsemen and foot-soldiers. a captain of the ruler of Laristan..And all the people who were coming to do business at Hormuz were surprised for the reason of this situation. with the result that none came to pay the taxes at the customs house of the king. The letter of Dom Manuel de Lima.' * Capitão-i. took refugein this city. And it was here that the cafillas passed. so that these people [fromLaristan] stopped them. This ambassador is an Arab merchantwho is called Hajji Fayat (hagy fayat).forthehelphe gave me in London. had resolved to send an ambassador to me.London.e. here.148.. S. Governorof Hormuz to D. I shall proceed to tell Your Lordship more about that land and about the affairsof Basra. João de Castro. who was called Mehmed Pasha (Mohamed boxa turco).thebeylerbey ofBasra. on the mainland. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..e.

R. the interpretorof this fortress[of Hormuz].p. so that it might yield a large revenue to the Great Turk-also that RüsternPasha.118. He was willingto swear on his Koran [moçafo] that everythingwhich he told me was indeed true. and in the town [itself]there are a thousand Turkish horsemenand seven hundred arquebusiers.e. 21). [stating]that he is the principal capitão [i. Hajji Fayat that I should give full credence to the thingsthat he told me. and.the translationof the letter wrote to me.e. Hajji Fayat] about the fortressof Basra. Icaid(cf.1922). He told me that they had done nothing [there]. He also [spoke about] Mehmed Pasha who is capitão of Basra. And over these and other mattershe works as hard as he can.all of which makes two thousand and two 4 i.. the beylerbey] in the course of which he said to me on several occasions.dizdarthe seniorofficerin command of the garrisontroops.stationed in the fortress citadel of the .S. Over these matters the two men were opposed to one another-and even at an earlier time had ceased to be friends. had placed there five hundred Turkish arquebusiers ( turcos espimgardeiros ) and an alcaide morbholds officethere.Glossário This content downloaded from was verywell in Portuguese:"que era muybem feito" done. I am sending Your Lordship.e.226 on Sat. I had conversationwith this which he [i.. Dalgado. saying that it was worth nothing at all. moreoverthe alcaide morand these fivehundred Turkish arquebusiers nevergo outsidethe fortressforany reason at all . regarded as detrimental this capture of that it might give a great revenue to the Great Turk. a ruined place. I asked him whetherhe was willingto swear that his actions were in good faith4and I orderedhim to give a great oath through Garcia delia Pinha. the beylerbey of Basra. In this oath he affirmedthat the main reason for his coming here was to be a true friendof the Portuguese. I [also] asked him what troops were at Basra. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 5 Alcaidemor-i. with this [letter]. He was aware of the resolve of Ayas Pasha to make Basra very prosperous through commerce. he gave me informationabout all the other regions.(Coimbra.The wordalcaideis derivedfromthe ArabicalLuso-Asiático. beylerbey]in Baghdad and that it was he who came to take Basra. in what conditionit was or if they had carriedon any militaryworks in it. And [he related] all the thingsthat he knew about Ayas Pasha. the grand vizier (guazil) and son-in-law of the Great Turk. in addition.e. in Ottomanparlance.72 salíh özbaran man much esteemed and known amongst the Portuguese. literally. .148...e.Ayas Pasha thereforestrove very much to make Basra important. He told me that Mehmed Pasha. I asked him [i.

Glossário 8 Basaliscos(in OttomanTurkishbadalu§ka)was a largesiegegun (cf.V.118. When Ayas Pasha departed afterthe taking of the fortresshe leftin it one hundredpieces of artilleryand threebasaliscos8 which he had brought with him.whetherit was their intentionto attempt somethingagainst this fortress[of Hormuz]. J. He stated that he knew nothing of their desires.cit. but most of the guns [found in the fortress]he took with him to Baghdad. They were all in good condition. Parry. s.226 on Sat. but the greaternumber were of iron." phrase: "e setecento espimgardeiros 7 Candilor camdil of weightequivalentto 20 maosor .[all of them] small guns.IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 73 hundred mounted Turks.sixty of which were bronze cannon (berçosde metal). that on many evenings they sent for him and he never heard anythingof that [intention].The threeexamplesmentioned fromBaghdadwiththe Ottomanforces.148. Hajji Fayat] did not know at all whetheror not there was talk at Basra that these ships would set out for India. I.v. they found in it two hundred and ninety pieces of artillery. 7 and 112)..I asked him about the [Turkish] armada of Suez. nearly250 lbs (cf. i. and every night fiftyarquebusiers keep watch.op. Furthermore. and if the Turks had such an evil purpose. some of which had come to Diu under the eunuch Süleyman Pasha. caracas-mesure about 500 arraieis. and the fortresscontained [also] twenty candis7 of powder. too. not a strongone.V. Serjeant. pl. 199). EI2. I asked what ships these were which had come to Mocha and whythey had gone there. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Barut). J.. they could build in the riverEuphrates as many ships as they wanted. s. about the intention of Ayas Pasha and of Mehmed Pasha .v. 9 Oezòa#a-perhaps as ÜveysPasha.6 At the mouth of the strait of Basra where there was a mosque they built a circularwall. When the Turks took this fortressof Basra. This content downloaded from 152. I asked EI2.11 seven days 6 Thetextcontainshere-perhaps as a resultofscribalerror-arepetition ofthe quepertodossão dousmile duzentosturcos. because near the town of Birejik (biraa). Birejik) that the Turks wanted very much to establish a flourishing trade in Basra. herecameno doubt Parry.10 But he [i. 11Birejik-animportantriverport and crossingon the riverEuphrates (cf. He told me that they were fourteen oared vessels which had come fromSuez under the command of a Turkishcaptain called Oez baxa.Dalgado. He told me that there were [at Suez] forty-fourgalleys.9 Oez baxa broughttroopsto make war and to fightagainst an Arab chieftainwho is called Zaidi Imam ( emom zeidi). inside which there are ten pieces of artillery.. to be construed 10This is a Shi'iteZaidi dynastyin the northern part of the Yemen (cf.e.

He said that fromthis town of Birejik there are two routes which go to Basra-one of them runs through a town which is called Illaa12 and the othergoes throughBaghdad.v.226 on Sat. because he was nothing but a merchant. This content downloaded from 152. and that he would send this informationby one of his sons.And to come fromthe town of Birejik to Basra takes twenty-fourdays even when the water in this riveris runningat its lowest towards Basra.yet it is none the less so broad and well-knownthat it can easily be distinguishedfrom other channels which are made for [the purpose of] irrigation. there is the city of Aleppo. so that all ships and boats.e. And the riverwinds about fromone end to the other.148.74 salíh özbaran journey [fromBasra]. by reason of the abundance of timber to be found there. And this [latter]route is more direct. and also that he would send me from there [i. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .From this place. however large they are. Alexandria and many other places. He asked me to give him certain signs by which it would be known what the Turks at Basra intended to do. trading always in 12Illaari. It took him forty-two days to come to Basra from Constantinople. Lassner. This Hajji Fayat and his son are men who.. al-Hilla. and there are many [irrigation]channels cut throughthe cultivated lands (sememteiras). Hajji Fagat. so that necessarilythey come to know many things about all that the Great Turk decrees. three month of the year. two days' journey away. throughthe year. in addition. [the channel of] this river [tends to] dry up. there are great forests. there is also pine-wood fromwhich they could build as many ships as they desired.e. by a solemn oath that he took on his Koran. oZHilla).fromwhich comes much finetimber and.. then whoever wants to use sailing ships had better go through Illaa because water is always flowingthere.J. [sworethat] he would tell me the truthin all these things. This town of Birejik is large and well-populated and has a great trafficwith Persia and with otherregions. from Basra] all the news which he might learn. can sail therein. but since. He told me that I should put my trustin these things because he belonged to a sect amongst the Turks-who were themselves of a differentbelief-and that he was a friendof the Turks.on theriverEuphrates(cf. situated between Persia and EI2t s. The lowest level [of water]. visit Aleppo. Hajji Fayat also told me that there came now to Basra a slavemessenger( escravo) of the Great Turk with a letterto Mehmed Pasha. each year. remains at two and a half to three fathoms (braços) in depth. both large and small.118.

one who could send me fromthere all the news and whatever else might be needful.e. This sanjak was later-in 1555-tobecomebeylerbeylik. This was the main thingthat Mehmed Pasha had asked me and it was what he wished most of all . presumably the sanjakbeyof Lahsa.. where I would remain for three years. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . also for the terradosto be allowed to go [to Basra].. I summoned the most important persons of his town (i. and that the otherArabs who lived in Basra were of the same kind.. that this factor of mine should go to Basra and that certain terradoswhich were at Hormuz should also go to Basra. and he is taking with him a letter of mine to Mehmed Pasha in response to his 13Rey-i. the Arabs who dwell in Basra will also give me news truthfullyabout these matters. more commonly from Cairo. will be possible to get news of [what is happening at] Suez and all the other regions.because they are the enemies of the Turks. Throughthe ouvydor 1 requested them to swear on the Holy Gospels that it would be advantageous for the service of the King. In addition. He assured me also that Mehmed Pasha wanted to make friendshiponly with me and that the Turks waited in hope until I arrived in this fortress[of Hormuz]. Our Lord. who were about 14 twenty-eightor thirty[in number]. the beylerbey ordered that a place called Lahsa (laçaa) [situated] on the coast of Arabia.148. Hormuz]. and gave it to an Arab and made him the ruler (rey)13of it. I am sending to Basra a certain Domingos Barbudo. in that [the Turks] would not be able to make any decision without my knowing about it. Birejik and Aleppo.TURKSANDPORTUGUESE IN THEPERSIANGULF 75 these regions. and inevitably there will be means of knowing what [the Turks] are doing and what they intend to do. Damascus. This Hajji Fayat asked me many times to send a factor ( feitor ) of mine to Basra.e. thecrownjudge. Mehmed Pasha. This content downloaded from 152.226 on Sat. All of them declared on the oath which they took that it would be well fora trustedman to be in Basra. In the time of Luis Falcão. Moreover.for to Basra come the merchants from all parts.e. because the cafillasand the merchantsdid not want to go to Basra until they saw that therewas a factorof mine there. should be taken. To take advice on this matterin orderto do what would be best for the service of the King. It seems to me that it would be [advantageous] for the service of the King.118. not far fromBasra. of Basra. And all these matters that Hajji Fayat told me-he begged that I would keep them in great secrecy. Our Lord.

there come..referring to the King of Portugal. This content downloaded from 152. and these [three] went therefromhere. on which [the merchants] pay at Goa the customs duty that Your Lordship knows. At this time-in1547-itwas Shah Tahmasp (1524-1576)whoreignedin Persia. I shall always stand with a drawn sword in my hand . Despite the opinion of these people who think that he should remain in Basra.76 salíh özbaran [letter] which he sent to me-[my letter] making no agreementabout anything.forI did not hear of any merchantwho bought even a handful of spices. from Basra.e. There is indeed no other outlet for the spices save through Basra. According to what the old people say in this land.A.and he has great experience of that land.because within this time he will see all the affairs of Basra and will learn also the news from the merchants comingfromAlexandria and all otherregions.but writtenwith finewords [forthe Pasha]. so that which may seem advisable to Your Lordship in connectionwith the affairsof Basra and advantageous forthe service of S. because all [the subjects] of xeque Ismael16 did not buy [even] ten candis of spice..118.He will be able to be in Hormuz again at the beginningof November. It seems to me that [it was] the ship which Antonio Moiz captured. the second xaacoar equirami and the third one abaz royal. in most years. And withregard to what he writes to me and with regard to Basra [itself]. a man of much knowledge.-i.e. the more diligentI shall be and thereby the more alert in relation to them. because if he. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the more words he writesto me. The spices which came this year fromIndia were so scant that it was a pity to see them. and who is well known in Basra amongst the Arabs and amongst the merchants.148. 16i.A. One of them is called Jaber equirami. indeed.this Hajji Fayat shows himselfwell disposed forthe service of the King and of Your Lordship deserves all the favor that Your Lordship might order to be shown to him. I am sending him there for no more than three months.15 may be done. Hajji Fay at requested me to write to Your Lordship about three nephews of his. Shah Ismail of Persia. Furthermore. This Domingos Barbudo is a man of good repute at Hormuz. Hormuz.sociable. wants to do so he can learn all the news about the [Great] Turk and his intentions.226 on Sat. who are [now] at Goa. Sua Alteza(His Highness). but when these merchants of Basra came they bought a good quantity of spices. six to eight hundred horses. on a ship of Cambay (Cambaya). The guazil of Kalhat (callayate) and sheikh Rabia (xeque rabia) 15S.

Now.once he saw the land was being lost [to the Turks]. attacking them by treachery. And it will not be more than two monthsand a half beforethese Turks arrive. [The Turks] had given orders to take all the land which was then in the possession of the Zaidi Imam who is a ruler (rey) in these territoriesof Arabia. He took no heed whetherhis fatherwould fightagaint the Turks or not. They said that there had come fromAden [to Kalhat] a certain sheikh Abdullah and also another terrada. they were unable to take the fortressof San'a (çanaa). all of them going to Muscat last year. Although the son was on bad terms with his father. Many of his friendshave told him they are certain that these ships will come this year and they have advised him to remove his residence out of Kalhat. At the end of the month of June there arrived at this town of Hormuz a ship which came fromMecca ( mequa) and in it there came a merchantwho lives here in Hormuz and is a native of the place. killing four hundred of their horsemen.made ready all his soldiers one night and fell on the Turks. he entered into amicable relations with his father. the guazil of Kalhat] in such manner as to make possible a resistance [to the Turks]. it would be necessary for the Portuguese and the Muslims (mouros) to help him [i.they attacked and captured the fortressof Ta'izz ( toez). as they did last year. that there were seven or eight oared ships lying there and that he had not seen more than this number. Last year there came no more than four fustasbut none of the Portuguese stayed at Kalhat. This son was at variance with the Imam. drove them fromthe port and did not even allow them to take water. [Sheikh Abdullah] says [also] that there will come to Muscat and Kalhat..148. they seized five other ports. And when the Turks arrived. with three thousand Turks on board. the guazil of Kalhat.TURKSANDPORTUGUESE IN THEPERSIANGULF 77 and also the factorof Kalhat wrote [and gave] to me the news about the strait [of Mocha]. a son of the Zaidi Imam had control of all the troops of his father.e. Our Lord.118. The Turks kept him there [at Mocha] forthree days and did This content downloaded from 152. Sheikh Abdullah states that beyond doubt they will come. with the help of the King. He told me that he had come through Mocha.whichis threemonth's time. It is certain that there are [already] at Aden three well equipped fustas and more [of them] will come from the port of Mocha. in addition. within this firstmonsoon. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ten or twelve [Turkish] fustas. However.226 on Sat. and. They [also] said that there had come fromthe port of Suez to the port of Mocha a capitou)with twenty galleys and two large ships. Before the Turks (rumes) came. if these ten or twelve ships come with many troops.

to give aid in what may be necessary.forit seemed to him that in this manner he could do better service for the King. At the end of this monthof Julythey will leave forMuscat. And I gave the fleetto him and he is going with it as admiral-in-chief(capitão mor). This content downloaded from 152. according to what I was told by people on the ships which have arrivedfromthose parts afterI passed that way. forthe rest.148.cit. and in findingthe ships [which have on board] many xerafinsand tamgas.II. to fightthe Turkish ships. it will be an inducementforthem to come each year against Muscat. Arab archers [can] be put in them.op.if there is a need. I believe that this informationmay well be true.17and then in makingoffwith theirprizes to the strait [of Mocha].Dalgado. and if these Turks succeed in plundering Muscat. And over the Turkish ships Our Lord will surely give us a complete victory. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .78 salíh özbaran not let him go outside the gates so that he should not warn the 'fustas' which Your Lordship had sent to the strait [of Mocha].118.226 on Sat. It seems to me that [it will be for] the service of His Majesty and of Your Lordship to send these ships to sea. [he stated] that the Turkish vessels were waiting there. there came fortyof fiftyPortuguese [soldiers]-this is an excellent reinforcementwhich can go on board wheneverit is most needful. The captains and the soldierswho are on board can be expected to act as honorable and reliable men. To Muscat. the ones with the most oars. Dom Payo thought that he had better stay here [in Hormuz] and he asked me for [command of] the fleet. p. 355). in orderto lie in wait there for the fustasof the Turks.I am writingto sheikhRabia and also to the guazil of Kalhat [bidding] them hold in readiness the best terraquiswhich they have there. if they should come to Muscat.It seemed to him that the eight [Turkish] ships which came to Kalhat and Muscat [last year] were there then. because the vessels which are settingforthfrom[Hormuz] forIndia carry [each of them] two or three Portuguese and much money. which are here [at Hormuz].. I have ordered to be made ready nine fustasand catures. with the aid of Our order.thinkingthat the 'fustas' mightenterinto the harbour. At the beginningof August I am going to send to the cape Ras alHadd fcabo do rroçalgate)two catures. 17 Tamga(ortanga)-a Portuguese coinworth60 reis(cf. in case they should come in August or at the beginningof September. And these are ships which [can] hold ten or twelvePortuguese and whichrow well.

each year. in [the year] 1547. to plunder the coast of the noutaques and to burn the terradas [of the noutaques'].as much as possible. Translated fromthe letter of Ra'is Nur al-Din [to the Governor of India] which Fernão Farto has brought [to Goa]. having on board Amdre Cortes and laden with much finemerchandize. In the event that these ships do not come fromthe strait [ofMocha]. then. A large Portuguese ship. Hormuz.each year. The noutaques took and carried offall the merchandize in the ship and killed all the Portuguese on board. and. because he fought well. with the help of Our Lord. Dom Manuell de Lyma APPENDIX II CC.was wrecked on a sandbank as it came fromthe island of Macira (Maceira) and was lost there. will watch over the merchantships. more about this land. [These noutaques] are impudent [people]. except Amdre Cortes. Parte Ia.118. to warn the fleet which will be [waiting] at Muscat. by other means. Amdre Cortes lost all his possessions set beyond doubt [or make certain] the great concernthat Your Lordship takes forthis land and This content downloaded from 152. serve two purposes for His Highness now-to go against the fustasof the Turks and [also] to sail whereverit has gone in past years. who made their escape. send [theirfleet]. fol. which came in such a good time it could not be better.TURKSANDPORTUGUESE IN THEPERSIANGULF 79 [with orders] to stand on watch and discover the Turkish vessels coming fromthe strait [of Mocha] and to see what there is . In addition [the noutaques] attacked a Muslim terradaand wounded some of the people on board who resisted them. May your lifeand the affairs of Our Lord [the King] prosper. therewill be much to be done against the noutaques. I shall write to Your Lordship. leaving no one alive. he got away. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . From Hormuz the 23rdof June. his wife and one of his daughters. although he was wounded by eight large arrowsand he could not reach his own parão until he was carriedthere. Fernão Farto gave me a letter of Your Lordship. And because of these and other happenings [the Portuguese]. if [these catures] see such vessels before them. 30*hOctober 1552 Senhor. I kiss the hands of Your Lordship. it will.226 on Sat. And this fleet. 3v-5r. Doc.148. Maço 89. 9.

148.. On the day that the Turks went away they left with us two Christians. Leipzig. the son of Pîrî Bey ( Barba Negra) who was admiral ofthe Ottoman fleet.attacked 1 Pierisand Fitzler(Ceylonand Portugal 1539.118. Pt. asking them to come to speak with the soldierswho stood on the wall -but the renegades had never replied to this request. I wrote to Your Lordship. should the need arise. just because Your Lordship is mindfulof us.note1.they did little harm to it. Our Master. because it 3 and was so strong. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . .e.theybroughtto the walls a Portuguesebombardier. The espala70 quintões weredescribedas bastardos Smallerbasiliscosweighing fattowas heavierthantheselatter.note1. however.Therewere whichwereusedwithstoneballs. whichwas also the lengthon the salvage. On the last night when the Turks gathered togethertheir cannons and raised the siege.p. though in fact on numerous occasions at night our men had called out to the renegades [in the Turkish camp].whichreacheda weightof 150 quintõeswitha lenghtof 35 palms. Until that moment we knew nothing about him." 2 See above. one espalha2 fatoj1 one salvage togetherwith some small pieces set on the flatroofs of certainbuildingsbelongingto the King.Aguia (eagle). in the course of which [siege] these Turks placed six pieces of heavy artillery. whom they had captured at the fortressof Muscat.226 on Sat. in accordance with the news we now have that Your Lordship is preparing [to send to] this land a great armada. We all believe.[i. That killed four Portuguese and wounded some ten or twelve.] [four]basalisks. how we were besieged on land and sea by the Turks. During the eleven days the Turks bombarded the fortress.a piece of 40 quintões. .thoughit was onlysixteenpalmsin length. by Ruy Lopes.80 salíh özbaran for the service of the King.their espalhafato. Please believe that. This content downloaded from 152. 3 See above. Because this land has been so ruined. [then] all will be lost. smallergunslikethecamelloand thecamalete as wellas theLeão (lion). the one a Russian by race and the other an Italian. but as it appeared aftertheir departure-theyreceived [even] greaterdamage fromthe good shootingthat our gunnersmade against theirmantelets. asking that they should try to rescue him and the other captured. through these men we learned all that occured at Muscat-that Mehmed Bey.1927. I: Kingsand Christians ". [This man] came to speak with the men on the [fortress]wall. 304)writethefollowing: jBazalisco. The Turks destroyed one of our camello de ferro with one of our shots we ruined fromthe fortress. . thegreatestofall gunswas 1552. that Your Lordship will [send aid] as fully as the necessityrequires. we feel freealready of all these troubles that we expected.Serpe(serpent)and cão (dog).

But Pîrî Bey managed the affairwith such address that he put them as galley slaves bound to their bench with iron chains and subjected to the lash. cannon balls and munitions-[this vessel] was lost in shallow water at Aden. of gold and silver. Pîrî Bey thought it would be the same 4 Quartãoi.op.226 on Sat.e. What he did here [at Hormuz] I have already writtento Your Lordship. The Turks took all these things.e. and of cash. Accordingto what we have learned. it was merited judgement.the [Great] Turk ordered Pîrî Bey not to seek out Hormuz beforehe had gone to Basra to take on board other troops there-but as a result of the weakness he found at Muscat. The son [Mehmed Bey] had begun to bombard the fortresswithsix galleys only.118. even though on a number of occasions there were offers made for the women only-but these infideldogs treated the matter in such a fashion that it seemed there would never be a successfulresult.together with two quartetosand numerous guns and all the powder... and Your Lordship can be assured that this was the richestprize that could be foundin all the world. AfterBarba Negra had set out forthis place [Hormuz]. The [Ottoman] admiral would never discuss a ransom for them. For a man who [like João de Lisboa] showed such weakness.arrived at this island [of Hormuz] with twenty-fivegalleys and one galleon with which he departed from Suez. he took two ships and one caturat Muscat. On the second day following the arrival of Pîrî Bey. At the end of that time his father [Pîrî Bey] arrived with thirteengalleys.he captured here a large ship of a certainJoão Nunez a man from Chaul.148..the 19thSeptember. on a Monday morning. nothing escaped them.Pierisand Fitzler. it might have been possible to seize their guns and to inflict much harm [on them]. Hormuz]. Having stayed at Hormuz for sixteen days [the Turks] went to the island of Kishm (Queyxome) which is three leagues fromhere. also another 4 galleon which he was bringing. João de Lisboa and all the Portuguese yielded on condition of being allowed to depart safely for this fortress(i. Moreover. This content downloaded from 152. If we had known more about the Turks.In this fortress [ofHormuz] therewere seven hundredsoldiersmuch esteemed and the best arquebusiers that there were. At Kishm were the principal people and merchants fromthis town [of Hormuz] with a great quantity of goods. After this event Pîrî Bey.IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 81 the fortressforsix days. Pîrî Bey did all these things with only seven hundred fightingmen and two thousand or two thousand and five hundredsailors and galley crews.p. an old typeofgun (cf.cit. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 302).

L. I am writingto Your Lordship today.118. so that Pîrî Bey will in no wise escape fromthe net.salíh özbaran 82 here [at Hormuz] and so. This content downloaded from 152. in the afternoon. Kostantiniyye.148.Sunday the 30thof October-a terraquimhas come. C. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . From Lara and Shiraz news came that Shah Tahmasp was marching into the lands of the Ottoman Sultan across the frontierof Tabriz.28 Muharrem972/5 September 1564 It has been sent to the Pasha.. Orhonluof the University of Istanbuland also to Dr. I have sent a terraquimto the island of Kishm to get news about the intentionsof the Turks. v. May the life and affairsof Your Lordship increase for many years. by reason of the coming of Your Lordship to this land and by your going towards Basra. Trust in God that all this will be forthe great destruction of these people. Our Lord.226 on Sat. An imperial letter [written]to the King of Portugal: To Our Exalted Court which is the refuge of the felicityand Our High Porte which is the seat of good fortune. this I have despatched to him forthwithand I wrote and bade him gather his strengthin case the Turks come to seize [Bahrayn]. [Written] fromHormuz on the 30thday of October 1552. he subjected us to a bombardment. that it is the asylum * I am indebtedto Dr. Subsequently I have heard nothing more about this matter. in thisletterand also in otherTurkish certainpointsoccurring who clarified documents. from which we have learned that this same day all the fleet of the Turks assembled at the point of the island of Kishm and departed-from that spot where they have been all the time since theirdeparturefrom this place [Hormuz]. the guazil of Bahrayn] APPENDIX III* MD.I will writeto Your Lordship [and send the letter] by ships leaving forthat quarter. Ménageof the Schoolof Orientaland AfricanStudiesof London. The letterYour Lordship sent to me for Murad Ra'is [the ruler of Bahrayn]. Should [fresh]news arrive. with the powder that he brought from Muscat.A. V. His Excellency. They have taken their course to Basrah-setting out this very nightjust gone. so that he could defendhimself as it mightbe needfulforthe service of S. sealed and put in a brocade purse. p. rrex nordim [Ra'is Nur al-Din.

he has been sent back to that land. for the betteringof the conditionsof the people and forthe good ordering of affairsof state. [bearing] joyful news. By the favor of Allah-praise be unto him. with our imperial letter.whilewe sought consultationwith the people of your province: but do not have any doubts about the sincerityof our desire forfriendship. It [is about] mattersset forthin the well-intentionedcontents of the letters which have reached Our Exalted Court sometime ago fromyourown personand fromyourgovernor( kaimmakam) in the land of India. you shall establish. without delay. You have sought our imperialpermissionthat your esteemed ambassador should come [to discuss] the friendshipdesired with our court which is famed for justice. the caliphate of the world is in the hands of our possession and our victoriousstirrupand our noble world-adorningconciousnesshas comprehended and embraced it. for the sovereign elevation of our thoughtshas ever been well-intentionedand directed towards those who make. our ambassador is about to be sent. And you shall act promptly. Matters being so. there has come your friendship-bearingletter which has arrived throughyour man Nikola. our felicitouscourt is ever open and accessible and thereis no impedimentto the desire of anyone who [wishes] to come and go. Since the abundance of our imperial compassion is ever decided [in favor] of [other]people. Our felicity-bearingletter has been sent in respect of that matter and our imperial permissionhas been given that your ambassador shall come [to us]. safety and security for the people and the merchants of our well protected dominions. who is one of the notables of the Christian millet. when [this letter]reaches you.118. All mattersincluded have been submitted. Your present ambassador has-without delay-been accorded our noble permission. despatch to us your ambassador. to our high court. who are in the land of India. may his Name be exalted-now.IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 83 of famous khagans and the recourse of sultans possessed of power. in the region of Jezayir and in other lands. Now it is that the conditionsof This content downloaded from 152. and. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . you shall. and since-forthe well-beingof the people and the merchants in these regions-thereis no withdrawingfromthe friendship [now] desired. that is. The people (re'aya) of the East and the West seek the protectionof our State.Your province [of India] is far offand the journey is dangerous. in their entirety.226 on Sat.whereforeyour ambassador has been delayed here. You have requested that your man who has come [to us] should send back promptly. on land and on sea. at this present time. a request in friendship and sincerity.148. who shall be sent for this laudable purpose.

referringthat Sinan. with its revenue.has been conferred on Mehmed Bey.has been conferred on Sam Bey who had been removed fromthe above-mentioned liva [i. formerly the kajmdan of Basra." 4 The namegivento a particularcorpsof Ottomantroopsused in fighting bothon landand at sea. has undertakenthe has2 of Hemmar at more than 200. with its revenue. The Uva of Rahmaniyya (vl>j).000 akçe. This content downloaded from 152. the Kapudan of Remle (<Lj).84 salíh özbaran [our] friendshipmay be decided on both sides.000akçe. on condition that the afore-saidprovince be 4 assigned to him.the beyof Hemmar The liva of Hemmar in the vilayetof Basra : The beylerbeyof Basra has sent a letter.. in the beylerbeylik of Lahsa.e. has been conferred The liva of Akçakale (<uU on Hiiseyin Bey who had been removed fromKinahiyya The Uva of Kinahiyya has been conferredon Arslan. The Uva of Ta§köprü U>).148. p.. The liva of Kan Kinabad (^LJuT ¿jfí). 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .226 on Sat. IV Konstantiniyye. and so that the people and the merchants in those lands may be relieved of anxiety and distress and live on good terms. with its revenue. The Uva of Hafa.e. the beyof Rahmaniyya. meaningin OttomanTurkish"chief"or "master. Hafa]. has been conferredon Sinan Bey. APPENDIX Ruûs 225. the beylerbey on 15thZilkade. has been conferredon Pervez Bey.118. with its revenue.. has been conferredon Said Bey. 3 Aģa.1has been conferredon The liva of Garraf ( Madina the of (o>). the biggesttype of fief.e. on 19*hMarch]: with its revenue.the minimilm incomeof whichwas 100. the beyof Garraf. with its revenue. April 1572 These are the changes in the subdivisions of the Province and the appointments which have been ordered in accordance with the subof Basra. at present. bey Haydar Bey. 222.27 Zilkade 980/30. Veli. The arz was made mission (arz) of Ali Pasha. the present agaz of the Azaplar in the above1 Bedeliylei. [i.with its revenue. The Uva of Madina. 2 Has-i. withtheannualrevenues.e. the beyof Hafa (U>-?).

u. Terakki: in response to the arz of the above-mentioned [b.000 akçe has been conferredon Çankoglu Mehmed Bey..118. the beyof Abu Arba (b j*^. perdiem.e. And the above-mentioned agalik of Üveys has been conferredon Çeref. with 15 akçe.000 akçe has been conferredon Ahmed ofthe çavuslar6at Basra. 5 Aýalikofaýa. of Basra] a terakkiof 20.b.b.000 akçe. 7 i. the beylerbeyof Basra] a terakkiof 20.e.000 akçe has been conferredon Ali Bey.the kethvda8of the fortressof Jarur. one of the Bölükbasts10 stationed at Rahmaniyya.IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 85 mentioned liva. 9 of the above-mentionedfortresshas been conAnd the kethudahk ferred on a certain person called Ferruh.e. 8 Kethuda-i... And the agaltk of the above-mentioned liva has been conferredon Üveys Aga.Bölükmeans a Regimentof troops. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .000 akçe has been conferredon Hemmad Bey.**}>?) has been conferredon Hüseyin Bey.b.e.e.000 akçe has been conferredon Ahmed Bey. of Basra] a terakkiof 20.e. the beyof Zernuk Terakki: in response to the arz of the above-mentioned [b. of Basra] a terakkiof 20. the beyof Sadr Sevib j-u»). theofficeofkethvda. the beyof Madan (ol.). on condition that the province be assigned to him.b. Order has been made that the province be so conferredon the conditions [mentionedabove]. Terakki: in response to the arz of the above-mentioned [ adjutant. 9 i.1 ?). the aga of the Gönüllülerat Kuban (Oli). of Basra] a terakkiof 20. the aga of the Azablar at Jarur (jjjU). Terakki: in response to the arz of the above-mentioned [b. Terakki: in response to the arz of the above-mentioned[i. has also undertaken to farm the has at more than 200. the bey of Katif.. the commander of a bölük. of Basra] a terakkiof 20.. The of Basra has presentedan arz that the afore-saidUva be duly beylerbey and legally assigned to Veli. i.e. the beyof Hafa.. Terakki: in response to the arz of the above-mentioned [b.1 The liva of Turre-iJezayir (y|>. theoffice • Çavu§-i. The Agalik* of the Azeban of Hemmar has been conferredon Muzaffer.' This content downloaded from 152. a memberofthecorpsofPursuivants. with 15 akçe. 10Bölükba§ir-i.b.000 akçe has been conferredon Ali Bey..226 on Sat.

The liva of Vaki (£'j) in the neighborhoodof Jezayir has been conferredon Ferhad Aga who holds a zeametof 50. on Mehmed Bey.86 salíh özbaran Teralcki: in response to the arz of the above-mentioned [b. who was a sanjakbey in Lahsa and is now in the service of the defterdarhk. having a salyane of 200. Lewis.226 on Sat.000 akçe has been conferredon his own son. but it is essentialto make [proper]preparationfor it.v. He writes that there are [very] few warriors (cenkci) in the fortress.b.000 akçe in the province of Basra.148. now servingin the vilayet[of Basra]. Basra] a terakJci Murad Bey. Daftardãr ).in EI 2. of Baghdad : Order to the beylerbey of Lahsa has sent a letter.statingthat the conquest of The beylerbey Bahrayn (with God's favor) be easy.e. a typeof fiefyieldingan annualrevenueofmorethan20. xxvn. 81. one of the züema11at Aleppo..12 A liva in Lahsa with salyane: a muhafaza sanjak in Lahsa has been conferredon Ferruh Bey. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . who holds a zeamet of 20.118.s. 12Defterdarhkwas the termused for i. This content downloaded from 152. and what number of siege guns..B. p. who where once beylerbey of that region. what number of galleys.with its revenue. of of 20. I have commandedthat when [thisfirman]reaches you. A za*im was theholderofa zeamet . now the beyof Remle.000 akçe at Aleppo and who has done good and able service in the collection of taxes at Basra.must know the local conditions. Defterdar theofficials ofthefinancial administration (cf. The liva of Tavil ?) has been conferredon Zaim Salih. thepluralofzď im. The çavuslukof the Imperial Court: the zaim called Abdi.Now it is not admissible to treat the foe as of no account.also that the galleys (kadirga) actually at Basra are sufficient.000 akçe has been conferred. you shall informyourselfof all details and reportaccordingto yourknowledge and accurately how best to prepare for this enterprise-i. the officeof defterdar.e. APPENDIX MD. with the same salyane as Mehmed Bey [received]. V 9 Safer 983/20 May 1575 Given to îstiplû Ali Çavus. The Uva of Remle. You.000akçe. of soldiers 11Züema. has been made a memberof the afore-said corps of çavus. the beyof Tehemmiyye(vr).

the constructionof which was ordered in an [earlier] firman. You shall build ships as soon as the timber arrives and in short you shall take note of all the conditionsrelatingto the aforesaid island and tell us in detail about shall state also where you will get the [necessary] guns if these [eight galleys] are indeed constructed. The beylerbey of Lahsa declares that if the above-mentioned island be conquered. in addition. also if there are enough soldiers [on hand] or whether more of them are needed and [if so] where such troops can be found.IN THEPERSIANGULF TURKSANDPORTUGUESE 87 (asker) and of munitions and supplies are necessary to attack the fortress. so you are to take special care that no situation should arise which may [God forbid] be contraryto the honor and the good name of the Sultanate.000 filori. or if the island can produce more.over and above local expenses. who has his main fleet at Hormuz.You shall write and informus if this annual revenue will in fact be forthcoming. munitionsand supplies are available in Baghdad and Basra .it is likely that the Portuguese foe.[You shall state also] if these essential guns. could come to oppose [an expedition to the Bahrayn] . its annual yield will be 40. You shall make known. whetheror not the ships at Basra are sufficientor if it is important to build the eight galleys. [Furthermore]. 21 Feb 2015 03:01:17 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .226 on Sat.148. This content downloaded from 152.