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IELTS Academic Reading Sample 1 - Population Viability Analysis

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-39 which are based on Reading
Passage 1 below:
Population Viability Analysis
Part A
To make political decisions about the extent and type of forestry in a region it is
important to understand the consequences of those decisions. One tool for assessing
the impact of forestry on the ecosystem is population viability analysis (PVA). This is a
tool for predicting the probability that a species will become extinct in a particular region
over a specific period. It has been successfully used in the United States to provide
input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now
enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in
Australia’s forests. A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. This
observation is a useful starting point for any discussion of extinction as it highlights the
role of luck and chance in the extinction process. To make a prediction about extinction
we need to understand the processes that can contribute to it and these fall into four
broad categories which are discussed below.
Part B
A) Early attempts to predict population viability were based on demographic
uncertainty whether an individual survives from one year to the next will largely be a
matter of chance. Some pairs may produce several young in a single year while others
may produce none in that same year. Small populations will fluctuate enormously
because of the random nature of birth and death and these chance fluctuations can
cause species extinctions even if, on average, the population size should increase.
Taking only this uncertainty of ability to reproduce into account, extinction is unlikely if
the number of individuals in a population is above about 50 and the population is
growing.
B) Small populations cannot avoid a certain amount of inbreeding. This is
particularly true if there is a very small number of one sex. For example, if there are only
20 individuals of a species and only one is a male, all future individuals in the species
must be descended from that one male. For most animal species such individuals are
less likely to survive and reproduce. Inbreeding increases the chance of extinction.
C) Variation within a species is the raw material upon which natural selection acts.
Without genetic variability a species lacks the capacity to evolve and cannot adapt to

changes in its environment or to new predators and new diseases. The loss of genetic
diversity associated with reductions in population size will contribute to the likelihood of
extinction.
D) Recent research has shown that other factors need to be considered. Australia’s
environment fluctuates enormously from year to year. These fluctuations add yet
another degree of uncertainty to the survival of many species. Catastrophes such as
fire, flood, drought or epidemic may reduce population sizes to a small fraction of their
average level. When allowance is made for these two additional elements of uncertainty
the population size necessary to be confident of persistence for a few hundred years
may increase to several thousand.
Part C
Beside these processes we need to bear in mind the distribution of a population. A
species that occurs in five isolated places each containing 20 individuals will not have
the same probability of extinction as a species with a single population of 100
individuals in a single locality. Where logging occurs (that is, the cutting down of forests
for timber) forest-dependent creatures in that area will be forced to leave. Grounddwelling herbivores may return within a decade. However, arboreal marsupials (that is
animals which live in trees) may not recover to pre-logging densities for over a century.
As more forests are logged, animal population sizes will be reduced further. Regardless
of the theory or model that we choose, a reduction in population size decreases the
genetic diversity of a population and increases the probability of extinction because of
any or all of the processes listed above. It is therefore a scientific fact that increasing the
area that is loaded in any region will increase the probability that forest-dependent
animals will become extinct.
Questions 28-31
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Part A of Reading
Passage 1? In boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet write:
YES
if the statement agrees with the writer
NO
if the statement contradicts the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
Example
Answer
A link exists between the consequences of decisions and
the decision making process itself.
YES

28 Scientists are interested in the effect of forestry on native animals.
29 PVA has been used in Australia for many years.
30 A species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.
31 Extinction is a naturally occurring phenomenon.
Questions 32-35
These questions are based on Part B of Reading Passage 1. In paragraphs A to D the
author describes four processes which may contribute to the extinction of a species.
Match the list of processes (i-vi) to the paragraphs. Write the appropriate number (i-vi)
in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more processes than paragraphs so you will not use all of them.
32 Paragraph A
33 Paragraph B
34 Paragraph C
35 Paragraph D

Processes
i Loss of ability to adapt
ii Natural disasters
iii An imbalance of the sexes
iv Human disasters
v Evolution
vi The haphazard nature of reproduction

Questions 36-38
Based on your reading of Part C, complete the sentences below with words taken from
the passage. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Write your
answers in boxes 36-38 on your answer sheet.
While the population of a species may be on the increase, there is always a chance that
small isolated groups .......... (36) ..........Survival of a species depends on a balance
between the size of a population and its .......... (37) ......... The likelihood that animals
which live in forests will become extinct is increased when .......... (38) ...........
Question 39
Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 39 on your answer sheet.
39 An alternative heading for the passage could be:
A The protection of native flora and fauna
B Influential factors in assessing survival probability
C An economic rationale for the logging of forests
D Preventive measures for the extinction of a species
ELTS Academic Reading Sample 2 - Visual Symbols and the Blind

You should spend no more than 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on
Reading Passage 2 below.
Visual Symbols and the Blind
Part 1
From a number of recent studies, it has become clear that blind people can appreciate
the use of outlines and perspectives to describe the arrangement of objects and other

surfaces in space.
But pictures are more than literal
representations. This fact was drawn to my attention dramatically when a blind woman
in one of my investigations decided on her own initiative to draw a wheel as it was
spinning. To show this motion, she traced a curve inside the circle (Fig. 1). I was taken
aback, lines of motion, such as the one she used, are a very recent invention in the
history of illustration. Indeed, as art scholar David Kunzle notes, Wilhelm Busch, a
trend-setting nineteenth-century cartoonist, used virtually no motion lines in his popular
figure until about 1877.
When I asked several other blind study subjects to draw a spinning wheel, one
particularly clever rendition appeared repeatedly: several subjects showed the wheel's
spokes as curves lines. When asked about these curves, they all described them as
metaphorical ways of suggesting motion. Majority rule would argue that this device
somehow indicated motion very well. But was it a better indicator than, say, broken or
wavy lines-or any other kind of line, for that matter? The answer was not clear. So I
decided to test whether various lines of motion were apt ways of showing movement or
if they were merely idiosyncratic marks. Moreover, I wanted to discover whether there
were differences in how the blind and the sighted interpreted lines of motion.
To search out these answers, I created raised-line drawings of five different wheels,
depicting spokes with lines that curved, bent, waved, dashed and extended beyond the
perimeters of the wheel. I then asked eighteen blind volunteers to feel the wheels and

assign one of the following motions to each wheel: wobbling, spinning fast, spinning
steadily, jerking or braking. My control group consisted of eighteen sighted
undergraduates from the University of Toronto.
Words associated
among
with circle/square
SOFT-HARD
MOTHER-FATHER
HAPPY-SAD
GOOD-EVIL
LOVE-HATE
ALIVE-DEAD
BRIGHT-DARK
LIGHT-HEAVY
WARM-COLD
SUMMER-WINTER
WEAK-STRONG
FAST-SLOW
CAT-DOG
SPRING-FALL
QUIET-LOUD
WALKING-STANDING
ODD-EVEN
FAR-NEAR
PLANT-ANIMAL
DEEP-SHALLOW

Agreement
subjects(%)
100
94
94
89
89
87
87
85
81
81
79
79
74
74
62
62
57
53
53
51

All but one of the blind subjects assigned distinctive motions to each wheel. Most
guessed that the curved spokes indicated that the wheel was spinning steadily; the
wavy spokes, they thought; suggested that the wheel was wobbling; and the bent
spokes were taken as a sign that the wheel was jerking. Subjects assumed that spokes
extending beyond the wheel's perimeter signified that the wheel had its brakes on and
that dashed spokes indicated the wheel was spinning quickly.
In addition, the favored description for the sighted was favored description for the blind
in every instance. What is more, the consensus among the sighted was barely higher
than that among the blind. Because motion devices are unfamiliar to the blind, the task I
gave them involved some problem solving. Evidently, however, the blind not only figured
out meaning for each of motion, but as a group they generally came up with the same
meaning at least as frequently as did sighted subjects.

Part 2
We have found that the blind understand other kinds of visual metaphors as well. One
blind woman drew a picture of a child inside a heart-choosing that symbol, she said, to
show that love surrounded the child. With Chang Hong Liu, a doctoral student from
china, I have begun exploring how well blind people understand the symbolism behind
shapes such as hearts that do not directly represent their meaning.
We gave a list of twenty pairs of words to sighted subjects and asked them to pick from
each pair the term that best related to a circle and the term that best related to assure.
For example, we asked: what goes with soft? A circle or a square? Which shapes goes
with hard?
All our subjects deemed the circle soft and the square hard. A full 94% ascribed happy
to the circle, instead of sad. But other pairs revealed less agreement: 79% matched fast
to slow and weak to strong, respectively. And only 51% linked deep to circle and shallow
to square. (see Fig. 2) When we tested four totally blind volunteers using the same list,
we found that their choices closely resembled those made by he sighted subjects. One
man, who had been blind since birth, scored extemely well. He made only one match
differing from the consensus, assigning 'far' to square and 'near' to circle. In fact, only a
small majority of sighted subjects-53%- had paired far and near to the opposite
partners. Thus we concluded that the blind interpret abstract shapes as sighted people
do.
Questions :
Choose the correct letter, A, B,C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 27 –29 on your answer sheet.
27 In the first paragraph the writer makes the point that blind people
A.
may be interested in studying art.
B.
can draw outlines of different objects and surfaces.
C.
can recognize conventions such as perspective.
D.
can draw accurately.
28 The writer was surprised because the blind woman
A.
drew a circle on her own initiative.
B.
did not understand what a wheel looked like.
C.
included a symbol representing movement.
D.
was the first person to use lines of motion.

associations blind deep hard hundred identical pairs shapes Sighted similar shallow soft words .. only 51%of the 36..the writer found that the blind subjects A. worked together well as a group in solving problems.. C.. Write your answers in boxes 33 –39 on your answer sheet. Match each diagram to the type of movement A–E generally assigned to it in the experiment.... Subjects were asked which word fitted best with a circle and which with a square.…..…volunteers.….... got better results than the sighted undergraduates.…… volunteers assigned a circle to 37. A B C D E steady spinning jerky movement rapid spinning wobbling movement use of brakes Questions 33 –39 Complete the summary below using words from the box. everyone thought a circle fitted ‘soft ’while a square fitted ‘hard’..29 From the experiment described in Part 1.... a set of word 33. it was found that they made 39. Questions 30 –32 Look at the following diagrams (Questions 30 –32)..When the test was later repeated with 38. D. and the list of types of movement below...…… .... However. In the experiment described in Part 2.… volunteers.….…… was used to investigate whether blind and sighted people perceived the symbolism in abstract 34. NB You may use any word more than once.. could control the movement of wheels very accurately.….. From the 35.....… in the same way.. B.. had good understanding of symbols representing movement. Choose the correct letter A–E and write them in boxes 30–32 on your answer sheet.......… choices.

. A . B . C or D.Question 40 Choose the correct letter. Write your answer in box 40 on your answer sheet.

D The blind may be successful artists if given the right training. C The blind may create unusual and effective symbols to represent reality. B The blind comprehend visual metaphors in similar ways to sighted people. .Which of the following statements best summarizes the writer ’s general conclusion? A The blind represent some aspects of reality differently from sighted people.

000 is a serious underestimate of the total number of places masquerading as zoological establishments.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 3 . Headlined “Without zoos you might as well tell these animals to get stuffed”. one might be forgiven for being slightly skeptical about such an advertisement.000 zoos in the world.000 represent a core of quality collections capable of participating in co-ordinated conservation programmes. This is probably the document’s first failing. This commitment has now been clear defined in The World Zpo Conservation Strategy (WZGS. and their suggested involvement with conservation didn’t seriously arise until about 30 years ago. of which around 1. Eight years later. as I believe that 10. so patently did it distort reality. With the zoo world’s rather mediocre record on conservation. and from this point onwards conservation became the zoo community’s buzzword. I . Zoo Conservation Programmes One of London Zoo’s recent advertisements caused me some irritation. it was bordered with illustrations of several endangered species and went on to extol the myth that without zoos like London Zoo these animals “will almost certainly disappear forever”. entitled “The Breeding of Endangered Species”. I have found that.Zoo Conservation Programmes You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 16-28 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. Of course it is difficult to get accurate data but. Zoos were originally created as places of entertainment. a series of world conferences took place. which although an important and welcome document does seem to be based on an unrealistic optimism about the nature of the zoo industry. in a year of working in Eastern Europe. The WZCS estimates that there are about 10. when the Zoological Society of London held the first formal international meeting on the subject. September 1993). to put the issue into perspective.

and a policy of co-operating fully with one another what might be the potential for conservation? Colin Tudge. which for years was protected by the Isle’s local council (which viewed it as a tourist amenity). accommodation that permits normal or natural behaviour. As it was always a collection of dubious repute.000 core zoos. One would assume that the calibre of these institutions would have been carefully examined.000 species of endangered land vertebrates’. argues that “if the world”s zoos worked together in co-operative breeding programmes. This seems an extremely optimistic proposition from a man who must be aware of the failings and weaknesses of the zoo industry the man who. This establishment. The second flaw in the reasoning of the WZCS document is the naive faith it places in its 1. but again the facts don’t support the theory. was finally closed down following a damning report by a veterinary inspector appointed under the terms of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. author of Last Animals at the Zoo (Oxford University Press. where are the facts to support such optimism? Today approximately 16 species might be said to have been “saved” by captive . which many considered the most notorious collection of animals in the country. then even without further expansion they could save around 2. one is obliged to reflect upon the standards that the Zoo Federation sets when granting membership. The greatly respected American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums (AAZPA) has had extremely dubious members. had to persuade the zoo to devote more of its activities to conservation. These include Robin Hill Adventure Park on the Isle of Wight. 1992). This might be a good starting point. working on the premise that members must meet certain standards. and in the UK the Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland has Occasionally had members that have been roundly censured in the national press. but it appears that the criterion for inclusion on this select list might merely be that the zoo is a member of a zoo federation or association. when a member of the council of London Zoo. Even assuming that the WZCS’s 1. trained and dedicated keepers.discover fresh zoos on almost a weekly basis. The situation is even worse in developing countries where little money is available for redevelopment and it is hard to see a way of incorporating collections into the overall scheme of the WZCS. Moreover.000 core zoos are all of a high standard complete with scientific staff and research facilities.

breeding programmes. although a number of these can hardly be looked upon as resounding successes. Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 16-22 write : Y if the statement agrees with the writer N if the statement contradicts the writer NG if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 London Zoo’s advertisements are dishonest. Given that the international conference at London Zoo was held 30 years ago. Questions 23-25 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 23-25 on your answer sheet. this is pretty slow progress. Colin Tudge was dissatisfied with the treatment of animals at London Zoo. Zoos made an insignificant contribution to conservation up until 30 years ago. 23 What were the objectives of the WZCS document? A to improve the calibre of zoos world-wide B to identify zoos suitable for conservation practice C to provide funds for zoos in underdeveloped countries D to list the endangered species of the world 24 Why does the writer refer to Robin Hill Adventure Park? A to support the Isle of Wight local council B to criticise the 1981 Zoo Licensing Act C to illustrate a weakness in the WZCS document D to exemplify the standards in AAZPA zoos . and a long way off Tudge’s target of 2.000. The WZCS document is not known in Eastern Europe. Beyond that. Zoos in the WZCS select list were carefully inspected. about a further 20 species are being seriously considered for zoo conservation programmes. No-one knew how the animals were being treated at Robin Hill Adventure Park. The number of successful zoo conservation programmes is unsatisfactory.

List of Factors: A the number of unregistered zoos in the world B the lack of money in developing countries C the actions of the Isle of Wight local council D the failure of the WZCS to examine the standards of the “core zoos” E the unrealistic aim of the WZCS in view of the number of species “saved” to date F the policies of WZCS zoo managers .25 What word best describes the writer’s response to Colin Tudges’ prediction on captive breeding programmes? A disbelieving B impartial C prejudiced D accepting Questions 26-28 The writer mentions a number of factors which lead him to doubt the value of the WZCS document Which THREE of the following factors are mentioned? Write your answers (A-F) in boxes 26-28 on your answer sheet.

it seems they need not have bothered. Only a generation ago social planners worried about what people would do with all this new-found free time. Employees who had been putting in 12-hour days. Most of those incentives involve what Ehrenberg calls the structure of compensation: quirks in the way salaries and benefits are organised that make it more profitable to ask 40 employees to labour an extra hour each than to hire one more worker to do the same 40-hour job. Ehrenberg of Cornell University. to eight hours. leisure seems reserved largely for the unemployed and underemployed. Although the output per hour of work has more than doubled since 1945. at the same time.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 4 . In fact. There are several reasons for lost leisure. Since 1979. we'd be better off spreading around the work. Some firms are even downsizing as their profits climb. finally. . companies have responded to improvements in the business climate by having employees work overtime rather than by hiring extra personnel. Those who work full-time spend as much time on the job as they did at the end of World War II.A Workaholic Economy You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-38 which are based on Reading Passage 4 below. the current economic recovery has gained a certain amount of notoriety for its “jobless” nature: increased production has been almost entirely decoupled from employment. Bookstores now abound with manuals describing how to manage time and cope with stress. Yet a host of factors pushes employers to hire fewer workers for more hours and. A Workaholic Economy For The first century or so of the industrial revolution. Indeed. five days a week. then. says economist Juliet B. six days a week. compels workers to spend more time on the job. “All things being equal. found their time on the job shrinking to 10 hours daily.’ observes labour economist Ronald G. at least. increased productivity led to decreases in working hours. In the US. working hours have increased noticeably since 1970 — perhaps because real wages have stagnated since that year. Schor of Harvard University.

.S. their cost to a firm is the same whether they spend 35 hours a week in the office or 70. so they use the number of hours worked as a proxy for output. “People who work reduced hours pay a huge penalty in career terms. they.’ She cites both quantitative and qualitative studies that show increased productivity for part-time workers: they make better use of the time they have. For all that employees complain about long hours. It may take even more than changes in the financial and cultural structures of employment for workers successfully to trade increased productivity and money for leisure time. appear to be more willing to experiment with flexible working arrangements. “Although the image of the good worker is the one whose life belongs to the company. Even hourly employees receive benefits -such as pension contributions and medical insurance .” Schor maintains. “It's taken as a negative signal’ about their commitment to the firm. such as when crises take people away from the workplace. “it doesn't fit the facts. two-career households. Once people are on salary.. market for goods has become skewed by the assumption of full-time. Diminishing returns may eventually set in as overworked employees lose efficiency or leave for more arable pastures. She says the U. too. and they are less likely to succumb to fatigue in stressful jobs. Therefore. “Employees know this. Schor reports. have reasons not to trade money for leisure.’ [Lotte] Bailyn [of Massachusetts Institute of Technology] adds that many corporate managers find it difficult to measure the contribution of their underlings to a firm’s wellbeing.Professional and managerial employees supply the most obvious lesson along these lines. Automobile makers no longer manufacture cheap models. and they adjust their behavior accordingly. Not even the humblest household object is . the employer’s incentive is clear. and developers do not build the tiny bungalows that served the first postwar generation of home buyers. Larger firms. Schor contends. Companies that employ more workers for less time also gain from the resulting redundancy. in particular. it is more profitable for employers to work their existing employees harder.that are not tied to the number of hours they work.” Bailyn says. But in the short run.’ Positive experiences with reduced hours have begun to change the more-is-better culture at some companies. “The extra people can cover the contingencies that you know are going to happen. she asserts.” she says.

the situation is a curious inversion of the “appropriate technology” vision that designers have had for developing countries: U. ----. Social planners have been consulted about US employment figures. D they do not wish to return to the humble post-war era. B employers are offering high incomes for long hours. 33 Bailyn argues that it is better for a company to employ more workers because A it is easy to make excess staff redundant. As Schor notes. goods are appropriate only for high incomes and long hours. Salaries have not risen significantly since the 1970s. Bailyn’s research shows that part-time employees work more efficiently. B crises occur if you are under-staffed. Increased leisure time would benefit two-career households. The economic recovery created more jobs.made without a microprocessor. employees are facing a reduction in working hours. C people are available to substitute for absent staff. Questions 33-34 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 33 and 34 on your answer sheet. D they can project a positive image at work. .S. C the future is dependent on technological advances. 34 Schor thinks it will be difficult for workers in the US to reduce their working hours because A they would not be able to afford cars or homes.Paul Walluh Questions 27-32 Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in reading passage 4? In boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet write: YES if the statement agrees with the writer NO if the statement contradicts the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this Example Answer During the industrial revolution people worded harder NOT GIVEN 27 28 29 30 31 32 Today.

List of Factors A Books are available to help employees cope with stress. H Employees value a career more than a family.Questions 35-38 The writer mentions a number of factors that have resulted. Which FOUR of the following factors are mentioned? Write your answers (A-H) in boxes 35-38 on your answer sheet. in employees working longer hours. . F Longer hours indicate greater commitment to the firm. C Increased production has led to joblessness. G Managers estimate staff productivity in terms of hours worked. B Extra work is offered to existing employees. D Benefits and hours spent on the job are not linked. E Overworked employees require longer to do their work.

the EPA has classified environmental tobacco smoke in the highest risk category for causing cancer. In addition to being responsible for more than 85 per cent of lung cancers. scientific research has been providing evidence that. the breathing in of the side-stream smoke from the burning of tobacco between puffs or of the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Passive smoking. smaller particles and is therefore more likely to be deposited deep in the lungs. This type of smoke contains more.700 chemical compounds. amongst others. it is believed. the mouth. The risk of lung cancer also increases over the years of exposure and the figure jumps to 80 per cent if the . which contains more than 4. and is thought to cause about 14 per cent of leukemia and cervical cancers. As an illustration of the health risks. stomach and kidneys.000 deaths. A report published in 1992 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emphasized the health dangers. mainly resulting from such problems as pneumonia. the latter is believed to have a 30 per cent higher risk of death from heart disease because of passive smoking. however. The Risks of Cigarette Smoke Discovered in the early 1800s and named nicotianine. is only a small component of cigarette smoke. In 1990. smoking is associated with cancers of. is responsible for 30 per cent of all deaths from cancer and clearly represents the most important preventable cause of cancer in countries like the United States today. In recent times. years of cigarette smoking vastly increases the risk of developing fatal medical conditions. On the basis of this report. also causes a serious health risk. Nicotine.The Risks of Cigarette Smoke You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-28 which are based on Reading Passage 5 below. especially from side-stream smoke. the oily essence now called nicotine is the main active ingredient of tobacco. including 43 cancer-causing substances.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 5 . smoking caused more than 84. bronchitis and influenza. in the case of a married couple where one partner is a smoker and one a non-smoker. Smoking.

This report emphasizes that cancer is not caused by a single element in cigarette smoke. This means that passive smoking is the third most preventable cause of death after active smoking and alcohol-related diseases. The study suggests that people who smoke cigarettes are continually damaging their cardiovascular system.spouse has been smoking four packs a day for 20 years. the effects of passive smoking are far greater on non-smokers than on smokers. Carbon monoxide. which increases the likelihood of blood clots. thereby affecting blood circulation throughout the body. was based on the researchers’ own earlier research but also includes a review of studies over the past few years. It further states that people who do not smoke do not have the benefit of their system adapting to the smoke inhalation. the report suggests that the smoke experienced by many people in their daily lives is enough to produce substantial adverse effects on a person’s heart and lungs. The researchers criticize the practice of some scientific consultants who work with the tobacco industry for assuming that cigarette smoke has the same impact on smokers as it does on non-smokers. They argue that those scientists are underestimating the damage done by passive smoking and. The report. Leaving aside the philosophical question of whether anyone should have to breathe someone else’s cigarette smoke. harmful effects to health are caused by many components. published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (AMA). which adapts in order to compensate for the effects of smoking.000 deaths from heart attacks each year in the United States. Consequently. The American Medical Association represents about half of all US doctors and is a strong opponent of smoking. for example. in support of their recent findings. cite some previous research which points to passive smoking as the cause for between 30. Nicotine and other toxins in cigarette smoke activate small blood cells called platelets. . competes with oxygen in red blood cells and interferes with the blood’s ability to deliver life-giving oxygen to the heart.000 and 60. It has been calculated that 17 per cent of cases of lung cancer can be attributed to high levels of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke during childhood and adolescence. A more recent study by researchers at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) has shown that second-hand cigarette smoke does more harm to non-smokers than to smokers.

C inhibits red blood cell formation. 15 According to information in the text. B are strongly linked to cigarette smoking. the other is likely to take up smoking. C are strongly linked to lung cancer. schools and public places. Questions 18-21 Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 5? In boxes 18-21 on your answer sheet write: YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 18 Thirty per cent of deaths in the United States are caused by smoking-related diseases. C formation of blood clots.D and write them in boxes 15 -17 on your answer sheet. leukaemia and pneumonia A are responsible for 84. 16 According to information in the text. The UCSF researchers maintain that the simplest and most cost-effective action is to establish smoke-free work places. intake of nicotine encourages A blood circulation through the body.000 deaths each year. D result in 30 per cent of deaths per year. 17 According to information in the text. B increases absorption of other smoke particles. Questions 15-17 Choose the appropriate letters A . D an increase of platelets in the blood. intake of carbon monoxide A inhibits the flow of oxygen to the heart.The study argues that the type of action needed against passive smoking should be similar to that being taken against illegal drugs and AIDS (SIDA). 20 Teenagers whose parents smoke are at risk of getting lung cancer at some time . B activity of other toxins in the blood. 19 If one partner in a marriage smokes. D promotes nicotine absorption.

. Questions 25-28 Classify the following statements as being A a finding of the UCSF study B an opinion of the UCSF study C a finding of the EPA report D an assumption of consultants to the tobacco industry Write the appropriate letters A—D in boxes 25—28 on your answer sheet. is more likely to be at risk of contracting various cancers.. is less likely to be at risk of contracting lung cancer.. .J below to complete each of the following sentences (Questions 22-24).. reduces the quantity of blood flowing around the body... 23 Compared with a non-smoker....... 25 Smokers’ cardiovascular systems adapt to the intake of environmental smoke. is one of the two most preventable causes of death. is more likely to be at risk from passive smoking diseases....... is more harmful to non-smokers than to smokers. Questions 22-24 Choose ONE phrase from the list of phrases A .24 on your answer sheet.... A B C D E F G H I J includes reviews of studies in its reports. opposes smoking and publishes research on the subject. Write the appropriate letters in boxes 22 . argues for stronger action against smoking in public places.. 28 The intake of side-stream smoke is more harmful than smoke exhaled by a smoker. 21 Opponents of smoking financed the UCSF study... 24 The American Medical Association ....... a smoker . 26 There is a philosophical question as to whether people should have to inhale others’ smoke............ 27 Smoke-free public places offer the best solution........during their lives... NB You may use any letter more than once... is just as harmful to smokers as it is to non-smokers.. 22 Passive smoking ..

suggested that dung beetles should be introduced to Australia to control dung-breeding flies. Of the 26 species that are known to have become successfully integrated into the local environment. More than 4. then a scientist at the Australian Government’s premier research organisation. The beetles immediately disappear beneath the pats digging and tunneling and. has reached its natural boundary. A Remarkable Beetle Some of the most remarkable beetles are the dung beetles. an African species released in northern Australia. the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).IELTS Academic Reading Sample 6 . soon become a permanent. aiming to match them to different climatic zones in Australia. from Asia.500 beetles are released. which spend almost their whole lives eating and breeding in dung’. Between 1968 and 1982. self-sustaining . only one. In the early 1960s George Bornemissza. specialising in coarse marsupial droppings and avoiding the soft cattle dung in which bush flies and buffalo flies breed. Australia’s native dung beetles are scrub and woodland dwellers. Europe and Africa. the CSIRO imported insects from about 50 different species of dung beetle. into fresh cow pats 2 in the cow pasture. a handful at a time.A Remarkable Beetle You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 6 below. if they successfully adapt to their new environment.000 species of these remarkable creatures have evolved and adapted to the world’s different climates and the dung of its many animals. Introducing dung beetles into a pasture is a simple process: approximately 1.

other benefits have become evident. including a South African species. summer and autumn. The former are slow to recover from the winter cold and produce only one or two generations of offspring from late spring until autumn. prefers the climate of northern and coastal New South Wales where it commonly works with the South African tunneling species. being a subtropical beetle. These beetles make sausage-shaped brood chambers along the tunnels. which are rolled away and attached to the bases of plants. South African beetles dig narrow tunnels of approximately 20 cm below the surface of the pat. The shallowest tunnels belong to a much smaller Spanish species that buries dung in chambers that hang like fruit from the branches of a pear tree. The digested dung in these burrows is an excellent food supply for the earthworms. Some surfacedwelling beetles. Some large species originating from France excavate tunnels to a depth of approximately 30 cm below the dung pat. chemical fertiliser and dung would be washed by rain into streams and rivers before it could be absorbed into the hard earth. Dung beetles were initially introduced in the late 1960s with a view to controlling buffalo flies by removing the dung within a day or two and so preventing flies from breeding. produce two to five generations annually.part of the local ecology. For maximum dung burial in spring. Most species burrow into the soil and bury dung in tunnels directly underneath the pats. the large French species (2. In the cooler environments of the state of Victoria. when the new generation of beetles has left the nest the abandoned burrows are an attractive habitat for soil-enriching earthworms. which are hollowed out from within. cut perfectly-shaped balls from the pat. The South African ball-rolling species. which decompose it further to provide essential soil nutrients. Once the beetle larvae have finished pupation. polluting water courses and causing blooms of blue-green algae. In time they multiply and within three or four years the benefits to the pasture are obvious. many species are active for longer periods of the year. The tunnels abandoned by the beetles provide excellent aeration and water channels for root systems. However. In addition. which multiply rapidly in early spring. Without . farmers require a variety of species with overlapping periods of activity. temperate-climate Spanish species.5 cms long) is matched with smaller (half this size). Dung beetles work from the inside of the pat so they are sheltered from predators such as birds and foxes. In warmer climates. the residue is a first-rate source of fertiliser. The latter. If it were not for the dung beetle.

4 At least twenty-six of the introduced species have become established in Australia. This amounts to 1. Australia’s 30 million cattle each produce 1012 cow pats a day. 2 Four thousand species of dung beetle were initially brought to Australia by the CSIRO. enough to smother about 110. A number of species are available from the CSIRO or through a small number of private breeders. 5 The dung beetles cause an immediate improvement to the quality of a cow pasture. Choose your labels from the box below the diagram. cow pats:. . 3 Dung beetles were brought to Australia by the CSIRO over a fourteen-year period. Write your answers in boxes 6-8 on your answer sheet.000 sq km of pasture. cow pats would litter pastures making grass inedible to cattle and depriving the soil of sunlight. Write your answers in boxes 6-8 on your answer sheet. Glossary 1. dung:. Dung beetles have become an integral part of the successful management of dairy farms in Australia over the past few decades.the beetles to dispose of the dung. half the area of Victoria.droppings of cows Questions 1-5 Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 6? In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet write: YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 1 Bush flies are easier to control than buffalo flies. most of whom were entomologists with the CSIRO’s dung beetle unit who have taken their specialised knowledge of the insect and opened small businesses in direct competition with their former employer.7 billion tones a year.the droppings or excreta of animals 2. Questions 6-8 Label the tunnels on the diagram below.

Question 9-13 Complete the table below.Dung Beetle Types French Mediterranean Australian native Spanish South African South African ball roller.25 cm 9 10 1 South African ball 12 13 roller .5 cm Cool Spanish Late spring 1-2 Spanish 1. Write your answers in boxes 9—13 on your answer sheet. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER from Reading Passage 6 for each answer. Species Size Preferred Complementary Start of Number of Climate species active period generations per year French 2.

more robust but also accessible to modification. one graphic illustration to which children might readily relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate equivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes – about the duration of a normal classroom period. Despite the extensive coverage in the popular media of the destruction of rainforests. but organised. In the face of the frequent and often vivid media coverage.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 7 . Sometimes this information may be erroneous. what endangers them – independent of any formal tuition. curriculum science. It seems schools may not be providing an opportunity for children to re-express their ideas and so have them tested and refined by teachers and their peers. to help teachers design their educational strategies to build upon correct ideas and to displace misconceptions and to plan programmes in environmental studies in their schools. it is likely that children will have formed ideas about rainforests – what and where they are. It is also possible that some of these ideas will be mistaken. conceptual framework. why they are important. These ideas may be developed by children absorbing ideas through the popular media. making it and the component ideas. Many studies have shown that children harbour misconceptions about ‘pure’. little formal information is available about children’s ideas in this area. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted. For example.Alarming Rate of Loss of Tropical Rainforest You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1–14 which are based on Reading Passage Sample 7 below: Alarming Rate of Loss of Tropical Rainforests Adults and children are frequently confronted with statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical rainforests. The aim of the present study is to start to provide such information. The study surveys children’s scientific knowledge and attitudes to rainforests. . some of which are erroneous.

was that acid rain is responsible for rainforest destruction. but at a lower level.Secondary school children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open-form questions. Some children described them as damp. and even fewer mentioned the indigenous populations of rainforests. wet or hot. such as being near the Equator. Responses to question three concerned the importance of rainforests. a similar proportion said that pollution is destroying rainforests. Perhaps encouragingly. some personalising the responsibility by the use of terms such as ‘we are’. About 18% of the pupils referred specifically to logging activity. The fourth question concerned the causes of the destruction of rainforests. Only a few of the pupils (6%) mentioned that rainforest destruction may contribute to global warming. The dominant idea. raised by 64% of the pupils. While two fifths of the students provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen. One misconception. The second question concerned the geographical location of rainforests. the majority of children simply said that we need rainforests to survive. This . children are confusing rainforest destruction with damage to the forests of Western Europe by these factors. making the atmosphere incompatible with human life on Earth. expressed by some 10% of the pupils. in some cases this response also embraced the misconception that rainforest destruction would reduce atmospheric oxygen. The commonest responses were continents or countries: Africa (given by 43% of children). Similarly. in which girls were shown to be more sympathetic to animals and expressed views which seem to place an intrinsic value on non-human animal life. Fewer students responded that rainforests provide plant habitats. was that rainforests provide animals with habitats. more than half of the pupils (59%) identified that it is human activities which are destroying rainforests. more girls (13%) than boys (5%) said that rainforests provided human habitats. Some children also gave more general locations. Here. The most frequent responses to the first question were descriptions which are self-evident from the term ‘rainforest’. These observations are generally consistent with our previous studies of pupils’ views about the use and conservation of rainforests. In answer to the final question about the importance of rainforest conservation. Brazil (25%). South America (30%). More girls (70%) than boys (60%) raised the idea of rainforest as animal habitats.

In other words. 2 Children only accept opinions on rainforests that they encounter in their classrooms.is surprising considering the high level of media coverage on this issue. 7 The study reported here follows on from a series of studies that have looked at . Pupils’ responses indicate some misconceptions in basic scientific knowledge of rainforests’ ecosystems such as their ideas about rainforests as habitats for animals. 3 It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the ‘pure’ science that they study at school. Pupils did not volunteer ideas that suggested that they appreciated the complexity of causes of rainforest destruction. which is essential for these children as future decision-makers. Questions 1–8 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Sample 7? In boxes 1–8 on your answer sheet write: TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this 1 The plight of the rainforests has largely been ignored by the media. The results of this study suggest that certain ideas predominate in the thinking of children about rainforests. Environmental education offers an arena in which these skills can be developed. 5 The study involved asking children a number of yes/no questions such as ‘Are there any rainforests in Africa?’ 6 Girls are more likely than boys to hold mistaken views about the rainforests’ destruction. economic and political factors which drive the activities which are destroying the rainforests. plants and humans and the relationship between climatic change and destruction of rainforests. One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children seem to acquire the ability to appreciate. 4 The fact that children’s ideas about science form part of a larger framework of ideas means that it is easier to change them. value and evaluate conflicting views. Some children expressed the idea that the conservation of rainforests is not important. they gave no indication of an appreciation of either the range of ways in which rainforests are important or the complex social.

D Brazil is home to the rainforests. M Rainforests are found in Africa. Write your answers in boxes 9–13 on your answer sheet. 09 What was the children’s most frequent response when asked where the rainforests were? 10 What was the most common response to the question about the importance of the rainforests? 11 What did most children give as the reason for the loss of the rainforests? 12 Why did most children think it important for the rainforests to be protected? 13 Which of the responses is cited as unexpectedly uncommon. . the world gets warmer. E Without rainforests some animals would have nowhere to live. I Rainforests are of consequence for a number of different reasons. Answer the following questions by choosing the correct responses A–P. N Rainforests are not really important to human life. B The rainforests are being destroyed by the same things that are destroying the forests of Western Europe. 8 A second study has been planned to investigate primary school children’s ideas about rainforests. G People are responsible for the loss of the rainforests. C Rainforests are located near the Equator. H The rainforests are a source of oxygen.children’s understanding of rainforests. Questions 9–13 The box below gives a list of responses A–P to the questionnaire discussed in Reading sample 7. P Humans depend on the rainforests for their continuing existence. J As the rainforests are destroyed. K Without rainforests there would not be enough oxygen in the air. given the amount of time spent on the issue by the newspapers and television? A There is a complicated combination of reasons for the loss of the rainforests. F Rainforests are important habitats for a lot of plants. O The destruction of the rainforests is the direct result of logging activity. L There are people for whom the rainforests are home.

List of Headings i) Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion ii) Holistic approach to health iii) The primary importance of environmental factors iv) Healthy lifestyles approach to health v) Changes in concepts of health in Western society vi) Prevention of diseases and illness vii) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion viii) Definition of health in medical terms ix) Socio-ecological view of health . collate and describe the ideas of secondary school children E The importance of the rainforests and the reasons for their destruction IELTS Academic Reading Sample 8 . Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet. Write your answer in box 14 on your answer sheet. Questions 14-18 Reading passage 8 has six paragraphs B-F from the list of headings below Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphsB-F from the list of headings below. C. NB There are more headings than paragraphs. D or E.Changing Our Understanding of Health You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27 which are based on Reading Passage sample 8 below. B.Question 14 Choose the correct letter A. so you will not use them all. Which of the following is the most suitable title for Reading sample Passage 7? A The development of a programme in environmental studies within a science curriculum B Children’s ideas about the rainforests and the implications for course design C The extent to which children have been misled by the media concerning the rainforests D How to collect.

mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease' (WHO. 15. During this period.14. This change is no more evident than in Western society today. creating health for people means providing medical care to treat or prevent disease and illness. Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph B C D E F Changing Our Understanding of Health A The concept of health holds different meanings for different people and groups. D The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. health has been viewed in the physical sense only. 18. Health in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms. 16. According to this view. good health has been connected to the smooth mechanical operation of the body. These meanings of health have also changed over time. They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical. 17. B For much of recent Western history. C In the late 1940s the World Health Organisation challenged this physically and medically oriented view of health. when notions of health and health promotion are being challenged and expanded in new ways. That is. Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/spirit) and not just in physical terms. improved sanitation and housing. 1946). Specific . while ill health has been attributed to a breakdown in this machine. there was an emphasis on providing clean water.

Creating health meant providing not only medical health care. and it is the complex interrelationships between them which determine the conditions that promote health. unemployment. economic and environmental contexts in which people live. The broad socio-ecological view of health was endorsed at the first International Conference of Health Promotion held in 1986.behaviours which were seen to increase risk of disease. economic and environmental contexts which contribute to the creation of health do not operate separately or independently of each other. Rather. they are interacting and interdependent. Therefore. social alienation and poor working conditions. education. a viable income. food. where people from 38 countries agreed and declared that: The fundamental conditions and resources for health are peace. 1986) . economic and environmental focus. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health. lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits. people experiencing poverty. health is being viewed also in terms of the social. social justice and equity. Ottawa. The social. a stable eco-system. E During 1980s and 1990s there has been a growing swing away from seeing lifestyle risks as the root cause of poor health. shelter. A broad socioecological view of health suggests that the promotion of health must include a strong social. but health promotion programs and policies which would help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles. pollution. underemployment or little control over the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach. (WHO. urbanisation. were targeted. the creation of health must include addressing issues such as poverty. This was largely because both the healthy lifestyles approach and the medical approach to health largely ignored the social and environmental conditions affecting the health of people. Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic requirements. It is clear from this statement that the creation of health is about much more than encouraging healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles and providing appropriate medical care. While lifestyle factors still remain important. natural resource depletion. F At the Ottawa Conference in 1986. Canada. While this individualistic healthy lifestyles approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society). such as smoking. sustainable resources. a charter was developed which outlined new .

The overall philosophy of health promotion which guides these fundamental strategies and approaches is one of 'enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health' (WHO. behavioural and biological factors can all favour health or be harmful to it. 19. 24 The approach to health during the 1970s included the introduction of health . (WHO. according to the socioecological view of health. In which year did the World Health Organization define health in terms of mental. This charter. physical and social well-being? 20. 1986) . social. Which members of society benefited most from the healthy lifestyles approach to health? 21. known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. It presents fundamental strategies and approaches in achieving health for all. Political. In exploring the scope of health promotion it states that: Good health is a major resource for social. Questions 19-22 Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage. cultural.directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health. Name the three broad areas which relate to people's health. NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage. economic. 1986). environmental. 22. answer the following questions Write your answers in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet. 23 Doctors have been instrumental in improving living standards in Western society. The Ottawa Charter brings practical meaning and action to this broad notion of health promotion. remains as the backbone of health action today. NO if the statement contradicts the information. During which decade were lifestyle risks seen as the major contributors to poor health? Questions 23-27 Do the following statements agree with the information in Reading Passage 8? In boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet write YES if the statement agrees with the information. economic and personal development and an important dimension of quality of life.

25 The socio-ecological view of health recognises that lifestyle habits and the provision of adequate health care are critical factors governing health. 26 The principles of the Ottawa Charter are considered to be out of date in the 1990s. 27 In recent years a number of additional countries have subscribed to the Ottawa Charter. .awareness programs.

To achieve the benefits of recycling. There also needs to be support from the community for waste paper collection programs. waste paper constitutes 70% of paper used for packaging and advances in the technology required to remove ink from the paper have allowed a higher recycled content in newsprint and writing paper. The four most common sources of paper for recycling are factories and retail stores which gather large amounts of packaging material in which goods are delivered.Paper Recycling You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 30-41 which are based on the Reading Passage below. Unlike the minerals and oil used to make plastics and metals. so it does not pose as much threat to the environment when it is discarded. photographic paper and paper which is badly contaminated. the paper industry has responded by developing new recycling technologies that have paved the way for even greater utilization of used fibre.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 9 . the community must also contribute. Paper is also biodegradable. industry’s use of recycled fibres is expected to increase at twice the rate of virgin fibre over the coming years. also offices which have unwanted business documents and computer output. the rest comes directly from virgin fibre from forests and plantations. string and other miscellaneous items. C There are technical limitations to the amount of paper which can be recycled and some paper products cannot be collected for re-use. These include paper in the form of books and permanent records. PAPER RECYCLING A Paper is different from other waste produce because it comes from a sustainable resource: trees. paper converters and printers and lastly households which discard newspapers and . We need to accept a change in the quality of paper products. Governments have encouraged waste paper collection and sorting schemes and at the same time. B Already. As a result. trees are replaceable. for example stationery may be less white and of a rougher texture. paperclips. Not only do we need to make the paper available to collectors but it also needs to be separated into different types and sorted from contaminants such as staples. By world standards this is a good performance since the world-wide average is 33 per cent waste paper. While 45 out of every 100 tonnes of wood fibre used to make paper in Australia comes from waste paper.

.. paper recycling is an important economical and environmental practice but one which must be carried out in a rational and viable manner for it to be useful to both industry and the community.. From the point of view of recycling. After passing through the repulping process. SUMMARY Example ..packaging material. Write your answers in boxes 30-36 on your answer sheet... The sorted paper then has to be repulped or mixed with water and broken down into its individual fibres. The paper manufacturer pays a price for the paper and may also incur the collection cost.. Recycling paper is beneficial in that it saves some of the energy.. such as cardboard boxes but if the grey colour is not acceptable... This involves adding chemicals such as caustic soda or other alkalis. And the recycling process still creates emissions which require treatment before they can be disposed of safely.oil. Various machineries are used to remove other materials from the stock... particularly if it is made from mixed waste paper which has had little sorting. paper has two advantages over minerals and .. Questions 30-36 Complete the summary below of the first two paragraphs of the Reading Passage. Most paper is down-cycled which means that a prod-uct made from recycled paper is of an inferior quality to the original paper... soaps and detergents. the fibres must be de-inked.. to collect the waste paper from the community and to process it to produce new paper. the fibres from printed waste paper are grey in colour because the printing ink has soaked into the individual fibres. labour and capital that go into producing virgin pulp. water-hardening agents such as cal-cium chloride. This mixture is called stock and may contain a wide variety of contaminating materials. However. frothing agents and bleaching agents.. recycling requires the use of fossil fuel. This is necessary because some types of paper can only be made from particular kinds of recycled fibre. Choose ONE OR TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer. .. a non-renewable energy source. Before the recycled fibres can be made into paper they must be refined or treated in such a way that they bond together.. Nevertheless. D Once collected.. This recycled material can only be used in products where the grey colour does not matter.. the paper has to be sorted by hand by people trained to recognise various types of paper.. paper cannot be recycled indefinitely. E Most paper products must contain some virgin fibre as well as recycled fibres and unlike glass.

. Use ONE OR TWO WORDS for each answer.... Write your answers in boxes 37-41 on your answer sheet.. and secondly it is less threatening to our environment when we throw it away because it is . Look at paragraphs C..... complete the flow chart below. to collect their waste on a regular basis..... using the information in the passage.. (30) ......(33) . Although Australia’s record in the re-use of waste paper is good...... and E and...... (36) ... are being made in this area.in that firstly it comes from a resource which is ............. (32) ... we need to learn to accept paper which is generally of a lower . (31) ...... to make new paper.......... The paper industry has contributed positively and people have also been encouraged by . However.... than before and to sort our waste paper by removing ...... before discarding it for collection............ D........... .... it is still necessary to use a combination of recycled fibre and ..... One major difficulty is the removal of ink from used paper but . (34) . (35) ........

in decreasing order of frequency. The cost of absenteeism in Australia has been put at 1. 67 per cent of nurses felt that administration was not sympathetic to the problems shift work causes to employees' personal and social lives. prior to this time. The study reported here was conducted in the Prince William Hospital in Brisbane. like annual holiday leave. In another longitudinal study of nurses working in two Canadian hospitals. Other causes. Hacket Bycio and Guion (1989) examined the reasons why nurses took absence from work. where. However. Nursing Absenteeism A prevalent attitude amongst many nurses in the group selected for study was that there was no reward or recognition for not utilising the paid sick leave entitlement allowed them in their employment conditions. Similar attitudes have been noted by James (1989). strategies over 18 months. understand or manage the occurrence of absenteeism.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 10 . work to do at home and bereavement. Strategy 1:Nonfinancial (material) incentives : Within the established wage and salary system it was not possible to use hospital funds to support this strategy. Australia. they believed they may as well take the days off — sick or otherwise. the Prince William management introduced three different. were illness in family. Therefore.Absenteeism In Nursing You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are bused on Reading Passage 10 below. Only 53 per cent of the respondents felt that every effort was made to schedule staff fairly.8 million hours per day or $1400 million annually. yet potentially complementary. Further. Miller and Norton (1986). in their survey of 865 nursing personnel. ABSENTEEISM IN NURSING: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY Absence from work is a costly and disruptive problem for any organisation. because some employees always used their sick leave. it was possible to . family social function. The most frequent reason stated for absence was minor illness to self. Method In an attempt to reduce the level of absenteeism amongst the 250 Registered an Enrolled Nurses in the present study. found that 73 per cent felt they should be rewarded for not taking sick leave. few active steps had been taken to measure. who noted that sick leave is seen by many workers as a right.

This represents a 20 per cent improvement. followed up by action. For example. there was little chance of winning. Strategy 3: Individual absenteeism : and Each month.60 per cent in the first year and 3. As the scheme progressed it became harder to secure prizes and this contributed to the program's losing momentum and finally ceasing. Characteristic patterns of potential 'voluntary absenteeism' such as absence before and after days off.87 per cent and 3. At the end of each roster period. Discussion The non-financial incentive scheme did appear to assist in controlling absenteeism in the short term. etc. theatres. Over the time of the study. Results Absence rates for the six months prior to the Incentive scheme ranged from 3. the ward with the lowest absence rate would win the prize.32 per cent. This led to significant improvements in communication between managers and staff. Our experience would suggest that the long-term effects of incentive awards on absenteeism are questionable.secure incentives from local businesses.69 per cent to 4. Many of the nurses had not realised the impact their behaviour was having on the organisation and their colleagues but there were also staff members who felt that talking to them about their absenteeism was 'picking' on them and this usually had a negative effect on management—employee relationships. In the following six months they ranged between 2. and to some extent the staffs on those wards were disempowered. managers would analyse the pattern of absence of staff with excessive sick leave (greater than ten days per year for full-time employees). A similar effect was found from the implementation of the third strategy. analysing the absence rates on a year-to-year basis.96 per cent. in wards with staff members who had longterm genuine illness. Strategy 2 Flexible fair rostering: Where possible. However. staff were given the opportunity to determine their working schedule within the limits of clinical needs. There were mixed results across wards as well. excessive weekend and night duty absence and multiple single days off were communicated to all ward nurses and then. A significant decrease in absence over the two-year period could not be demonstrated. staff were given a larger degree of control in their rosters. Conclusion . the overall absence rate was 3.43 per cent in the following year. including free passes to entertainment parks. restaurants. as necessary. This represents a 5 per cent decrease from the first to the second year of the study.

it is our contention that the strategies were not in vain. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. " ] Questions 1-7 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet write: YES if the statement agrees with the information NO if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage 1) The Prince William Hospital has been trying to reduce absenteeism amongst nurses for many years. 4) The Canadian study found that 'illness in the family' was a greater cause of absenteeism than 'work to do at home'. We are grateful to the authors and Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources for allowing us to use the material in this way. Slater (1996). 7) The study at the Prince William Hospital involved changes in management practices.Although there has been some decrease in absence rates. while not tangibly measurable. 'Absenteeism in nursing: A longitudinal study'. Names and other details have been changed and report findings may have been given a different emphasis from the original. 3) Just over half the nurses in the 1986 study believed that management understood the effects that shift work had on them. no single strategy or combination of strategies has had a significant impact on absenteeism per se. [" This article has been adapted and condensed from the article by G. 2) Nurses in the Prince William Hospital study believed that there were benefits in taking as little sick leave as possible. has increased the ability of management to manage the effects of absenteeism more effectively since this study. It is our belief that this improvement alone. 5) In relation to management attitude to absenteeism the study at the Prince William Hospital found similar results to the two 1989 studies. . 6) The study at the Prince William Hospital aimed to find out the causes of absenteeism amongst 250 nurses. A shared ownership of absenteeism and a collaborative approach to problem solving has facilitated improved cooperation and communication between management and staff. William and K. 34(1): 111-21. Notwithstanding the disappointing results.

or rather the mechanism behind the idea of propelling an object into the air... per cent decrease in absenteeism. among staff. does not automatically ensure that the transition is made from theory to practice. However.... it literally opened the door to exploration of the universe.. it wasn’t until the discovery of the reaction principle. In the first strategy. which are based on following reading passage: THE ROCKET . The reason is that nobody associated the reaction ...... for each answer.. more importantly... (12).. Despite the fact that rockets had been used sporadically for several hundred years.. were required before the technology of primitive rocketry could be translated into the reality of sophisticated astronauts. they remained a relatively minor artefact of civilization until the twentieth century...The Rocket From East To West You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14. (13) .. staff were given more control over their .FROM EAST TO WEST A The concept of the rocket...... which was the key to space travel and so represents one of the great milestones in the history of scientific thought.Questions 8-13 Complete the notes below.. The second and third strategies generally resulted in better . It is strange that the rocket was generally ignored by writers of fiction to transport their heroes to mysterious realms beyond the Earth. sick leave or .. were identified and counseled... there was a . brilliant though it may be. (8) ...... Not only did it solve a problem that had intrigued man for ages... but. has been around for well over two thousand years. The first strategy was considered ineffective and stopped.. even though it had been commonly used in fireworks displays in China since the thirteenth century. nurses who appeared to be taking ... IELTS Academic Reading Sample 11 ..... In the second strategy... In the third strategy..... Choose ONE OR TWO WORDS from the passage.. B An intellectual breakthrough. wards with the lowest absenteeism in different periods would win prizes donated by .. Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.... Initially. (11) .. that rocket technology was able to develop.... accelerated during two world wars..... (10). Prodigious efforts..(9 )...

and hence the boat. The reaction to the discharging steam provided the bird with motive power. explosive grenades and possibly cannons to repel their enemies. which could be fired from crossbows. This ‘egg’ was apparently full of gunpowder and stabilised by a 1. Most historians of technology credit the Chinese with its discovery.7 metre-long arrows. At a similar time.5m tail. Cylindrical in shape. It was fired using two rockets attached to either side of this tail. A rocket motor’s ‘bullets’ are minute. the ‘arrows like flying leopards’. But this does not mean that it was immediately used to propel rockets. and hanging from string. move forwards. Aulus Gellius describes ‘the pigeon of Archytas’. The reaction to the ejection of these small particles causes the rocket to move forwards. black powder was first compounded from its basic ingredients of saltpetre. . an invention dating back to about 360 BC. It is probable that. charcoal and sulphur. the Arabs had developed the ‘egg which moves and burns’. each with a long tube of gunpowder attached near the point of each arrow. By the thirteenth century. In his Noctes Atticae or Greek Nights. The rocket. A small iron weight was attached to the 1. sometime in the tenth century. D The invention of rockets is linked inextricably with the invention of ‘black powder’. octagonal-shaped basket at the same time and had a range of 400 paces. Another weapon was the ‘arrow as am flying sabre’. placed in a similar position to other rocket-propelled arrows. just below the feathers. One such weapon was the ‘basket of fire’ or. to increase the arrow’s stability by moving the centre of gravity to a position below the rocket. In reaction to the backward discharge of bullets. could be fired from a long. high-speed particles produced by burning propellants in a suitable chamber.principle with the idea of traveling through space to a neighbouring world. There is evidence that the reaction principle was applied practically well before the rocket was invented.5m bamboo shaft. it was moved to and fro by steam blowing out from small exhaust ports at either end. It is much like a machine gun mounted on the rear of a boat. The Chinese relied on this type of technological development to produce incendiary projectiles of many sorts. C A simple analogy can help us to understand how a rocket operates. the gun. The 0. powder propelled fire arrows had become rather common. made of wood. as directly translated from Chinese. was designed to increase the range. They base their belief on studies of Chinese writings or on the notebooks of early Europeans who settled in or made long visits to China to study its history and civilisation.

However. In the early nineteenth century the British began to experiment with incendiary barrage rockets. Who knows what it will be like in the future? Questions 1-4 Reading passage 11 has six paragraphs labelled A-F. The incentive for the more aggressive use of rockets came not from within the European continent but from far-away India. Prior to this. Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-E from the list of headings below. The Indian rockets used against the British were described by a British Captain serving in India as ‘an iron envelope about 200 millimetres long and 40 millimetres in diameter with sharp points at the top and a 3m-long bamboo guiding stick’. Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet. Nevertheless.E It was not until the eighteenth century that Europe became seriously interested in the possibilities of using the rocket itself as a weapon of war and not just to propel other weapons. The Americans developed a rocket. iron cylinder. thereby allowing the rockets to be inserted and lit from the other end. the modern day space programs owe their success to the humble beginnings of those in previous centuries who developed the foundations of the reaction principle. often with devastating results in the forum of war. measuring one metre in diameter and having a stick almost five metres long and constructed in such a way that it could be firmly attached to the body of the rocket. the results were sometimes not that impressive as the behaviour of the rockets in flight was less than predictable. whose leaders had built up a corps of rocketeers and used rockets successfully against the British in the late eighteenth century. complete with its own launcher. List of Headings i ii iii iv v How the reaction principle works The impact of the reaction principle Writer's theories of the reaction principle Undeveloped for centuries The first rockets . to use against the Mexicans in the mid-nineteenth century. The British rocket differed from the Indian version in that it was completely encased in a stout. rockets were used only in pyrotechnic displays. terminating in a conical head. Since then. there has been huge developments in rocket technology. A long cylindrical tube was propped up by two sticks and fastened to the top of the launcher.

Paragraph A Answer ii Paragraph B Paragraph C Paragraph D Paragraph E Questions 5 and 6 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 5 and 6 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once.vi The first use of steam vii Rockets for military use viii Developments of fire ix What's next? Example 1. C a major problem had been solved. C from the early nineteenth to the late nineteenth century. indicate who FIRST invented or used the items in the list below. 2. Questions 7-10 From the information in the text. . B space travel became a reality. 5 The greatest outcome of the discovery of the reaction principle was that A rockets could be propelled into the air. Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet. the greatest progress in rocket technology was made A from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries. D from the late nineteenth century to the present day. D bigger rockets were able to be built. 4. B from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. 3. 6 According to the text.

Example rockets for displays Answer A 7 black powder 8 rocket-propelled arrows for fighting 9 rockets as war weapons 10 the rocket launcher FIRST invented or used by A the Chinese B the Indians C the British D the Arabs E the Americans Questions 11-14 Look at the drawings of different projectiles below. A-H. Questions 11-14. Example The Greek ‘pigeon of Archytas’ 11 12 13 14 Answer C The Chinese ‘basket of fire’ The Arab ‘egg which moves and burns’ The Indian rocket The British barrage rocket . Match each name with one drawing. Write the appropriate letters A-H in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet. and the names of types of projectiles given in the passage.

commonly referred to as ‘facts’ — generalisations will form. as is generally believed.IELTS Academic Reading Sample . However. inductive.12 The Scientific Method You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 29-40 which are bused on Reading Passage below. Every act of observation we make is a function of what we have seen or otherwise experienced in the past. the starting point of induction is an impossible one. B It is essential that you. they are ‘adventures of the mind’. All .’ said Medawar in 1964. Out of these sensory data . unbiased. D There is no such thing as an unbiased observation. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD A ‘Hypotheses. relevant theory will somehow emerge. unprejudiced observation.simple. as an intending researcher.‘are imaginative and inspirational in character’. understand the difference between these two interpretations of the research process so that you do not become discouraged or begin to suffer from a feeling of ‘cheating’ or not going about it the right way. 3rd edition) that the nature of scientific method is hypothetico-deductive and not. raw evidence of the senses . He was arguing in favour of the position taken by Karl Popper in The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1972. The myth is that from a disorderly array of factual information an orderly. C The myth of scientific method is that it is inductive: that the formulation of scientific theory starts with the basic.

Hypotheses provide the initiative and incentive for the inquiry and influence the method. that one methodology is chosen and others discarded. pure and objective researcher now? E Hypotheses arise by guesswork. F So don’t worry if you have some idea of what your results will tell you before you even begin to collect data. Where is. or by inspiration. your naive. Once you have arrived at your hypothesis. which is a product of your imagination. based upon deductive argument — hence the term ‘hypotheticodeductive’. It is the difference. inevitable fashion. using the appropriate methodology. The hypothetico-deductive method describes the logical approach to much research work. This expectation is a hypothesis. a mould might prove to be a successful antidote to bacterial infection. The closest we ever get to this situation is when something happens by accident. but having been formulated they can and must be tested rigorously. G The myth of scientific method is not only that it is inductive (which we have seen is incorrect) but also that the hypothetico-deductive method proceeds in a step-by-step. in the deductive as well as the hypothetic component -than is immediately apparent from reading the final thesis or published papers. corrections. From this . blind alleys and above all inspiration. but even then the researcher has to formulate a hypothesis to be tested before being sure that. reworkings. These have been. quite properly. This is much more holistic — involving guesses. there are no scientists in existence who really wait until they have all the evidence in front of them before they try to work out what it might possibly mean.If the predictions turn out to be correct then your hypothesis has been supported and may be retained until such time as some further test shows it not to be correct. organised into a more serial.scientific work of an experimental or exploratory nature starts with some expectation about the outcome. If the predictions you make as a result of deducing certain consequences from your hypothesis are not shown to be correct then you discard or modify your hypothesis. logical order so that the worth of the output may be evaluated independently of the behavioural processes by which it was obtained. you then proceed to a strictly logical and rigorous process. that some experiments are conducted and others are not. for example between the academic papers with which Crick and Watson demonstrated the structure of the DNA molecule and the fascinating book The Double Helix in which Watson (1968) described how they did it. but it does not describe the psychological behaviour that brings it about. It is in the light of an expectation that some observations are held to be relevant and some irrelevant. for example.

‘scientific method’ may more usefully be thought of as a way of writing up research rather than as a way of carrying it out.point of view. Questions 29-30 Reading Passage 12 has seven paragraphs A-G. List of Headings i The Crick and Watson approach to research ii Antidotes to bacterial infection iii The testing of hypotheses iv Explaining the inductive method v Anticipating results before data is collected vi How research is done and how it is reported vii The role of hypotheses in scientific research viii Deducing the consequences of hypotheses Example ix Karl Popper’s claim that the scientific method is hypothetico-deductive x The unbiased researcher Paragraph A Answer: ix 29 Paragraph C 30 Paragraph D 31 Paragraph E . Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs C-G from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers i-x in boxes 29-33 on your answer sheet.

38 Many people carry out research in a mistaken way. B to encourage Ph. .D students by explaining different conceptions of the research process. C to explain to Ph. 39 The ‘scientific method’ is more a way of describing research than a way of doing it. 37 If a prediction based on a hypothesis is fulfilled. NO if the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer.D students the logic which the scientific research paper follows. D to help Ph.D students to work by guesswork and inspiration. Questions 36-39 Do the following statements reflect the opinions of the writer in Reading Passage 12? In boxes 36-39 on your answer sheet write YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer.32 Paragraph F 33 Paragraph G Questions 34 and 35 In which TWO paragraphs in Reading Passage12 does the writer give advice directly to the reader? Write the TWO appropriate letters (A—G) in boxes 34 and 35 on your answer sheet. then the hypothesis is confirmed as true. Which of the following statements best describes the writer’s main purpose in Reading Passage 3? A to advise Ph. Question 40 Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 40 on your answer sheet.D students not to cheat while carrying out research. NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 36 Popper says that the scientific method is hypothetico-deductive.

D. Students with Attention Deficit Disorder (A. and Undifferentiated A. and incapable of pleasing the teacher and oneself in the process. quickly leads to despondence and low self-esteem.D. It is estimated that 3 . without Hyperactivity.40. It is important to base remedial action on an accurate diagnosis.D.D. Undifferentiated A. Of course.D.D. is a physiological disorder caused by some structural or chemically-based neurotransmitter .D. as was once believed.H.H.Missing Out on Learning Study requires a student's undivided attention. are as follows: • has difficulty paying attention • does not appear to listen • is unable to carry out given instructions • avoids or dislikes tasks which require sustained mental effort • has difficulty with organization • is easily distracted • often loses things • is forgetful in daily activities Children with A.D.) are particularly deficient in this respect for reasons which are now known to be microbiological and not behavioral. This will naturally induce behavioral problems. also exhibit excessive and inappropriate physical activity. This boisterousness often interferes with the educational development of others.D. The characteristics of a person with A.D.D.D. Missing Out on Learning ou are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27 . sufferers exhibit some.D. A. .D.A. of the symptoms of each category. with Hyperactivity (A. but not all. Since A.).5 % of all children suffer from Attention Deficit Disorder.D. A. being unable to concentrate.D.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 13 .D. There are three main types of Attention Deficit Disorder: A.D.D.D.D. such as constant fidgeting and running about the room. It is impossible to acquire a complex skill or absorb information about a subject in class unless one learns to concentrate without undue stress for long periods of time.D.

problem in the nervous system, it responds especially well to certain psycho stimulant
drugs, such as Ritalin. In use since 1953, the drug enhances the ability to structure and
complete a thought without being overwhelmed by non-related and distracting thought
processes.
Psycho stimulants are the most widely used medications for persons with A.D.D. and
A.D.H.D. Recent findings have validated the use of stimulant medications, which work in
about 70 - 80% of A.H.D.D. children and adults (Wilens and Biederman, 1997). In fact,
up to 90% of destructibility in A.D.D. sufferers can be removed by medication. The
specific dose of medicine varies for each child, but such drugs are not without side
effects, which include reduction in appetite, loss of weight, and problems with falling
asleep.
Not all students who are inattentive in class have Attention Deficit Disorder. Many are
simply unwilling to commit themselves to the task at hand. Others might have a specific
learning disability (S.L.D.). However, those with A.D.D. have difficulty performing in
school not usually because they have trouble learning 1 , but because of poor
organization, inattention, compulsion and impulsiveness. This is brought about by an
incompletely understood phenomenon, in which the individual is, perhaps, best
described as 'tuning out' for short to long periods of time. The effect is analogous to the
switching of channels on a television set. The difference is that an A.D.D. sufferer is not
'in charge of the remote control'. The child with A.D.D. is unavailable to learn something else has involuntarily captured his or her whole attention.
It is commonly thought that A.D.D. only affects children, and that they grow out of the
condition once they reach adolescence. It is now known that this is often not the case.
Left undiagnosed or untreated, children with all forms of A.D.D. risk a lifetime of failure
to relate effectively to others at home, school, college and at work. This brings
significant emotional disturbances into play, and is very likely to negatively affect selfesteem. Fortunately, early identification of the problem, together with appropriate
treatment, makes it possible for many victims to overcome the substantial obstacles that
A.D.D. places in the way of successful learning.
1 approximately 15% of A.D.H.D. children do, however, have learning disabilities
Alternative Treatments for A.D.D.
Evaluation








EEG Biofeedback
Dietary intervention (removal of food additives

-preservatives, colorings etc.)

Sugar reduction (in A.D.H.D.)
Correction of (supposed) inner-ear disturbance 
Correction of (supposed) yeast infection

(Candida albicans)
Vitamin/mineral regimen for (supposed) genetic

abnormality

Body manipulations for (supposed)

misalignment of two bones in the skull


expensive
trials flawed - (sample groups small,
no control groups)
ineffective
numerous studies disprove link
slightly effective (but only for small
percentage of children)
undocumented, unscientific studies
inconsistent with current theory
lack of evidence
inconsistent with current theory
lack of evidence
theory disproved in the 1970s
lack of evidence
inconsistent with current theory

Figure 1. Evaluations of Controversial Treatments for A.D.D.
Questions 27-29
You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 27-29.
Refer to Reading Passage 13 "A.D.D. - Missing Out On Learning", and decide which of
the answers best completes the following sentences. Write your answers in boxes 27 29 on your Answer Sheet. The first one has been done for you as an example.
Example: The number of main types of A.D.D. is:
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
Q. 27. Attention Deficit Disorder:
a) is a cause of behavioural problems
b) is very common in children
c) has difficulty paying attention
d) none of the above
Q. 28. Wilens and Biederman have shown that:
a) stimulant medications are useful
b) psychostimulants do not always work
c) hyperactive persons respond well to psychostimulants
d) all of the above
Q. 29. Children with A.D.D.:

a) have a specific learning disability
b) should not be given medication as a treatment
c) may be slightly affected by sugar intake
d) usually improve once they become teenagers

Questions 30-37
You are advised to spend about 10 minutes on Questions 30 - 37.
The following is a summary of Reading Passage 13.
Complete each gap in the text by choosing 30 - 37 on your Answer Sheet.
Write your answers in boxes. Note that there are more choices in the box than gaps.
You will not need to use all the choices given, but you may use a word, or phrase more
than once.
Attention Deficit Disorder is a neurobiological problem that affects 3 - 5% of all .....
(Ex:). ...... Symptoms include inattentiveness and having difficulty getting (30) , as well
as easily becoming distracted. Sometimes, A.D.D. is accompanied by (31) In these
cases, the sufferer exhibits excessive physical activity. Psychostimulant drugs can be
given to A.D.D. sufferers to assist them with the (32) of desired thought processes,
although they might cause (33) Current theory states that medication is the only (34)
that has a sound scientific basis. This action should only be taken after an accurate
diagnosis is made. Children with A.D.D. do not necessarily have trouble learning; their
problem is that they involuntarily (35) their attention elsewhere. It is not only (36) that
are affected by this condition. Failure to treat A.D.D. can lead to lifelong emotional and
behavioral problems. Early diagnosis and treatment, however, are the key to (37)
overcoming learning difficulties associated with A.D.D.
side effects

successfully

completion

adults

E EEG Biofeedback to self-regulate the child's behavior.suggest behavioral counseling. CHILD 1 Problems  CHILD 2 does not listen to   given instructions loses interest   easily cannot complete  tasks quiet and  often forgets to do homework sleeps in class disturbs other CHILD 3  excessively active unable to pay attention dislikes mental effort disturbs other students  diet contains no food    students withdrawn Current  EEG Feedback  none . paying Questions 38 .suggest increased dosage of Ritalin.D.40. C probably not suffering from A. ADVICE: A current treatment ineffective . and decide which of the following pieces of advice is best suited for child listed in the table below.40 You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 38 .D.40 on your Answer Sheet. F daily dose of Ritalin in place of expensive unproven treatment.D. D bone manipulation to realign bones in the skull.medicine switch hyperactivity organized children attention drug Ritalin losing weight remedial action A.H.D. Write your answers in boxes 38 . . B supplement diet with large amounts of vitamins and minerals. Refer to Reading Passage 13.

the most popular being based around substitute fuels such as heavy water. does away with tarred roads and independently controlled vehicles. proposed by a group of Swedish engineers.has remained largely unchanged since it was conceived over 100 years ago. such innovations will do little to halt the carnage on the road. modern vehicle engine design . Section (ii) The Beam-Operated Traffic System.Treatment  Best Advice (38)……………. . The entire system would be computer-controlled and operate without human intervention. or the electric battery charged by the indirect burning of conventional fuels.The Beam Operated Traffic System Questions 1-12 You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-12 which are based on the following reading passage: THE BEAM-OPERATED TRAFFIC SYSTEM The Need for Change The number of people killed each year on the road is more than for all other types of avoidable deaths except for those whose lives are cut short by tobacco use..the combustion engine . or by solar power. A huge amount of money and effort is being channeled into alternative engine designs. What is needed is a radical rethinking of the road system itself. Oddly. Yet road deaths are tolerated . Section (iii) The most preferable means of propulsion is via electrified rails atop the beams. and replaces them with innumerable small carriages suspended from electrified rails along a vast interconnected web of steel beams crisscrossing the skyline. Nevertheless. (39)……………… additives low dose of Ritalin (40)…………….so great is our need to travel about swiftly and economically. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 14 .

automated systems can react faster than can human drivers . It is estimated that at peak travel times passenger capacity could be more than double that of current subway systems. They are also better at accelerating and climbing hills. they help keep polluted air out of cities and restrict it to the point of origin where it can be more easily dealt with.and the increased speed of movement is expected to compensate for loss of privacy. compared to internal combustion engines. Travelers could order a car by swiping a card through a machine. This efficiency is no less true of beam systems than of single vehicles. A city relieved of roads carrying fast moving cars and trucks can be given over to pedestrians and cyclists who can walk or pedal as far as they wish before hailing a quickly approaching beam-operated car. on the other hand. It might be possible to arrange for two simultaneous methods of vehicle hire: one in which large carriages (literally buses) run to a timetable. and another providing for hire of small independently occupied cars at a slightly higher cost. Section (vi) Since traffic will be designated an area high above the ground. Section (iv) A relatively high traffic throughput can be maintained . they add much less to air pollution than the burning of petrol within conventional engines. Existing roads can be dug up and grassed over.Although electric transport systems still require fossil fuels to be burnt or dams to be built. They usually provide a limited service. Included in its scope is provision for the movement of pedestrians at any point and to any point within the system. Section (v) Monorail systems are not new. which is often costly and fails to address the major concern of traffic choking the city. . In addition. but they have so far been built as adjuncts to existing city road systems. electric motors are typically 90% efficient. The Beam-Operated Traffic System. which recognizes a personal number code. provides a complete solution to city transportation. leading to a dramatic drop in the number of deaths and injuries sustained while in transit and while walking about the city. The look of the city is expected to improve considerably for both pedestrians and for people using the System. or planted with low growing bushes and trees. Cyclists could use fold-up bicycles for this purpose. human activities can take place below the transit system in complete safety. which are at most 30% efficient. Furthermore.

rails -controlled carriages conventional tarred road system …. and the loss of revenue for car manufacturers. Refer to Reading Passage 14 "The Beam-Operated Traffic System". Current City Traffic System internal combustion engine : independently controlled vehicles Proposed City Traffic System : ….000 per kilometer to build a new six lane road tunnel.. and complete the flowchart below with appropriate words or phrases from the passage.(4)…. Savings made will include all tunnels. Tunnels carrying beamed traffic will have a narrower cross-sectional diameter and can be dug at less depth than existing tunnels. the potential for vandalism.(3)….4.Section (vii) It is true that the initial outlay for a section of the beam-operated system will be more than for a similar stretch oftarred road.. we must loosen the immediate environment from the grip of the road-bound car. further reducing costs. Write your answers in boxes 1 . 60% of all people on earth live in cities.... while the last objection could be overcome by giving car manufacturers beam-operated vehicle building contracts... Video camera surveillance is a possible answer to vandalism. Questions 1-4 You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 1 .. System city without any …. which are not factored into road-building budgets. since it costs about US $120. Subway train tunnels cost about half that amount. costs for the proposed system must necessarily include vehicle costs. However. .4 on your Answer Sheet.…(1)…… ……(2)…. Objections The only major drawbacks to the proposal are entrenched beliefs that resist change. because they are smaller in size.

. S 10. I...... IELTS Academic Reading Sample 15 . Write your answers in boxes 10 -12 on your Answer Sheet....9 You are advised to spend about 8 minutes on Questions 5-9.. Section (hi). Section (v). 11. Example: Section (vii)... 12..... H. A.. List of Headings Returning the city to the people Speed to offset loss of car ownership Automation to replace existing roads A safe and cheap alternative The monorail system Inter-city freeways Doing the sums ( Example) The complete answer to the traffic problem Cleaner and more efficient 5.. The increased speed of traffic in a Beam-Operated Traffic System is due to electric motors being 90% efficient... B....... Q8. Questions 10-12 You are advised to spend about 7 minutes on Questions 10 -12..... Refer to Reading Passage 14. and write NS if the statement is Not Supported.. Write S if the statement is Supported by what is written in the passage........ C.... F........ Choose the most suitable heading from the list of headings below for the seven sections of Reading Passage 14 "The Beam-Operated Traffic System".... Section (ii)...9 on your Answer Sheet.. Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels costing less to build than subway tunnels.. G. Example: The combustion engine was designed over 100 years ago.. E.Beneath The Canopy BENEATH THE CANOPY .. 6....... A possible solution to willful damage to the System is to install camera equipment. Section (vi) . Write your answers in boxes 5 ........ Section (iv).. and look at the statements below... D. Q9..Questions 5 . 7.........

8. 4.timber. Cataloguing species and analysing newly-found substances takes time and money. scientists will probably never know for certain. 3. The drug aspirin. would be an unparalleled act of human stupidity. it is not clear that developing countries would necessarily benefit financially from extended bioprospecting of their rainforests. Two of the most potent anti.1. ignoring the fact that their wealth was in large part due to the exploitation of their own natural world. Conservationists point out that important medical discoveries have already been made from material found in tropical rainforests. 6. It is often forgotten that forests once covered most of Europe. The current devastation of once impenetrable rainforest is of particular concern because. 2. was originally found in the bark of a rainforest tree. now synthesised. Rich nations exhort them to preserve and care for what is left. As well as providing material for housing. view potential financial gain decades into the future as less attractive than short-term profit from logging. it enabled wealthy nations to build large navies and shipping fleets with which to continue their plunder of the world's resources. Large tracts of forest were destroyed over the centuries for the same reason that the remaining rainforests are now being felled . yet the outlook is bleak. Pharmaceutical . The world's tropical rainforests comprise some 6% of the Earth's land area and contain more than half of all known life forms. Time is running out for biological research. or a conservative estimate of about 30 million species of plants and animals. 5. the biologically diverse storehouse of flora and fauna is gone forever. both of which are in short supply. The rewards of discovery are potentially enormous.cancer drugs derive from the rosy periwinkle discovered in the 1950s in the tropical rainforests of Madagascar. so vast is the amount of study required. Commercial development is responsible for the loss of about 17 million hectares of virgin rainforest each year . which took millions of years to reach its present highly evolved state.a figure approximating 1% of what remains of the world's rainforests. Chemical compounds that might be extracted from yet-to-be-discovered species hidden beneath the tree canopy could assist in the treatment of disease or help to control fertility. although new tree growth may in time repopulate felled areas. Losing this bountiful inheritance. Besides.disappearing ecosystems. 7. The developed world takes every opportunity to lecture countries which are the guardians of rainforest . Timber-rich countries mired in debt. Some experts estimate there could be two or even three times as many species hidden within these complex and fast.

companies make huge profits from the sale of drugs with little return to the country in which an original discovery was made. chemical and behavioural information that will be of benefit only to those countries developed enough to use them. so-called "lost" tribes . the impact will be on the entire human race. Until very recently.F below and write your answers in boxes 16 . coupled with climate change and ecological destruction will have profound and lasting consequences.. complete obliteration... Contact with the modern world inevitably brings with it exploitation. Loss of biodiversity.. Forest-dwellers who have managed to live in harmony with their environment have much to teach us of life beneath the tree canopy... Example: ' a conservative estimate' . loss of traditional culture.. 9. Questions 16-20 You are advised to spend about 8 minutes on Questions 16-20.20 on your Answer Sheet... 10. The right-hand column contains explanations of those quotations. Quotation Explanation . Fires lit to clear land for further logging and for housing and agricultural development played havoc in the late 1990s in the forests of Borneo.B. and. Refer to Reading Passage 15 "Beneath the Canopy" and answer the following questions. Select from the choices A . Painstaking biological fieldwork helps to build immense databases of genetic. It is now unlikely that there are any more truly lost tribes. 12. cataloguing tropical biodiversity involves much more than a search for medically useful and therefore commercially viable drugs. Also. The left-hand column contains quotations taken directly from the reading passage.still existed deep within certain rainforests. Nor are the dangers entirely to the rainforests themselves. 11. Reckless logging itself is not the only danger to rainforests. in an alarming number of instances.. Massive clouds of smoke from burning forest fires swept across the southernmost countries of South-East Asia choking cities and reminding even the most resolute advocates of rainforest clearing of the swiftness of nature's retribution. Match each quotation with the correct explanation. If we do not listen.indigenous peoples who have had no contact with the outside world .

and decide which of the answers best completes the sentences. Q 24. Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your Answer Sheet. Q21. Refer to Reading Passage 15.Refer to Reading Passage 2. large-scale use of plant and wildlife 18. 'loss of biodiversity' 12) D. 'benefit financially from extended bioprospecting of their rainforests' (paragraph 8) 20. purposely low and cautious reckoning 17. What two shortages are given as the reason for the writer's pessimistic outlook? Q23. 'biologically diverse storehouse of flora and fauna' (paragraph 3) B. profit from an analysis of the plant and animal life E. 'exploitation of their own natural world' (paragraph 6) 19. Write your answers in boxes 21 . Who will most likely benefit from the bioprospecting of developing countries' rainforests? Questions 24-26 You are advised to spend about 7 minutes on Questions 24-26. In Borneo in the late 1990s: a) burning forest fires caused air pollution problems as far away as Europe b) reckless logging resulted from burning forest fires c) fires were lit to play the game of havoc d) none of the above . 'timber-rich countries mired in debt' (paragraph 5) C. being less rich in natural wealth (paragraph Questions 21-23 You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 21-23. The amount of rainforest destroyed annually is: a) approximately 6% of the Earth's land area b) such that it will only take 100 years to lose all the forests c) increasing at an alarming rate d) responsible for commercial development Q 25. and look at Questions 21-23 below.Ex: 'a conservative estimate' (paragraph 1) A. How many medical drug discoveries does the article mention? Q22. with many trees but few financial resources 16.23 on your Answer Sheet. wealth of plants and animals F.

While this should not provoke much surprise. DESTINATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH STUDENTS Paragraph (i) At any given time. the course books used to teach English in most elementary and high schools introduce students to American English and the American accent from a very early age. in Asia and North and South America especially. In the main. The reasons for choosing to study English abroad differ with each individual. culture. New Zealand. more than a million international students around the world are engaged in the study of the English language in a predominantly English-speaking country. Before . which. but has the most homogenous group of students . in order of popularity.this heterogeneity being largely due to its immense pulling power as the world's foremost economy and the resulting extensive focus on U. Britain. The strength of international business connections between countries also gives a good indication of where students will seek tuition. Paragraph (iii) The United States attracts the most diverse array of nationalities to its English language classrooms .Q 26. are the U. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 16 .S. in turn. Australia. S. throughout the non-European world.most with French as their first language. Paragraph (ii) Numerous studies conducted in Britain and the United States show that the country of choice depends to a large extent on economic factors. Furthermore. careful analysis of the data suggests that students and their parents are most influenced by the preconceptions they have of the countries considered for study abroad. influence the amount they or their parents are prepared to outlay for the experience. students tend to follow the traditional pattern of study for their national group.. and Canada. as do the reasons for the choice of destination. The five most popular destinations. Canada also benefits from worldwide North American exposure.Destinations For International English Students You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-15. Many so-called "lost" tribes of certain rainforests: a) have been destroyed by contact with the modern world b) do not know how to exploit the rainforest without causing harm to the environment c) are still lost inside the rainforest d) must listen or they will impact on the entire human race.

the economic squeeze seems to have had a compensatory effect. the growing awareness that courses at antipodean universities and colleges are of an exceptionally high standard. the capital of Australia's closest Asian neighbor. naturally. but many Asian. students in Europe study from predominantly British English material. Middle-Eastern.S. But even the Asian economic downturn in the 1990s has not significantly altered the demographic composition of the majority of English language classrooms within the region. there has been a slight but noticeable shift towards Australia and New Zealand by less wealthy Asian students who might otherwise have chosen the United States for English study. is only 5506 kilometers from Sydney). the comparatively inexpensive cost of living and tuition. opt for neighbouring Britain. However. (Jakarta. Paragraph (vii) The U. most Europeans. revised entry procedures for overseas students have made it possible for an increasing number to attend classes to improve their English for alternative reasons. Paragraph (v) Australia and New Zealand have roughly the same mix of students in their language classrooms. perhaps of most importance to many Asian students whose English study is a prelude to tertiary study. and African students decide upon the same route too. and Britain will always be the first choice of most students wishing to study the English language abroad. It has clearly caused a reduction in the number of students from affected countries who are financially able to study overseas. In addition. and it is too early to tell whether this trend will continue. and. The majority are Asian for reasons that are not difficult to comprehend: the proximity of the two countries to Asia. The emerging global consciousness of the late twentieth century has meant that students from as far as Sweden and Brazil are choosing to combine a taste for exotic travel with the study of English 'down under' and in 'the land of the long white cloud'.furthering their English skills. This is partly because there has always been a greater demand for enrolment at Australian and New Zealand tertiary institutions than places available to overseas students. Paragraph (vi) Nor have the economic problems in Asia caused appreciable drops in full-time college and university attendances by Asian students in these two countries. In addition. . Paragraph (iv) Australia and New Zealand are often overlooked. Indonesia. but not all students of English who choose these countries are from Asia. but hundreds of thousands of international students have discovered the delights of studying in the Southern Hemisphere.

10 on your Answer Sheet. Write your answers in boxes 5 .4 on your Answer Sheet. not given not given 3…….However. Questions 1-4 You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 1-4. Britain Australia New Zealand Canada 1st Ex:… 2nd… 3rd 4th 5th American 1………. and as the world continues to shrink. future international students of English will be advantaged because the choice of viable study destinations will be wider. 2……. economic considerations undoubtedly wield great influence upon Asian and non-Asian students alike. Equal 3 5 1 2 student heterogeneity (1 = most heterogenous 5 = least heterogenous) You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 4 -9..S.. Choose the most suitable heading from the list of headings below for the seven paragraphs of Reading Passage 1 "Destinations for International English Students". The first one has been done for you as an example. Complete the missing information in the table below by referring to Reading Passage 1 "Destinations for International English Students". Write your answers in boxes 1 . . If student expectations can be met in less traditional study destinations. order of popularity type of English in course books used in this country U.

. Example: There are presently more than 1. Study destination choices are mostly influenced by proximity to home.. Paragraph (v)... have the widest range of student nationalities.S. T F N Q13..... Heterogeneity in the language classroom B..000......... Student destinations Q4. Paragraph (iv)....... The attractions of studying in the antipodes Example: E... Refer to Reading Passage 1 "Destinations for International English Students".. C.... Reasons for the choice of destination D.. Q8.... Questions 10-15 You are advised to spend about 10 minutes on questions 10 -15. T F N Q11.. Enrollment demand in Australia & New Zealand. E..... T F N Q10............ Q5...... and look at the statements below... N if the information is Not Given in the text... Q6. Conclusion F....... Additional student sources G. Paragraph (iii)..List of Heading A.000 foreign students of English abroad..... Paragraph (i) . F if the statement is False.. Q7. Q9... T F N Q12......... Students of the same nationality usually make similar study choices. T F N . Write your answers in boxes 10 -15 on your Answer Sheet.. Paragraph (ii) .. Example: Paragraph (vii) . English language classrooms in the U..... Students who wish to study business will probably study English overseas.......... Write T if the statement is True.... Paragraph (vi).....

The Danger of ECSTASY Use of the illegal drug named Ecstasy (MDMA) has increased alarmingly in Britain over the last few years.Q14.40. Not all physical problems associated with the drug are immediate.The Danger Of Ecstasy You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 32 . 14 deaths have so far been attributed to the drug in Britain. but people with pre-existing conditions such as a weak heart or asthma may react in extreme ways and are well-advised not to take it. studies appear to implicate other causes since no deaths from overheating have yet been reported. and in 1992 the British Medical Journal claimed that at least seven deaths and many s. It seems that normal healthy people are unlikely to die as a result of taking MDMA.evere adverse reactions have followed its use as a dance drug. Asian students still dominate the English language classrooms of Australia and New Zealand. T F N Q15. T F N IELTS Academic Reading Sample 17 . Standards at Australian and New Zealand tertiary institutions are improving. However. overheating of the body and inadequate replacement of fluids have been noted as the primary causes of death. In almost all cases of MDMA-related deaths in Britain. or risking damage to the kidneys. Yet in the United States. While it is true that all drugs by their very nature change the way in which the body reacts to its environment and are therefore potentially dangerous. although it is possible that other drugs contributed to some of those deaths. it is still unclear whether casual use of Ecstasy is as dangerous as authorities believe. may lead to fatal complications in certain circumstances. Medium term effects include the possibility of contracting the liver disease hepatitis. Despite the 1990s Asian economic crisis. Medium term and long term effects have been reported which are quite disturbing. What is certain is that the drug causes distinct changes to the body which. and cases of human liver or kidney damage have so far . animal studies show no such damage (although it is readily admitted by researchers that animal studies are far from conclusive since humans react in different ways than rats and monkeys to the drug). unless understood. yet not all are conclusively linked to the drug's use.

and there is always the danger is that one's normal life might seem dull by comparison. If the serotonin level. bouts of mania . in which they were found to have permanent brain damage as a result of being administered MDMA. loss of motivation and desire. and measure the level of the chemical serotonin. no attempt was made to change the classification. the experience is likely to be short-lived. Paranoia. albeit after a long time. fails to return to normal. were used to link brain damage in humans to Ecstasy use. Unfortunately. The psychological effects of taking Ecstasy are also a major cause for concern. until recently. However. Evidence that MDMA causes long term cellular damage to the brain has. This is performed weeks or months after use of a suspect drug. It is not difficult to find occasional or regular users of the drug who will admit to suffering mental damage as a result. then it is probable that the drug in question has caused damage to the cells of that part of the brain. evidence to date suggests that alcohol and Ecstasy taken at the same time may result in lasting harm to bodily organs. Nonetheless. it is true that the drug can be liberating for some users. which is lowered as a result of the use of many drugs.* . and not unusual side effects of the drug. It is clear that the mind is more readily damaged by the drug than is the body. the most common method of detection is to cut out a section of the brain. the latest available data regarding permanent brain damage in humans who have taken Ecstasy regularly over many years (as little as once a week for four years) seem to justify the cautious approach taken in the past. To be fair to those who claim that Ecstasy frees the personality by removing one's defenses against psychological attack. and although the results of the research were doubted by some and criticised as invalid.all are common. but in most cases the serotonin level returns to normal.only been reported in Britain. Early experiments with monkeys. These early concerns led to the drug being classified as extremely dangerous. . Ecstasy has been implicated in causing brain damage in this way. been based on experiments with animals alone. depression.

and decide which of the answers best completes the following sentences. Write your answers in boxes 32 . You are advised to spend about 10 minutes on Questions 32 . while it increases its effect upon the body. it is necessary to forgo its use for a while in order to experience again its full effect. Any substance which produces such a strong effect on the user should be treated with appropriate respect and caution. Deaths from Ecstasy are sometimes caused by: a) people with pre-existing conditions b) too much fluid in the body c) overheating of the body d) all of the above Q35. heroin. because one becomes quickly tolerant of its effect on the mind. Example: In recent years. unlike the classic addictive drugs.Perhaps the most damning evidence urging against the use of Ecstasy is that it is undoubtedly an addictive substance. Refer to Reading Passage 17 "The Dangers of Ecstasy".35 on your Answer Sheet. Ecstasy does not produce physical withdrawal symptoms.35. MDMA studies conducted on animals: a) show damage to the kidneys . use of the illegal drug Ecstasy in Britain: a) has increased b) has decreased alarmingly c) has decreased d) has increased a little Q32. The first one has been done for you as an example. In fact. but one that quickly loses its ability to transport the mind. morphine and so on. The use of Ecstasy: a) is usually fatal b) is less dangerous than the authorities believe c) is harmless when used as a dance drug d) none of the above Q34. opium. It is not known whether: a) drugs change the way the body reacts b) the British Medical Journal has reported seven deaths caused Ecstasy c) Ecstasy alone was responsible for the 14 deaths in Britain d) Ecstasy causes changes to the body Q33. Yet.

Ecstacy produces no withdrawal symptoms even though it is IELTS Academic Reading Sample 18 . Permanent damage to the body may result if Ecstasy is taken simultaneously with Q37. but not until 1772 did he come across a book on astronomy. which is always hidden by the sun. essentially similar to our own. Could there be another planet there. Cellular damage to the brain is detected by measuring the amount of Q38. and deep inside he was conscious that music was not his destiny. but always invisible? If a space probe today sent back evidence that such a world existed it would cause not much more sensation than Sir William Herschel's discovery of a new planet.40 on your Answer Sheet. left the German army in 1757.40 The Discovery of Uranus Someone once put forward an attractive though unlikely theory. One of the positive effects of taking Ecstasy is that it can Q40. He played the violin and oboe and at one time was organist in the Octagon Chapel in the city of Bath. He was born in Hanover in Germany in 1738. Herschel's was an active mind. he therefore read widely in science and the arts. Herschel was an extraordinary man — no other astronomer has ever covered so vast a field of work — and his career deserves study.The Discovery of Uranus You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27 . financing it by his professional work .40 Using information from Reading Passage 17. The serotonin level of Ecstasy users takes a long time to Q39.b) cannot provide absolute proof of the effect of the drug on humans c) are cruel and have been discontinued d) have yet to indicate long term brain damage Questions 36 . Throughout the Earth's annual revolution around the sun there is one point of space always hidden from our eyes. Uranus. in 1781. but without hesitation he embarked on his new career. This point is the opposite part of the Earth's orbit. He was then 34. Q36. and arrived in England the same year with no money but quite exceptional music ability. middle-aged by the standards of the time. Write your answers in boxes 36 . complete the following sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.

its diameter compares unfavourably with that of Jupiter and Saturn. the discovery of a new planet was the last thought in anybody's mind. In his own words: On Tuesday the 13th of March. supported by the royal grant in recognition of his work. suspected it to be a comet. furthermore. the second. in 1780-81. entitled An Account of a Comet. pointing his telescope to every accessible part of the sky and recording what he saw. being struck with its uncommon magnitude. Uranus is a giant in construction. The first review was made in 1775. and comets are only normally visible in the immediate vicinity of the sun. Serious observation began 1774. he was able to devote himself entirely to astronomy. Among these there was one sent to the Royal Society in 1781. The planet was later for a time called Herschel in honour of its discoverer. Afterwards. Herschel wanted to call it georgium sidus (Star of George) in honour of his royal patron King George III of Great Britain. It was during the latter part of this that he discovered Uranus. He set himself the astonishing task of 'reviewing the heavens'. while I was examining the small stars in the neighbourhood of H Geminorum. between ten and eleven in the evening.as a musician. His final achievements spread from the sun and moon to remote galaxies (of which he discovered hundreds). was in use by the late 19th century. I compared it to H Geminorum and the small star in the quartile between Auriga and Gemini. which was first proposed by the German astronomer Johann Elert Bode. and most momentous. I perceived one that appeared visibly larger than the rest. He spent years mastering the art of telescope construction. and finding it to be much larger than either of them. and even by present-day standards his instruments are comparable with the best. and that the 'reviewer of the heavens' had stumbled across an unprecedented prize. and papers flooded from his pen until his death in 1822. The name Uranus. it showed a remarkably sharp disc. But further observation by other astronomers besides Herschel revealed two curious facts. Also. in other words. Through a telescope the planet appears as a small bluish-green disc with a . As its orbit came to be worked out the truth dawned that it was a new planet far beyond Saturn's realm. Herschel's care was the hallmark of a great observer. but not so much in size. Uranus' atmosphere consists largely of hydrogen and helium. For comet. to be fair. it was moving so slowly that it was thought to be a great distance from the sun. though on the terrestrial scale it is still colossal. he was not prepared to jump any conclusions. with a trace of methane.

Four more rings were discovered in January 1986 during the exploratory flight of Voyager 2 2 . Write your answers in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet. when the moon comes between an observer and a star or planet . were found in 1851 by the British astronomer William Lassell. The next two. during which it sent back information about these planets to scientists on earth . Titania and Oberon. all revolve about its equator and move with the planet in an east—west direction. Discovery of the moons Titania and Oberon (29)…………. were discovered by Herschel in 1787. while recording the occultation 1 of a star behind the planet. Discovery of the planet Uranus (28)…………. The two largest moons. Glossary: 'Occultation' : in astronomy. First discovery of Uranus' rings (30)…………. especially. was discovered in 1948 by the American astronomer Gerard Peter Kuiper. Umbriel and Ariel. thought before 1986 to be the innermost moon. when one object passes in front of another and hides the second from view. Elliot discovered the presence of five rings encircling the equator of Uranus. the American astronomer James L. Uranus and Jupiter in 1986. In addition to its rings. Discovery of the last 10 moons of Uranus (31)…………. In 1977. Event Date Example William Herschel was born Herschel began investigating astronomy Answer 1738 (27)…………. Uranus has 15 satellites ('moons').faint green periphery. 'Voyager 2' : an unmanned spacecraft sent on a voyage past Saturn. Questions 27-31 Complete the table below. Write a date for each answer. . the last 10 discovered by Voyager 2 on the same flight. for example. Miranda.

was believed to be the moon closest to the surface of Uranus........ 34 Herschel collaborated with other astronomers of his time.. From 1948 until 1986.. the moon .. (39) .......... (38) ...... Questions 37-40 Complete each of the following statements (Questions 37-40) with a name from the Reading Passage......... 36 Herschel's discovery was the most important find of the last three hundred years.. The first five rings around Uranus were discovered by . 33 Herschel knew immediately that he had found a new planet.... Creating Artificial Reefs . (37) ... before finally settling on Uranus.. 35 Herschel's newly-discovered object was considered to be too far from the sun to be a comet..... IELTS Academic Reading Sample 19 .......Creating Artificial Reefs You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 19 below.. then . Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet....... The suggested names of the new planet started with ... (40).Questions 32-36 Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer of the Reading Passage? In boxes 32-36 on your answer sheet write YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this Example Herschel was multi-talented Answer YES 32 It is improbable that there is a planet hidden behind the sun.

. providing purpose-built accommodation for commercial species (such as lobsters and octupi) and acting as sea defences. where there is a national reef plan using cleaned up rigs and tanks. scientific evidence suggests that if we dump the right things. concrete blocks. artificial reefs have mainly been used to attract fish for recreational fishing or sport-diving. these artificial reefs are an ideal home. but part of a coordinated. tyres filled with concrete and redundant planes litter the sea floor. Sea-dumping incites widespread condemnation.some the size of small apartment blocks -principally to increase fish harvests. a nation's leftovers have been discarded. they can be an effective way of improving fish harvests. offering food and shelter. state-run programme. this is not waste disposal. It also depends on what species are to be attracted. purposebuilt structures of steel or concrete have been employed . It is pointless creating high-rise structures for fish that prefer flat or low-relief habitat. In the US. For as well as protecting existing habitat. In areas of a solid concrete structure will be more appropriate than ballasted tyres. Derelict ships. However. plants and other sea organisms. But there are many other ways in which they can be used to manage the marine habitat. Strong currents. Little surprise when oceans are seen as 'convenient' dumping grounds for the rubbish we have created but would rather forget. scrapped cars. And more recently. army tanks. for example. However. the choice of design and materials for an artificial reef depends on where it is going to be placed. To recently arrived fish.In the coastal waters of the US. sea life can actually be enhanced. But the most important consideration is the purpose of the reef.

what's more. you need something that will stop trawlers dead in their tracks. And the benefits have been enormous. For example. This will require more scientific research. the real challenge now is to develop environmentally safe ways of using recycled waste to increase marine diversity. If you want to protect areas of the seabed. And at the moment. Britain established its first quarried rock artificial reef in 1984 off the Scottish coast. these areas can become over. But while the scientific study of these structures is a little over a quarter of a century old. where artificial reef programmes have been instigated in response to declining fish populations. those who construct and deploy reefs have sole rights to the harvest.term effects of disposing of tyres at sea. What we must never be allowed to do is have an excuse for dumping anything we like at sea. It deployed its first scientifically planned reef using concrete cubes assembled in pyramid forms in 1974 to enhance fisheries and stop trawling. mainly to discourage trawling and enhance the productivity of fisheries. In fact. There is no doubt that artificial reefs have lots to offer. the leachates from one of the most commonly used reef materials. catches are often allowed to exceed the maximum potential new production of the artificial reef because there is no proper management control. which is destroying sea grass beds and the marine life that depends on them. for example. has created vast areas of artificial habitat . By placing reefs close to home. In the Philippines. fishermen can save time and fuel. especially when it comes to oil and gas rigs. tyres.' says Dr Antony Jensen of the Southampton Oceanography Centre. artificial reefs have been mainly employed to protect habitat.to increase its fish stocks. Italy boasts considerable artificial reef activity. Questions 1-3 The list below gives some of the factors that must be taken into account when deciding . the cultural and historical importance of seafood in Japan is reflected by the fact that it is a world leader in reef technology.rather than isolated reefs . In Europe. Particularly so in the Mediterranean where reefs have been sunk as physical obstacles to stop illegal trawling. But unless they are carefully managed.fished. And while purpose-built structures are effective. for example. Clearly. could potentially be harmful to the creatures and plants that they are supposed to attract. And Spain has built nearly 50 reefs in its waters. to assess its potential for attracting commercial species. Yet few extensive studies have been undertaken into the long. the challenge is to develop environmentally acceptable ways of disposing of our rubbish while enhancing marine life too. Meanwhile. artificial reefs made out of readily available materials such as bamboo and coconuts have been used by fishermen for centuries. there is little consensus about what is environmentally acceptable to dump at sea.Japan.

Area/Country Type of Reef Purpose US Made using old …. In ..... С to examine their dangers to marine life... Question 13 Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 13 on your answer sheet. . В to expand their use in the marine environment......(7)…. people who build reefs are legally entitled to all the fish they attract......(8)…. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 20 .(9).. both .. the next step in the creation of artificial reefs is A to produce an international agreement..(5)…. 13 According to the writer. Write your answers in boxes 9-12 on your answer sheet.. good . complete the following sentences. is required. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. D to improve on purpose-built structures..(11)...The Pursuit of Happiness You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40 which are based on Reading Passage 20 below..were used to make reefs. A The fishing activity in the area В The intended location of the reef С The existing reef structures D The type of marine life being targeted E The function of the reef F The cultural importance of the area Questions 4-8 Complete the table below... Write your answers in boxes 4-8 on your answer sheet. WhichTHREE of these factors are mentioned by the writer of the article? Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet. To attract fish for leisure activities Japan Forms large area of artificial habitat to improve …. To ensure that reefs are not overfished.(4)…..(10). In the past.. Fish species Questions 9-12 Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.. Trawling inhibits the development of marine life because it damages the .....(12).. to prevent trawling Britain made of rock to encourage ….how to construct an artificial reef.. to act as a sea defence Italy Consists of pyramid shapes of ….... Europe lies deep down to form …(6)….

The Pursuit of Happiness "New research uncovers some anti-intuitive insights into how many people are happy . and happiness does not appear to depend significantly on external circumstances. Furthermore.389 spoke of happiness. dozens of investigators throughout the world have asked several hundred thousand Representative sampled people to reflect on their happiness and satisfaction with life or what psychologists call "subjective well-being".500 people a year since 1957. During the past two decades.380 articles indexed in Psychological Abstracts mentioned depression. How can social scientists measure something as hard to pin down as happiness? Most researchers simply ask people to report their feelings of happiness or unhappiness and to assess how satisfying their lives are. happiness is relatively unexplored terrain for social scientists. 2.340 life satisfaction. Recently we and other researchers have begun a systematic study of happiness. three in 10 Americans say they are very happy.. The majority describe themselves as "pretty happy". Such self-reported well-being is moderately consistent over years of retesting. Government-funded efforts have also probed the moods of European countries. Between 1967 and 1994. Only 2. Only one in 10 chooses the most negative description "not too happy". and 405 joy. 36. for example. the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan has carried out similar studies on a less regular basis. the responses of random samples of people around the world about their happiness paints a much rosier picture. We have uncovered some surprising findings. . Although viewing life as a tragedy has a long and honorable history..851 anxiety. In the US the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago has surveyed a representative sample of roughly 1. as has the Gallup Organization. In the University of Chicago surveys.and why. People are happier than one might expect.099 anger. those who say they are happy and satisfied seem happy to their close friends and family members and to a psychologist- ." _____________________________ Compared with misery. 46. and 5. joy.

reveal that no time of life is notably happier or unhappier. Interviews with representative samples of people of all ages. literacy and duration of democratic government. Wealth is also a poor predictor of happiness. tend to go hand in hand with national wealth. Furthermore. almost all strategies for assessing subjective well-being . Similarly. less hostile and abusive.including those that sample people's experience by polling them at random times with beepers . . Are people in rich countries happier. In Portugal. Their daily mood ratings reveal more positive emotions. such as civil rights. Okun. As a result. Haring. Even very rich people . such as Bangladesh and India. Compared with the depressed. Those whose income has increased over a 10-year period are not happier than those whose income is stagnant. it is impossible to tell whether the happiness of people in wealthier nations is based on money or is a by-product of other felicities.only in the poorest countries.those surveyed among Forbes magazine's 100 wealthiest Americans . by and large. happy people are less self-focused. economic class. but the margin may be slim. Indeed. and they smile more than those who call themselves unhappy. Even though Americans earn twice as much in today's dollars as they did in 1957. is income a good measure of emotional well-being. only one in 10 people reports being very happy. other factors. according to a statistical digest of 146 studies by Marilyn J. We have found that the even distribution of happiness cuts across almost all demographic classifications of age. all then at Arizona State University. for example. for example. the proportion of those telling surveyors from the National Opinion Research Center that they are "very happy" has declined from 35 to 29 percent. whereas in the much more prosperous Netherlands the proportion of very happy is four in 10. than people in not so rich countries? It appears in general that they are. race and educational level. men and women are equally likely to declare themselves "very happy" and "satisfied" with life. all of which also promote reported life satisfaction.turn up similar findings. Yet there are curious reversals in this correlation between national wealth and well-being -the Irish during the 1980s consistently reported greater life satisfaction than the wealthier West Germans. People have not become happier over time as their cultures have become more affluent.are only slightly happier than the average American. and less susceptible to disease.interviewer. in most nations the correlation between income and happiness is negligible . William Stock and Morris A. In addition. Self-reported happiness also predicts other indicators of well-being.

despite changes in work.Although happiness is not easy to predict from material circumstances. Inc. D Happiness levels are higher than they had believed. 32 Over fifty per cent of people consider themselves to be 'happy'. В They felt people had responded dishonestly. Questions 31-34 According to the passage. С They conflict with those of other researchers. it seems consistent for those who have it. 29 What do the writers say about their research findings? A They had predicted the results correctly. All rights reserved. Copyright © May 1996 by Scientific American. D People tend to think about themselves negatively. 31 Happiness is not gender related. Myers and Ed Diener. so you do not have to use all of them. [ From "The Pursuit of Happiness" by David G. residence and family status. D It reveals additional information. . which of the findings below (31-34) is quoted by which Investigative Body (A-G)? Write your answers in boxes 31-34 on your answer sheet. the happiest people in 1973 were still relatively happy a decade later. 28 What point are the writers making in the opening paragraph? A Happiness levels have risen since 1967.000 adults. 30 In the fourth paragraph. С Happiness is not a well-documented research area. ] Questions 28-30 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 23-30 on your answer sheet. NB There are more Investigative Bodies than findings. В It appears to be reliable. С It is better than using beepers. В Journals take a biased view on happiness. what does the reader learn about the research method used? A It is new. In one National Institute on Aging study of 5.

...... and it appears that other factors need to be considered. In fact.. Stopped Doubled Stabilized No Crept up Slightly Significant Remarkably Less Slowed down too similar reversed much more List of Words great some dropped affected clearly IELTS Academic Reading Sample 21 ... (37).... You may use any of the words more than once.. happier than those who live in poorer countries...... University of Chicago B Arizona State University С The Institute for Social Research..33 Happiness levels are marginally higher for those in the top income brackets. (36)... Choose your answers from the box at the bottom of the page and write them in boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet NB There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all. people on average incomes are only slightly... over the past forty years but happiness levels have ... incomes in the States have . Investigative Bodies A The National Opinion Research Center..... (38).. In terms of national wealth.. University of Michigan D Forbes Magazine E The National Institute on Aging F The Gallup Organization G The Government Questions 35-40 Complete the summary of Reading Passage 20 below.. .Looking for a Market among Adolescents . Affected For example. by relatively few factors. difference to how happy we are. happy than extremely rich people and a gradual increase in prosperity makes ...... 34 'Happy' people remain happy throughout their lives. populations of wealthy nations are . (35). HOW HAPPY ARE WE? Example : Answer Our happiness levels are .. (39)........ Although in some cases this trend is ....... over the same period. (40).....

You may use any heading more than once. NB There are more headings than paragraphs so you will not use all of them. Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers (i-xi) in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27 which are based on Reading Passage 21 on the following pages. Questions 14-19 Reading Passage 21 has eight paragraphs (A-H). List of Headings i Gathering the information ii Cigarettes produced to match an image iii Financial outlay on marketing iv The first advertising methods v Pressure causes a drop in sales vi Changing attitudes allow new marketing tactics vii Background to the research viii A public uproar is avoided ix The innovative move to written adverts x A century of uninhibited smoking xi Conclusions of the research 14 Paragraph A 15 Paragraph В 16 Paragraph С Example Paragraph D 17 Paragraph E 18 Paragraph F Answer iv .

when tobacco advertising was banned from television and radio. historically. the tobacco business has maintained that its advertising is geared to draw established smokers to particular brands. or to $4. Beginning in 1970. The 1955 Current Population Survey (CPS) was the first to query respondents for this information. with adolescents being the primary target.000 individuals. This apparently high cost to attract a new smoker is very likely recouped over the average 25 years that this teen will smoke. leaders of the tobacco companies boasted that innovative mass-marketing strategies built the industry. Answers from all the surveys were combined to produce a sample of more than 165. The current expenditure translates to about $75 for every adult smoker. the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) included this question in some polls. To explore the issue. Using a respondent's age at the time of the survey and the reported age of initiation. We find that. В In the first half of this century. the US tobacco industry spent $5 billion on domestic marketing. the most recent year for which data are available. [age they started smoking ].500 for every adolescent who became a smoker that year. But public health advocates insist that such advertising plays a role in generating new demand. we examined several marketing campaigns undertaken over the years and correlated them with the ages smokers say they began their habit. the year the person began smoking could be determined.19 Paragraph G Example Paragraph H Answer xi Looking for a Market among Adolescents A In 1992. there is considerable evidence that such campaigns led to an increase in cigarette smoking among adolescents of the targeted group. Recently. although only summary data survive. Dividing the number of adolescents (defined as those 12 to 17 years old)who started smoking during . however. however. That figure represents a huge increase from the approximate £250-million budget in 1971. С National surveys collected the ages at which people started smoking.

independent and very thin.8 percent between 1930 and 1933.a particular interval by the number who were "eligible" to begin at the start of the interval set the initiation rate for that group. which a recipient could redeem for free cigarettes . The most popular was Virginia Slims. rates for males rose only slightly. initiation by age 18 for males in this group jumped to 21. snuff or chewing tobacco. pipes.. According to the 1955 CPS. During the same period. Thirteen percent of the males surveyed in 1955 who reached adolescence between i 890 and 1910 commenced smoking by 18 years of age. which urged women to "Reach for a Lucky instead of a Sweet.9 percent between 1918 and 1921. Such tactics inspired outcry from educational leaders concerned about their corrupting influence on teenage boys. The visuals of this campaign emphasized a woman who was strong. as opposed to using cigars. Initiation in female adolescents nearly doubled. Some brands included soft-porn pictures of women in the packages.9 percent between 1910 and 1912 to 4. G The next major boost in smoking initiation in adolescent females occurred in the late 1960s. For adolescent males it went up from 2. a two thirds increase over those bom before 1890.. In 1967 the tobacco industry launched "niche" brands aimed exclusively at women. In 1926 a poster depicted women imploring smokers of Chesterfield cigarettes to "Blow Some My Way". Marketing strategies included painted billboards and an extensive distribution of coupons.. compared with almost no females. In 1912.6 percent between 1922 and 1925 to 1. rates for adolescent males remained stable.. The most successful crusade." The 1955 CPS data showed that 7 percent of the women who were adolescents during the mid1920s had started smoking by age 18. . from 0. D Mass-marketing campaigns began as early as the 1880s. E The power of targeted advertising is more apparent if one considers the men born between 1890 and 1899.2 percent between 1972 and 1975 (NHIS data). when many of these men were teenagers. Every city in the country was bombarded with print advertising. In contrast.6 percent. . The NHIS initiation rate also reflected this change. the R.7 percent between 1964 and 1967 to 6. compared with only 2 percent in the preceding generation of female adolescents. which boosted tobacco consumption sixfold by 1900.. from 3. however. Initiation rates from the NHIS data for adolescent girls were observed to increase threefold. ... Much of the rise was attributed to a greater number of people smoking cigarettes.. Reynolds company launched the Camel brand of cigarettes with a revolutionary approach. F It was not until the mid-1920s that social mores permitted cigarette advertising to focus on women.J. .. was for Lucky Strikes.

. . 23 Women who took up smoking in the past lost weight. Tobacco companies are currently being accused of aiming their advertisements mainly at ... other factors helped to entrench smoking in society. 21 Tobacco companies claim that their advertising targets existing smokers.... The first two were directed at males and the second two at females.. Questions 20-24 Do the following statements agree with the information in Reading Passage 21? In boxes 20-24 write: YES if the statement is true according to the passage NO if the statement contradicts the passage NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage 20 Cigarette marketing has declined in the US since tobacco advertising banned on TV. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 22 . Yet it is clear from the data that advertising has been an overwhelming force in attracting new users.. innovative and directed tobacco marketing campaigns were associated with marked surges in primary demand from adolescents only in the target group..First Impressions Count FIRST IMPRESSIONS COUNT ... 24 The two surveys show different trends in cigarette initiation. The .... Write your answers in boxes 25-27 on your answer sheet.... (27).. brand of cigarettes was designed for a particular sex.H Thus.. (26).... (25). in four distinct instances over the past 100 years.. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.. Of course. Questions 25-27 Complete the sentences below with words taken from the Reading Passage. 22 The difference in initiation rates between male and female smokers at of the 19 Lh century was due to selective marketing... statistics on smoking habits for men born between 1890 and 1899 were gathered in the year .

then it must have quality uniforms. If it wants to appear innovative." The result is a new way of looking at corporate workwear. everybody can’t look exactly the same. style. how they look. the uniform is emerging as a new channel of marketing communication. Customers will size up the way staff look in just a few seconds. if it is overdone. Giving the wearers a choice has become a key element in the way corporate clothing is introduced and managed. "If the company is selling quality. degree of branding and uniformity can be a fraught process." says Peter Griffin. From being a simple means of identifying who is a member of staff. C Truly effective marketing through visual cues such as uniforms is a subtle art. E A successful uniform needs to balance two key sets of needs. According to Company Clothing magazine.A Traditionally uniforms were — and for some industries still are — manufactured to protect the worker. and how they behave is terribly important." says Lynn Elvy. If it is selling style. others a sense of openness to new ideas. have seen an increasing emphasis on their role in projecting the image of an organisation and in uniting the workforce into a homogeneous unit — particularly in ‘customer facing" industries. but the main chef wore a black hat to show he supervised. no uniform will work if staff feel uncomfortable or ugly. and . Subliminally we see all these things.chefs wore white because they worked with flour.those for the military. other uniforms denoted a hierarchy . D But translating corporate philosophies into the right mix of colour. managing director of a major retailer in the UK. Dark colours give an aura of authority while lighter pastel shades suggest approachability. it can spill over and indicate an obsession with power. Certain dress style creates a sense of conservatism. how we look sends all sorts of powerful subliminal messages to other people. The greatest challenge in this respect is time. Of these. were originally intended to impress and even terrify the enemy. Neatness can suggest efficiency but. its uniforms must be stylish. however. it is also likely that all uniforms made symbolic sense . On the other. first impressions count. for example. When it comes to human perceptions. And it is not always successful. "What they say. a director of image consultants House of Colour. and especially in financial services and retailing. B The last 30 years. From uniforms and workwear has emerged ‘corporate clothing’. When they were first designed. 22 account for 85% of total sales £380 million in 1994. "The people you employ are your ambassadors. there are 1000 companies supplying the workwear and corporate clothing market. it is pointless if the look doesn’t express the business’s marketing strategy. Wittingly or unwittingly. however. On the one hand.

Those few seconds can be so important that big companies are prepared to invest years.that few seconds will colour their attitudes from then on. Example Answer the number of companies supplying the corporate clothing market D 28 different types of purchasing agreement 29 the original purposes of uniforms 30 the popularity rating of staff uniforms 31 involving employees in the selection of a uniform 32 the changing significance of company uniforms 33 perceptions of different types of dress . F In addition. and millions of pounds. "There will be an increasing specialisation in the marketplace. some uniform companies also offer rental services. police forces are researching a complete new look for the 21st century. Questions 28-33 The passage First Impressions Count has seven paragraphs A—G. Huge investments have been made in new systems. which means they offer a total service to put together the whole complex operation of a company’s corporate clothing package . And many employees now welcome a company wardrobe. information technology and amassing quality assurance accreditations. Increasingly. A recent survey of staff found that 90 per cent welcomed having clothing which reflected the corporate identity. budget control and distribution to either central locations or to each staff member individually. the big suppliers are becoming ‘managing agents’. managing the inventory.which includes reliable sourcing. Some banks have yet to introduce a full corporate look." predicts Mr Blyth. The past two or three years have seen consolidation. Customer Services Manager of a large UK bank. getting them right. Which paragraphs discuss the following points? Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet. G Corporate clothing does have potential for further growth.

Being too smart could have a negative impact on customers.Questions 34-40 Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer of the passage? In boxes 34-40 on your answer sheet write YES if the statement agrees with the writer’s views NO if the statement contradicts the writer’s views NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Uniforms were more carefully made in the past than they are today. . Uniforms make employees feel part of a team. Most businesses that supply company clothing are successful. Clothing companies are planning to offer financial services in the future. Using uniforms as a marketing tool requires great care. Uniforms are best selected by marketing consultants.

a London council is resting an infra-red spectrometer from the University of Denver in Colorado. hove to be available soon. C When Britain’s Royal Automobile Club monitored the exhausts of 60.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 23 . at present only the police have the power to do so. In Los Angeles. PART 1 A Air pollution is increasingly becoming the focus of government and citizen concern around the globe. to Singapore and Tokyo. In Singapore. most decrepit vehicles from the roads. renting out toad space to users is the way of the future. they were simply badly tuned.000 vehicles. B Action is being taken along several fronts: through new legislation. improved enforcement and innovative technology. since they are intended to make up 2 per cent of sales in 1997. state regulations are forcing manufacturers to try to sell ever cleaner cars: their first of the cleanest. The aim is to remove the heaviest-polluting. air quality in many of the world’s major cities will deteriorate beyond reason. Mailed and implemented with ever increasing speed.Air Pollution READING PASSAGE 23 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1—13 which are based on Reading Passage 23 below. It is feared that unless pollution reduction measures are able to keep pace with the continued pressures of urban growth. new solutions to this old problem are being proposed. but they tend to be busy elsewhere. It gauges the pollution from a passing vehicle . California has developed a scheme to get these gross polluters off the streets: they offer a flat $700 for any old. D As part of a European Union environmental programme.more useful than the annual stationary rest that is the . Local authorities in London are campaigning to be allowed to enforce anti-pollution lows themselves. though a sizeable number of quire new cars were also identified as gross polluters. From Mexico City and New York. run-down vehicle driven in by its owner. Older cars were the worst offenders. it found that 12 per cent of them produced more than half the total pollution. titled "Zero Emission Vehicles’.

places likely to have more than ten million inhabitants in the year 2000 . considered introducing Singaporean techniques. Electronic innovations make possible increasing sophistication: rates can vary according to road conditions. Los Angelinos seem to like being alone in their cars.0. Increasing it would be an effective way of reducing emissions as well as easing congestion. A world-wide rise in allergies. Singapore is advancing in this direction. can be controversial. The lungs and brains of children who grow up in polluted air offer further evidence of its destructive power the old and ill. a sub-category of particulate matter measuring ten-millionths of a meter across. time of day and so on. the average number of people in o car on the freeway in Los Angeles.by bouncing a beam through the exhaust and measuring what gets blocked. England. The council’s next step may be to link the system to a computerised video camera able to read number plates automatically. over the past four decades is now said to be linked with increased air pollution. particularly asthma. PART 2 The scope of the problem facing the world’s cities is immense. Such road-pricing. it faced vocal and ultimately successful opposition. Los Angeles has some of the world’s cleanest cars . has been implicated in thousands of deaths a year in Britain alone. F Singapore has for a while had o scheme that forces drivers to buy a badge if they wish to visit a certain part of the city. ozone. sulphur dioxide.already exceeded the level the WHO deems healthy in at least one major pollutant. has been falling steadily. with a city-wide network of transmitters to collect information and charge drivers as they pass certain points. When the local government in Cambridge. One solution is car-pooling. PM10. However. In 1992.it is this last category that is attracting the most attention from health researchers. which is 1.far better than those of Europe . however. however. . nitrogen dioxide. seven for three or more. E The effort to clean up cars may do little to cut pollution if nothing is done about the tendency to drive them more. Of the six pollutants monitored by the WHO .British standard today . lead and particulate matter . an arrangement in which a number of people who share the same destination share the use of one car.carbon dioxide. The trouble is. the United Nations Environmental Programme and the World Health Organisation (WHO) concluded that all of a sample of twenty megacities . Two-thirds of them exceeded the guidelines for two.but the total number of miles those cars drive continues to grow. Research being conducted in two counties of Southern California is reaching similarly disturbing conclusions concerning this little-understood pollutant.

The pressure on public officials. Match each solution with one location. Write the appropriate locations in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet. corporations and urban citizens to reverse established trends in air pollution is likely to grow in proportion with the growth of cities themselves. It can actually hasten death. The United Nations has estimated that in the year 2000 there will be twenty-four megacities and a further eighty-five cities of more than three million people. 2 Authorities want to have power to enforce anti-pollution laws.are the most vulnerable to the acute effects of heavily polluted stagnant air. SOLUTIONS 1 Manufacturers must sell cleaner cars. The question. Progress is being made. NB You may use any location more than once. though. Locations Singapore Tokyo London New York Mexico City Cambridge Los Angeles Questions 6-10 Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 23? In boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet write YES if the statement reflects the claims of the writer . so it did in December 1991 when a cloud of exhaust fumes lingered over the city of London for over a week. 5 Commuters are encouraged to share their vehicles with others. 3 Drivers will be charged according to the roads they use. 4 Moving vehicles will be monitored for their exhaust emissions. remains the same: ‘Will change happen quickly enough?’ Questions 1-5 Look at the following solutions (Questions 1-5) and locations.

8 Residents of Los Angeles are now tending to reduce the yearly distances they travel by car. a mere twelve per cent of vehicles tested produced over fifty per cent of total pollution produced by the sample group. 11 How many pollutants currently exceed WHO guidelines in all megacities studied? A one B two C three D seven 12 Which pollutant is currently the subject of urgent research? A nitrogen dioxide B ozone C lead D particulate matter 13 Which of the following groups of people are the most severely affected by intense air pollution? A allergy sufferers B children C the old and ill D asthma sufferers IELTS Academic Reading Sample 24 .Measuring Organizational Performance READING PASSAGE 24 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40 which are based on Reading . 10 Charging drivers for entering certain parts of the city has been successfully done in Cambridge. Questions 11-13 Choose the appropriate letters A—D and write them in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet. England.NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 6 According to British research. 9 Car-pooling has steadily become more popular in Los Angeles in recent years. 7 It is currently possible to measure the pollution coming from individual vehicles whilst they are moving.

and there was also a training period of approximately six months. several months were devoted to planning. and had employees of comparable aptitudes. supervision which increases the direct pressure for productivity can achieve significant increases in production. for a period of at least one year. Productivity was measured continuously and computed weekly throughout the year. The experiment at the clerical level lasted for one year. used the same technology. Consequently. The four divisions were assigned to two experimental programmes on a random basis. No attempt was made to place a division in the programme that would best fit its habitual methods of supervision used by the manager. Although the volume of work was considerable. The attitudes of employees and supervisory staff towards their work were . MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE There is clear-cut evidence that. To what extent can a manager make an impressive earnings record over a short period of one to three years by exploiting the company’s investment in the human organisation in his plant or division? To what extent will the quality of his organisation suffer if he does so? The following is a description of an important study conducted by the Institute for Social Research designed to answer these questions. the nature of the business was such that it could only be processed as it came along. assistant managers. such short-term increases are obtained only at a substantial and serious cost to the organisation. Each division was organised in exactly the same way. The study covered 500 clerical employees in four parallel divisions. The work entailed the processing of accounts and generating of invoices. Each programme was assigned at random a division that had been historically high in productivity and a division that had been below average in productivity. the only way in which productivity could be increased was to change the size of the workgroup. However.Passage 24 below. did exactly the same kind of work. Beforehand. Productivity in all four of the divisions depended on the number of clerks involved. supervisors and assistant supervisors.

In addition.measured just before and after the period. in two divisions an attempt was made to change the supervision so that the decision levels were pushed down and detailed supervision of the workers reduced. by contrast. To bring about this improvement. the clerks themselves participated in the decision to reduce the size of the work group. This showed that these divisions were overstaffed by about 30%. no one was to be dismissed. which they endeavoured to use as much as their skill would permit during the experimental year. which reflect the change in productivity that occurred in the divisions. Yet . deciding to reduce the size of a work group by eliminating some of its members is probably one of the most difficult decisions for a work group to make. supervisors and assistant supervisors of these two divisions were trained in group methods of leadership. The general manager then ordered the managers of these two divisions to cut staff by 25%. but this was not as great an increase as in the hierarchically controlled programme. the hierarchically controlled programmes increased productivity by about 25%. As will be observed. the programme called for modifying the supervision so as to increase the closeness of supervision and move the decision levels upwards. For easy reference. For example. one of the major changes made was to have the jobs timed and to have standard times computed. A significant increase in productivity of 2O°/o was also achieved in the participative programme. This was a result of the direct orders from the general manager to reduce staff by that amount. Direct pressure produced a substantial increase in production. the managers. assistant managers.) Obviously. Turning now to the heart of the study. More general supervision of the clerks and their supervisors was introduced. These changes were accomplished by a further extension of the scientific management approach. This will be labelled the ‘hierarchically controlled programme’. This was done by transfers without replacing the persons who left. (They were aware of course that productivity increases were sought by management in conducting these experiments. the experimental changes in these two divisions will be labelled the ‘participative programme! Result of the Experiment In the other two divisions. Changes in Productivity Figure 1 shows the changes in salary costs per unit of work.

did not do so well and increased productivity by only 15%. The opposite was true in the hierarchical programme. the employees’ feeling of responsibility to see that the work got done increased.the clerks made it. In the hierarchically controlled programme. they had significantly different results in other respects. or for the company and them. while in the hierarchically controlled programme. For example. employees in the participative programme felt that their supervisors were more likely to ‘pull’ for them. and when the supervisor was absent. the feeling of responsibility decreased. the employees in the participative programme at the end of the year felt that their manager and assistant manager were ‘closer to them’ than at the beginning of the year. they kept on working. But just the opposite was true in the participative programme. when the supervisor was away. In fact. work tended to stop. the opposite trend occurred. Figure 2 shows that when more general supervision and increased participation were provided. however. interest. as Figure 4 shows. one division in the participative programme increased its productivity by about the same amount as each of the two divisions in the hierarchically controlled programme. and not be solely interested in the company. and involvement in the work. . attitudes. Moreover. The other participative division. Again. Changes in Attitude Although both programmes had similar effects on productivity. which historically had been the poorest of all the divisions. The productivity increases in the hierarchically controlled programme were accompanied by shifts in an adverse direction in such factors as loyalty. As Figure 3 shows.

D. each had equal levels of productivity.. C. C. . the employees were questioned about their feelings towards the study. B. B. D. establish whether increased productivity should be sought at any cost. B.. C. the staff involved spent a number of months preparing for the study. were randomly chosen for the experiment. 28 The experiment was designed to . perfect a system for processing accounts. each employed a staff of 500 clerks. the four divisions were carefully selected to suit a specific programme.Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 28-30 on your answer sheet.. 29 The four divisions . had identical patterns of organisation. A... A.. exploit the human organisation of a company in order to increase profits. 30 Before the experiment . each division was told to reduce its level of productivity. A. show that four divisions could use the same technology. D.

. In the participative programme: • supervision of all workers was ....... which were divided into two programmes: the hierarchically controlled programme and the participative programme... by 25%..... Choose the most appropriate label.... Employees’ feelings of responsibility towards completion of work E. 33 .. 2... Write your answers in boxes 31-36 on your answer sheet.. Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.. 34 ...... • supervisory staff were given training in ..... 32 . Choose ONE word from Reading Passage 24 for each answer...... • the work force was ...... .... Employees’ interest in the company B.. Changes in productivity when supervisor was absent F.. 36 ... During the course of the experiment the following changes were made in an attempt to improve performance... 31 ... Employees feel closer to their supervisors H...... Employees’ opinion as to extent of personal support from management G.. Supervisors’ opinion as to closeness of work group 37.. For a period of one year a different method of . by 30%..... for each Figure from the box below.. was used in each programme.Questions 31-36 Complete the summary below....... Cost increases for the company C. 35 .... In the hierarchically controlled programme: • supervision of all workers was increased. Employees’ feelings towards increased supervision I....... Fig 1. was calculated on a weekly basis... Changes in productivity D.... Questions 37-40 Look at Figures 1.. • work groups were found to be . 3 and 4 in Reading Passage 24.. Throughout this time ....... A—I..... This experiment involved an organisation comprising four divisions.... A....

. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 25 ...S.. However... 40.. in today's dollars... being from 1940 to 1969......... 'Camille'.S.............S. Fig 2.. Yet...... history. gathering information is decidedly more difficult. When hurricanes are out of reach of balloons... Hurricanes occur in cycles every few decades... 39. The atmospheric characteristics of hurricanes over land are well understood because investigation is possible with weather balloons containing sophisticated meteorological instruments... struck the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in 1969 with winds over 320 km/h..... This increase in accuracy is due to the use of instruments called GPS-dropwindsondes....... An accurate estimation of where a hurricane will strike is essential in order to reduce loss of life and property.. Hurricane Andrew. Fig 4. for the last quarter century.... which can probe the atmosphere surrounding a hurricane while it is still out at sea.. Fig 3........Tracking Hurricanes READING PASSAGE 25 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-15 which are based on Reading Passage 24 below... in 1992.. the most costly hurricane in U. TRACKING HURRICANES North American meteorologists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Hurricane Research Division have recently improved the success rate in their forecasting of where hurricanes are likely to hit land by an estimated 15 to 30%......... The reason for this is the explosion in population growth and development along the southeast coast of the U... a Category 5 hurricane of such catastrophic force that it caused over a billion and a half dollars worth of damage at the time and killed 256 people... during the last half century... Scientists do not . Little is known of the weather conditions that guide hurricanes towards land...38. hurricane activity has been relatively mild.. the last intense period in the U. the unnamed : Category 4 2 hurricane which struck southeast Florida in 1926 and killed 243 people would have caused an estimated $77 billion if it had struck today... killed 15 people and caused damage of $35 billion...

1 the custom of naming hurricanes began in the early 1950s 2 hurricanes are categorised according to their wind speed from Category 1 (least intense) to Category 5 (most intense) . and barometric pressure at half second intervals all the way down to the ocean surface. but they could be caused by a phenomenon called the 'Atlantic Conveyor'. Because they weigh only 0. Hurricane researchers believe that the city is more likely than Miami to suffer a direct hit in the near future. certain geographical features of the coastline near New York make it conceivable that a wall of water called a storm surge pushed ashore by hurricane winds would cause a devastating flooding of Manhattan. This is the name given to the gigantic current of water that flows cold from the top of the globe slowly along the Atlantic ocean floor to Antarctica and resurfaces decades later before flowing back north. at least for the time being. The use of GPS-dropwindsondes began in 1997. Dropwindsonde information is fed into a special meteorological computer in Maryland which generates a global computer model of wind patterns. A storm surge was responsible for the more than 8000 deaths caused by the hurricane that destroyed the city of Galveston in 1900. Each sonde carries its own global positioning satellite receiver. Data analysts have discovered a greater variability in the winds at sea level than previously believed. as it pulls warm water to the north. it is not yet known why hurricanes can suddenly change in intensity. they are far more revealing than previously used sensors.know the precise reason for the cycles of hurricane activity. it is thought that an increase in the speed of the' Conveyor'. humidity. Since hurricanes derive their energy from the heat of warm water. Small sensing devices dropped from planes at very high altitudes and over a wide area. and data on temperature. One surprising result of a recent computer simulation was the destruction of a large part of downtown New York. they are able to stay aloft for longer periods and broadcast more data to the ground. current computer models often fail to predict whether a hurricane will reach land or else cannot pinpoint where a strike will take place. Also. absorbing heat as it crosses the equator. For instance. but many forecasting problems are beyond a solution. is an indicator of intensifying hurricane activity. The GPS signals received are used to calculate the direction and speed of wind.4 kilograms.

.......... Example: What do the letters NOAA stand for? Q1.. Q7 ............ south................... Write your answers in boxes 1 .... New York. The first one has been done for you as an example........ become stronger every few decades.. Q11 ......... Q9 .. Refer to Reading Passage 25 "Tracking Hurricanes".......Questions 1 ............4 below......... Why was the hurricane which struck in 1926 not given a name? Q4................... and look at Questions 1 ............. Which instruments have recently increased the success rate of U................. WHO or WHAT ? Ex : ..............4 You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 1-4....... Q10 ....... before.... have improved their forecasts for hurricanes.................... Look at the table below. energises all hurricanes...... Q6 .4 on your Answer Sheet........... What is the name of the strongest hurricane mentioned in the article? You are advised to spend about 8 minutes on Questions 5-11.... is a huge current of water flowing from north to could not stay in the air for a long time..... hurricane forecasts? Q2........ hurricane.. According to Reading Passage 1.. What reason is given for the lack of knowledge of hurricanes at sea? Q3......... to whom or what do the phrases on the right refer? Write your answers in boxes 5 -11 on your Answer Sheet.... know more about surface winds than they knew recently predicted a catastrophe for the city of is a huge wave of water blown on land by a ..... The first one has been done for you as an example........................................................... Meteorologist .... Q8 ......S................. Note that you must give your answer IN NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS... Q5 ...

S. Write your answers in boxes 12 -15 on your Answer Sheet. The Category 4 hurricane which hit Florida in 1926: a) w as the most catastrophic to hit the U.S. and decide which of the answers best completes the following sentences.5 billion dollars damage in today's money b) was the worst U. The first one has been done for you as an example.S. storm this century in terms of life lost c) was named in the 1950s d) was not as intense as the hurricane of 1926 Q15.S. . Example: The main point of the passage is to give information about: a) previous U.S.Questions 12 -15 You are advised to spend about 7 minutes on Questions 12-15. The writer of the passage probably believes that: a) accurate tracking of hurricanes might be possible in the future b) storm surges only occur within computer simulations c) computer predictions are unreliable d) the worst hurricanes occur in the U. hurricanes: a) has increased by 15 to 30% recently b) depends on the GPS-dropwindsondes c) was greater from 1940 to 1969 than at any previous time d) can be more accurately measured by satellite assistance Q13. this century b) caused $77 billion worth of damage c) caused an explosion in population growth d) none of the above Q14. Refer to Reading Passage 25. hurricanes c) forecasting hurricane activity d) why hurricanes change in intensity Q12. hurricanes b) future U. Hurricane'Camille': a) caused $1.S. The intensity of U.

The field assemblages. as in Africa. Guatemala. or in the . ritual objects. Madagascat and Yemen.000 artefacts. If is concerned with the people of Africa. Again.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 26 .or of artefact types such as boats.The Department Of Ethnography IELTS ACADEMIC READING PASSAGE 26 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1—12 which are based on Reading Passage 26 below. offer 140 years of gradual development from the original Department of Antiquities. reed boars from Lake Titicaca in fhe Andes. The latter include working examples of coracles from India. of textiles from Bolivia. While this includes complex kingdoms. the Department’s specific interest is to document how objects are created and used. include a whole range of material culture represenrarive of one people. or even on occasion airport art. the primary focus of attention in the twentieth century has been on small-scale societies. the beautiful and the banal. tents and camel trappings from various Middle Eastern countries. To this end.for instance. Indonesia and ateas of West Africa . of which about half are the product of fhe present century. The Department has o vital role to play in providing information on non-Western cultures to visitors ond scholars. such as those from fhe Sudan. and ancient empires. Through its collections. the Pacific and parrs of Europe. sometimes by Museum staff working on general anthropological projects in collaboration with a wide variety of national governments and other institutions. and dug-out canoes from several countries. a series of acquisitions might represent a decade’s fieldwork documenting social experience as expressed in the varieties of clothing and jewellery styles. such as those of the Americas. and to understand their importance and significance to those who produce them. The collections of the Department of Ethnography include approximately 300. The material collected includes great technical series . the collecting emphasis has often been less on individual objects than on groups of material which allow the display of a btoad range of o society’s cultural expressions. Asio. Much of the more recent collecting was carried out in the field. kayaks from fhe Arctic. Such objects can include both the extraordinary ond the mundane. This might cover the necessities of life of an African herdsman or on Arabian farmer. THE DEPARTMENT OF ETHNOGRAPHY The Department of Ethnography was created as a separate deportment within the British Museum in 1946. the Americas.

Most significantly they document for future change. if was assumed that economic progress would rapidly lead to the disappearance or assimilation of many small-scale societies. Therefore. Of growing interest is the way in which much of what we might see as disposable is. Such acquisitions have multiple purposes. it was felt that the Museum should acquire materials representing people whose art or material culture. Within this context trade and exchange aftifudes are inverted. Particularly interesting are a series of collections which continue to document the evolution of ceremony and of material forms for which the Department already possesses early (if nor the earliest) collections formed after the first contact with Europeans. With the Independence of much of Asia and Africa after 1945. ideally including photographic records.developing preferences in personal adornment and dress from Papua New Guinea. The importance of these acquisitions extends beyond the objects themselves. not just for . The provision of information about non-Western aesthetics and techniques. This attitude altered with the realisation that marginal communities can survive and adapt In spire of partial integration into a notoriously fickle world economy. ritual or political structures were on the point of irrevocable change. recycled and reused. elsewhere.principally for aesthetic value. They come fo the Museum with documentation of the social context. Since the seventeenth century.when transformed by locol ingenuity . Most people think of the cultures represented in the collection in terms of the absence of advanced technology. In fact. bur for people involved in a whole range of educational and artistic purposes. the importation of cheap goods has often contributed to the destruction of local skills and indigenous markets. On fhe one hand modern imported goods may be used in an everyday setting. What are utilifarian objects to a Westerner may be prized objects in other cultures . Collections act as an ever-expanding database. Limited resources and ecological constraints are often overcome by personal skills that would be regarded as exceptional in the West. These include schools and universities as well as colleges of art and design. nor merely for scholars and anthropologists. with the advent of trading companies exporting manufactured textiles to North America and Asia. while on the other hand other traditional objects may still be required for ritually significant events. the West imports goods from other peoples and in certain circumsronces categotises them as ‘art’. traditional practices draw on a continuing wealth of technological ingenuity. In fhe some way.

Write the appropriate letters in boxes 7-12 on your answer sheet. 5 Traditional societies are highly inventive in terms of technology. 6 Many small-scale societies have survived and adapted in spite of predictions to the contrary. Match each exhibit with the collection type with which it is associated in Reading Passage 1. 1 The twentieth-century collections come mainly from mainstream societies such as the US and Europe. is a growing responsibility for a Department whose own context is an increasingly multicultural European society. 2 The Department of Ethnography focuses mainly on modern societies. 4 The textile collection of the Department of Ethnography is the largest in the world. Questions 7-12 Some of the exhibits at the Department of Ethnography are listed below (Questions 712). Example Answer Boats AT Collection Type AT EC FA Artefact Types Evolution of Ceremony Field Assemblages .designers and artists but for all visitors. The writer gives these exhibits as examples of different collection types. 3 The Department concentrates on collecting single unrelated objects of great value. Questions 1-6 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet write TRUE if the statement is true according to the passage FALSE if the statement is false according to the passage NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage Example Answer The Department of Ethnography replaced the Department of FALSE Antiquities at the British Museum. NB You may use any collection type more than once.

SE Social Experience TS Technical Series 7 Bolivian textiles 8 Indian coracles 9 airport art 10 Arctic kayaks 11 necessities of life of an Arabian farmer 12 tents from the Middle East .

the image of them as Stone Age relics has endured. the Siriono "may be classified among the most handicapped peoples of the world". unconquerable. abandoned to decay in the uncompromising tropical environment.) Far from being evolutionarily retarded. while other members of the tribe scoured the country for small game and promising fish holes. a doctoral student in anthropology from Yale University. the luxuriant forests of Amazonia seem ageless.000 years betrays that view as myth. C The popular conception of Amazonia and its native residents would be enormously consequential if it were true. a habitat totally hostile to human civilization.and cannot . As for technology. To casual observers. But the human history of Amazonia in the past 11.000 . Other than bows.000 years before the arrival of Europeans. prehistoric Amazonian people developed technologies and cultures that were . USA. Their villages were little more than clusters of thatched huts. The apparent simplicity of Indian ways of life has been judged an evolutionary adaptation to forest ecology. as well as to influential natural scientists and regional planners. an extensive network of complex societies . When local resources became depleted.sustain a more complex society. including the Siriono. the tribe moved on. The Siriono.thrived there for more than 1. living proof that Amazonia could not . Indeed. in many respects the Siriono epitomize the popular conception of life in Amazonia. the only tools the Siriono seemed to possess were "two machetes worn to the size of pocket-knives". Life itself was a perpetual and punishing search for food: some families grew manioc and other starchy crops in small garden plots cleared from the forest. Holmberg later wrote.Secrets of The Forests READING PASSAGE 27 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 13-25 which are based on Reading Passage 27 on the following pages. Evidence gathered in recent years from anthropology and archaeology indicates that the region has supported a series of indigenous cultures for eleven thousand years. arrows and crude digging sticks.IELTS Academic Reading Sample 27 . SECRETS OF THE FORESTS A In 1942 Allan R Holmberg. some contemporary tribes. led a "strikingly backward" existence.some with populations perhaps as large as 100. ventured deep into the jungle of Bolivian Amazonia and searched out an isolated band of Siriono Indians. Holmberg noted. B Although the lives of the Siriono have changed in the intervening decades. Archaeological traces of far more elaborate cultures have been dismissed as the ruins of invaders from outside the region. still live among the earthworks of earlier cultures. (Indeed.

Because the tropical forest has been depicted as ecologically unfit for large-scale human occupation. While policy makers struggle to define and implement appropriate legislation. one major casualty of that extreme position has been the environment itself. Choose the most suitable headings for sections A. In the clash between environmentalists and developers. Questions 13-15 Reading Passage 27 has six sections A-F. however. The new understanding of the pre-history of Amazonia. points toward a middle ground.advanced for their time. Ironically. whose presence is in fact crucial to the survival of the forest. rather it is a comparatively recent adaptation to centuries of economic and political pressure. whose habits of hunting. offers hope for the future. But as the University of Florida ecologist. . have suffered the most. development of the most destructive kind has continued apace over vast areas. E The realization comes none too soon. the appearance is not the result of some environmental adaptation or ecological barrier. Ecologists have assumed that tropical ecosystems were shaped entirely by natural forces and they have focused their research on habitats they believe have escaped human influence. The challenge is especially difficult in Amazonia. D The evidence for a revised view of Amazonia will take many people by surprise. Archaeology makes clear that with judicious management selected parts of the region could support more people than anyone thought before. Investigators who argue otherwise have unwittingly projected the present onto the past. Write the appropriate numbers i-vii in boxes 13-15 on your answer sheet. some environmentalists have opposed development of any kind. The long-buried past. Peter Feinsinger. In June 1992 political and environmental leaders from across the world met in Rio de Janeiro to discuss how developing countries can advance their economies without destroying their natural resources. B and D from the list of headings below. F The other major casualty of the "naturalism" of environmental scientists has been the indigenous Amazonians. an approach that leaves people out of the equation is no longer tenable. and slash-and-burn cultivation often have been represented as harmful to the habitat. fishing. the Indians. it seems. If the lives of Indians today seem "primitive". The archaeological evidence shows that the natural history of Amazonia is to a surprising extent tied to the activities of its prehistoric inhabitants. has noted.

18 There are lessons to be learned from similar ecosystems in other parts of the world. 16 The reason for the simplicity of the Indian way of life is that Amazonia has always been unable to support a more complex society. 21 It would be possible for certain parts of Amazonia to support a higher population. 20 The indigenous Amazonian Indians are necessary to the well-being of the forest. . 19 Most ecologists were aware that the areas of Amazonia they were working in had been shaped by human settlement.i ii iii iv v vi vii List of Headings Amazonia as unable to sustain complex societies The role of recent technology in ecological research in Amazonia The hostility of the indigenous population to North American influences Recent evidence Early research among the Indian Amazons The influence of prehistoric inhabitants on Amazonian natural history The great difficulty of changing local attitudes and practices 13 Section A 14 Section B Example Paragraph C Answer iv 15 Section D Questions 16-21 Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 27? In boxes 16—21 on your answer sheet write : YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this Example Answer The prehistoric inhabitants of Amazonia were relatively NO backward in technological terms. 17 There is a crucial popular misconception about the human history of Amazonia. Questions 22-25 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 22-25 on your answer sheet.

C change present policies on development in the region. 25 The application of our new insights into the Amazonian past would A warn us against allowing any development at all.22 In 1942 the US anthropology student concluded that the Siriono A were unusually aggressive and cruel. has reported that the river has again become the home to 115 species of fish . fishing. B are the remains of settlements by invaders. the river that flows through the United Kingdom capital and the Thames Estuary into the North Sea is cleaner now than it has been for 130 years. C were an extremely primitive society. B cause further suffering to the Indian communities. C was made by Peter Feinsinger and other ecologists. D had only recently made permanent settlements. 24 The assumption that the tropical ecosystem of Amazonia has been created solely by natural forces A has often been questioned by ecologists in the past. D show the region has only relatively recently been covered by forest. B had had their way of life destroyed by invaders. Cleaning up The Thames The River Thames. which was biologically “dead” as recently as the 1960s. and ‘slash-and-burn’. C are the ruins of communities established since the European invasions. according to the Thames Water Company. D has led to some fruitful discoveries. The Fisheries Department. who are responsible for monitoring fish levels in the River Thames. B has been shown to be incorrect by recent research. 23 The author believes recent discoveries of the remains of complex societies in Amazonia A are evidence of early indigenous communities. is now the cleanest metropolitan river in the world. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 28 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1 – 14 which are based on Reading Passage 28 below. The company says that thanks to major investment in better sewage treatment in London and the Thames Valley. D reduce the amount of hunting.

in one way or another. In 1964 the Greater London Council (GLC) began work on greatly enlarged sewage works. the urban and nonurban London boroughs that flank the river ’s course each has its own reasons for keeping “their ”river nice. legislation has been introduced that put the onus on polluters-effluent-producing premises and businesses to dispose of waste responsibly. sewer outflows and industrial effluent had killed the river. and shad. They now are responsible forcontrolling the effluents and rubbish coming from craft using the Thames. smelt. In the 1950s. public health and environmental protection regulations.and the law that created the post of the mayor of London. There is now legislation that protects the River Thames. The result is a wide range of bodies officially charged. The 2000 Local Government Act requires each local borough to “prepare a community strategy for promoting or improving the economic. This is done by officers on official vessels regularly inspectiing craft and doing spot checks. Recently. For example. a porpoise was spotted cavorting in the river near central London. the government also wields a compelling stick. Transport for London -the agency responsible for transport in the capital . all representing a necessary aspect of the task. which were completed in 1974. Peter . with maintaining the Thames as a public amenity. Dr. that means a sustainable river development strategy.plays a role in regulating river use and river users. A clean-up operation began in the 1960s. Several Parliamentary Committees and Royal Commissions were set up. Another example is how Thames Water (TW) has now been charged to reduce the amount of litter that finds its way into the tidal river and its tributaries. Until the early 1970s. TW ’s environment and quality manager. the London Acts. salmon. And if their own reasons do not hold out a sufficiently attractive carrot. and.” And if your area includes a stretch of river. either specifically or as part of a general environmental clause. But things were not always so rosy. Further legislation aimed at improving and sustaining the river’s viability has been proposed. It was starved of oxygen and could no longer support aquatic life. and it involves many disparate arms of government and a wide range of non-government stakeholder groups.including sea bass. It is still going on. over time. In London ’s case. if you fell into the Thames you would have had to be rushed to hospital to get your stomach pumped. in the Local Government Act. flounder. The Thames clean up is not over though. social and environmental well-being of their area. And these are only the tip of an iceberg that includes industrial.

known as the Rubbish Muncher. This machine. This centralisation of accountability will. Monitoring of the cleanliness of the River Thames in the past was the responsibility of a welter of agencies -British Waterways.the device is expected to capture up to 20 tons of floating litter each year. someone was bound to call foul and hold somebody to account. [Source:US Water News 2000] Questions 1 -6 Some of the actions taken to clean up the River Thames are listed below. the Health and Safety Commission. as the TW is now looking for sponsors to pay for more cages elsewhere along the Thames.the Environment Agency. Port of London Authority. It consists of a huge cage that sits in the flow of water and gathers the passing rubbish. The writer gives these actions as examples of things that have been done by various agencies connected with the River Thames.” Thousands of tons of rubbish end up in the river each year. Match each action with the agency responsible for doing it. which has the remit of monitoring the Thames. it is hoped. Although they will all still have their part to play. lead to more efficient control and enforcement. there is now a central department in the Environment Agency. an individual polluter or any of the many public and private sector bodies that bore a share of the responsibility for maintaining the River Thames as a public amenity.If something was not right.is hoped to be the first of many. Thames Water –as well as academic departments and national and local environment groups.Moored just offshore in front of the Royal Naval College at Greenwich. this rubbish can kill marine mammals.whether it was the local authority. London should not be spoiled by litter which belongs in the bin not the river.000 tons of solid waste from the tideway every year. from badly stored waste. fish and birds. Thames Water now plans to introduce a new device to capture more rubbish floating down the river. Once litter hits the water it becomes too heavy to be blown away again and therefore the rivers act as a sink in the system. said: “This project will build on our investment which has dramatically improved the water quality of the river. .Spillett.If washed out to sea. and rubbish in the street being blown or washed into the river. While the Port of London already collects up to 3. people throwing litter off boats. Write the appropriate letters (A-G )in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.southeast London.

Actions to Clean up the River Thames A Operating the Rubbish Muncher B Creating Community Strategies C Monitoring the Cleanliness of the River Thames D Monitoring Fish Levels E Collecting Solid Waste from the Tideway F Creating Enlarged Sewage Works G Controlling the River Thames ’ Traffic Example The Fisheries Department 1 2 3 4 5 6 Answer D The Environment Agency Transport for London The Greater London Council Thames Water Port of London Local Boroughs Questions 7 -14 Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer of the reading passage on Cleaning up the Thames ? In Boxes 7 -14 write: YES if the statement agrees with the writer NO if the statement doesn’t agree with the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 7 The Thames is now cleaner that it was in 1900. 12 Rubbish Munchers are now situated at various locations on the Thames. 8 Swimming in the Thames now poses no health hazards. 9 It is now mainly the responsibility of those who pollute the Thames to clean their waste up. 13 Previously no one department had overall responsibility or control for monitoring the . 10 All local London boroughs are now partly responsible for keeping the Thames clean. 11 Transport for London now employs a type of River Police to enforce control of their regulations.

14 British Waterways will no longer have any part in keeping the Thames clean.cleanliness of the Thames. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 29 DEER FARMING IN AUSTRALIA .

fallow)and two tropical species (rusa.At least 90%of all velvet antler produced is exported in an unprocessed state to Asia.The industry appears to be showing limited signs that it is emerging from a state of depression caused by both internal and external factors that include:(i)the Asian currency downturn.Late in 1985.and.Of concern is the apparent increase in the number of female animals processed and the number of whole herds committed for processing.The .pressure from industry to increase herd numbers saw the development of import protocols.chital)were confined for commercial farming.With more than 40.The animals dispersed and established wild populations at various locations across Australia.Paragraph A Deer are not indigenous to Australia.Until 1985.This resulted in the introduction of large numbers of red deer hybrids from New Zealand and North American elk directly from Canada.(ii)the industry's lack of competitive advantage in influential markets (particularly in respect to New Zealand competition).principally to Europe.The national farmed deer herd is now distributed throughout all states although most are in New South Wales and Victoria.They were introduced into the country during the nineteenth century under the acclimatization programs governing the introduction of exotic species of animals and birds into Australia. Paragraph B The number of animals processed annually has continued to increase.only four species of deer. two from temperate climates (red.At least 85% of all venison produced in Australia is exported. Commercial deer farming in Australia commenced in Victoria in 1971 with the authorized capture of rusa deer from the Royal National Park. there is justified concern that future years may see a dramatic drop in production.mostly depending upon their points of release into the wild. Paragraph C From the formation of the Australian Deer Breeders Federation in 1979. Schemes to promote Australian deer products continue to have a positive effect on sales that in turn have a positive effect on prices paid to growers.000 in 1999/2000.000 animals processed in 1998/99 and 60.despite the downward trend in venison prices since 1997.the industry representative body has evolved through the Deer Farmers Federation of Australia to the Deer Industry Association of Australia Ltd (DIAA).(iii)within industry processing and marketing competition for limited product volumes of venison.Six species of deer were released at various locations.which was registered in 1995.These animals formed the basis for the deer industry in Australia today.NSW.

promotional material and technical bulletins.In an effort to maintain existing venison markets in the short term and to increase them in the long term.The net result was depletion of the industry ’s female breeding herds. Paragraph D Estimates suggest that until the early 1990s the rate of the annual increase in the number of farmed deer was up to 25%.ADH collects and markets Australian deer horn and co-products on behalf of Australian deer farmers.industry has established two product development and marketing companies.All projects have generated a significant volume of information. was maintained by the slaughter of young breeding females.However.which trades as the Deer Industry Company (DIC).which compliments similar work undertaken in New Zealand and other deer farming countries.The main reasons for the decline in the deer herd growth rate at such a critical time for the market were:(i)severe drought conditions up to 1998 affecting eastern Australia during 1993-96 and (ii)the consequent slaughter of large numbers of breeding females.Lack of confidence saw a drop in new investment within the industry and a lack of willingness of established farmers to expand their herds. .The industry has a 1996 -2000 five year plan including animal nutrition.at very low prices.It promotes the harvest of velvet antler according to the strict quality assurance program promoted by the industry.velvet antler sales and the sale of live animals into export markets.in 1997 the industry ’s top priority became the increase in size and production capacity of the national herd. Supply difficulties were exacerbated when the supply of products.With the development of strong overseas markets for venison and velvet and the prospect of better seasons ahead in 1996. Paragraph E Industry programs are funded by statutory levies on sales of animals for venison.the relatively small size of the Australian herd was seen to impose undesirable restraints on the rate at which herd numbers could be expanded to meet the demands for products.carcass quality.but after 1993 this rate of increase fell to probably less than 10%.This initiative resulted in a dramatic increase in international demand for Australian venison and an increase in the domestic consumption of venison.the trends described were seen to have been significantly reversed.particularly venison.antler harvesting.These factors combined to decrease confidence within the industry. Major projects funded by levy funds include the Venison Market Project from 1992 to 1996.The company also plans and co-ordinates regular velvet accreditation courses for Australian deer farmers.pasture quality.the Australian Deer Horn and Co-Products Pty Ltd (ADH)and the Deer Industry Projects and Development Pty Ltd.

.. HARD DISK DRIVE TECHNOLOGY A few years ago.. 37 Current economic conditions in Asian countries have had positive effect on the Australian deer industry.. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer............. 34 Since 1985 many imported deer have been interbred with the established herds... 38 A stringent .. Write your answers in boxes 38 -40 on your answer sheet.. allows the Australian deer industry to maintain their excellence of product.. 36 Only a small amount of Australian venison production is consumed domestically.. 40 Foreign and home markets for Australian venison increased due to the ... In boxes 33 -37 on your answer sheet write: TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in Reading Passage 29 33 Until 1985 only 2 species of the originally released Australian deer were not used for farming.Hard Disk Drive Technology You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28 ..... 35 The drop in deer numbers since 1997 led to an increase in the price of venison.... Questions 38-40 Complete each of the following statements (Questions 38 -40 )with words taken from Reading Passage 29...to continue product supply.Questions 33 -37 Read the passage about Deer Farming in Australia again and look at the statements below. a query about the health of a person's hard disk drive would have been met with a blank stare. IELTS Academic Reading Sample 30 .40. almost everyone is aware of this remarkable . Nowadays. 39 Herd stock expansion was made difficult by the killing of....

However. Dropping a drive is almost always fatal. magnetic tape was used to store electronic signals. although there are significant differences in speed of data access. but the head can be made to pass over the magnetised platter at distances of less than 1 microinch (the width of a typical human hair is 5000 microinches).electronic storage medium that is part of every modern computer. Most modern hard drives incorporate several platters to further reduce the time spent seeking the required information. Second. The CD player is. There are three important ways in which the capacity of hard disks has been increased. Each of these three improvements enables speedier access to the data. This is achieved by means of a special protective coating applied to the platter. Later. but it must be remembered that they are much more fragile. and a second head for writing data to disk. and third. as is passing an incorrect electrical current through one (by faulty connection). Dust and even extremes of temperature can cause failure. It is analogous to the way in which a person can choose to play a particular track on a CD player by causing the arm to move the head across the disk. even though most users remain ignorant of the complexity of hard drive technology. Of . Hard drives are more commonplace than tape recorders these days. whose precious data can become lost forever. the head technology has been improved. as previously noted. which increases the capacity of the hard drive. the distance between the heads and the platters has been greatly reduced. In the early days of computing. Yet. accessing information sequentially stored on tape is slow since the electroniodata must be input through a fixed head in a single pass. the data code itself has been tightened with express coding techniques. an information record of a computer' s memory content was kept on punched cards similar to the way in which an automated piano stores the keynote sequences on a piano roll. It is hard to believe. Treated with respect they may last a number of years. necessarily similar in design to a hard drive. in fact. but they are quite easily damaged. Also. First. one for reading. and is still the favoured means of economically backing up the contents of hard drives. often with disastrous consequences for the user. no physical damage can ever result from the input of data via the keyboard or mouse. some newer drives have two heads. Hard disk drives solve this problem by incorporating a spinning platter on which magnetic data can be made accessible via a moving head that reads and writes information across the width of the disk. This separation of tasks enables much higher densities of magnetic information to be written on the platter.

duplicating -.31 on your Answer Sheet.sending or broadcasting information as data Questions 29 . Some researchers claim that it would be wiser to invest more time and money in setting up systems for streaming data across networks of computers from centralised banks of information storage. Note that you will not need to use every word or phrase in the list. over time the magnetised coating on the platters will erode. and the speed of access to other machines increases across our telephone lines. CD player moving head electric current List of Parts second head magnetic tape date code platter special protective coating Refer to Reading Passage 30 "Hard Disk Drive Technology". Personal data files could be kept at a central storage unit. Write your answers in boxes 32 . and be suitably protected from disaster by a failsafe backup system. The first one has been done for you as an example. Refer to Reading Passage 30 "Hard Disk Drive Technology" and the diagram below.in sequence (or one after the other) -. backing up sequential(ly) platter Streaming data Glossary: -.31 You are advised to spend about 5 minutes on Questions 29-31. As the Internet becomes ever more pervasive. There are serious questions being raised about the direction of the future of electronic storage media. Write your answers in boxes 29 .course. it might be possible to do away with local storage systems altogether. The first one has been done for you as an example. hard disk drive technology is: a) less complex .36 on your Answer Sheet. and decide which of the answers best completes the following sentences. yet this is almost entirely independent of the amount of use. This would avoid the need for each personal computer user to have his or her own copy of a software program resident on a local hard drive. Example: Nowadays. Choose from the words and phrases in the given list. and label the diagram with the correct name of each part of the hard drive.circular disk or plate -.

Centralised banks of storage information could: a) offer better protection of a user's data files b) stream data across telephone lines c) mean the end of local storage systems d) all of the above Questions 37-40 You are advised to spend about 8 minutes on Questions 37 . Magnetically-coated disks are one of many types of: a) sequential access information systems b) information storage solutions c) tape storage solutions d) CD players Q33. In the future. Connecting a hard drive incorrectly usually: a) results in excess temperature b) erodes the magnetised material on the platters c) damages the keyboard or mouse d) destroys the drive Q34. Keyboard or mouse use can easily cause: a) incorrect electrical currents b) the magnetised coating on the platter to wear out c) physical damage to the hard disk drive d) none of the above Q35. a computer user might be able to access personal data files from: a) a central storage unit b) a local hard drive c) a software program d) the local bank Q36.(b) part of every modern computer c) expensive d) not difficult to understand Q32. The following following text is a summary of part of Reading Passage 30.40. .

.. Hard disk drives are exceedingly complex and fragile pieces of equipment.... on magnetic tape C. size of the heads .... of harddisks.. few computer users are aware of this G... .. on the other hand.... Write your answers in boxes 37 ........ in three ways H..Complete each gap in the text by choosing the best phrase from the box below the summary....(40).. most computer users know that a hard disk drive is complex D a CD player is faster than a disk drive E.(37)... This has been accomplished ... increasing the size of the platters used J. . Modern advancesindisktechnology haveincreasedthe ..... cost I. it is slow to read back stored information in this way.......(38)... However.... The first one has been done for you as an example. The cheapest way to store computer information is . consists of one or more spinning platters coated with magnetised material holding data made accessable by two moving heads.. storage capacity B... (Ex:)..... but . A........40 on your Answer Sheet. Note that there are more phrases to choose from than are required.(39). A hard disk drive F.....