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Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Part I: Introduction

Basic Principles
Emphasizing AASHTO LRFD Procedures

Reinforced vs. Prestressed Concrete


Praveen Chompreda, Ph. D. Principle of Prestressing
H
HistoricallPPerspective
Applications
Classification and Types
Advantages
Design Codes
Stages of Loading

MAHIDOL UNIVERSITY | 2009 | EGCE 406 Bridge Design

Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Concrete

„ Recall Reinforced Concrete knowledge:


‰ Concrete is strong in compression but
C b weakk in
tension
‰ Steel is strong in tension (as well as compression)
‰ Reinforced concrete uses concrete to resist
compression and to hold the steel bars in place, and
uses steel to resist all of the tension
‰ Tensile strength of concrete is neglected (i.e. zero)
‰ RC beam always crack under service load
Cracking moment of an RC beam is generally
much lower than the service moment
Principle of Prestressing Principle of Prestressing

„ Prestressing is a method in which compression force is „ Stress in concrete section when the prestressing force is
applied to the reinforced concrete section.
section applied at the c.g.
c g of the section (simplest case)
„ The effect of prestressing is to reduce the tensile stress
i the
in h section
i to theh point
i that
h the
h tensile
il stress is
i below
b l
the cracking stress. Thus, the concrete does not crack!
„ It is then possible to treat concrete as an elastic material
„ The concrete can be visualized to have 2 force systems
‰ Internal Prestressing Forces
‰ External Forces (from DL
DL, LL
LL, etc…)
etc )
„ These 2 force systems must counteract each other

Principle of Prestressing Historical Perspective

„ Stress in concrete section when the prestressing force is „ The concept of prestressing was invented
applied eccentrically with respect to the cc.g.
g of the centuries ago when metal bands were
section (typical case) wound around wooden pieces (staves) to
form a barrel.
barrel
Smaller Compression

c.g.
+ + =
e0
„ The metal bands were
F/A Fe0y/I MDLy/I MLLy/I Small Compression tighten under tensile stress,
which creates compression
Cross-
Section
Prestressing
Force
Stress
from DL
Stress
from LL
Stress
Resultant
between the staves –
allowing them to resist
internal liquid pressure
Historical Perspective Historical Perspective
„ Eugene Freyssinet (1879-1962)
(1879 1962) was the first to
propose that we should use very high strength
steel which permit high elongation of steel.
steel
The high steel elongation would not be
entirely offset by the shortening of concrete
„ The concept of prestressed concrete is also not new. In (prestress loss) due to creep and shrinkage.
1886 a patent was granted for tightening steel tie rods in
1886,
concrete blocks. This is analogous to modern day „ First prestressed concrete
segmental constructions.
constructions g in 1941 in France
bridge
„ Early attempts were not very successful due to low „ First prestressed concrete
bridge in US: Walnut Lane
strength of steel at that time.
time Since we cannot prestress B id iin P
Bridge Pennsylvania.
l i Built
B il
at high stress level, the prestress losses due to creep and in 1949. 47 meter span.
shrinkage of concrete quickly reduce the effectiveness of
prestressing.

Applications of Prestressed Concrete Classification and Types

„ Bridges „ Pretensioning v.s. Posttensioning


„ Sl b in
Slabs i buildings
b ildi „ External v.s. Internal
„ Water Tank
„ Linear v.s.
v s Circular
„ Concrete Pile
„ End-Anchored v.s. Non End-Anchored
„ Thin Shell Structures
„ Offshore Platform „ Bonded v.s. Unbonded Tendon
„ Nuclear Power Plant „ P
Precastt v.s. Cast-In-Place
C t I Pl v.s. Composite
C it
„ Repair
p and Rehabilitations „ Partial v.s. Full Prestressingg
Classification and Types Classification and Types
„ Pretensioningg vs. Posttensioningg
‰ In Pretension, the tendons are tensioned against some
abutments before the concrete is place
place. After the
concrete hardened, the tension force is released. The
tendon tries to shrink back to the initial length but the
concrete resists it through the bond between them, thus,
compression force is induced in concrete.
concrete Pretension is
usually done with precast members.

Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete


Casting Factory
Concrete
Mixer

Classification and Types Classification and Types


Precast Segmental
‰ In Posttension, the tendons are tensioned after the Girder to be
concrete has hardened.
hardened Commonly,
Commonly metal or plastic Posttensioned In
ducts are placed inside the concrete before casting. Place

After the concrete hardened and had enough strength,


strength
the tendon was placed inside the duct, stressed, and
anchored against concrete.
concrete Grout may be injected into
the duct later. This can be done either as precast or
cast-in-place.
ti l
Classification and Types Classification and Types
„ E
External
l vs. IInternall Prestressing
P
„ End-Anchored vs. Non-End-Anchored tendons
‰ Prestressingg mayy be done inside or outside
‰ IIn PPretensioning, tendons
d transfer
f the
h prestress
„ Linear vs. Circular Prestressing through the bond actions along the tendon; therefore,
‰ Prestressing can be done in a straight structure such as it is non-end-anchored
beams (linear prestressing) or around a circular
structures such as tank or silo (circular prestressing)
structures, ‰ In Posttensioning,
g tendons are anchored at their ends
using mechanical devices to transfer the prestress to
„ Bonded vs. Unbonded Tendon
concrete;; therefore,, it is end-anchored. ((Groutingg or
‰ The tendon may be bonded to concrete (pretensioning not is irrelevant)
or posttensioning with grouting) or unbonded
(
(posttensioning
i i without
ih grouting).
i ) B
Bonding
di hhelps
l
prevent corrosion of tendon. Unbonding allows
readjustment
dj t t off prestressing
t i force
f att later
l t times.
ti

Classification and Types RC vs


vs. PPC vs.
vs PC

„ Partial vs. Full Prestressing


‰ Prestressing tendon
P d may be b used d in combination
b withh
regular reinforcing steel. Thus, it is something between
full prestressed concrete (PC) and reinforced
concrete (RC). The goal is to allow some tension and
cracking under full service load while ensuring
sufficient ultimate strength.
‰ We sometimes use partially prestressed concrete
(PPC) to control camber and deflection, increase
ductility, and save costs.
Advantages of PC over RC Design Codes for PC
„ Take full advantages of high strength concrete
and high strength steel „ ACI-318 Building Code (Chapter 18)
‰ Need
N d less
l materials
i l „ AASHTO LRFD (Chapter 5)
‰ Smaller and lighter structure
‰ No cracks
‰ Use the entire section to resist the load „ Other institutions
‰ Better corrosion resistance ‰ PCI – Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute
‰ Good for water tanks and nuclear plant ‰ PTI – Post
Post-Tensioning
Tensioning Institute
„ Very effective for deflection control
„ Better shear resistance

Stages of Loading Stages of Loading

„ Unlike RC where we primarily consider the „ Typical stages of loading considered are Initial
ultimate
lti t lloading
di stage,
t we mustt consider
id multiple
lti l andd Service
S i Stages
St
stages of construction in Prestressed Concrete „ Initial ((Immediatelyy after Transfer of Prestress))
„ The stresses in the concrete section must remain ‰ Full prestress force
below the maximum limit at all times!!! ‰ N MLL (may
No ( or may nott have
h MDL depending
d di on
construction type)
„ Service
‰ Prestress loss has occurred
‰ MDL+MLL
Stages of Loading

„ For precast construction, we have to investigate


some intermediate states during transportation
Part II: Materials and
and erection Hardwares for Prestressingg

Concrete
Prestressing Steel
Prestressing Hardwares

Concrete Concrete: Compressive Strength

„ Mechanical properties of „ AASHTO LRFD


concrete that are relevant
to the prestressed „ For prestressed concrete, the
concrete design: compressive strength should
be from 28-70 MPa at 28 days
‰ Compressive Strength
„ For reinforced concrete,, the
‰ M d l off Elasticity
Modulus El i i
compressive strength should
‰ Modulus of Rupture be from 16-70 MPa at 28 days
„ Concrete with f’c > 70 MPa
can be used when supported
by test data
Concrete: Modulus of Elasticity Concrete: Modulus of Rupture

„ AASHTO (5.4.2.4) „ Indicates the tensile capacity of


„ Ec = 0.043γ
0 043γc1.5(f
(f’c)0.5 MPa concrete under bendingg
‰ γc1.5 in kg/m3 „ Tested simply-supported
‰ ff’c in MPa p
concrete beam under 4-point
„ For normal weight concrete, bending configuration
we can use „ fr = My/I = PL/bd2
Ec =4800(f’c)0.5 MPa „ AASHTO (5.4.2.6)
‰ fr = 0.63 (f’c)0.5 MPa

Concrete : Summary of Properties Prestressing Tendons

„ Prestressing tendon may be in the form of


strands,
t d wires,
i round
d bar,
b or threaded
th d d rods d
„ Materials
‰ High Strength Steel
‰ Fib R i f
Fiber-Reinforced
d Composite
C it ((glass
l or carbon
b fib
fibers))
Tendons Prestressing Steel

„ Common shapes
of prestressing
tendons

Most Popular Æ
((7-wire Strand))

Prestressing Strands Prestressing Strands

„ Prestressing strands have two grades


‰ Grade
G d 250 (fpu = 250 ksi
k or 1725 MPa)
MP )
‰ Grade 270 ((fpu = 270 ksi or 1860 MPa))
„ Types of strands
‰ SStressedd Relieved
R li d SStrand
d
‰ Low Relaxation Strand (lower prestress loss due to
relaxation of strand)
Prestressing Strands Prestressing Strands

„ Modulus of Elasticity
‰ 197000 MPa for Strand
‰ 207000 MPa for Bar
„ The modulus
Th d l off elasticity
l i i
of strand is lower than
that of steel bar because
strand is made from
twisting of small wires
together.

Hardwares & Prestressing Equipments Pretensioned Beams

„ Pretensioned Members
‰ H ld D
Hold-Down Devices
D
„ Posttensioned Members
‰ Anchorages
„ Stressing
St i A Anchorage
h
„ Dead-End Anchorage
‰ Ducts
‰ Posttensioningg Procedures
Pretensioning Hardwares Posttensioned Beams

„ Hold-Down Devices for


Pretensioned Beams

„ Posttension Hardwares
‰ Stressing
St i A Anchorage
h
‰ Dead-End Anchorage
‰ Duct/ Grout Tube

Posttensioning Hardwares - Anchorages Posttensioning Hardwares - Anchorages


Posttensioning Hardwares - Anchorages Posttensioning Hardwares - Ducts

Posttensioning Procedures Posttensioning Procedures

Grouting is optional (depends on


y
the system used))
Prestress Losses
„ Prestress force at any time is less than that during jacking
Part III: Prestress Losses „ Sources of Prestress Loss
‰ Elastic Shortening :
Because concrete
shortens when the
prestressing force is
Sources of Prestress Losses applied to it. The
tendon attached to it
Lump Sum Estimation of Prestress Loss also shorten, causing
stress loss

Prestress Losses Prestress Losses


„ Sources of Prestress Loss (cont.) „ Sources of Prestress Loss
‰ Friction : Friction in the duct of p
posttensioningg system
y causes (cont.)
stress at the far end to be less than that at the jacking
‰ Shrinkage : Concrete
end. Thus, the average stress is less than the jacking stress
shrinks over time due to
the loss of water, leading
to stress loss on attached
tendons
‰ Creep : Concrete

‰ Anchorage Set : The wedge in the shortens over time under


anchorage
h may set in
i slightly
li h l to llockk compressive stress,
stress
the tendon, causing a loss of stress leading to stress loss on
attached tendons
Prestress Losses Time Line of Prestress Loss
Posttensioningg
SH
„ Sources of FR CR
AS
Prestress Loss RE
(cont.) Jacking ES Initial Effective
‰ Steell R
St Relaxation
l ti : fpj fpi fpe
Steel loss its stress
with time due to Pretensioning SH
constant (AS CR
elongation the
elongation, J ki
Jacking RE) ES RE
larger the stress, Release Initial Effective
(against
the larger the loss.
loss abutment) (
(cutting
g
strands) fpi fpe
fpj

Instantaneous Losses Time-Dependent Losses

Prestress Loss – By Types Prestress Loss - Pretensioned

Pretensioned Posttensioned
Instantaneous Elastic Shortening Friction
A
Anchorage Set
S
Elastic Shortening
Time- Shrinkage (Concrete) Shrinkage (Concrete)
Dependent Creep (Concrete) Creep (Concrete)
Relaxation (Steel) Relaxation (Steel)
Prestress Loss - Posttensioned Lump Sum Prestress Loss

„ Pretress losses can be very complicate to


estimate
ti t since
i it d
depends
d on so many factors
f t
„ In typical
yp constructions,, a lump
p sum estimation of
prestress loss is enough. This may be expressed
in terms of:
‰ Total stress loss (in unit of stress)
‰ Percentage of initial prestress

Lump Sum Prestress Loss Lump Sum Prestress Loss


„ A. E. Naaman (with slight modifications) – not including FR, AS
‰ Start with 240 MPa for Pretensioned Normal Weight „ ACI-ASCE Committee (Zia et al. 1979)
Concrete with Low Relaxation Strand
‰ This is the Maximum Loss that you may assumed
‰ Add 35 MPa for Stress-Relieved Strand or for Lightweight
Concrete
‰ D d
Deduct 35 MPa
MP ffor Posttension
P
Maximum Prestress Loss
P t
Prestress Loss
L (fpi-fpe)
(f i f ) (MP
(MPa)) T
Types off (fpi fpe) (MPa)
(fpi-fpe)
Types of Types of Concrete
Types of Concrete Stress-Relieved Low Relaxation Prestress Stress-Relieved Low Relaxation
Prestress
Strand Strand Strand Strand
Pretensioned Normal Weight Concrete 275 240 Pretensioned Normal Weight Concrete 345 276
Li ht i ht C
Lightweight Concrete
t 310 275 Lightweight Concrete 380 311
Posttensioned Normal Weight Concrete 240 205
Lightweight Concrete 275 240
Lump Sum Prestress Loss Lump Sum Prestress Loss
„ AASHTO LRFD (for CR
CR, SR
SR, R2) (5.9.5.3)
(5 9 5 3)
„ T.Y. Lin & N. H. Burns
S
Source off Loss
L P
Percentage off Loss
L (%)
Pretensioned Posttensioned
Elastic Shortening (ES) 4 1
Creep of Concrete (CR) 6 5
Shrinkage of Concrete (SR) 7 6
Steel Relaxation (R2) 8 8
Total 25 20

Note: Pretension has larger loss because prestressing is usually


done when concrete is about 1-2 days old whereas Posttensioning
is done at much later time when concrete is stronger.

Lump Sum Prestress Loss

„ AASHTO LRFD (Cont.)


‰ Partial Prestressing Ratio (PPR) is calculated as:
Part IV: Allowable Stress
PPR =
Aps fpy Design
g
Aps fpy + As fy
„ PPR = 1.0
1 0 for Prestressed Concrete
„ PPR = 0.0 for Reinforced Concrete Stress Inequality Equation
‰ Elastic Shortening Loss (ΔfpES) is calculated as: Allowable Stress in Concrete
Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel
E ps E ps ⎡ Fi Fi e02 MG e0 ⎤ Feasible Domain Method
ΔfpES = fcgp,Fi +G = ⎢ + − ⎥ Envelope and Tendon Profile
Eci Eci ⎣ A c I I ⎦

Stress of concrete at the c.g. of tendon due to prestressing force and dead load
Basics: Sign Convention Basics: Section Properties
Concrete Cross- c.g.
g off Prestressingg Tendon
Area: Aps
„ In this class, the following convention is used: Sectiona Area: Ac
„ I
‰ Tensile Stress in concrete is negative
g (-)
()
‰ Compressive Stress in concrete is positive (+) „ Kt
‰ Positive Moment: yt
((abs)) e ((-))
„ Kb
kt (-)
„ Zt
Center of Gravity of
‰ Positive Shear:
h
(abs)
Concrete Section „ Zb
kb (+) (c.g.c)
e (+)
yb
(abs)

„ In some books,, the sign


g convention for stress mayy be
opposite so you need to reverse the signs in some c.g. of Prestressing Tendon
formula!!!!!!!!! Area: Aps

Basics: Section Properties Basics: Section Properties


„ Moment of Inertia, I „ Kern of the section,
section k,
k is the distance from cc.g.
g
‰ I = ∫ y dA
2
where compression force will not cause any
A
tension
i iin the
h section
i
‰ Rectangular section about c.g. Ixx = 1/12*bh3
‰ Ix’x’ = Ixx + Ad2 Consider
C id TTopp Fib
Fiber Consider
C id Bottom
B tt FiberFib
(Get Bottom Kern, kb) (Get Top Kern, kt)
„ yt and yb are distance from the c.g. of section to
top and bottom fibers, respectively F Fe0 y t F Fe0 y b
0= − 0= +
„ Sectional modulus
modulus, Z (or S) Ac I Ac I
‰ Zt = I/yt
I I
‰ Zb = I/yb e0 = = kb e0 = − = kt
Ac y t Ac y b
Note:Top kern has negative value
Basics: General Design Procedures Stress in Concrete at Various Stages

„ Select Girder type, materials to be used, and


number
b off prestressing
t i strands
t d
„ Check allowable stresses at various stages
g
„ Check ultimate moment strength
„ Check cracking load
„ Check shear
„ Check deflection

Stress Inequality Equations Allowable Stress in Concrete


„ We can write four equations based on the stress at the
top and bottom of section at initial and service stages „ AASHTO LRFD (5.9.4) provides allowable stress in
p
concrete as functions of compressive strength
g at that
time
No. Case Stress Inequality Equation
„ Consider the following limit states:
I Initial-Top F Fe M F ⎛ e ⎞ M
σ t = i − i o + min = i ⎜ 1 − o ⎟ + min ≥ σ ti
Ac Zt Zt Ac ⎝ kb ⎠ Zt
„ Immediately after Prestress Transfer (Before Losses)
II Initial-Bottom F Fe M F ⎛ e ⎞ Mmin
σ b = i + i o − min = i ⎜ 1 − o ⎟− ≤ σ ci ‰ Compression
Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Zb ‰ Tension
III Service-Top F Feo Mmax Fi ⎛ eo ⎞ Mmax Service (After All Losses)
σt = − + = ⎜1− ⎟ + ≤ σ cs „
Ac Zt Zt Ac ⎝ k b ⎠ Zt
! ‰ Compression
C i
IV Service- F Feo Mmax F ⎛ eo ⎞ Mmax ‰ Tension
Bottom σb = + − = ⎜1− ⎟− ≥ σ ts
Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Zb
Allowable Stress in Concrete Allowable Stress in Concrete
„ Immediately after Prestress Transfer (Before Losses) „ At service (After All Losses)
‰ Using compressive strength at transfer, f’ci „ Compressive Stress
„ Allowable
All bl compressive i stress = 00.60
60 f’ci
„ Allowable tensile stress

Allowable Stress in Concrete Allowable Stress in Concrete - Summary


Stage
g Where Load Limit Note
„ At service (After All Losses)
Initial Tension Fi+MGirder -0.58√f’ci With bonded reinf…
„ Tensile Stress at Top -0.25√f’ci Without bonded
> -1.38 MPa reinf.

Compression Fi+MGirder 0.60 f’ci


at Bottom
Service Compression F+MSustained 0.45f’c *
at Top 0.5(F+MSustained)+MLL+IM 0.40f’c *
F+MSustained+MLL+IM 0.60Øwf’c *
Tension F+MSustained+0.8MLL+IM -0.50√f’c Normal/ Moderate
at Bottom (Service III Limit State) exposure
-0.25√f’c Corrosive exposure
0 U b d d tendon
Unbonded d
* Need to check all of these conditions (cannot select only one)
Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel

„ ACI and AASHTO code specify the allowable „ AASHTO


stress
t in
i the
th prestressing
t i steel
t l att jacking
j ki andd after
ft LRFD
(5.9.3)
transfer

Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel


„ ACI-318
ACI 318 (2002)
Allowable Stress Design Allowable Stress Design

„ There are many factors affecting the stress in a „ For bridges, we generally has a preferred section type
prestressed girder for a given range of span length and we can select a
‰ Prestressing Force (Fi or F) girder spacing to be within a reasonable range
‰ L
Location off prestress tendon
d (e0)
( 0)
‰ Section Property (A, Zt or Zb, kt or kb)
‰ External moment, which depends on
„ The Section used ((dead load))
„ Girder Spacing (larger spacing Æ larger moment)
„ Slab Thickness (larger spacing Æ thicker slab)
‰ Stages of construction

Sections Sections

„ AASHTO Type „ AASHTO Type I-VI Sections (continued)


I-VI Sections

ft m
50 15
75 23
100 30
150 46
Bridge Girder Sections Bridge Girder Sections

Allowable Stress Design Feasible Domain - Equations


„ We can rewrite the stress inequality equations and add one more
equation to them
„ For a given section, we need to find the
combination
bi ti off prestressing
t i fforce (Fi or F,
F which
hi h No
No. Case Stress Inequality Equation
depends on the number of strands), and the I Initial-Top ⎛1⎞
(
e0 ≤ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin − σ ti Zt )
location of strands (in terms of e0) to satisfy ⎝ Fi ⎠
II Initial-Bottom ⎛1⎞
these equations (
e0 ≤ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin + σ ci Zb )
⎝ Fi ⎠
„ Possible methods:
‰ Keep trying some number of strands and locations
III Service-Topp ⎛ 1⎞
(
e0 ≥ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmax − σ cs Zt
⎝F ⎠
) !
((Trial & Error)) IV Service-
Service
‰ We use “Feasible Domain” Method Bottom
⎛ 1⎞
⎝F ⎠
(
e0 ≥ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmax + σ ts Zb )
V P
Practical
i l Li
Limit
i e0 ≤ ( e0 )mp = y b − dc ,min = y b − 7.5 cm
Feasible Domain – Graphical Interpretation Feasible Domain

„ Feasible domain tells you the possible location and


prestressing force at a given section to satisfy the stress
inequality equation
„ We usually use feasible domain to determine location
and
d prestressing
i force
f at the
h most critical
i i l section
i (e.g.
(
midspan of simply-supported beams)
„ After we get the prestressing force at the critical section,
section
we need to find the location for the tendon at other
points to satisfy stress inequalities
„ We use the prestressing envelope to determine the
location of tendon alongg the lengthg of the beam (tendon
(
profile)

Envelope - Equations Envelope - Equations


„ We use the same equation as the feasible domain, except that we’ve
already known the F or Fi and want to find e0 at different points along
the beam „ We then have 5 main equations
No
No. Case Stress Inequality Equation ‰ I & II provide the lower bound of e0 (use minimum of the
I Initial-Top ⎛1⎞ two)
⎝ Fi ⎠
(
e0 ≤ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin − σ ti Zt ) ‰ III and
d IV provide
id the
th upper bound
b d off e0 (use
( maximum
i
II Initial-Bottom ⎛1⎞
of the two)
(
e0 ≤ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin + σ ci Zb
⎝ Fi ⎠
) „ IIIa uses F+MSustained
III
„ IIIb uses 0.5(F+MSustained)+MLL+IM
III Service-Top
p ⎛ 1⎞
(
e0 ≥ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmax − σ cs Zt
⎝F ⎠
) !
„ IIIc uses F+MSustained+MLL+IM
„ IV uses F+MSustained+0.8MLL+IM
IV Service-
Service
Bottom
⎛ 1⎞
(
e0 ≥ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmax + σ ts Zb
⎝F ⎠
) ‰ V is a practical limit of the e0 (it is also the absolute
lower bound)
V P
Practical
i l Li
Limit
i e0 ≤ ( e0 )mp = y b − dc ,min = y b − 7.5 cm
Envelope & Tendon Profile Envelope & Tendon Profile

Envelope & Tendon Profile Envelope & Tendon Profile

„ Note „ There is an alternative to draping the strands in


‰ The tendon
Th d profilef l off pretensioned
d members
b are pretensioned
t i d memberb
either straight or consisting of straight segments „ We pput pplastic sleeves around some strands at
‰ The tendon profile of posttensioned member may be supports to prevent the bond transfer so the
g tendon or smooth curved, but no sharpp
one straight prestress force will be less at that section
corners
Load – Deflection – Concrete Stress

Part II: Ultimate Strength


g
Design
g

Concrete and Prestressing Steel Stresses


Cracking Moment
Failure Types
A l i ffor Mn – Rectangular
Analysis R t l Section
S ti
T-Section
A l i ffor Mn – T-
Analysis T Section
S i

Load - Deflection Prestressing Steel Stress

„ 1 & 2: Theoretical camber (upward deflection) of


prestressed beam
„ 3: Self weight + Prestressing force
„ 4: Zero deflection ppoint (Balanced
( ppoint)) with uniform
stress across section
„ 5: Decompression point where tension is zero at the
b
bottom fiber
fb
„ 6: Cracking point where cracking moment is reached
„ 7: End of elastic range (the service load will not be larger
than this)
„ 8 Yielding
8: Yi ldi off prestressing
i steell
„ 9: Ultimate strength (usually by crushing of concrete)
Prestressing Steel Stress Cracking Moment
„ The pprestressingg steel stress increases as the load
increases „ Concrete cracks when bottom fiber reaches the tensile
„ Crackingg of beam causes a jump
j p in stress as additional capacity (modulus of rupture)
tension force is transferred from concrete (now
cracked) to prestressing steel
„ At ultimate of prestressed concrete beam, the stress in fr = -0.63 (f’c)0.5 MPa (5.4.2.6)
steel is somewhere between yyield strength g fpy and
ultimate strength fpu
„ Stress is lower for unbonded tendon because stress is
distributed throughout the length of the beam instead of
just one section as in the case of bonded tendon
„ At ultimate, the effect of prestressing is lost and the
section behaves jjust like an RC beam

Cracking Moment Failure Types

„ The moment at this stage is called “cracking moment” „ This is similar to RC


which depends on the geometry of the section and
prestressing force „ Fracture of steel after concrete cracking. This is a sudden
F Feo Mcr F ⎛ eo ⎞ Mcr failure and occurred because the beam has too little
σb = + − = ⎜1− ⎟− = fr reinforcement
Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Zb
„ Crushing of concrete after some yielding of steel. This is
„ Solve the above equation to get Mcr called tension
tension-controlled.
controlled.
„ Crushing of concrete before yielding of steel. This is a
Mcr = F (eo − kt ) − fr Zb brittle failure due to too much reinforcement.
reinforcement It is called
Note: Need to input fr and kt as negative values !!!
overreinforced or compression-controlled.
Failure Types Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity

„ Analysis assumptions
‰ Plane section remains plane
Pl l after
f bending
b d (linear
(l strain
distribution)
‰ Perfect bond between steel and concrete (strain
p y)
compatibility)
‰ Concrete fails when the strain is equal to 0.003
‰ Tensile strength
stren th off concrete
c ncrete is neglected
ne lected at ultimate
ltimate
‰ Use rectangular stress block to approximate concrete
stress distribution

Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity

„ Recall from RC Design that the followings must „ For equilibrium, there are commonly 4 forces
b satisfy
be ti f att allll times
ti no matter
tt what
h t happens:
h ‰ Compression in concrete
C
‰ Compression
p in Nonprestressed
p reinforcement
‰ EQUILIBRIUM ‰ Tension in Nonprestressed reinforcement
‰ Tension in Prestressed reinforcement
‰ STRAIN COMPATIBILITY
„ For concrete compression, we still use the ACI’s
„ They also hold in Prestressed Concrete! rectangular stress block
Rectangular Stress Block Rectangular Stress Block

⎧ 0.85 f 'c ≤ 28 MPa



⎪ ⎛ f ' − 28 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
β1 = ⎨0.85 − 0.05 ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟ 28 ≤ f 'c ≤ 56 MPa
⎪ ⎝ 7 ⎠⎝ ⎠
⎩⎪ 0.65 f 'c ≥ 56 MPa

β1 is equal to 0.85
0 85 for f ’c < 28 MPa
It decreases 0.05 for everyy 7 MPa increases in f ’c
Until it reaches 0.65 at f ’c > 56 MPa

Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity

„ For tension and compression in nonprestressed „ For tension in


reinforcement,
i f t we d
do th
the same thing
thi as in
i RC prestressing steel
steel, we
observe that we
design:
cannot assume the
‰ Assume that the steel yield first; i.e. behavior of
Ts = Asfy or Cs = As’ffy’ prestressing steel
‰ Check the strain in reinforcement to see if they (which is high strength
actually yield or not,
not if not
not, calculate the stress based steel)
t l) tto bbe elastic-
l ti
on the strain at that level & revise the analysis perfectly plastic as in
to find new value of neutral axis depth,
depth c the
h case off steell
Ts = Asfs = AsEsεs = AsEs· 0.003(c-d)/c reinforcement in RC
Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity Ultimate Stress in Steel: fps

„ At ultimate of prestressed concrete beam, the stress in „ AASHTO LRFD Specifications


steel is clearly not the yield strength but somewhere „ For Bonded tendon only (5.7.3.1.1)
(5 7 3 1 1) and for fpe
p > 0.5f
0 5fpu
p
between yield strength fpy and ultimate strength fpu
W called
We ll d iit fps ⎛ c ⎞ ⎛ fpy ⎞
„
fps = fpu ⎜ 1 − k ⎟⎟ ; k = 2 ⎜⎜ 1.04 − ⎟⎟
The true value of stress is difficult to calculate (generally ⎜ dp fppu
„
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
requires nonlinear moment-curvature analysis) so we
ggenerallyy estimate it usingg semi-empirical
p formula ‰ Note: for ppreliminaryy design,
g we mayy conservativelyy
‰ ACI Æ Bonded Tendon or Unbonded Tendon assume fps=fpy (5.7.3.3.1)
‰ AASHTO Æ Bonded Tendon or Unbonded Tendon
„ For Unbonded tendon, see 5.7.3.1.2

Ultimate Stress in Steel: fps Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity

„ Notes on Strain Compatibility

„ The strain in top of concrete at ultimate is 0.003


„ We can use similar triangle to find the strains in concrete
or reinforcingg steel at anyy levels from the topp strain
„ We need to add the tensile strain due to prestressing
(occurred before casting of concrete in pretensioned or
before grouting in posttensioned) to the strain in
concrete at that level to get the true strain of the
prestressing steel
Maximum & Minimum Reinforcement Resistance Factor φ
„ M i
Maximum Reinforcement
R i f t (5
(5.7.3.3.1)
7 3 3 1) R it
Resistance Factor
F t Ø
‰ The maximum of nonprestressed and prestressed Section Type RC and PPC PPC with PC
reinforcement shall be such that c/de ≤ 0.42 w/ PPR < 0.5 (PPR = 1.0)
0.5< PPR < 1
‰ c/de = ratio between neutral axis depth (c) and the
Under-Reinforced Section 0 90
0.90 0 90
0.90 1 00
1.00
centroid depth of the tensile force (de)
c/de ≤ 0.42
Over-Reinforced
O R i f d SSection
ti Nott
N 0 70
0.70 0 70
0.70
„ Minimum Reinforcement (5.7.3.3.2) c/de > 0.42 Permitted
‰ The minimum
Th i i off nonprestressed
t d and
d prestressed
t d
reinforcement shall be such that
„ Note: if c/de > 0.42 the member is now considered a
‰ ØMn > 1.2M
1 2Mcr (Mcr = cracking
ki moment), ) or compression member and different resistance factor applies (see
‰ ØMn > 1.33Mu (Mu from Strength Load Combinations) 5.5.4.2)
„ AASHTO doesd es not
n t permit
ermit the use
se off over-reinforced
er reinf rced RC
(defined as sections with PPC < 0.5) sections

Rectangular vs.
vs TT-Section
Section Rectangular vs.
vs TT-Section
Section

„ Most prestressed concrete


beams are either I-Shaped p or T-
shaped (rarely rectangular) so
they have larger compression
flange
„ If the neutral axis is in the
flange we called it rectangular
flange,
section behavior. But if the
g
neutral axis is below the flange
of the section, we call it T- „ If it is
i a T-Section
T S ti bbehavior,
h i th there are now two
t value
l off widths,
idth
section behavior namely b (for the top flange), and bw (web width)
„ This has nothing to do with the „ We need to consider nonuniform width of rectangular stress
overall shape of the section !!! block
Rectangular vs.
vs TT-Section
Section T-Section
T Section Analysis

„ We divide the compression side into 2 parts


‰ Overhanging
O h portion off flange
fl (width
( d h = b-b
b bw )
‰ Web ppart (width
( = bw )

„ We generally assume that the section is rectangular first and


check if the neutral axis depth (c) is above or below the
flange thickness,
thickness hf
„ Note:ACI method checks a=ß1c with hf, which may give
slightly
li htl diff
differentt result
lt when
h a < hf but
b t c > hf

T-Section
T Section Analysis T-Section
T Section Analysis

From equilibrium „ For a more detailed approach, we recall the equilibrium

0.85f 'c bw β1c + 0.85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf = Aps fps + As fy − As ' fy ' 0.85f 'c bw β1c + 0.85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf = Aps fps + As fy − As ' fy '
⎛ c ⎞
For preliminary analysis, or first iteration, we may assume fps = fpy Substitute fps = fpu ⎜ 1 − k ⎟⎟ , Rearrange and solve for c
and solve for c ⎜ dp
⎝ ⎠

Aps fy + As fy − As ' fy '− 0.85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf Aps fpu + As fy − As ' fy '− 0.85
0 85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf
c= c=
0 85f 'c bw β1
0.85 0 85f 'c bw β1 + kAps fpu / d p
0.85
T-Section
T Section Analysis T-Section
T Section Analysis Flowchart

„ Moment Capacity (about a/2)


⎛ a⎞ ⎛ a⎞ ⎛ a⎞
Mn = Aps fps ⎜ d p − ⎟ + As fy ⎜ ds − ⎟ − As ' fy ' ⎜ ds '− ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
⎛ h ⎞
+0.85
0 85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf ⎜ a − f ⎟
⎝ 2⎠

T-Section
T Section Analysis Flowchart T Section
T-Section
„ In actual structures, the section is pperfect T or I shapes
p -
there are some tapering flanges and fillets. Therefore, we
need to idealized the true section to simplify the analysis.
Little accuracy may be lost.

„ We need this for ultimate analysis only. We should use


the true section property for the allowable stress analysis/
design
Composite

Part III: Composite


p Beam „ Composite generally means the use of two
diff
different
t materials
t i l iin a structural
t t l elements
l t
„ Example:
p Reinforced Concrete
‰ Concrete – carry compression
‰ St l R
Steel Reinforcement
i f t – carry tension
t i
Typical Composite Section
Composite
p Section Properties
p „ Example:
p Carbon Fiber Composite
p
Actual, Effective, and Transformed Widths ‰ Carbon Fiber – carry tension
Allowable Stress Design
Stress Inequality Equation, Feasible Domain, and Envelope ‰ E
Epoxy Resin Matrix
Matri – hold
h ld the fibers in place
lace
Cracking Moment
Ul i
Ultimate M
Moment C Capacity
i

Composite Beam Typical Composite Sections

„ In the context of bridge design, the word


composite
it bbeam means the
th use off ttwo diff
differentt
materials between the beam and the slab
‰ Steel Beam + Concrete Slab
„ Steel beam carries tension
„ Concrete in slab carries compression
‰ Prestressed Concrete Beam (high-strength
(high strength concrete)
+ Concrete Slab (normal-strength concrete)
„ Prestressed
P d Concrete
C beam
b carries
i tension
i
„ Concrete in slab carries compression
Typical Composite Sections Why Composite?

„ Slab may be cast: „ There are some benefits of using precast


‰ EEntirely
l cast-in-place
l elements
l t
with removable ‰ Save Time
formwork ‰ Better Quality Control
‰ Cheaper
‰ Using precast panel
„ There are some benefits of putting the composite
as a formwork
formwork, the
pour the concrete slab
topping ‰ Provide continuity between elements
‰ Quality control is not that important in slabs

Particular Design Aspects Composite Section Properties

„ There are 3 more things we need to consider specially „ There are 3 value of widths we will use:
for composite section (on top of stuffs we need to ‰ Actuall width
A d h off the
h composite section (b):
(b) This
Th is
consider for noncomposite sections) equal to the girder spacing
„ T
Transformation
f i off SSection
i ‰ Effective width of the composite section (be)
‰ Actual width vs. Effective width vs. Transformed width
‰ Transformed width of the composite section (btr)
‰ Composite Section Properties
„ Loadingg Stages
g
‰ Allowable Stress Design
‰ SShored
o vs. U
Unshored
s o Beams
a s
„ Horizontal Shear Transfer
Composite Section Properties Composite Section Properties
„ Effective Width „ Effective Width s
The stress distribution across the width are not uniform – the (AASHTO LRFD be be
‰
ts bf
farther it is from the center, the lesser the stress. - 4.6.2.6.1)
‰ To simplify the analysis, we assume an effective width where the
stress are constant throughout
‰ We also assume the effective width to be constant along the span. boverhang bw

⎧ b
b 'w = max ⎨ w Exterior Interior
⎩bf / 2 Girder Girder

Exterior Beam Interior Beam


⎧b 'w / 2 + 6ts ⎧b 'w + 12ts
be,int ⎪ ⎪
be,ext = + min ⎨ boverhang be = min ⎨ s
2 ⎪ L/8 ⎪ L/4
⎩ ⎩

Composite Section Properties Composite Section Properties


„ Transformed Width
‰ Typically the concrete used for slab has lower strength „ Transformed Width
than
h concrete used d for
f precast section
i
‰ Lower strength Æ Lower modulus of elasticity
‰ Thus, we need to use the concept of transformed
section to transform the slab material to the precast
material

Ec ,CIPC f 'c ,CIPC


btr = be nc = be ≅ be
Ec ,PPC f 'c ,PPC

Modular Ratio, usually


< 1.0
Composite Section Properties Composite Section Properties

„ Summary of steps for Width calculations „ After we get the transformed section, we can
th calculate
then l l t other
th section
ti properties
ti
‰ Acc = Ac + tsbtr
Actual Width Effective Width Transformed Width
‰ ytc, ytb
b be btr
‰ Igc
Equals to girder Accounts for Accounts for
p g
spacing nonuniform stress dissimilar material ‰ Ztc, Zbc
distribution properties ‰ dpc

Composite Section Properties Design of Composite Section

Composite Cross-
btr
„ Most of the theories learned previously for the
Precast Cross
Cross-
Sectiona Area: Ac
Sectiona Area: Acc
noncompositeit section
ti still
till hold
h ld but
b t with
ith some
ytc
yy’tc modifications
((abs)
b)
(abs)
yt
(abs) c.g. „ We will discuss two design limit states
p
Composite dpc
h c.g. dp
‰ Allowable
All bl St
Stress D
Design
i
(abs) Precast
ybc
‰ Ultimate Strength Design
yb (abs)
(abs)

Aps Aps

Precast vs. Composite


Allowable Stress Design - Composite Allowable Stress Design - Composite

„ OUTLINE „ In allowable stress design, we need to consider two loading stages


as pprevious; however, the initial moment ((immediatelyy after
„ Shored vs. Unshored transfer) is resisted by the precast section whereas the service
moment (after the bridge is finished) is resisted by the composite
„ Stress Inequality Equation section (precast section and slab acting together as one member)
„ Feasible Domain & Envelope „ We need to consider two cases of composite construction
methods:
h d
‰ Shored – beam is supported by temporary falsework when the slab is
cast The falsework is removed when the slab hardens
cast. hardens.
‰ Unshored – beam is not supported when the slab is cast.

Shored vs
vs. Unshored Shored vs
vs. Unshored

„ Moments resisted by the precast and composite sections


are different in the two cases
„ Fully Shored
‰ Precast: Girder Weight
‰ Composite: Slab Weight, Superimposed Loads (such as asphalt
) and Live Load
surface),
„ Unshored
‰ Precast: Girder Weight and Slab Weight
‰ Composite: Superimposed Loads (such as asphalt surface), and
Live Load
Shored vs
vs. Unshored Shored vs
vs. Unshored
Top of precast,
„ FULLY SHORED not top of „ UNSHORED
composite
i
„ Consider, as example, the top of precast beam „ Consider, as example, the top of precast beam

F Feo (MGirder ) (MSlab + MSD + MLL +IM )y 'tc F Feo (MGirder + MSlab ) (MSD + MLL +IM )y 'tc
σt = − + + ≤ σ cs σt = − + + ≤ σ cs
Ac Zt Zt Igc Ac Zt Zt Igc

Shored vs
vs. Unshored Stress Inequality Equations Top
p of precast,
p
not top of
composite
„ From both case we can rewrite the stress equation
q as:
Case Stress Inequality Equation
F Feo (MP ) (MC ) I Initial-Top Fi Fi eo Mmin Fi ⎛ eo ⎞ Mmin
σt = − + + ≤ σ cs σt = − + =
Ac Zt Zt Z 'tc ⎜1− ⎟ + ≥ σ ti
Ac Zt Zt Ac ⎝ kb ⎠ Zt

Mp = Moment resisted by the precast section (use Zt, Zb) II I ii lB


Initial-Bottom Fi Fi eo Mmin Fi ⎛ eo ⎞ Mmin
„ σb = + − = ⎜1− ⎟ − ≤ σ ci
‰ Fully Shored: Mp = Mgirder Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ k t ⎠ Zb
‰ Unshored: Mp = Mgirder + Mslab III Service-Top F Feo M p Mc F ⎛ eo ⎞ M p Mc
σt = − + + = ⎜1− ⎟ + + ≤ σ cs
Ac Zt Zt Ztc Ac ⎝ k b ⎠ Zt Z 'tc
!
„ Mc = M
Moment resisted
i d bby the
h composite
i section
i ((use Z’tc, Zbc)
IV Service-Bottom F Feo M p Mc F ⎛ eo ⎞ M p Mc
‰ Fully Shored: Mc = Mslab + MSD + MLL+IM σb = + − − = ⎜1 − ⎟− − ≥ σ ts
‰ Unshored: Mc = MSD + MLL+IM Ac Zb Zb Zbc Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Zb Zbc
VI Service-Top Slab Mc M E
σ t ,slab = nc = c c ,CIPC ≤ σ cs,Slab
„ We can also write similar equation for stress at the bottom of Ztc Ztc Ec ,PPC
composite beam
Stress at the top of the slab must also be less than the allowable compressive stress
Feasible Domain & Envelope Top of precast
Cracking Moment - Composite
„ We can rewrite the stress equations and add practical limit equation
No. Case Stress Inequality Equation
„ We consider 2 cases
I Initial-Top
p ⎛1⎞
(
e0 ≤ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin − σ ti Zt
⎝ Fi ⎠
) „ 1. Cracking moment is less than Mp
II Initial Bottom
Initial-Bottom ⎛1⎞ ‰ Cracking occurs in the precast section
⎝ Fi ⎠
(
e0 ≤ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin + σ ci Zb ) ‰ The equation is the same as noncomposite section
III S
Service-Top
T ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ Z ⎞
e0 ≥ k b + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ M p + Mc t − σ cs Zt ⎟
⎝ F ⎠⎝ Z 'tc ⎠ ! F Feo Mcr F ⎛ eo ⎞ Mcr
σb = + − = ⎜1− ⎟ − = fr
IV Service- ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ Z ⎞ Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ k t ⎠ Zb
Bottom e0 ≥ kt + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ M p + Mc b + σ ts Zb ⎟
⎝ F ⎠⎝ Zbc ⎠
Mcr = F (eo − kt ) − fr Zb
V Practical Limit e0 ≤ ( e0 )mp = y b − dc ,min

VI Service-Top Mc M E
σ t ,slab = nc = c c ,CIPC ≤ σ cs,Slab
Slab Ztc Ztc Ec ,PPC

Cracking Moment - Composite Ultimate Strength Design - Composite

„ II. Cracking moment is greater Mp „ Ultimate strength of composite section follows similar
‰ Cracking
C k occurs in the
h composite section procedure to the T-section.
T-section Some analysis tips are:
‰ When the neutral axis is in the slab, we can use a composite T-
‰ We find ∆Mcr ((moment in addition to Mp) section with flange width equals to Effective Width and using ff’c
of the slab
F Feo M p ΔMcr F ⎛ eo ⎞ M p ΔMcr
σb = + − − = ⎜1− ⎟− − ≥ σ ts ‰ When the neutral axis is in the precast section
section, we may use a
Ac Zb Zb Zbc Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Z b Z bc Transformed Section and f’c of the precast section - This is an
pp
approximate value but the errors to the ultimate moment
Zbc capacity is small.
ΔMcr = ⎡F (eo − kt ) − M p ⎤⎦ − fr Zbc
Zb ⎣

Mcr = ΔMcr + M p
Shear Transfer Shear Transfer Mechanisms

„ To get the „ The key parameter that


p
composite determines whether these two
behavior, it is parts will slip past each other
very important or not is the shear strength at
that the slab the interface of slab and girder
and girder must
not slip past „ This interfacial shear strength
each other comes from:
‰ Friction (F = μN)
‰ Cohesion

Shear Transfer – Cohesion & Friction Shear Transfer - Formula


„ AASHTO LRFD (5.8.4)
„ Cohesion is the chemical bonding of the two materials. It depends „ The nominal shear resistance at the interface between two
on the cohesion factor ((c)) and the contact area. The ggreater the concretes cast at different times is taken as:
area, the larger the cohesion force.
Friction Factor
„ Friction is due to the roughness of the surface. It depends on the Area of shear reinforcement crossing the
friction factor or coefficient of friction (μ) and the normal force Area of Concrete shear plane
Transfering Shear Compressive force normal
(N). To increase friction, we either make the surface rougher to shear plane
(increase μ) or increase the normal force. Cohesion
N
⎧≤ 0.2f 'c Acv
Vnh = cAcv + μ( Avf fy + Pc ) ⎨
Vhu
COHESION FRICTION
⎩ ≤ 5.5
5 5 Acv
ΦVhn =ΦμN
Shear Transfer – Shear Transfer – Cohesion & Friction
Cohesion & Friction „ The normal force in the friction
formula comes from two parts
‰ Yielding of shear reinforcement
Avf
„ AASHTO LRFD (5.8.4.2)
(5 8 4 2)
„ If cracking
k occurs at the h
interface, there will be tension
in the steel reinforcement
crossing the interface. This
N=Avf fy
tension force in steel is balanced
b the
by h compressive i force
f in
i
concrete at that interface; thus,
creating normal “clamping”
clamping
force.
‰ Permanent compressive force at
the interface
„ Dead Weight of the slab and
wearing
earin surface
s rface (asphalt)
(as halt)
„ Cannot rely on Live Loads

Minimum Shear Reinforcement Ultimate Shear Force at Interface


„ For Vn/Acv > 0.7 MPa, the cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement
crossing the interface per unit length of beam must not be less than „ There are two methods for calculating shear force per unit length at
Width of the interface (generally the interface ((the values mayy be different))
0.35bv equals to the width of top flange ‰ Using Classical Elastic Strength of Materials
Avf ≥ of girder)
fy Factored shear force acting on the

Vuh =
( ΔVu ) Q composite section only (SDL +LL+IM)
„ If less, then we cannot use any Avffy in the nominal shear strength
Igc Moment of Area above the shear plane
„ The spacing of shear reinforcement must be ≤ 600 mm Moment of Inertia of the about the centroid of composite section
„ Possible reinforcements are: composite section
‰ Single
S l bbar ‰ Using Approximate Formula (C5.8.4.1-1)
‰ Stirrups (multiple legs)
Total Factored vertical shear at the section
‰ W ld d wire
Welded i fabric
f bi Vu
Vuh = Distance from centroid of tension
„ Reinforcement must be anchored properly (bends, hooks, etc…) de
p of the deck
steel to mid-depth
Ultimate Shear Force at Interface Some Design Tips

„ The critical section for shear at the interface is generally the „ For T and Box Sections which cover the full girder spacing
section where vertical shear is the greatest
g with thin concrete topping (usually about 50 mm), we may
‰ First critical section: h/2 from the face of support not need any shear reinforcement (need only surface
‰ May calculate at some additional sections away from the support roughening)
g g) – need to check
(which has lower shear) to reduce the shear reinforcement accordingly
„ For I-Sections, we generally require some shear
Critical Section For Shear reinforcement at the interface
„ We generally design the web shear reinforcement first (not taught),
h and extend that shear reinforcement through the interface. Then
we check if that area is enough for horizontal shear transfer at the
h/2 h/2 interface.
„ Resistance Factor (Φ) for shear in normal weight concrete : 0.90 ‰ If not, we need additional reinforcement
‰ If enough, then we do nothing

Final Notes on Composite Behavior Final Notes on Composite Behavior


„ Composite
C it section
ti iis usedd nott only
l ffor prestressed
t d concrete
t
sections, but also for steel sections. „ The analysis concept is b
„ Benefits is that the slab helps resists compression and helps prevent similar to that of
lateral torsional buckling of the steel section, as well as local prestressed concrete.
bucklingg at the compression
p flange.
g There are also:
‰ Effective width and
transformed section
‰ Shored and Unshored
Construction
‰ Sh
Shear Transfer
T f att IInterface
t f
Final Notes on Composite Behavior Final Notes on Composite Behavior

„ There are various ways to transfer shear at steel-concrete interface Shear Stud is one
of the most
common shearh
connectors – it is
welded to the top
flange of steel
girder
Spirals Studs Channels

Final Notes on Composite Behavior

Part IV: Things I did not teach


but you should be aware of !!!

Shear Strength – MCFT


Unbonded and External Prestressing
Anchorage Reinforcement
Camber and Deflection Prediction
Detailed Calculation of Prestress Losses

Steel Girder with Shear Stud


Shear Shear - MCFT

„ Traditionally, the shear design in AASHTO Standard „ The shear resisting mechanism in concrete is very
Specification is similar to that of ACI,
ACI which is empirical- complex and we do not clearly understand how to
based predict it
„ Th axial
The i l force
f from
f prestressing
i reduces
d the
h principal
i i l „ AASHTO LRFD (5.8.3)
(5 8 3) uses new theory,
theory called
tensile stress and helps close the cracks; thus, increase “modified compression field theory (MCFT)”
shear
h resistance. „ Th actuall theory
The h is very complicated
l d but
b somewhath
simplified procedure is used in the code
„ This theory is for both PC and RC

Shear Minimum Transverse Reinforcement

„ The nominal shear resistance is the sum of shear strength „ We need some transverse reinforcement when the
of concrete,
concrete steel (stirrups)
(stirrups), and shear force due to ultimate shear force is greater than ½ of shear strength
prestressing (vertical component) from concrete and prestressing force

Vn = Vc + Vs + Vp ≤ 0.25f 'c bv dv + Vp Vu > φ0.5(Vc + Vp )

Av fy dv cot θ
Vs = „ If we need it,
it the minimum amount shall be
s
bv s
Av ≥ 0.083
0 083 f 'c
Vc = 0.083 β f 'c bv dv fy
Minimum Transverse Reinforcement Unbonded or External Prestressing

„ Maximum Spacing „ Strain compatibility does


‰ For vu <0.125f
<0 125f’cc pp y for unbonded
not apply
tendon (the strain in
smax = 0.8 dv ≤ 600 mm steel does not equal to
the strain in concrete
‰ For vu > 0.125f’c near it)
smax = 0.4dv ≤ 300 mm „ The strain in tendon is
averaged along the
length of the beam
„ Must subtract the area of duct to the width 5.8.2.7

Unbonded or External Prestressing Anchorage Reinforcement

„ Post-tensioning
anchorages
creates very high
compressive
stress behind the
bearing plate

View inside a box-section


Anchorage Reinforcement Anchorage Reinforcement

„ This causes large „ Methods:


pprincipal
p tensile
stress in the ‰ Traditional
T d l
transverse direction, (Approximate)
leading to concrete ‰ Strut-and-Tie
cracking Method (new
(
„ We need to for ACI and
determine the AASHTO))
magnitude of this
‰ Finite Element
stress and design
some reinforcement Analysis
for it (complicated)

Strut-and-Tie Method

Anchorage Reinforcement Camber and Deflection

„ AASHTO does not require the deflection criteria be met


„ But excessive camber and deflection causes uneven rides
and the impression that the structure is not strong
enough
„ The structure may deflect and vibrate too much that it
cause fatigue failure (due to repetitive stress cycles),
cycles)
especially in steel connections.
„ Vibrations may cause discomfort to drivers on bridge

Strut-and-Tie Method
Detailed Calculation of Prestress Loss References
„ In many cases,
cases it is adequate to use the “Lump
Lump Sum
Sum” loss
„ AASHTO (2000). AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications – SI
Units, Second Edition, 2000 Interim Revisions, American
„ IIn some cases, we Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials,
need to know Washington D.C.
exactly
tl the
th stress
t in
i http://www.transportation.org
the strands so we
can determine the „ Naaman, A. E. (2005), Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design:
camber and Fundamentals, 2nd Edition, Technopress 3000, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
deflection h //
http://www.technopress3000.com
h 3000
‰ Cantilever
Construction
‰ Repair/
Rehabilitation