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IN HALT

INNEHALLSFORTECKNING
Inledning
Studieanvisningar
Absolut gehor

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Kapitel:
Stor och Iiten sekund, ren kvart .
I
Ren kvint .•.•.•.............
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III Stor och liten ters
Melodiexempel Iran litteraturen.
IV
(Tillampningsovningar pa kap.
I-Ill)
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Tritonus ...•................
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VI
Liten sext
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VII Stor sext
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VIII Melodiexempel Iran litteraturen.
(Tlllampnlngsovningar pa kap.
V-VII)
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IX Liten septima
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X
Stor septima
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XI Melodiexempel fran litteraturen.
(Tillampnlngsovningar pa kap.
IX-X)
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XII Interval! stcrre an oktaven.
Vidmelodik
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Sida
6 Einleitung
7 Studienanweisungen
8 Absolutes Gehor

REGISTER
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Seite
Page
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9 Introduction
10 Directions for Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 14
12 Absolute Pitch
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Kapiteln:
Grosse und kleine Sekunde
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Reine Quint
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25 11
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31 III Grosse und kleine Terz
Melodienbeispiele aus der LiteVI
ratur. (Obungsstucke zu Kapitel
I-Ill)
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Tritonus
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49 V
Kleine Sext
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56 VI
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63 VII Grosse Sext
VIII Melodienbeispiele aus der Literatur, (Obungsstucke zu Kapitel
V-VII)
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68
Kleine Septime
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81 IX
Grosse Septime
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87 X
Melodienbeispiele aus der LiteXI
ratur, (Obungsstucke zu Kapitel
IX-X)
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XII Interval!e grosser als die Oktave.
Weitmelodik
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17 I

Chapters:
I
Major and minor second....
11
Perfect fifth
III Major and minor thirds.
IV
Examples of melodies from the
repertoire. (Application exercises
for Chapters I-Ill)
V
The Tritone
VI
Minor sixth .•. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VII Major sixth
VIII Examples of melodies from the
repertoire. (Application exercises
for Chapter VIII) . . . . . . . . . . . ..
IX
Minor seventh
X
Major seventh ...•...........
XI
Examples of melodies from the
repertoire. (Application exercises
for Chapter IX-X) .... . . . • . . .
XII Compound intervals. "Weitmelodik"

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25

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40
49
56
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68
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INTRODUCTION.
The main object of aural training should be to develop musical
sensitivity. The different exercises--sight-reading (sight-singing),
dictation etc., should not be regarded as an end in themselves
but as a means to attain this sensitivity. It is a concrete study tu
develop the power of obtaining a conscious and clear comprehension 01 musical structures. This power of comprehension depends
primaril), it is true, on a fast and accurate reading technique
and on the proficiency acquired in the dictation exercises, but it
also includes emotional elements. It is important that we do not
lose sight of these elements in the training of the ear. The proffessional musician should indeed be able to give a more detailed
account of the constructice elements of the musical "gestus",
than the listener, but the most essential thing for both of them is
to have a feeling for the nuances in the expression of the music.
After all, a feeling for the nuances of the musical idiom probably
means more than a mere technical command of its grammar.
This book is addressed primarily to students of music, and deals
in the first instance with the reading of 20th-century music. The
traditicnal aural training was based on the major/minor tonality,
and its obiect was to acquire :m aural command of the major/
minm-tcnal music. The methods applied in aural training have
thus heen dictated 11\ lIlt' musical material, and during this epoch.
it has been based on the laws of the tonal cadence. With the
"collapse" 01 the mujcr/minor tonality, however. those concerned
with aural training have been confronted with an entirelv new
situation. The conventional aural training does not meet the
requirements 01 20th-centuT) music. Indeed. it is quite natural
that only a few attempts, it any. have been made in ear-trainingtechniques In connection with the music that has emerged aftei
the major/minor epoch. for it we postulate the truth that the
method is largely determined by the nature of the material
studied, it follows that we have to obtain some perspective of
this material before we can produce a sound method. We must

have this perspective in order to be able to understand the structure of the material on which our method is to be based.
We ask ourselves, therefore: Does the music so far composed
in the 20th century contain any such logical structural principles
which could serve as a basis for a method of training the ear?
Hitherto the methods have been based on the major/minor
tonality with the triad as tonal basis. Is there any other equally
clear tonal principle in 20th-century music, and any just as clearly
discernible basic tonal design? The answer to this, of course, is
"No"! The study material presented in this book. however, has
been built up on a number of tonal and melodic figures which
in the author's opinion have played some part in avoiding the
major/minor-tonal limitations in 20th-century music. (The 20th
century is to be understood here as approximately "the first half
of the 20th century". The sight reading problems connected with
the most recent so-called radical music are not dealt with here.)
These melodic figures have been grouped together, according to
the intervals they contain, in different chapters with an increasing degree 01 difficulty. Each chapter may also be said to deal
with one more special interval. One of the author's main thesis,
however, is that Freat accuracy in singing individual intervals is
not always a guarantee 01 accuracy in reading atonal melodies;
this is because most students still leel the interval with a major/
minor interpretation. which in turn can be ascribed to the fact
that irnrn childhood the factor that most actively intluences our
ear and our instinct lor the hanuonic relation 01 the tones is still
the major/minor music.
From a point 01 view of sight reading training, therefore, the
most important thing now is to practice combinations of intervals
that will break the bonds of the major/minor interpretation of
each individual interval. It is clear that the individual interval
as an "atonal" ligure is of great importance in this training. The
student's command (visual and aural) of the theory of intervals

however. b} way of comparision. chud has in learning to read by putting together letters and syllables into lorms that are lingual symbols not only of concrete things but also of abstract concepts. 2. "Examples of Melodies from the Repertoire" at four different stages in the consecutive chapters. and its mechanism is a very complicated process.lin and pr. the difficult) a. (e) etc. (d) Locate deviations lrom the notation.g. and writes it down (f) ~lIIg or pld) the phrase dgam at a different pitch.ictise them as in (d).(possibly also the time).30 short phrases built up on the intervals in question.ither too \\ ell prepared.u.itory exercises h. plays the phrase (several times. Presentation 01 the interval material to be used.!. lor in that case the dictation exercise. t' g as in (a).n e often sulficlently alike to prevent their bell1g learned b) he. These consist of some .) Needless to '><1) one should not Iirst 01 all work through each preparatorv exercise from (d) to (0. specially III the domain of tonality.'>. (e) DICtatIOn.. Still less clear is the relation of the written music to that for which it stands as a symbol-the sounding music. This C'(PI crse I. Some ot the prep. The pupil sees the music. and then "tart from the bef!lIInin!! ag.14 in the absolute sense of the word. except that the pupil repeats the phrase on his instrument. The pupil ~ings the phrase (but not on the names ol the notes). 4 Chord series. (c) Play the phrase. The pupil analyses the wrong notes. Reading music is a difficult art to master. These phrases may be used in the lollowing ways (a) The phrase is sung from the music (b) The teacher give~ the first note and plays the phrase The pupil sll1gs it on the names of the notes w ithout looking at the music and without accompaniment. The same as (b). Preparatory exercises.irt af ter pr. known or unknown to the child. tor instance \\ ould be r. (See "Absolute Pitch" on p. and this even more so alter the great revolutions that have occurred in contemporary music. if required). Melodies. and the} . The contents of the chapters of this book are in principle built up around the lollowing headings 1. This book is an attempt to assemble material for this work. is here merely a prei equiwte lor the turther study of what I would like to call "the aural study of the musical patterns". Take. the most abstract and intangible of the arts! To acquire proficiency in reading music demands a great deal of work. the principle should be to go through all off the preparatory exercises accordmp to one of them. There are enough phrase.lCtbing them once. according to the follo\\ing Iormulae 'H( . The teacher plays or sings the phrase with a few ng notes. 1 he teacher gh es the name of the first note . e. Instead.md w uh ditlerent rhythms. There are also chapters containing. It is my hope that it will also stimulate others to add to the material b) presenting new ideas and new publications! DIRECTIONS FOR STUDY.rve been written with black notes on I} The idea is that the} are to be sung on the names of the notes lrom dillerent ~t<lrhllg pouus . 3. ol special importance in the case of pupils with ciitlerent forms of absolute pitch. Some directions for the use of the material are ghen below Fi eparatoru ExeTCHe~.

As long as the exet- .n~J· n· n n· ~ rnrnrn mmm M elodies. but on the other hand the pupil may check up occasionally on a well-tuned piano. The exercises under "Preparatory Exercises". often find themselves in a difficult "in-between" position when it comes to reading atonal music. b) The pupil sees the music. It goes without saying that they should not be practised with the aid of an instrument. Chord Series. The teacher should give them as home-work. The examples have been taken from a limited selection of 20th-centur} classics and from the works of some Swedish composers. Creat importance is attached to the reading and understanding of the melodic ligures and their organic context in the melodic progression. the need for it will disappear. gh e an idea of how these examples can be used. He plays the chcrds one by one. From the point of view of method there is no cause for great anxiety because of a pupil's possible tendency to read major/minor cells in to the melodies. With increased experience. Regarding the intonation If one wants the final note of the melodies to agree with the corresponding note on a wel!-tuned "clavier". 1. If possible the teacher should give the pupil an idea 01 the entire compositlonal situation in which the example originally occurs. it will promote their routine music-reuding in spite of this 15 feeling of major/minor tonality. Chap. See the comments on Melody No. 5 seconds. The teacher plays the first note. The most recent music. 22). (p.e. He checks up whether it is correct. which is to be supervised. The chord series given here may be used in the following ways: a) Chord dictation. The pupil does not see the music. While the chord is still sounding he sings the name 01 a certain note in the sounding chord. one has to sing in a "well-tempered" tone of voice. Needless to say both of these laults have to be dealt with. These examples lrom the Repertoire can be used in the same wa) as in the preparatory exercises and melodies. p.we been composed by the author. or to feel them. and then plays each chord. This applies both to the harmony and colour of the tone. twice. Examples of Melodies from the Repertoire. those who can hear which notes are being sung or played on the piano or some other instrument. In controlling the pi.14.pil's singing the teacher should distinguish clearly between faults due to uncertainty regarding the interval as such. i. in particular in this respect. ABSOLlJTE PITCH AND RE. The melodies are to be sung b) the pupil on a suitable vowel. and those due to faulty intonation. The chapters containing examples have therefore been prefaced \\ ith <1 list of the sources and the pages on which the} occur in the publications available. The teelrna lor tone plays a very important part in contemporary music. 'I he melodies h. I. w hi eh are then checked. Man} of them are impossible to sil1g because of their compass and pitch. say. If the pupils will only accustom themselves to the frequent "mutations" between these cells. but cannot with equal accuracy sing the written or heard note. Those with passive absolute pitch. Pupils with active absolute pitch generally have little difficulty in training the ear as far as melody and harmony are concerned.\DING THE MELODY Special problems are encountered in connection with absolute pitch. The pupil writes dew n the notes 01 the chord. calls for a new approach to aural training. at an interval of approx.

however. It is clear. and in this situation their insufficient knowledge of intervals is also revealed. In mallY 01 the melodies and examples quoted from the repertoire. and in this case the objects to be remembered probably consist of both absolute note pitches and the major/rninor tonality's supply of fonuulae. Those who can boast of having so-called. It is important that this rhythm should be carefully observed. Copenhagen. that pupils with this passive form of absolute pitch only rarely give any thought to the interval they are singing. may often react with great accurac) to wrong notes in an atonal example. 1962. They have difficulty in reading the melodic patterns. this passive absolute pitch may function perfectly. These same pupils. In doing 50 they should think more of the intervals and their melodic function than of the actual names of the notes. absolute pitch are thus often deficient in atonal melody-reading. It is very important that this type of pupil should consciously practise producing the interval combinations and melodic designs that are of fundamental importance in this book. the rhythm is fairly complicated. however. apart from separate intervals. For these pupils the exercises on transposition sung according to their own comprehension of the melodic design. since absolute pitch is largely a form 01 memory. it is often found that their memory for the pitch of notes (on the keyboard) is of little avail. exercise (e) and (f)! RHYTHM This book does not contain any special studies in rhythm. 14.) * . however. See p. are of special importance.16 cises are limited to major/minor melodies. and not on the names of the notes. and still less do they think of the tonal function of that interval in the musical context. When they are then confronted with the exercises in melodyreading in which the major/minor tonal functions have been disrupted and weakened. For systematic training in the reading and performance of rhythm students are referred to [ergen jersild's "Laerebog i Rytmelasning" (Text-book on the Reading of Rhythm).

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Klav ierauszug. Concerto for Orchestra. W. Sven-Erik Back Tranfjadrarna (Crane Feathers). . . Hansen. W. (Ubungsstucke zu Kapitel V-VII Siehe Studienanweisungen Seite CHAPTER VIII. Sven-Erik Back Tranfjadrarna. Sven-Erik Back.Srd movement. Quetlen i. I). . Pocket edition. (Application exercises for Chapters V-VII. Sven-Erik Back Tranfjadrarna. 8.. page 30. page 34. Klavierauszug.KAPITEL VIII. 4. Philharmonia. Schott. Bela Bartok Streichquartett IV. Bela Bartok Striikkvartett II (se nr 1). Philharmonia. striikorkester. Hansen. Pianoseore. Bela Bartok Sn eichquartett 11 (siehe Nr 1). Se studieanv sid 8). a Narrative and a Praver. 10. S\ en-Erik Back Die Kranichfedern. 9. Philharm. Taschenp. Pianoscore. Hilding Rosenberg Symphony III . See directions for study. Taschenpart. Seite 19. s. 11.erzeichms Bartok Streichquartett 11. Philharmonia. Hansen. LIst of Sources. Pocket edition. 50. S. page 15. Phllharmonia. 8. s. 10 11. L'"niversal-Ed. Pocket edition. Fickpart Philharmonia.. 1 fer string orchestra. Fickpart. W. Hilding Rosenberg Symfoni Ill. s. W. 4. Boose)' & Hawkes. 19. Sven-Erik Rick Die Kranichfedern. 8. W. V-VII. Hila Bartok. 30. Hansen. 2. W. 4. a narrativ and a pra}er Fickpart.1 narrativ c and a pra) er Taschenpart. Philharmonia. s. Schott. Pocket edition. Br'la Bartok Konzert fur Orchester. Igor Stravinsky A sermon. Seite 8. s. I fur Streichorchester 10. Pianoscore. in. Beld Bartok Striikkvartett 11 Fickpart. Hilding Rosenberg Symphony Ill.. Philharm. Hansen. Paul Hindemith Das Marienleben (Pieta). Klaverutdrag. Fickpart. 43. 1. Boose} & Hawkes. 6. Klaverutdrag. 9. 16 Alban Berg Lynsk svit. Examples of Melodies from the Repertoire. Boose) and Hawkes. 12 Alban Berg L~ I ische Suite. Pocket edition. Seite 43. 5. 15. Alban Berg Lyrical Suite. Universal-Ed. 1st movement. Klaverutdrag. 11. Taschenpart. Seite SO. Symfoni Ill. Taschenpart. Bela Bartok. Hilding Hosenberg Symfoni Ill. page 16. Seite 16. page 50.muoma. W. Ed. Bela Bartok String Quartet 11 (see No. Paul Hindemith Das Marien\eben (Pieta). 3-dJe satsen Hilding Rosenberg Riflessioni nr. s. s. Seite 34. Sven-Erik Back Die Kranichfedern. Hansen. 6. Br-la Bartok Strakkvartett IV. 1. Hansen. String Quartet IV. Seite 30. Hilding Rosenberg Riflessioni No. Seite 15. erster Satz.. Philh. dritter Satz 9. page 19. Hilding Rosenberg Symfoni Ill. Hilding Rosenberg. 3. Ed Schott. W. page 30. 12 13 Bela Bartok Konsert for orkester. Tranfjadrarna (Crane Feathers). 7. Hilding Rosenberg Riflessioni Nr. 7. 5. Universal Ed. 12. page 8.. KalIforteckning B~la 1. 30. K-\PITEL \'I11 Melodienbeispiele aus der Literatur. I £. page 15). 13 Igor Stravinsky -\ sermon. 13. Paul Hindemith Das Marienleben (Pieta). Hansen. s. Ed. Sven-Erik Back Tranfjadrarna. Bela Bartok String Quartet 11. Melodi-exempel Iran Iitteraturen (Tillampningsovningar till kap. W. 2 Sven-Erik Back Tranfjadrarna (Crane Feathers). Igor Stravinsky A Sermon. Hansen.'j 6 7. Klavierauszug. s. 34. 8. Lsta satsen. 2 3. page 43. Seite 50.

Klaverutdrag. s. 17). 15. 23). 5. Lars-Erik Larsson Missa brevis (se nr 17). Philharm. Pocket edition. Fickpart. (See No. Schirmer. page 3. Igor Stravinsky Threni. Phllharmonia. 2). 2~. Three excerpts from. Seite 76. 30 BEla Bartok Strakkvartett III Fickp. rl. Sei te 33. Cehrm. Seite 133. Pocket ed..33. Ingvar Lidholm laudi for kor a eapella. s. s. Karl-Birger Blomdahl Aniara. s. page 15. Karl-Birger Blomdahl Aniara (see No I. page I. Ingvar Lidholm Laudi (se nr 14). 22. 20. 29. Gehrmans musikforlag. 41. Schirmer. 18.". Amold Schoenberg String Quartet IV. Arnold Schoenberg String Quartet IV (see No. page 25. I~or Stravinsky Threni Pocket edition.lrd (siehe Ne. Seite 9. 26. Stockholm. Fickpart.ms ~llI~ikf()r1ag. 87. Stockholm. Stockholm. 27. Taschenpart. Amold Schonberg. 9. Lars-Erik Larsson Missa brevis (siehe Ne. Streichquartett IV... Three excerpts from . 28. 25. 5.. 23. s. Seite 19. Pocket edition. Schott. Seite 41. Blld Bartok Streichquartett I. Bela Bartok String Quartet I. Stockholm. Seite 3. Taschenpart. Karl-Birger Blomdahl Aniara. 22. 21. . Budapest. 2).l\ ierauszug. 17. 17. Lars-Erik Larsson !\1i~S. s. KI. Philharm.3. s. Amold Schonberg Strakkvartett IV. page 33. s. 1. Arnold Schoenberg Chamber Sy mphony. 14). 21. Seite 1'J. Seite 25. 25. Ingvar Lidholm Laudi rsiehe Ne. Igor Stravinsky Threni. E~fB Musica. Lars-Erik Larsson Missa brevis. Cehrmans Musikfcrlag. H. Stockholm. s. 19. Sven-Erik Back Tranfjadrarna (see No. Bela Bartok String Quartet 11. s. s. Kla\ ierauszug. 21.69 14. Budapest. Strakkvartett IV (se nr 23). Seite 1. page 87.. Philharm.. 153.. Philharm.l~e . 20. Arnold Schonberg. IH. Philharmonia. Lars-Erik Larsson Missa Brevis (see No. 68. Pocket edition. Schott.• page 68. Ing\ ar Lidholm Laudi for Choir a cappella. Seite 55. 26. 27. Ed. Die Kranichfedem (siehe Nr. 29 Btld Bartok Streichquartett 11 (siehe NI. 23. Igor Stravinsky Threni. 25. Seite 10. page 41. ]7). Seite . 33. Universal-Ed. page 19. 1 aschenpart Philharm. Fickpart. Sven-Erik Back Tranfjadrarna (se nr 2). Philharmonia. p. Taschenpart. 27. 29. Alban Berg Wozzeck. Taschenpart. Igor Stravinsky Threni. 23).Kammarsymfoni. Gehrmans Musiki.. 10. Fickpart. Karl-Birger Blomdahl: Aniara (se nr 15). page 5. Pocket edition. Ed EMB Musica. 14). Seite 1. Philh. 19. 2. Philharm. ] 7 L irs-Erik Larsson Missa Brev is. Budapest. Alban Berg Wozzeck. 1). 76. Alban Berg Wozzeck. Hi Karl-Birger Blomdahl Aniara.1I11 -\ni. s.3. 20. 16. 1-1. s. Pocket edition. Seite 68. page 1. 30 Bt b Bartok String QU<lrtet Ill. Schott. Piano score. 24 Arnold Schonberg Kammersymphonie. 16.m. Karl-Birger BIOIUd. Univ ersal-Ed .'5). 1'J. Fickpart. 2:3.. Klaverutdrag. Btla Bartok Strakkvartett 11 (se nr 1). Schirmer. Karl-Birger Blomdahl: Aniara.. Philh. 14.. Sven-Erik Back. Taschenpart..l. Ed.lhl -\ni.EMB Musica. Gehrmans Muslkforlag. page 10. Karl-Birger Blomduhl Aniara. Amold Schonberg. s. Seite 87. page 153. 18. Taschenpart. Universal-Ed. 22. 1). 15. 19. 24. s. Ingvar Lidholm Laudi (see No. Three excerpts from. Bela Bartok Strakkvartett I..lr. 28. 28. Philharm.. Arnold Schonberg Streichquartett IV (siehe Nr. Piano score. . 30 Bl·Id Bartok Streichquartett Ill.llldi 1111 CI]')r a cappella. page 9. Fickpart. Gehrmans musikf. 26. s.. Seite 5. 55. Schott. 15.lg. Schott. 15). s. Schott. Stockholm. Karl-Birger B101lld.1 brev is. page 55. Igor Stravinsky Threni. 24. Inghlr Lidholm [. page 76.

31. Boosey & Hawkes. Alban Berg Lyrical Suite (see No. Das Augenlicht. Alban Berg Lyrisk S\ it (se nr 12). page . Igor Stravinsky Threni (se nr 21). page 23 3.. 32. Universal-Ed. page 33. s. 22. 56. 12l. 32.. Igor Strav insky Threni (siehe Nr. Arnold Schoenberg Chamber S) mphony (see No. Boose) and Haw kes. 33. 39. 38. 40. Arnold Webern Das Augenlicht P leket edition. 24). Anton Webern Cantata 11 Pocket ed. Kammarsyrnfoni (se nr 24). 33.. s. Taschenpart. Arnold Schonberg: Streichquartett IV (siehe "Ir 23). Fickpart. 23. 36. Arnold Schonberg Kammarsymfoni (se nr 24). 241. Seite 33. page 2 ~~' lOSI 1¥~~'IA¥j Jag [ch ar bin Un Un - zu zu fran byn ha r 111 - vom Dorj ne . page 22 33. 12). page 22 34 Igor Strav inskv Symphonv of Psalms. Anton Webern Drei Gesange op 23. s. an. 23). 24). Arnold Schonberg Kanuuersy mphonie (slehe '\Tr 24).. s. Universal-Ed. Universal-Ed. Seite 22 33.'56. 22. Alban Berg Lyrisk svit (se nr 12). 2. Kantate.. page 13. . Arnold Schonberg Strakkvartett IV (se nr 23). Alban Berg L) rische Suite (siehe Nr. 40. 37. Arnold Schonberg. s. Pocket edition Boose) & Haw kes. Igor Strav inskv Threni (see No. 31. 23. page 22. Alban Berg L) rical SUIte (see No. Universal-Ed. Kantate. Seite 36. Selte 2. 32.ben - t rl l . 15. 39. Seite 56. Fickpart. Igor Stravinsky Psalmsymfoni. 22. Seite 23. 40. 33. s. . Anton Webern 11. Universal-Ed. Taschenpart. Arnold Schonberg Kammersy mphonie (siehe Nr. Arnold Schoenberg Chamber S) mphonv (see 1\:0. Universal-Ed. Anton Webern 11. Seite 15. Seite 36. page 36. Taschenpart. 21). Cnh ersal-Ed. Alban Berg I yrische Suite (siehe Nr. s. s 36 36. 23.31.. Igor Strav insky Psalmsv mphonie. 38. 37. 39 Anton Webern. Universal-Ed . Anton Webern Das Augenlicht. ersal Ed.srnold Schoenberg String Quartet IV (see No.. Seite 22. Unr. Anton Webern Drei Gesange op. 37.:). 36. 12). 12l. s. page 36. Fickpart. 36. 34. 2Il. Seite 22 38. 34. s. Anton Webern Drei Ges'lnge op.