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Babylonian Captivity

The arrest of Pope Innocent III by the king of

France led the church headquarters to be
established at Avignon, bringing the church
under the influence of France.

Great Schism

When a second pope was elected nations

recognized one or the other leading to a division
in the church that became a three-fold division
with the election of a third pope

John Wycliff

English Reformer translated the bible into



Poor English clergy who were critical of the

wealth of the upper church

Peasant Revolts

A result of noble attempts to freeze wages.

Occurred throughout Europe.


Wrote Divine Comedy, a symbolic journey

through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise to God.
Bitter criticism of abuses in the church.


Wrote Canterbury Tales in English


A rebirth of classical learning (Greeks and



Birthplace of the renaissance. Made wealthy in

the trade of woolen cloth. Became banking

City States

Major Cities in Italy who jealously defended their

sovereign status


Italian middle class


Government of the elite few


"First man of letters" Wrote to entertain as well

as inform. Saw the Renaissance as a new and
distinctly different age.


Emphasis of human beings. Encouraged study of

pagan authors as well as Christian thought.


Other than religeon

Lorenzo Valla

Wrote On Pleasure which defended the pleasure

of the senses as the highest good.


Artistic method that gave accurate depth to

paintings. Used vanishing points and color to
achieve depth.

Oil Paints

Breakthrough innovation in painting. Allowed

artists to make changes.


Wrote The Courtier. Taught deportment and

manners to the nobility


Wrote The Prince. Decribed hoe to acquire,

maintain, and increase political power. The end
always justifies the means.


Credited with the invention of movable type.

Northern Renaissance

Distinct from the southern or Italian Renaissance in its

emphasis on Christian humanism. Much more religious.
Much more focused on the physical sciences such as
mathematics and astronomy. Painting style used more
earth-tones and dramatic use of light and dark. Came later
and lasted longer. Less influenced by classical themes.

Thomas More

Northern Humanist writer. Wrote Utopia.

Erasmus of Rotterdam

Emphasized education as the ket to moral and

intellectual improvement.


English author of the later renaissance. Plays set

the standard for entertainment.

New Monarchs

Kings who differed from those before in seeking

and gaining power at the expense of the nobility.
They disbanded private armies and replaced
them with royal armies of mainly peasants armed
with long bows and pikes. They reformed
finances and justice systems to strengthen their
office and weaken the nobility.

Charles VII of France

New monarch who reorganized his council,

strengthened finances, reformed the justice
system, and remodeled the army. He made the
church subject to the state.

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

Allowed French Kings to name their own


Louis XI

Expanded the borders of France

War of Roses

Civil war in England that weakened the noble

houses of York and Lancaster whole elevating
the house of Tudor to power.

Edward IV

Restored royal power and reduced the power of

the parliamnet.

Henry VII

Weakened the aristocracy through his use of the

royal council and the Star Chamber.

Ferdinand and Isabella

Their marriage unified Spain and their defeat of

the Moors, restored Catholicism. Funded the
expedition of Columbus and expelled the Jews.


A church court intended to rid Spain of heretics

and false Christians. Used cruel methods.

Martin Luther

German monk and professor of religion who concluded that

it was by faith and not good works thatn men were saved.
Angered by the sale of indulgences, he rebelled against the
pope and was excommunicated. Formed the Lutheran faith
witht eh suppor of the princes and electors of nerthern
Germany. Refused an order by Charles V to recant. Used
the new printing press to spread his ideas.


For a sum of money, salvation could be bought.

A fatally easy fund raiser for the Catholic church

Habsburg Family

Unified much of Europe within the Holy Roman

Empire. Served as elected leaders of the empire
from 1477-1806. Their hereditary possessions
included Austria, Bohemia and Hungary.

Charles V

Most powerful man of the 16th century (in

theory). Since his position was elected the real
power was with the electors. An edample would
the when the Elector of Saxony offered refuge to
the outlaws Martin Luther following the Diet of

Schemalkaldic Wars

Religious wars aimed at eradication

Protestantism from northern Germany, Resulted
in the division and fragmentation of Germany.

Peace of Augsburg, 1555

Allowed the princes of Germany to choose the

religion for the their region. "who's the region, his
the religion"

John Calvin

French priest who believed in justification by faith

and also in predestination. Organized a very
strict and sober community at Geneva. Heretics
were burned and the morals of the people were
closely monitored. No music, dance or art.


Most influential and dynamic of Protestant

religions. Spread to Scotland though John Knox
and became known there as Presbyterianism. In
France, followers were known as Huguenots. In
England, they were the Puritans.

Henry VIII

Sought a divorce from his wife, Catherine. when the pope

refused, Henry claimed the title of "Head of the Church in
England," and ended his marriage to Catherine. He married
Anne Bolynn and eventually four others. He closed the
monasteries and confiscated their property to enrich
himself. He robbed the graves of saints to get their jewelry.
He made few changed in church doctrine beyond naming
himself as head.

Edward VI

Sickly heir to Henry VIII. Died while still in teens.

Mary Tudor

(Bloody Mary) Daughter of Catherine, sought to

restore the catholic church to England.
Introduced the inquisition. over 300 burnings on
Tower Hill.

Elizabeth I

Daugter of Anne, and therefore views as illigitimate by the Catholic chirch.

She instituted reforms in the church that gave it it's protestant apprearance.
under the Thirty-Nine Articles, priets couls marry, no monesteries, all
services in Enlgish, Bible the ultimate authority etc. Supported the revolt of
the Netherland and the circumnavigation of the globe by Francis Drake.
Phillip II Spain would send an armada to de-throne Elizabeth but would be
defeated in 1588. Elizabeth never married and dies in 1603.

Council of Trent

Part of the Catholic Reformation. Reformed the

sale of indulgences and reaffirmed the doctrines
of the chirch. Was very effective in reviving the

The society of Jesus

A religious order that sought to reverse the

effects of the reformation. Active in education
and politics, this order disturbed many secular
leaders. Also known as the Jesuits.

Ignatius Loyala

Spanish priest. Founder of the society of the


Da gama

Portugese exploere who rounded south Africa

and on the India. Technical advantages: cannon,
astrolabe, and magnetic compass.


First to reach the new world from Europe and

have his expericees publicized.


Led expedition to circle the globe. Died in the

Phillipines. Survivors of crew completed mission
and brought bad discouraging new of the actual
size of the globe.


Conquered the Aztec Empire


Conquered the Incan Empire

Dutch East India Company

Major vehicle for Dutch imperialism in Asia.

Antwerp and Amsterdam

Centers of European trade and finance

Habsburg-Valois Wars

Wars of domination between Charles V and the

kings of France. Great financial drain of France.

Concordat of Bologna

Restored the authority of Rome over the church

in France on the provision the kings of France
still be allowed to name their own bishops. Led to
corruption in the French church because
appointment were more political than religious.
Led to the rise of Calvinism in France.

Henry II of France

Increased the debt of France with his lavish

support of renaissance art. Killed in a joust,
leaving three young sickly sons.


French Calvinists who often rebelled against the

authority of the king.

Henry of Navarre

Chief of the Huguenots who led the rebellion

against the weak kings of France. He would
agree to marry the daughter of Catherine de
Medici, the French Queen, on order to bring an
end to the conflict.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Catherine de Medici conspired to murder the

Huguenot leadership at the wedding banquet for
her daughter and Henry of Navarre. Huguenots
throughout Paris were slaughtered with the final
count at nearly 10,000. Henry escaped by
becoming a Catholic long enough to leave the

Henry IV of France

Title taken by Henry Navarre when he was

invited to become the king of France in order to
end the civil war. Converted to Catholicism in
order to enter Paris. Most beloved of French
Kings. He issued the Edict of Nantes.
Assassinated by a religious fanatic.

Edict of Nantes

Allowed Huguenots to continue to worship where

they already existed and granted them 100
fortified towns to insure against catholic attack.
Unpopular among Catholics.Henry compensated
by banning protestants from the city of Paris.
Revoked by Louis XIV

Abdication of Charles V

Resulted in the division of the Hapsburg Empire

into a German Branch under Charles' brother,
Ferdinand, and a Spanish branch under Phillip II.

Phillip II of Spain

Most Catholic king of Spain. Who saw himself as

the defender of the faith. Built his palace
(Escorial) in the shape of a grid to honor his
patron saint. Sent the Armada against England in
an attempt to dethrone Elizabeth I.

Revolt of the Netherlands (1556-1587)

Conversations to Calvinism and increases in

taxes caused the peoples of the Spanish
Netherlands to rebel against Phillip II.

Duke of Alva

Sent by Spain to put down the revolt. His brutal

methods only intensified the conflict. Both
Calvinists and Catholics fought against him.

William I (The Silent)

Organized the protestant resistance against


Elizabeth I

Supported the protestant north in it's resistance

against Spain.

Spanish Armada (1588)

Attempt by Phillip to dethrone Elizabeth.

Defeated by a combination of English sea power,
bad luck, and bad weather.

Mary, Queen of Scots

Cousin to Elizabeth and sheltered by her in the

Tower of London following Mary's expulsion from
Scotland. Implicated in plats agaisnt Elizabeth
and selected by the Catholic Church to replace
Elizabeth should the Armada be successful. Was

Twelve Years' Truce

The death of Phillip II allowed a settlement in the

Netherlands with the seven northern (protestant)
provinces gaining independence and the
southern ten provinces remaining as part of
Spanish possessions.

Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)

An international war fought of German soil for

religious and political reasons.

Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)

Began with a rebellion of protestant Hussite in

Bohemia. Defenestration of Prague prompted the
emperor to send troops. The battle of White
Mountain was the decisive battle and resulted in
Protestantism being rooted out of Bohemia.

Danish Phase (1625-1629)

King Christian of Denmark was promptly

defeated by Catholic forces

Edict of Restitution

The victorious Catholics demand the restitution

of all properties taken from the church. This
would be the same as demanding the surrender
of Protestantism and was a major cause for the
war to continue.

Swedish Phase (1630-1635)

King Gustavus Adolphus brought his modern

with mobile cannon against the Catholics and
gained victory after victory. Drove deep into
southern Germany. The Catholics revoked the
Edict of Restitution in an attempt to unify
Germans against the Swedes.