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# Alignment

Course Manual

IHRDC
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
MECHANICAL DISCIPLINE

ALIGNMENT

IHRDC

AL – M -02 (Rev – 0) 02 – 2 – 1999

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Alignment

Course Manual
Total Pages: (63)

IHRDC

AL – M - 02 (Rev - 0) 02 – 2 – 1999

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Alignment

Course Manual

Alignment

Module (M – 02 )5D

 This Module is designed for AFPC existing Mechanical Graduates, provide
hands-on experience to perform both methods of shaft alignment using dial
indicators.

 This Module focuses on the preparations required prior to alignment job, the
procedure to perform both methods and corrections for thermal growth.

Preparation for alignment.
Face and rim alignment using graph.
Reverse alignment using graph.
Performing alignment using formulas.
Correction for thermal growth.

Audience
Prerequisites
Location
Format

:
:
:
:

English comprehension and communication.
AFPC Training Center, D. Z.
Lecture, discussion and OJT workshop practices.

This module is one of thirteen modules, which together cover the theoretical
aspect of the Technical Training for the AFPC Mechanical Graduates
Development Programme. This programme has been developed specifically for
AFPC Graduate Development to enhance the dynamic Nationalisation drive

IHRDC

AL – M - 02 (Rev - 0) 02 – 2 – 1999

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5 3. 8 5. 7 4.Equipment/ Resources. 60 AL – M . 45 7.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 4 .Course Manual (Hands Out for Participants).Alignment Course Manual Course Contents Page IHRDC 1.Lesson Plan.Course Final Assessment.Training Aids. 4 2.Course Outline.02 (Rev . 44 6.Objectives.

Understand graphing procedures for alignment.Course Objectives: Upon completion of this course. Understand formula to correct misalignment. Lesson Two:. Demonstrate mechanical center. Lesson Three:. Explain run out readings. Understand thermal growth methods. Perform soft foot. Explain graphing procedure (Horizontal Pane). the employee should be able to :Lesson One: Preparation for Alignment:          Understand the orientation upon performing alignment.Alignment Course Manual 1. Explain how to carry out alignment using the formula. Explain how to use the formula for alignment. Demonstrate magnetic center. Demonstrate pipe strain correction. Explain formula method for horizontal alignment. Explain graphing procedure for horizontal alignment. Perform bar sag. Understand the graphing procedure for alignment. Understand graphing thermal growth to correct misalignment. IHRDC AL – M .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 5 .Rim and Face Alignment (Vertical Plane)        Understand the measurement procedures. Explain how to correct misalignment due to thermal growth. Explain how to set the face gap.Reverse Alignment Method (Vertical Plane)       Understand measurement procedures. Understand formula for thermal growth.02 (Rev .

Final Test Time 6 Hrs.5 Face gap. 1.2.Preparation for Alignment 1.2.1 Alignment orientation. .1 Definitions. 1.2. . Course program shall be conducted as follows:Day – 1 (6.2. 1.2 Soft Foot.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Location Classroom W/ S W/ S Page 6 .2.Instruction Time 8 Hrs.3 Run Out Reading.6 Magnetic Center.This course is designed for AFPC existing Mechanical Technicians to provide hands on experience in alignment.30 0. 1.1 Pipe Strain.4 Thermal Growth.Alignment Course Manual 2.Course Out Line:.Course time plan shall be as follows:.30 IHRDC Activities Lesson 1. 1.1.0 Hrs) Time Hrs 2 3. 1. .Duration of this course is five working day’s (30 Hrs). 1.The course is to be conducted at AFPC Training center classroom and Mechanical assembly workshop. 1.2.2.2 Equipment Preparations 1.Workshop Time 16 Hrs.7 Mechanical Center Same Topics Assessment AL – M .02 (Rev . . .

1. 3.1. 2. 3. Vertical Plane 2.1.3 Calculation Using Formula. 2. B. 3.5 Graphing.30 2 1 0.8 thermal Growth Calculation.7 Graphing Thermal Growth.1 Graphing Procedure. 2.4 Graphing Thermal Growth.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Location W/ S W/ S Classroom W/ S W/ S Page 7 .1 Introduction.2.1.Rim and Face Alignment A.30 IHRDC Activities Lesson 2 Rime and face Alignment Horizontal Plane 2.5 Cold Alignment Graph. Performing Rim and face Alignment C. 2.1 Measuring Procedure.1 Graphing Procedure.30 Activities Lesson 2:.1.1.1. 3. 2. Assessment Lesson 3 Reverse Alignment 3. 2. 3. Assessment Location Classroom W/ S W/ S Day – 3 (6 Hrs) Time Hrs 2 0.4.4.30 4 0. 2.1.5. 3.2 Graphing and Correcting Vertical Plane Misalignment. 2.1 Vertical Alignment.3 Using formula.2 Calculations using Formula. 3.5.4 Graphing procedure.2 Graphing Vertical Plane Misalignment.1 Graphing procedure. Performing Reverse Alignment Assessment AL – M .2 Measurements. 3.3 Dial Indicator Readings.Alignment Course Manual Day – 2 (6 Hrs) Time Hrs 1.4.02 (Rev .6 Formula Method. 2.

Alignment

Course Manual

Day – 4 (6 Hrs)
Time Hrs
0.30
5
0.30

Activities
Lesson 3 Reverse Alignment
3.2 Horizontal Plane.
3.2.1 Graphing procedure.
3.2.2 Correcting Misalignment using Graph.
3.2.3 Formula method.
Performing Reverse Alignment
Assessment

Location
Classroom
W/ S
W/ S

Day – 5 (6 Hrs)
Time Hrs
Activities
1
Final Assessment
5
Final Assessment (Practical)

Location
Classroom
W/ S

3- Equipment and Resource
1- A motor and pump on a skid at W/ S.
2- Two clamps.
3- Two dial indicators.
4- Shims.
5- Video and Monitor.
6- Projector.

IHRDC

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Alignment

Course Manual

4- Course Manual

(Hand out For Participants)

IHRDC

AL – M - 02 (Rev - 0) 02 – 2 – 1999

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Alignment

Course Manual

SHAFT ALIGNMENT
1-Preparations for Alignment
1.1 Definitions:
Alignment: The relationship between the position of one shaft with another.
Shaft alignment: The proper positioning of equipment shafts so that the centrelines of
the two shafts are colinear.
Parallel misalignment: A misalignment situation in which the centrelines of two
shafts are offset so that they are not colinear, although they are parallel.
Angular misalignment: A misalignment situation in which the centrelines of two
shafts intersect each other at an angle.
Colinear alignment: Alignment in which the centrelines of shafts are in the same line.
Combined misalignment: A combination of parallel and angular misalignment in both
the horizontal and vertical planes.
1.1.1 Alignment Orientation
The person performing a shaft alignment should orient himself properly in relation to
the equipment. The fixed component should be on the left, and the movable
component should be on the right.
There is another part of the orientation that must be considered. This can be
explained by looking at the hub of the fixed component. The hub of the fixed
component can be thought of as the face of a clock. The vertical plane is represented
by 12 o’clock and 6 o'clock, which are above and below the shaft. The horizontal
plane is represented by 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock, which are to the left and right of the
shaft.
1.2 Equipment Preparation
One of the first shaft alignment preparations is making sure that the pump and motor
are isolated and tagged out. If equipment is accidentally started up while an
alignment is being performed, serious injuries can occur.

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AL – M - 02 (Rev - 0) 02 – 2 – 1999

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Alignment Course Manual Alignment Orientation Hub of the fixed component as a clock face IHRDC AL – M .02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 11 .

The dial indicators are then checked. Attaching the dial indicators in this manner allows pipe strain to be measured in both the vertical and horizontal planes. After each dial indicator is securely mounted. adjustments must be made in the piping supports. Then the bolts for the suction and discharge pipe flanges are loosened. Then. or bedplate. Pipe strain is the force exerted on the fixed component from suction and discharge piping that is not supported properly. A soft foot condition exists when one or more of the movable component's feet are in different planes. When this condition is present.2. the procedure list described should be repeated to make sure that the pipe strain had been corrected. 1.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 12 . A facility usually has set limits for the amount of pipe strain that is allowable.02 (Rev . These adjustments may require that pipe hangers and supports be moved according to plant procedures. In some facilities. both are adjusted for a zero reading. To correct pipe strain.1 Pipe Strain Another part of preparing for an alignment is checking the fixed component for pipe strain. 1. other than zero on either dial indicator means that the pump moved because of pipe strain. This twisting can make it difficult to properly align the shafts. The foundation should be checked with a bubble level to ensure that it is level. After the adjustments have been made. that supports the pump and the motor. Any reading. The first step in checking for a soft foot condition is to tighten down all of the support bolts on the movable component.2 Soft Foot Conditions Another preparation that should be made before performing . a dial indicator is mounted to indicate vertical movement of one of the feet. One method of measuring pipe strain involves mounting two dial indicators on the foundation so that their stems contact the rim of the pump's hub.an alignment is checking for a "soft foot" condition. The dial indicator is adjusted to a zero reading. This will relieve any pipe strain that may have been present. and the flanges are separated. it may be difficult to align the shafts properly. any difference in dial indicator readings of more than 2 mils must be corrected.2. and the other is mounted at either 3 o'clock or 9 o'clock.Alignment Course Manual Another important preparation is inspecting the foundation. One of the dial indicators is mounted at 12 o'clock. If pipe strain is not corrected. the motor housing twists when the support bolts are torqued down. IHRDC AL – M .

3Taking Runout Readings Another preparation that should be made is taking runout readings on both the fixed component and movable component. To obtain runout readings. 1. it may only be necessary to shim one foot. the support bolt on the foot is loosened.02 (Rev . feet. the shaft is rotated slowly while the dial indicator is observed.2. Any movement of the dial indicator needle indicates runout. In some cases. The support bolt is then retightened. which will require replacement of the shaft. Excessive runout under these conditions indicates a bent shaft.2. which requires the hub to be replaced. Excessive runout can make it difficult to properly align shafts. In many facilities. each foot should be rechecked to verify that the soft foot condition has been corrected. Reading in excess of the allowable limit indicate a bent shaft or a misbored hub. To correct the soft foot. 1.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 13 . After the dial indicator is adjusted for a zero reading. any soft foot condition of more than 2 mils must be corrected. Readings within tolerance on the shaft indicate a misbored hub. Facilities generally specify the amount of runout that is allowable. The steps just described must be repeated for each of the remaining.4 Measuring Thermal Growth: Method 1 One method of measuring thermal growth involves mounting dial indicators so that their stems are in contact with the two shafts while the components are at operating temperature. if necessary.Alignment Course Manual Next. a shim that is the same size as the dial indicator reading must be inserted under the soft foot. and then waiting for the components to reach ambient (room) temperature. Facilities generally have set limits for the amount of movement that allowable. The dial indicator readings at ambient temperature indicate how much movement has occurred. IHRDC AL – M . The number of soft feet can vary. After each foot has been checked and shimmed. and the dial indicator reading is recorded. In other cases. Which component is at fault can be determined by taking another set of runout readings with the dial indicator stem contacting the shaft. two or three feet may have to be shimmed. Runout readings measure how much the hub or shaft is out of round. Any reading other than zero indicates a soft foot. a dial indicator is mounted so that its stem contacts the rim of the hub.

If the face gap is too wide. Many mechanics use a straightedge and a feeler gauge to get the two shafts close to proper alignment. the coupling may separate and be damaged. It is necessary to mount the base used for each dial to the foundation or some other place that will not be affected by thermal growth.2. In order to set the face gap. Next. Next.2. Then the temperature is again measured. These temperature values are then factored into a formula that uses the thermal expansion coefficient of steel to determine the amount of thermal growth. so they will measure vertical movement. 1. This method uses a Pyrometer to measure both the ambient temperature and the operating temperature of the component. Next. the product of this multiplication is multiplied by the therma1 expansion coefficient for iron and steel. The feeler gauge should just fit between the two hubs.6 Setting the Face Gap Most couplings are designed to operate with a specified amount of space between the hubs. the motor must be moved into position. which has a value of . back and forth along the axis of a shaft.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 14 .0000063. the component is started up and allowed to reach normal operating temperature. The ambient temperature is recorded. Both dial indicators are zeroed while the equipment is still at operating temperature. IHRDC AL – M . A feeler gauge the size of the ideal face gap specification is then inserted between the hubs.5 Measuring Thermal Growth: Method 2 This method involves using a Pyrometer to measure the ambient and operating temperatures of the components. the ambient temperature is subtracted from the average operating temperature at the inboard feet.02 (Rev . If the face gap is too narrow. This space. The final result indicates the actual amount of movement that will occur due to thermal growth 1. Axial movement refers to the amount of movement. axial movement may cause the two hubs to contact each other and become damaged. The result of this subtraction is then multiplied by the distance between the base plate and the centreline of the shaft. called the face gap prevents damage to the hubs and the coupling from axial movement of the shafts.Alignment Course Manual Dial indicators are mounted so that their stems contact the shaft of each component at 6 o'clock. that is allowed by the bearings that support the shaft. The distance between the base plate and the centreline of the component's shaft is also measured and recorded.

Alignment Course Manual The face gap should be rechecked after any motor movement. 1. the shaft is set to its mechanical centre. when sliding surface bearings are used in rotating equipment. as in other types of rotating equipment. The dial indicator is then adjusted for a zero reading.4 Determining Magnetic Centre Axial movement is present in motors.3 Determining Mechanical Centre In equipment that uses anti-friction bearings. To determine the mechanical centre. The reading on the dial indicator at this point is the total amount of axial shaft movement. 1. it is equal to one half of the total axial shaft movement. The shaft is then forced outward as far as it will go. When the face gap is set. To determine the mechanical centre of a piece of equipment. the magnetic centre must be determined before the coupling face gap is adjusted. the rotor is held in the same position each time the motor operates. the total amount of axial shaft movement is divided by 2. This position is referred to as the motor's magnetic centre. With some motors.02 (Rev . In these situations. the shaft of the equipment is forced inward as far as it will go. The mechanical centre can be determined by measuring the total amount of axial movement with a dial indicator and then dividing that value by 2. because of the magnetic field that is created by a motor's field windings.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 15 . However. the amount of axial movement may be significantly higher. However. Then. The shaft is then moved back inward until the dial indicator reads half of the total movement. the shaft should be sprayed with layout dye. when large components are involved. After the motor is started. the motor support bolts should be tightened. Setting the face gap for a pump and motor that use anti-friction (ball or roller) bearings can be accomplished with this procedure. At this point. Usually. The mechanical centre can be defined as the normal operating position of a shaft. However. A mark will be made in the dye to indicate the motor's magnetic centre. IHRDC AL – M . particularly components that have sliding surface bearings. some additional steps are required. it is necessary to determine the mechanical centre of the component before adjusting the face gap. on the order of 2 mils or less. the amount of axial movement may be insignificant. a dial indicator is mounted so that its stem contacts the face of the hub.

a line is lightly scratched into the dye on the shaft using the end bell or similar part of the motor as a reference point. Divide the reading by 2 and record the value on a data sheet. the face gap can be set to the ideal specification.5 Measuring Bar sag Summary Checklist The following are the major steps involved in measuring bar sag. Bar Sag Causing Negative and Positive Readings IHRDC AL – M . Reinstall the brackets and the dial indicators on the shafts of the equipment to be aligned.02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 16 . (4) With the dial indicators at the 12 o'clock position. After the fixed component has been set to the mechanical centre and the motor has been set to the magnetic centre. Setting the face gap to the ideal specification should allow axial movement to occur without damaging the hubs or the coupling. (2) Mark the shafts along at least one edge of each bracket so that the brackets can be reinstalled in the same place after the amount of bar sag has been determined. 1. The mark on the shaft when lined up with the reference point indicates that the shaft is at magnetic centre. (3) Mount the dial indicators and brackets on a test fixture. adjust the "P" dial indicator to a zero reading. (1) Measure the height and distance between the brackets.Alignment Course Manual When the motor reaches normal operating speed. Take a reading on the "P" dial indicator. The motor is then shut off. (5) (6) (7) (8) Rotate the test fixture to the 6 o'clock position.

0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 17 . (6) Rotate both shafts one complete revolution to make sure that the brackets and the dial indicators are securely fastened." (4) Rotate both shafts so that the brackets are at the 12 o'clock position. make the necessary adjustments and take the readings again. making sure that they match. and record this value on the data sheet in the area labeled “D”. Rim and Face Alignment (A) Vertical Plane 2.02 (Rev .Alignment Course Manual 2. (3) Measure the horizontal distance from the target of the “A” dial indicator to the centerline of the support bolt for the motor foot that is farthest from the hub. Multiply the measurement by 2. (9) Record the "A" dial indicator reading on the data sheet. (5) Rotate the face of each dial indicator so that a reading of zero is obtained. Measure the distance between the centerline of the shaft and the centerline of the "A" dial indicator's stem. Compare the first set of readings with the second set. (1) Determine the swing diameter. (10) Check for accuracy by repeating the above steps. (2) Measure the horizontal distance from the target of the “A” dial indicator to the centerline of the support bolt for the motor foot that is nearest to the hub. (7) Observe the dial indicators while rotating both shafts to the 6 o'clock position. are the major steps that should be followed when using the rim and face method to measure misalignment in the vertical plane. (8) Record the "P” dial indicator reading on the data sheet. Record the value of this measurement on the data sheet in the area labeled "Y.1 Measurement Procedures The following. Record the value of this measurement on the data sheet in the area labeled “X”. If not. IHRDC AL – M .

02 (Rev .Alignment Course Manual Tape Measurements IHRDC AL – M .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 18 .

Plot "D" from the data sheet by starting at the base point and moving along the base line the value of "D. for misalignment in the vertical plane. (10) Plot the value of "PV" from the data sheet.02 (Rev . starting at the base point and moving up if the value is positive or moving down if the value is negative.1 Graphing Procedure The following are the steps involved in graphing and correcting. from the base point to the right side of the graph.2. or base point." Plot "AV" from the data sheet.” (12) Draw a dashed line that intersects points "XAP” and "YAP." Plot "X" from the data sheet by starting at point "D" and moving along the base 'line the value of “X". starting at point “YA” and label the resulting. Plot "Y" from the data sheet by starting at point "D" and moving along the base line the value of "Y. Draw a line.Alignment Course Manual Rim and Face Alignment Vertical Plane 2. point “YAP.2 Graphing Vertical Plane Misalignment 2. Move up if the value is positive or down if the value is negative." from point "AV” through Point “D” Plot "XA” on the reference line by starting at point "X" on the base line and moving straight up or down to the reference line. Draw a line." This line represents the combined angular and parallel misalignment in the vertical plane. on the left side of the graph paper. called the base line. Label the resulting point “XAP” (11) Repeat Step 10.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 19 . called a "reference line. Starting at point "XA”. Plot "YA” on the reference line by starting at point "Y" on the base line and moving straight up or down to the reference line. IHRDC AL – M . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Choose a point of reference.

0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 20 .02 (Rev .Alignment Course Manual Calculation for Parallel Misalignment in the vertical plane Value for angular misalignment in in the vertical plane Graphing an correcting vertical plane misalignment Increments between points “X” and “ XAP” and between points “Y” and “ YAP” IHRDC AL – M .

Instead of graphs.02 (Rev . the formula reads: 12 Inboard = x (+ 6) .PV D Again.7 mils. The values for this formula are also obtained from the data sheet. One formula is for the inboard feet and the other is for the outboard feet.6. The formula for the inboard feet is as follows: X Inboard = x AV . With the values from the example in Figure F-1. formulas can be used to determine how much to move the motor to correct for both angular and parallel misalignment in the vertical plane.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 21 .Alignment Course Manual 2-3 Using Formulas  Thermal growth for motor and pump are equal (or no thermal growth). The formula for the outboard feet is as follows: Y Outboard = x A V. The values for this formula are obtained from the data sheet.9 mils. A positive answer indicates that the motor feet must be moved up to bring shafts into alignment.6.5) 10 Working through the math gives an answer of +13.5) 10 Working through the math gives an answer of +20. the formula reads: 24 Outboard = X (+6) -(. IHRDC AL – M . this formula is used when the thermal growth values for the movable component and the fixed component are equal. a negative answer indicates that the motor feet must be moved down to bring the shafts into alignment. which can be rounded off to +21 mils. This means that the outboard feet must be moved up by adding 21 mils of shims. With the values shown.(. which can be rounded off to +14 mils.PV D This formula is used when the thermal growth values for the movable component and the fixed component are equal. When formulas are used. An answer of +14 mils indicates that the inboard feet should be moved up by adding 14 mils of shims.

2. Move the motor down.Alignment Course Manual 2.1 Graphing vertical plane misalignment (Continued item 2.02 (Rev . Increments between points “X” and “ XAP” and between points ‘Y” and “YAP” IHRDC AL – M . by adding shims under the motor feet.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 22 .1) Graphing Procedure.4. if the dashed line is above the base line. (14) Count the increments between points "X" and "XAP”' and between points "Y" and “YAP” to determine how much to adjust the inboard feet and the outboard feet. if the dashed line is below the base line. by removing shims from under the motor feet.4 Graphing Thermal Growth 2. (13) Move the base line and/or the dashed line to account for thermal growth indicated on the data sheet. (15) Move the motor up.

0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 23 .02 (Rev .Alignment Course Manual Data Sheets Data Sheets showing different thermal growth characteristics Graphing Thermal Groth Graph modified for thermal growth IHRDC AL – M .

temperature." in their new positions. the fixed component has a thermal growth value of -2 mils. In the example. IHRDC AL – M . Since the movable component's shaft is to be aligned to the fixed component's shaft. it was stated that the base line of the graph (the line containing points “X" and "Y") represents the position to which. since the dashed line represents the movable component's shaft. the correct procedure is to move down 2 mils from the existing base line and draw a new base line that represents the fixed component's shaft at operating. This means that the pump shaft is actually 2 mils lower at operating temperature than it is at ambient temperature. the pump has a thermal growth value of -2 mils. The number of increments represents the distance that the motor must be moved to correct for angular and parallel misalignment and thermal growth in the vertical plane. the new base line must be drawn above the existing base line. This line.02 (Rev . However. so the motor shaft is 2 mils higher at operating temperature. Earlier. Basically. the motor has a thermal growth value of +2 mils. temperatures.4.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 24 . Since this example involves a thermal growth value of +2 mils. A negative thermal growth value requires a new dashed line to be drawn below the existing one.2 Graphing and Correcting Vertical Plane Misalignment (Thermal Growth). The thermal growth value for the movable component can be graphed in a manner similar to that described for the fixed component. and points "Y" and "YAP. After the base line and the dashed line have been replotted to account for thermal growth the increments are counted between points “X” and "XAP”. Therefore. As shown on the data sheet. the shafts will be misaligned while the components are at ambient temperatures. A positive thermal growth value requires a new dashed line to be drawn above the existing one. a new dashed line must be drawn 2 increments above the existing one. the base line can also represent the fixed component's shaft. then. If the fixed component's thermal growth value is negative. The shaft of a motor is generally higher at operating temperature than it is at ambient temperature. the two shafts will be aligned at operating. which causes their casings to expand slightly. In this example. it involves creating. because motors generate heat. However. a new base line that includes the thermal growth characteristics of the fixed component. represents the angular and parallel misalignment with thermal growth factored in. the new base line is drawn below the existing base line. This representation can be used to graph the fixed component's thermal growth characteristics. If the fixed component has a positive thermal growth value. It is important to remember that when the motor is moved by the amount indicated on the graph.Alignment Course Manual 2. it is necessary to consider the signs of the values. the dashed line (the line containing points “XAP” and "YAP”) must be used instead of the base line. When graphing thermal growth characteristic values. This is typical for pumps that move cold liquids. the movable component must be moved in order to align the shafts.

5) + (. The formula for the inboard feet is as follows: X Inboard = ( Combined Thermal x AV ) .(.5) + (.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 25 . This operation can be expressed as the following formula: Thermal Growth Fixed Thermal Growth = Movable Combined Thermal Growth Assuming that the pump has a thermal growth value of -2 mils and the motor has a value of +2 mils.6. which can be rounded off to +10 mils. the formula reads: 24 Outboard = ( X (+ 6)) . The formula for the outboard feet.4. is as follows: Y Outboard = ( Combined Thermal x AV) –PV ) + D Growth With the values determined previously.Alignment Course Manual 2.02 (Rev . the thermal growth values must be used to determine how much to move the motor to correct for misalignment in the vertical plane when the components have reached their operating temperatures.4 mils The combined thermal growth value is added to the formulas used to determine the amount of movement needed for the inboard and outboard feet to correct for vertical misalignment. the thermal growth value for the movable component must be subtracted from the value for the fixed component. A negative answer indicates that the motor feet must be moved down.7 mils. the formula reads: .4) 10 IHRDC AL – M .2 mils .(+2 mils) = .3 Calculations of vertical plane misalignment using the formula for the Combined thermal growth If components have different thermal growth characteristics.4) 10 Working through the math gives an answer of +9.PV + D Growth With the values determined previously. the formula reads: 12 Inboard = ( x (+ 6)) – (-6. In order to account for the movement that takes place due to thermal growth. when thermal growth is a factor. An answer of +10 mils indicates that the inboard feet should be moved up by adding 10 mils of shims.

It is important to remember that when thermal growth is factored into the formulas and the motor is moved by the amount indicated by the answers. the two shafts will be aligned at operating temperatures. However.02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 26 . the shafts will be misaligned while the components are at ambient temperatures. which can be rounded off to + 17 mils.9 mils. IHRDC AL – M . This means that the outboard feet must be moved up by adding 17 mils of shims.Alignment Course Manual Working through the math gives an answer of +16.

and correcting for misalignment in the horizontal plane. Compare them with the previous set to make sure that they are consistent." up if positive and down if negative. Take readings on both dial indicators and record the values on the data sheet. " up if positive and down if negative." (13) Starting at point “YA”. Observe the dial indicators as the shafts are rotated to the 9 o'clock position.02 (Rev . graphing." To begin graphing horizontal misalignment.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 27 ." and "Y" from the data sheet. move the value of “PH. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Rotate both shafts so that the dial indicator brackets are at the 3 o'clock position. Label the resulting point "YAP. IHRDC AL – M . draw the base line. Plot the value of "AH” on the graph by starting at the base point and moving up if the value is positive and down if the value is negative. Rotate both shafts one full revolution to make sure that the brackets and dial indicators are securely fastened." This line represents the combined angular and parallel misalignment in the horizontal plane.1 Graphing procedure The following are steps involved in measuring. Perform the calculations required by the data sheet and enter values "PH” and "AH.Alignment Course Manual 2. (11) Plot point "YA” by starting at point "Y" on the base line and moving up or down to the reference line." (14) Draw a dashed line that intersects points "XAP” and "YAP. establish the base point.Rim and Face Alignment (B)Horizontal Plane 2.5 Graphing horizontal plane misalignment 2. Label the resulting point "XAP.5. Rotate the face of each dial indicator so that a reading of zero is obtained. Establish the reference line by drawing a straight line from point "AH" through point "D. (12) Starting at point “XA. Repeat the procedure to take another set of readings. and plot the values of "D." move the value of "PH." "X." (10) Plot point “XA” by starting at point "X" on the base line and moving up or down to the reference line.

IHRDC AL – M .Alignment Course Manual (15) To determine how much the motor has to be moved in order to bring the shafts into horizontal alignment. mount a dial indicator on both an inboard foot and an outboard foot in order to determine when the proper amount of movement has been made. (16) Before actually moving the mtor to correct for horizontal misalignment." The motor should be moved toward 3 o'clock if the dashed line is below the base line. Record the final set of readings on the data sheet. (18) Retighten each support bolt and check the dial indicators to make sure that the motor did not shift. Set each dial indicator for the amount of movement that is required.02 (Rev . count the increments between points "X" and "XAP” and between points "Y" and "YAP. (17) Loosen the support bolts and shift the motor until the dial indicators read zero. (19) Take a final set of dial indicator readings to verify that the alignment is within the tolerances specified for the equipment.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 28 . The motor should be moved towards 9 o'clock if the dashed line is above the base line.

Alignment Course Manual Graphing Horizontal Misalignment “PH” and “ AH” values on data Sheet Horizontal Misalignment IHRDC AL – M .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 29 .02 (Rev .

02 (Rev .PH D The values for this formula are also obtained from the data sheet.(+4) 10 Working through the math gives an answer of .2 Calculations for Horizontal Plane Misalignment Using Formulas As was done for the vertical plane.Alignment Course Manual Rim and Face Alignment Horizontal Plane 2. IHRDC AL – M . When formulas are used. a positive answer indicates that the motor must be moved towards 3 o'clock. the formula reads 12 Inboard = x (-5) . With the values from the example. the inboard feet must be moved 10 mils towards 9 o'clock. With the values from the example.5.(+4) 10 Working through the math gives an answer of -16 mils. In this example.PH D The values for this formula are obtained from the data sheet. The formula for the outboard feet is as follows: Y Outboard = x AH . the formula reads 24 Outboard = x (-5) . A negative answer indicates that the motor must be moved towards 9 o'clock. This means that the outboard feet must be moved 16 mils towards 9 o'clock. The formula for the inboard feet is as follows: X Inboard = x AH .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 30 . two formulas can be used to determine how much to move the motor to correct for angular and parallel misalignment in the horizontal plane.10 mils. One formula is for the inboard feet and the other is for the outboard feet.

This section of the program covers vertical plane alignment.02 (Rev . many mechanics find it easier to align one plane at a time.The second measurement is the horizontal distance between the "F" dial indicator stem and the centerline of the support bolt for the movable component's inboard foot. This type of shift would make the adjustments inaccurate. In the example under discussion. however.1 Vertical Plane 3. labeled "D3” is 24 inches. the pre-alignment procedures for this job are completed.1. After the tape measurements are taken and recorded. To minimise this possibility.1.2 Measurements The first measurement is the horizontal distance between the stems of the two dial indicators. The measurements are all made parallel to the shafts. it is recorded on the data sheet as "D1”. labeled "D2” is 12 inches.Reverse Alignment Method 3.1. the movable component could be shifted accidentally in the horizontal plane while the vertical plane misalignment is being corrected.1 Measuring and Correcting Vertical Plane Misalignment It is possible to measure misalignment in the vertical plane and the horizontal plane and then correct all the misalignments at the same time. which is typically done first.The third measurement is the horizontal distance between the “F" dial indicator stem and the centerline of the support bolt for the movable component's outboard foot. the first measurement is 6 inches. and they should be recorded on the data sheet. 3. The tape measurements must be as accurate as a tape measure will allow.3 Data Sheet: Tap Measurements Recorded IHRDC AL – M . The third measurement.Alignment Course Manual 3. The second measurement.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 31 . 3. If this is done.

02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 32 .Alignment Course Manual Tape Measurements “F” Dial Indicator at 12 O’clock “ M” Dial Indicator at 6 O’clock IHRDC AL – M .

This value is recorded in the box labeled “Mv.3 Dial Indicator Readings Readings are taken from both dial indicators and recorded on the data sheet A. IHRDC AL – M . Then. B. For this example.(-1) = -2 The result of the subtraction is recorded in the box labeled “Fv. Subtracting a negative number is the same as adding a positive number: (-3) .” “Fv” represents the amount of vertical misalignment measured by the "F" dial indicator. The reading is divided by 2 to account for the misalignment that was negated when the dial indicator was zeroed: (-6)  2 = -3 Data Sheet” “F” and “M” Dial Indicators Value and Calculation To account for the bar sag measured earlier. subtracting the bar sag value +1 leaves -9. -16 is divided by 2 to get -8.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 33 .02 (Rev . First. the reading on the "F" dial indicator is -6 mils.On the data sheet the "F" indicator reading is recorded at the 6 o'clock position.The reading on the “M” dial indicator is recorded at the 12 o'clock position on the data sheet In this example.Alignment Course Manual 3.1. the bar sag value of -1 must be subtracted.” “Mv” represents the amount of vertical misalignment measured by the "M" dial indicator. the reading is -16 mils.

zero both dial indicators. plot point "Xv" by moving straight up or down from "X." move up if the value is positive or down if the value is negative. (3) Rotate both dial indicators 360 degrees. If "Yv" is below "Y” raise the outboard feet by adding shims under the motor feet. (7) Plot a base point. (8) Plot point “M” by starting at “F” and moving to the right the value of “D 1" (from the data sheet). If "Yv" is above "Y. Starting at point "M." near the left side of the graph.02 (Rev ." lower the inboard feet by removing shims." raise the inboard feet by adding shims under the motor feet. and correcting vertical plane misalignment.Alignment Course Manual 3. double-check for zero readings. (5) Take another set of dial indicator readings (repeat step 4) to confirm that the first set is accurate. (6) Perform the necessary calculations on the data sheet.1 4 Graphing procedure (Reverse Alignment) The following are steps involved in measuring. (10) Plot point "Y" by starting at "F" and moving to the right the value of “D 3” (from the data sheet)." (13) Draw a line through “Fv” and “Mv” On this line. Label this point "Mv. “F. (2) Rotate the “F" dial indicator to the 12 o'clock position and the 'M' dial indicator to the 6 o'clock position. Starting at point "F.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 34 . If "Xv" is below "X. (11) Plot the value of "Fv" from the data sheet. (15) Count the number of increments between ”X” and "Xv" to determine how much to raise or lower the inboard feet. if necessary. IHRDC AL – M ." (12) Plot the value of "Mv" from the data sheet." Plot point "Yv" by moving straight up or down from "Y. (16) Count the number of increments between "Y" and "Yv" to determine how much to raise or lower the outboard feet. if “Xv” is above "X." (14) Factor in thermal growth. Label this point "Fv. (1) Complete the necessary pre-alignment preparations. (9) Plot point “X” by starting at "F" and moving to the right the value of “D 2” (from the data sheet)." move up if the value is positive or down if the value is negative." lower the outboard feet by removing shims. (4) Rotate both dial indicators 180 degrees from their starting positions. graphing. record the readings on the data sheet.

With this type of graph. to correct for misalignment in the vertical plane. In this example. if there are more than two) of the motor's inboard feet. the inboard feet are lowered. If "Yv" is above the horizontal line. The point on the centerline of the movable component's shaft that is directly below point "Y" is plotted and labeled “Yv. the number of increments. when point "Xv" is below the horizontal line (the line representing the centerline of the fixed component's shaft) the inboard feet of the motor are raised.1. The amount of corrective movement needed is the same for all of the motors outboard feet. Then the same thing is done beginning at point "Y" on the graph. begin at point "X" and move straight down the graph to the line that represents the centerline of the movable component's shaft.5 The Graph (Cold Alignment) To determine how much the motor must be moved to correct the vertical plane misalignment. when point "Yv" is below the horizontal line. the outboard feet should be lowered.” “XV” and “ YV” plotted on Graph The number of increments between points "X" and "Xv" indicates how much the inboard feet of the motor should be moved. therefore.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 35 .Alignment Course Manual 3. the inboard feet must be raised 16 mils. a point is made and labeled "Xv".02 (Rev . the amount of corrective movement indicated on the graph. and. will apply to both (or all. the outboard feet should be raised. The number of increments between points "Y" and "Yv" indicates how much the outboard feet should be moved. At this intersection. Also. With this type of graph. If "Xv" is above the horizontal line. IHRDC AL – M . and the outboard feet must be raised 30 mils.

Fv) x D3  Fv D1 Plugging in the values from the data sheet.. The formula for the outboard feet of the motor is as follows: Outboard  (Mv . The calculations involve signed numbers Two formulas are used together to determine how much to move the motor to correct for misalignment in the vertical plane.1. A negative answer means that the feet should be raised. One formula is for the inboard feet of the motor. The formula for the inboard feet is as follows: Inboard  (Mv . and a positive answer means that the feet should be lowered. and the other is for the outboard feet. the 12  (-2) 6  (-7) x 2  (-2) Inboard  (.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 36 . In this case.Alignment Course Manual 3.Fv) x D2  Fv D1 The values for this formula are obtained from the data sheet. the formula reads 24 Outboard = (-9 –( -2))  + (-2) 6 6 = (-7)  4 + (-2) = (-28) + (-2) = -30 mils The formula for the outboard feet is similar to the formula for the inboard feet. IHRDC AL – M . the inboard feet of the motor should be raised 16 mils to correct for vertical plane misalignment.2) x  (-14)  (-2)  . Cold Alignment: Another way to determine vertical plane corrections is to calculate the corrections mathematically using formulas. the outboard feet of the motor should be raised 30 mils to correct for vertical plane misalignment.16 mils formula reads With this formula method. a negative answer indicates that the inboard feet of the motor should be raised to correct for misalignment in the vertical plane.9 .6 Formula Method For Reverse. For this example.02 (Rev . A positive answer indicates that the inboard feet should be lowered. In this example.

In this example. This means that the pump shaft is actually 5 mils higher at operating temperature than it is at ambient temperature. Data Sheet showing Thermal Growth Values Accounting for thermal growth involves adding or removing shims so that when the components reach their normal operating temperature. it is necessary to consider the signs of the thermal growth values.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 37 . the pump has a thermal growth value of +5 mils. so the motor shaft is 2 mils higher at operating temperature than it is at ambient temperature. the two shafts will be aligned.7 Graphing Thermal Groth: Thermal Growth Procedures When determining how to factor thermal growth into an alignment. IHRDC AL – M . the motor has a thermal growth value of +2 mils.Alignment Course Manual Reverse Dial Alignment Vertical Plane 3.1.02 (Rev . As shown on the data sheet. There are two basic methods of determining the required thermal growth corrections: by using a graph or by using formulas.

the two lines already plotted are redrawn to allow for the thermal growth values." “M” "X. In general terms. Cold Alignment Graph showing Vertical Plane Misalignment B." and "Y") is replotted. Therefore. If the fixed component has a positive thermal growth value.Alignment Course Manual A. the pump has a thermal growth value of +5 mils. the new line is drawn below the existing one. IHRDC AL – M .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 38 . If the fixed component has a negative thermal growth value. In this example. the new line must be drawn above the existing one.02 (Rev . the new line for the fixed component is drawn 5 mils above the existing line to represent the position of the pump's shaft at operating temperature. the line representing the centerline of the fixed component (the line containing points "F.Cold Alignment Graph: The graph can be used to illustrate how to begin graphing thermal growth corrections.Thermal Growth on Fixed Equipment Shaft: First.

) This new line represents the centerline of the movable component's shaft with thermal growth factored in.Thermal Growth on Movable Equipment Shaft: The next step is to plot the centerline of the movable component's shaft with the thermal growth value factored in.Alignment Course Manual Thermal Growth centerline of Fixed Components Shaft C. the new centerline is plotted by moving it 2 increments above the existing one (If the motor's thermal growth value were negative. Thermal growth Centerline of Movable Components Shaft IHRDC AL – M .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 39 . The thermal growth value of the motor in this example is +2 mils. Therefore.02 (Rev . the new line would be plotted below the existing one.

3. there are 19 increments between “Xv” and "X. (-30 mils) . (If "Yv" is below “Y” the motor is raised. For the outboard feet. the outboard feet of the motor should be raised 33 mils to account for thermal growth. raising the inboard feet of the motor 19 mils and the outboard feet of the motor 33 mils will account for both the misalignment in the vertical plane and the thermal growth characteristics of the pump and motor.) In this case.1. NOTE: When thermal growth is allowed for. (-16 mils) . their shafts will be aligned.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 40 ." the motor feet have to be lowered. (+5 mils) .(+3 mils) = -19 mils.(+2 mils) = +3 mils. the necessary thermal growth corrections can also be determined mathematically. if point "Xv" is below point "X. for the inboard feet. With this type of graph. As noted earlier. In this example. the pump and motor shafts will be misaligned at ambient temperature. the increments between points "Yv" and "Y" are counted. a negative answer means that the motor feet should be raised. IHRDC AL – M . however. This can be done in two basic steps: (1) Subtract the thermal growth value for the movable component from the thermal growth value for the fixed component.8 Thermal Growth Calculations: Instead of plotting a graph. a positive answer means that the motor feet should be lowered. In this example.02 (Rev ." so the inboard feet of the motor should be raised 19 mils. when the two components reach their normal operating temperatures. if "Yv" is above “Y” the motor is lowered. In this example. the increments between points "Xv" and "X" are counted." the motor feet have to be raised.(+3 mils) = -33 mils. To determine how much to raise or lower the outboard feet of the motor to allow for thermal growth. If "Xv" is above "X. with this formula method. In this example. (2) Subtract the result of Step 1 from the cold alignment corrections.Alignment Course Manual D.Correcting Misalignment Due To Thermal Growth: To determine how much to raise or lower the inboard feet of the motor to allow for thermal growth.

1 Graphing procedures The following steps are involved in measuring.2. (4) Rotate both dial indicators 180 degrees from their starting positions. double-check for zero readings.2 Horizontal Plane 3. graphing. zero both dial indicators. (2) Rotate the "F" dial indicator to the 3 o'clock position and the "M" dial indicator to the 9 o'clock position.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 41 . Draw a straight line across from “F” (8) Plot point "M" by starting at "F" and moving to the right the value of "D1” (from the data sheet). (6) Perform the necessary calculations on the data sheet.” IHRDC AL – M .Alignment Course Manual 3. (11) Plot the value of ”Fh” from the data sheet." near the left side of a graph. Label this point ”Fh. Starting at point "F. (5) Take another set of dial indicator readings (repeat step 4) to confirm that the first set is accurate. Reverse Alignment Method 3.02 (Rev . (9) Plot point “X” by starting at "F" and moving to the right the value of “D2” (from the data sheet). (7) Plot a base point. (11) Plot point "Y" by starting at "F" and moving to the right the value of “D 3” (from the data sheet). (3) Rotate both dial indicators 360 degrees. and correcting horizontal plane misalignment. (1) Measure and correct the vertical plane misalignment. record the readings on the data sheet. "F." move up if the value is positive or down if the value is negative.

" Plot point "Yh" by moving straight up or down from "Y." move the outboard feet toward 9 o'clock. If "Yh" is above "Y. if "Yh" is below "Y" move toward 3 o'clock. (15)If "Xh" is above "X.Alignment Course Manual (12) Plot the value of "Mh" from the data sheet. “Xh” and “Yh” Plotted on Graph IHRDC AL – M . if "Xh" is below "X." move up if the value is positive or down if the value is negative." move the inboard feet of the motor toward 9 o'clock.02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 42 ." On this line." (14)Count the number of increments between “X” and "Xh" to determine how far to shift the inboard feet of the motor in the horizontal plane. Starting at point "M. (16)Count the number of increments between “Y” and "Yh" to determine how far to move the outboard feet of the motor in the horizontal plane. (13) Draw a line through "Fh” and "Mh." move toward 3 o'clock. plot point "Xh" by moving straight up or down from "X. Label this point "Mh".

One formula is for the inboard feet of the motor. the formula reads: Inboard  ( 24 . The motor's movement is determined by counting the increments between "X" and "Xh" and between "Y" and "Yh. to correct for the horizontal misalignment. 3. the inboard feet must be moved 28 mils toward the 9 o'clock position.2.”.Fh) x D2  Fh D1 The values for this formula are obtained from the data sheet.2.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 43 . it is necessary to move straight up from point "X" and mark a point on the line just drawn. and the other is for the outboard feet." "Xh” has a value of 28 mils. the motor's feet are moved toward the 3 o'clock or 9 o'clock position. and the outboard feet must be moved 36 mils toward the 9 o'clock position." A similar mark is then placed on the line moving up from point “Y". This point is labeled "Xh. With the type of graph shown in values below the horizontal line represent the amount of movement needed toward the 3 'clock position. In this example. The formula for the inboard feet is as follows: Inboard  (Mh .( 20)) x 12  ( 20) 6 = (+ 4) x (+2) + (+20) = (+8) + (+20) = +28 mils IHRDC AL – M .Alignment Course Manual 3. To correct for the horizontal plane misalignment. The distance between "X" and "Xh" is the amount of movement needed for the inboard feet.3 Formula Method: To calculate mathematically how much to move the motor to correct for misalignment in the horizontal plane. For this example. two formulas are used together.02 (Rev . Values above the horizontal line represent the amount of movement needed toward the 9 o'clock position. and the distance between “Y” and “Yh” is the amount of movement needed for the outboard feet. and "Yh" has a value of 36 mils. This point is labeled "Yh.2 Correcting The Misalignment using The Graph: To determine how much the motor must be moved to correct the horizontal plane misalignment.

0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 44 . the inboard feet of the motor should be moved 28 mils toward the 9 o'clock position.02 (Rev . the outboard feet of the motor should be moved 36 mils toward the 9 o'clock position. IHRDC AL – M . The formula for the outboard feet of the motor is as follows: Outboard  (Mh . a negative answer means that the motor feet should be moved toward the 3 o'clock position.Alignment Course Manual With this formula method. a positive answer indicates that the feet of the motor should be moved toward the 9 o'clock position.Fh) x D3  Fh D1 Plugging in the values from the data sheet. In this example. then. a positive answer means that the motor feet should be moved toward the 9 o'clock position. a negative answsr indicates that the feet should be moved toward the 3 o'clock position. the formula reads: Outboard  ( 24 . In this example.25 ( 20)) x 24  ( 20) 6 = (+4) x (+4 + (+20) = (+16) + (+20) = +36 mils Once again.

) 34 T11 Graphing Thermal Growth (Cold Graph) 37 T12 Graphing Thermal Growth (Fixed Equipment) 38 T13 Graphing Thermal Growth (Movable Equipment) 38 T14 Graphing Horizontal Misalignment (Reverse) 41 AL – M .02 (Rev .Video tape (Shaft Alignment. 3.1) 2.Alignment Course Manual 5.Transperencies IHRDC T Description Transperencies T1 Course Objectives 4 T2 Alignment Orientation 10 T3 Reading Measurements 17 T4 Graphing Vertical Plane (Rim & Face) T5 Graphing Thermal Growth (Rim & Face) 21 T6 Graphing and Thermal Growth (Rim & Face) 22 T7 Graphing Horizontal Plane (Rim & Face) 28 T8 Measurements for Reverse Alignment 31 T9 Dial Indicator Readings (Reverse A.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 19 Page 45 .) 32 T10 Cold Alignment Graph (Reverse A.White Board.Training Aids 1.

Lesson Plan IHRDC AL – M .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 46 .Alignment Course Manual 6.02 (Rev .

0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 47 .2 Soft foot condition.4 Determine magnetic centre.Preparation for Alignment A.4 Measuring thermal growth 1.2. Perform soft foot.2 Equipment Preparation. 1. 1.1. Lesson 1. Assessment. Explain run out reading. 1.02 (Rev .2. AL – M . 1.2.1 Pipe strain.Alignment Course Manual Lesson Plan Lesson One (6 Hrs) Objectives:          Understand orientation upon performing alignment. Demonstrate mechanical centre. 1. Ex-plain setting the face gap. D.2. Guide the participants to W/S for demonstration. Demonstrate pipe strain correction. 1. 1. IHRDC Show T1 for course objectives. Content Activity Introduction  Instructor. C. 1.Definition. 1. Show T2 for orientation.  Course objectives.2.3 Determine Mechanical Center. 1. Demonstrate magnetic centre. Show Video tape for Shaft Alignment (One hour) Allow for 4 hours in W/S. Understand thermal growth. B.  Participants.5 Setting the face gap.3 Taking run out reading.1 Alignment Orientation. Explain on the white board.5 Measuring bar sag.1. Perform bar sag. Free discussion.

0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 48 .How can you make sure that the foundation that supports the pump and the motor is level? 3.Why is it necessary to have a gap between the face of the hubs? 7.Alignment Course Manual Lesson One Assessment 1.What is the axial movement? 8.02 (Rev .What is the thermal growth? 6.What is the pipe strain? 4.What is the first preparation for a shaft alignment job.What is the magnetic center in a motor? IHRDC AL – M . as a safety procedure? 2.Define the soft foot? 5.

5. Show T4 Show T5 .4. * Vertical Plane. Housekeeping.2 Graphing and correcting vertical plane misalignment (thermal growth) 2. A. Understand graphing thermal growth.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 49 .4.1 Graphing procedure. 2. 2.Alignment Course Manual Lesson Plan Lesson Two (9 Hrs) Objectives:        Understand the measurement procedure (vertical plane). 2.3 Calculation of vertical plane misalignment using formula.2 calculation for horizontal plane misalignment using formula. 2. C. Content Lesson 2: Rim and face alignment. * Horizontal Plane.2.4.1 Graphing procedures.02 (Rev .5. IHRDC Activity Show T3 for readings and measurements. D. Understand using formula for thermal growth. T6 Show T7 Show video tape (Shaft Alignment one hour) Allow for 6 hours in the W/S AL – M . 2. 2. Explain graphing procedure (horizontal plane). 2. 2. Explain horizontal alignment using formula.1 Measurement procedures.2 Graphing vertical plane misalignment. E. Understand using formulas. Free discussion. Guide the participants to W/ S to demonstrate and perform Rim and face alignment. 2.4 Graphing thermal growth.3 Using formula. B.5 Graphing horizontal plane misalignment.1 Graphing procedures. 2. Assessment. Understand the graphing procedure.

IHRDC AL – M .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 50 . what does the dashed line “ XAP” – “YAP” represent? 5. during the performance of a misalignment in the horizontal plane.What is the effect of a bar sag.How do you for correct misalignment in the vertical plane of a movable equipment? 6.On the graph below.What is the effect of equal thermal growth for fixed and movable equipments when graphing misalignment? 2.Alignment Course Manual Lesson Two Assessment 1.02 (Rev .What does the base line on an alignment graph represent? 3.What does the graduation on a typical alignment graph represent on the vertical and horizontal lines? 4.

What do you do to correct the horizontal misalignment? 8. IHRDC AL – M . Correct for thermal growth.Use values from data sheets pages 22 & 28 Determine how much and in what direction to move the motor feet in order to correct for both angular and parallel misalignment in the vertical and horizontal planes.Alignment Course Manual 7.How many increments are needed to move the motor shaft to be aligned on the graph above? 9.Why is it important to take a final set dial indicator reading after an alignment is completed? 10.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 51 .02 (Rev .

2.4 Graphing procedures.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 52 . 3. Understand graphing procedures. 3. IHRDC Activity Show T8 & T9 Show T10 Show T11 & T12 & T13 Show T14 Allow for 6 hours at the W/S AL – M . 3. Explain formula method for horizontal alignment.1.6 Formula method.1.3 Dial Indicator Readings. 3.1. D. 3. Guide the participants to the W/S to demonstrate and perform.Alignment Course Manual Lesson Plan Lesson Three (9 Hrs) Objectives:       Understand measurement procedures.3 Formula method. Explain using formula the alignment.1 Vertical Alignment. 3. C.1. Assessment.2 Measurements.1. 3. 3.1.02 (Rev . 3.1 Introduction. Explain correcting misalignment due to the thermal growth.8 thermal growth calculations.5 the cold alignment graph. 3.7 Graphing thermal growth.1 Graphing procedures.2 Horizontal Plane. Content Lesson3 : Reverse Alignment Method. 3.2.2. Housekeeping. E. A. Explain graphing procedure for horizontal alignment. B. 3. Free Discussion.1.2 Correcting misalignment using the graph. 3.1.

What are the initial positions for “F” & “M” dial indicators on reverse alignment? 2.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 53 .Alignment Course Manual Alignment Lesson Three Assessment 1. IHRDC AL – M . Define the distance between “X” & “Xv”. Define the distance between “M” & “Mv”. e.02 (Rev . b. Define the distance between “Y” & “Yv”. answer the following: a. d. c. Define the distance between “F” & “Fv”.On the graph above. Define the distance between “X” & “F”.

(+9) – (-19) = c. (+13) .(21) = e. How many mils does the inboard foot of the motor have to move in order to align with the pump? 4. (-94) – (-5) = 6.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 54 . (-6) – (-9) = b.How can you correct for vertical plane misalignment for the board foot on the graph? 5.Calculate the following: a.What is the thermal growth for the rotating equipment? IHRDC AL – M .Alignment Course Manual 3-On the graph above.02 (Rev . –(10) – (+1) = d.

Measure the distance between points “F” & “Fh”? b.What is the line between points “Fh” & “Yh” represent? 10- Correct the horizontal lane misalignment on the graph.02 (Rev . IHRDC AL – M . determine how much and in what direction to move the motor feet in order to correct for both angular and parallel misalignment in the vertical and horizontal planes? Correct for thermal growth.Alignment Course Manual 7.On the graph below.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 55 .Where would you graph point “Fh’ = +20 mils? (mention only below or above pint “F”) 12. Measure the distance between points “Y” & “F”? c.a) What do the values below the horizontal line represent? b) What do the values above the horizontal line represent and in what direction are they? 9. Measure the distance between pints “UY” & “yh”? 8. Measure the distance between points “M” & “Mh’? d. answer the following questions:a.Given the data sheet next page. Measure the distance between points “X” & “Xh”? e. 11.

02 (Rev .Alignment IHRDC Course Manual AL – M .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 56 .

 Lesson Two Answers: 1.Angular and parallel misalignment in the vertical plane. 7.The position to which the movable component must be moved in order to eliminate misalignment. The amount of shaft movement back and forth along the axis of the shaft.02 (Rev . 6.Solution on page 57. To allow a room for axial movement of the shaft without damaging the hub and coupling. 3.Alignment Course Manual Answers  Lesson One Answers: 12345678- Making sure that the equipment being aligned is isolated and tagged out. 9.To move the motor towards 3 or 9 o’clock.In board 11 mils. 8. The force exerted on a component from a bent shaft or a mis board hub. IHRDC AL – M . By using bubble level at different point on the skid. out board 17 mils towards 9 o’clock. The position of the motor shaft caused by the magnetic field during operation. 10. 2. The physical movement that occur as a piece of rotating equipment reaches its normal operating temperature. Horizontal graduation one inch.The final set of reading is needed to make sure that the alignment is within specified tolerances. A condition exists when one or more of the movable components feet are in different planes. 4.No effect.Add or remove shims under the feet of the movable component. 5.Vertical graduation one mils.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 57 .No effect.

02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 58 .Alignment IHRDC Course Manual AL – M .

12. d. c. b. b) +38 .Remove 11 mils shims. 10. 2. c) –11 . e) 1`9 mils. 3.a) +3 .Above. “M” dial indicator at 6 o’clock. c) 12 mils . 5. e) –89. b.a.02 (Rev . The amount of vertical misalignment measured by the “F” dial indicator. e. The amount to move the in board foot of a motor to correct for vertical plane misalignment. The amount to move the out board foot of the motor to correct for vertical plane misalignment. d) 15 mils . the distance between the stem of the “F” dial indicator and the centerline of the support bolt for the in board foot of the motor. The amount of vertical misalignment measured by the “M” dial indicator. 6. 8. 4. IHRDC AL – M .Move in board foot 15 mils towards 9 o’clock position and out board foot 19 mils towards 9 o’clock position.Alignment Course Manual Answers  Lesson Three Answers: 1.a movement needed towards 9 o’clock position.The center line of the movable component shaft. 9. Movement needed towards 3 o’clock position.Solution on page 59. 7. d) –8 .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 59 .The movement that occurs as rotating equipment reaches its normal operating temperature.“F” dial indicator at 12 o’clock. b) 26 inches.Remove 17 mils shims.a) 10 mils. 11.

Alignment IHRDC Course Manual AL – M .02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 60 .

Reverse alignment.Face and rim alignment.02 (Rev . Correct for thermal growth in the given data sheet for:1.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 61 .Alignment Course Manual Final Assessment (Classroom)  Determine how much and what direction to move the motor feet in order to correct both angular and parallel misalignment in the vertical and horizontal planesuse graph and formula. 2. IHRDC AL – M .

02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 62 .Alignment IHRDC Course Manual AL – M .

02 (Rev .0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 63 .Alignment IHRDC Course Manual AL – M .

IHRDC AL – M .02 (Rev .Alignment Course Manual Final Assessment (Practical)  Perform alignment using Rim and Face methods.0) 02 – 2 – 1999 Page 64 . Use graphing and formula. Use graph and formula.  Perform alignment using reverse alignment method.