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Basic Principles

Emphasizing AASHTO LRFD Procedures

Praveen Chompreda, Ph. D. Principle of Prestressing

H

HistoricallPPerspective

Applications

Classification and Types

Advantages

Design Codes

Stages of Loading

Concrete is strong in compression but

C b weakk in

tension

Steel is strong in tension (as well as compression)

Reinforced concrete uses concrete to resist

compression and to hold the steel bars in place, and

uses steel to resist all of the tension

Tensile strength of concrete is neglected (i.e. zero)

RC beam always crack under service load

Cracking moment of an RC beam is generally

much lower than the service moment

Principle of Prestressing Principle of Prestressing

Prestressing is a method in which compression force is Stress in concrete section when the prestressing force is

applied to the reinforced concrete section.

section applied at the c.g.

c g of the section (simplest case)

The effect of prestressing is to reduce the tensile stress

i the

in h section

i to theh point

i that

h the

h tensile

il stress is

i below

b l

the cracking stress. Thus, the concrete does not crack!

It is then possible to treat concrete as an elastic material

The concrete can be visualized to have 2 force systems

Internal Prestressing Forces

External Forces (from DL

DL, LL

LL, etc…)

etc )

These 2 force systems must counteract each other

Stress in concrete section when the prestressing force is The concept of prestressing was invented

applied eccentrically with respect to the cc.g.

g of the centuries ago when metal bands were

section (typical case) wound around wooden pieces (staves) to

form a barrel.

barrel

Smaller Compression

c.g.

+ + =

e0

The metal bands were

F/A Fe0y/I MDLy/I MLLy/I Small Compression tighten under tensile stress,

which creates compression

Cross-

Section

Prestressing

Force

Stress

from DL

Stress

from LL

Stress

Resultant

between the staves –

allowing them to resist

internal liquid pressure

Historical Perspective Historical Perspective

Eugene Freyssinet (1879-1962)

(1879 1962) was the first to

propose that we should use very high strength

steel which permit high elongation of steel.

steel

The high steel elongation would not be

entirely offset by the shortening of concrete

The concept of prestressed concrete is also not new. In (prestress loss) due to creep and shrinkage.

1886 a patent was granted for tightening steel tie rods in

1886,

concrete blocks. This is analogous to modern day First prestressed concrete

segmental constructions.

constructions g in 1941 in France

bridge

Early attempts were not very successful due to low First prestressed concrete

bridge in US: Walnut Lane

strength of steel at that time.

time Since we cannot prestress B id iin P

Bridge Pennsylvania.

l i Built

B il

at high stress level, the prestress losses due to creep and in 1949. 47 meter span.

shrinkage of concrete quickly reduce the effectiveness of

prestressing.

Sl b in

Slabs i buildings

b ildi External v.s. Internal

Water Tank

Linear v.s.

v s Circular

Concrete Pile

End-Anchored v.s. Non End-Anchored

Thin Shell Structures

Offshore Platform Bonded v.s. Unbonded Tendon

Nuclear Power Plant P

Precastt v.s. Cast-In-Place

C t I Pl v.s. Composite

C it

Repair

p and Rehabilitations Partial v.s. Full Prestressingg

Classification and Types Classification and Types

Pretensioningg vs. Posttensioningg

In Pretension, the tendons are tensioned against some

abutments before the concrete is place

place. After the

concrete hardened, the tension force is released. The

tendon tries to shrink back to the initial length but the

concrete resists it through the bond between them, thus,

compression force is induced in concrete.

concrete Pretension is

usually done with precast members.

Casting Factory

Concrete

Mixer

Precast Segmental

In Posttension, the tendons are tensioned after the Girder to be

concrete has hardened.

hardened Commonly,

Commonly metal or plastic Posttensioned In

ducts are placed inside the concrete before casting. Place

strength

the tendon was placed inside the duct, stressed, and

anchored against concrete.

concrete Grout may be injected into

the duct later. This can be done either as precast or

cast-in-place.

ti l

Classification and Types Classification and Types

E

External

l vs. IInternall Prestressing

P

End-Anchored vs. Non-End-Anchored tendons

Prestressingg mayy be done inside or outside

IIn PPretensioning, tendons

d transfer

f the

h prestress

Linear vs. Circular Prestressing through the bond actions along the tendon; therefore,

Prestressing can be done in a straight structure such as it is non-end-anchored

beams (linear prestressing) or around a circular

structures such as tank or silo (circular prestressing)

structures, In Posttensioning,

g tendons are anchored at their ends

using mechanical devices to transfer the prestress to

Bonded vs. Unbonded Tendon

concrete;; therefore,, it is end-anchored. ((Groutingg or

The tendon may be bonded to concrete (pretensioning not is irrelevant)

or posttensioning with grouting) or unbonded

(

(posttensioning

i i without

ih grouting).

i ) B

Bonding

di hhelps

l

prevent corrosion of tendon. Unbonding allows

readjustment

dj t t off prestressing

t i force

f att later

l t times.

ti

vs. PPC vs.

vs PC

Prestressing tendon

P d may be b used d in combination

b withh

regular reinforcing steel. Thus, it is something between

full prestressed concrete (PC) and reinforced

concrete (RC). The goal is to allow some tension and

cracking under full service load while ensuring

sufficient ultimate strength.

We sometimes use partially prestressed concrete

(PPC) to control camber and deflection, increase

ductility, and save costs.

Advantages of PC over RC Design Codes for PC

Take full advantages of high strength concrete

and high strength steel ACI-318 Building Code (Chapter 18)

Need

N d less

l materials

i l AASHTO LRFD (Chapter 5)

Smaller and lighter structure

No cracks

Use the entire section to resist the load Other institutions

Better corrosion resistance PCI – Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute

Good for water tanks and nuclear plant PTI – Post

Post-Tensioning

Tensioning Institute

Very effective for deflection control

Better shear resistance

Unlike RC where we primarily consider the Typical stages of loading considered are Initial

ultimate

lti t lloading

di stage,

t we mustt consider

id multiple

lti l andd Service

S i Stages

St

stages of construction in Prestressed Concrete Initial ((Immediatelyy after Transfer of Prestress))

The stresses in the concrete section must remain Full prestress force

below the maximum limit at all times!!! N MLL (may

No ( or may nott have

h MDL depending

d di on

construction type)

Service

Prestress loss has occurred

MDL+MLL

Stages of Loading

some intermediate states during transportation

Part II: Materials and

and erection Hardwares for Prestressingg

Concrete

Prestressing Steel

Prestressing Hardwares

concrete that are relevant

to the prestressed For prestressed concrete, the

concrete design: compressive strength should

be from 28-70 MPa at 28 days

Compressive Strength

For reinforced concrete,, the

M d l off Elasticity

Modulus El i i

compressive strength should

Modulus of Rupture be from 16-70 MPa at 28 days

Concrete with f’c > 70 MPa

can be used when supported

by test data

Concrete: Modulus of Elasticity Concrete: Modulus of Rupture

Ec = 0.043γ

0 043γc1.5(f

(f’c)0.5 MPa concrete under bendingg

γc1.5 in kg/m3 Tested simply-supported

ff’c in MPa p

concrete beam under 4-point

For normal weight concrete, bending configuration

we can use fr = My/I = PL/bd2

Ec =4800(f’c)0.5 MPa AASHTO (5.4.2.6)

fr = 0.63 (f’c)0.5 MPa

strands,

t d wires,

i round

d bar,

b or threaded

th d d rods d

Materials

High Strength Steel

Fib R i f

Fiber-Reinforced

d Composite

C it ((glass

l or carbon

b fib

fibers))

Tendons Prestressing Steel

Common shapes

of prestressing

tendons

Most Popular Æ

((7-wire Strand))

Grade

G d 250 (fpu = 250 ksi

k or 1725 MPa)

MP )

Grade 270 ((fpu = 270 ksi or 1860 MPa))

Types of strands

SStressedd Relieved

R li d SStrand

d

Low Relaxation Strand (lower prestress loss due to

relaxation of strand)

Prestressing Strands Prestressing Strands

Modulus of Elasticity

197000 MPa for Strand

207000 MPa for Bar

The modulus

Th d l off elasticity

l i i

of strand is lower than

that of steel bar because

strand is made from

twisting of small wires

together.

Pretensioned Members

H ld D

Hold-Down Devices

D

Posttensioned Members

Anchorages

Stressing

St i A Anchorage

h

Dead-End Anchorage

Ducts

Posttensioningg Procedures

Pretensioning Hardwares Posttensioned Beams

Pretensioned Beams

Posttension Hardwares

Stressing

St i A Anchorage

h

Dead-End Anchorage

Duct/ Grout Tube

Posttensioning Hardwares - Anchorages Posttensioning Hardwares - Ducts

y

the system used))

Prestress Losses

Prestress force at any time is less than that during jacking

Part III: Prestress Losses Sources of Prestress Loss

Elastic Shortening :

Because concrete

shortens when the

prestressing force is

Sources of Prestress Losses applied to it. The

tendon attached to it

Lump Sum Estimation of Prestress Loss also shorten, causing

stress loss

Sources of Prestress Loss (cont.) Sources of Prestress Loss

Friction : Friction in the duct of p

posttensioningg system

y causes (cont.)

stress at the far end to be less than that at the jacking

Shrinkage : Concrete

end. Thus, the average stress is less than the jacking stress

shrinks over time due to

the loss of water, leading

to stress loss on attached

tendons

Creep : Concrete

anchorage

h may set in

i slightly

li h l to llockk compressive stress,

stress

the tendon, causing a loss of stress leading to stress loss on

attached tendons

Prestress Losses Time Line of Prestress Loss

Posttensioningg

SH

Sources of FR CR

AS

Prestress Loss RE

(cont.) Jacking ES Initial Effective

Steell R

St Relaxation

l ti : fpj fpi fpe

Steel loss its stress

with time due to Pretensioning SH

constant (AS CR

elongation the

elongation, J ki

Jacking RE) ES RE

larger the stress, Release Initial Effective

(against

the larger the loss.

loss abutment) (

(cutting

g

strands) fpi fpe

fpj

Pretensioned Posttensioned

Instantaneous Elastic Shortening Friction

A

Anchorage Set

S

Elastic Shortening

Time- Shrinkage (Concrete) Shrinkage (Concrete)

Dependent Creep (Concrete) Creep (Concrete)

Relaxation (Steel) Relaxation (Steel)

Prestress Loss - Posttensioned Lump Sum Prestress Loss

estimate

ti t since

i it d

depends

d on so many factors

f t

In typical

yp constructions,, a lump

p sum estimation of

prestress loss is enough. This may be expressed

in terms of:

Total stress loss (in unit of stress)

Percentage of initial prestress

A. E. Naaman (with slight modifications) – not including FR, AS

Start with 240 MPa for Pretensioned Normal Weight ACI-ASCE Committee (Zia et al. 1979)

Concrete with Low Relaxation Strand

This is the Maximum Loss that you may assumed

Add 35 MPa for Stress-Relieved Strand or for Lightweight

Concrete

D d

Deduct 35 MPa

MP ffor Posttension

P

Maximum Prestress Loss

P t

Prestress Loss

L (fpi-fpe)

(f i f ) (MP

(MPa)) T

Types off (fpi fpe) (MPa)

(fpi-fpe)

Types of Types of Concrete

Types of Concrete Stress-Relieved Low Relaxation Prestress Stress-Relieved Low Relaxation

Prestress

Strand Strand Strand Strand

Pretensioned Normal Weight Concrete 275 240 Pretensioned Normal Weight Concrete 345 276

Li ht i ht C

Lightweight Concrete

t 310 275 Lightweight Concrete 380 311

Posttensioned Normal Weight Concrete 240 205

Lightweight Concrete 275 240

Lump Sum Prestress Loss Lump Sum Prestress Loss

AASHTO LRFD (for CR

CR, SR

SR, R2) (5.9.5.3)

(5 9 5 3)

T.Y. Lin & N. H. Burns

S

Source off Loss

L P

Percentage off Loss

L (%)

Pretensioned Posttensioned

Elastic Shortening (ES) 4 1

Creep of Concrete (CR) 6 5

Shrinkage of Concrete (SR) 7 6

Steel Relaxation (R2) 8 8

Total 25 20

done when concrete is about 1-2 days old whereas Posttensioning

is done at much later time when concrete is stronger.

Partial Prestressing Ratio (PPR) is calculated as:

Part IV: Allowable Stress

PPR =

Aps fpy Design

g

Aps fpy + As fy

PPR = 1.0

1 0 for Prestressed Concrete

PPR = 0.0 for Reinforced Concrete Stress Inequality Equation

Elastic Shortening Loss (ΔfpES) is calculated as: Allowable Stress in Concrete

Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel

E ps E ps ⎡ Fi Fi e02 MG e0 ⎤ Feasible Domain Method

ΔfpES = fcgp,Fi +G = ⎢ + − ⎥ Envelope and Tendon Profile

Eci Eci ⎣ A c I I ⎦

Stress of concrete at the c.g. of tendon due to prestressing force and dead load

Basics: Sign Convention Basics: Section Properties

Concrete Cross- c.g.

g off Prestressingg Tendon

Area: Aps

In this class, the following convention is used: Sectiona Area: Ac

I

Tensile Stress in concrete is negative

g (-)

()

Compressive Stress in concrete is positive (+) Kt

Positive Moment: yt

((abs)) e ((-))

Kb

kt (-)

Zt

Center of Gravity of

Positive Shear:

h

(abs)

Concrete Section Zb

kb (+) (c.g.c)

e (+)

yb

(abs)

g convention for stress mayy be

opposite so you need to reverse the signs in some c.g. of Prestressing Tendon

formula!!!!!!!!! Area: Aps

Moment of Inertia, I Kern of the section,

section k,

k is the distance from cc.g.

g

I = ∫ y dA

2

where compression force will not cause any

A

tension

i iin the

h section

i

Rectangular section about c.g. Ixx = 1/12*bh3

Ix’x’ = Ixx + Ad2 Consider

C id TTopp Fib

Fiber Consider

C id Bottom

B tt FiberFib

(Get Bottom Kern, kb) (Get Top Kern, kt)

yt and yb are distance from the c.g. of section to

top and bottom fibers, respectively F Fe0 y t F Fe0 y b

0= − 0= +

Sectional modulus

modulus, Z (or S) Ac I Ac I

Zt = I/yt

I I

Zb = I/yb e0 = = kb e0 = − = kt

Ac y t Ac y b

Note:Top kern has negative value

Basics: General Design Procedures Stress in Concrete at Various Stages

number

b off prestressing

t i strands

t d

Check allowable stresses at various stages

g

Check ultimate moment strength

Check cracking load

Check shear

Check deflection

We can write four equations based on the stress at the

top and bottom of section at initial and service stages AASHTO LRFD (5.9.4) provides allowable stress in

p

concrete as functions of compressive strength

g at that

time

No. Case Stress Inequality Equation

Consider the following limit states:

I Initial-Top F Fe M F ⎛ e ⎞ M

σ t = i − i o + min = i ⎜ 1 − o ⎟ + min ≥ σ ti

Ac Zt Zt Ac ⎝ kb ⎠ Zt

Immediately after Prestress Transfer (Before Losses)

II Initial-Bottom F Fe M F ⎛ e ⎞ Mmin

σ b = i + i o − min = i ⎜ 1 − o ⎟− ≤ σ ci Compression

Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Zb Tension

III Service-Top F Feo Mmax Fi ⎛ eo ⎞ Mmax Service (After All Losses)

σt = − + = ⎜1− ⎟ + ≤ σ cs

Ac Zt Zt Ac ⎝ k b ⎠ Zt

! Compression

C i

IV Service- F Feo Mmax F ⎛ eo ⎞ Mmax Tension

Bottom σb = + − = ⎜1− ⎟− ≥ σ ts

Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Zb

Allowable Stress in Concrete Allowable Stress in Concrete

Immediately after Prestress Transfer (Before Losses) At service (After All Losses)

Using compressive strength at transfer, f’ci Compressive Stress

Allowable

All bl compressive i stress = 00.60

60 f’ci

Allowable tensile stress

Stage

g Where Load Limit Note

At service (After All Losses)

Initial Tension Fi+MGirder -0.58√f’ci With bonded reinf…

Tensile Stress at Top -0.25√f’ci Without bonded

> -1.38 MPa reinf.

at Bottom

Service Compression F+MSustained 0.45f’c *

at Top 0.5(F+MSustained)+MLL+IM 0.40f’c *

F+MSustained+MLL+IM 0.60Øwf’c *

Tension F+MSustained+0.8MLL+IM -0.50√f’c Normal/ Moderate

at Bottom (Service III Limit State) exposure

-0.25√f’c Corrosive exposure

0 U b d d tendon

Unbonded d

* Need to check all of these conditions (cannot select only one)

Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel

stress

t in

i the

th prestressing

t i steel

t l att jacking

j ki andd after

ft LRFD

(5.9.3)

transfer

ACI-318

ACI 318 (2002)

Allowable Stress Design Allowable Stress Design

There are many factors affecting the stress in a For bridges, we generally has a preferred section type

prestressed girder for a given range of span length and we can select a

Prestressing Force (Fi or F) girder spacing to be within a reasonable range

L

Location off prestress tendon

d (e0)

( 0)

Section Property (A, Zt or Zb, kt or kb)

External moment, which depends on

The Section used ((dead load))

Girder Spacing (larger spacing Æ larger moment)

Slab Thickness (larger spacing Æ thicker slab)

Stages of construction

Sections Sections

I-VI Sections

ft m

50 15

75 23

100 30

150 46

Bridge Girder Sections Bridge Girder Sections

We can rewrite the stress inequality equations and add one more

equation to them

For a given section, we need to find the

combination

bi ti off prestressing

t i fforce (Fi or F,

F which

hi h No

No. Case Stress Inequality Equation

depends on the number of strands), and the I Initial-Top ⎛1⎞

(

e0 ≤ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin − σ ti Zt )

location of strands (in terms of e0) to satisfy ⎝ Fi ⎠

II Initial-Bottom ⎛1⎞

these equations (

e0 ≤ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin + σ ci Zb )

⎝ Fi ⎠

Possible methods:

Keep trying some number of strands and locations

III Service-Topp ⎛ 1⎞

(

e0 ≥ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmax − σ cs Zt

⎝F ⎠

) !

((Trial & Error)) IV Service-

Service

We use “Feasible Domain” Method Bottom

⎛ 1⎞

⎝F ⎠

(

e0 ≥ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmax + σ ts Zb )

V P

Practical

i l Li

Limit

i e0 ≤ ( e0 )mp = y b − dc ,min = y b − 7.5 cm

Feasible Domain – Graphical Interpretation Feasible Domain

prestressing force at a given section to satisfy the stress

inequality equation

We usually use feasible domain to determine location

and

d prestressing

i force

f at the

h most critical

i i l section

i (e.g.

(

midspan of simply-supported beams)

After we get the prestressing force at the critical section,

section

we need to find the location for the tendon at other

points to satisfy stress inequalities

We use the prestressing envelope to determine the

location of tendon alongg the lengthg of the beam (tendon

(

profile)

We use the same equation as the feasible domain, except that we’ve

already known the F or Fi and want to find e0 at different points along

the beam We then have 5 main equations

No

No. Case Stress Inequality Equation I & II provide the lower bound of e0 (use minimum of the

I Initial-Top ⎛1⎞ two)

⎝ Fi ⎠

(

e0 ≤ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin − σ ti Zt ) III and

d IV provide

id the

th upper bound

b d off e0 (use

( maximum

i

II Initial-Bottom ⎛1⎞

of the two)

(

e0 ≤ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin + σ ci Zb

⎝ Fi ⎠

) IIIa uses F+MSustained

III

IIIb uses 0.5(F+MSustained)+MLL+IM

III Service-Top

p ⎛ 1⎞

(

e0 ≥ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmax − σ cs Zt

⎝F ⎠

) !

IIIc uses F+MSustained+MLL+IM

IV uses F+MSustained+0.8MLL+IM

IV Service-

Service

Bottom

⎛ 1⎞

(

e0 ≥ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmax + σ ts Zb

⎝F ⎠

) V is a practical limit of the e0 (it is also the absolute

lower bound)

V P

Practical

i l Li

Limit

i e0 ≤ ( e0 )mp = y b − dc ,min = y b − 7.5 cm

Envelope & Tendon Profile Envelope & Tendon Profile

The tendon

Th d profilef l off pretensioned

d members

b are pretensioned

t i d memberb

either straight or consisting of straight segments We pput pplastic sleeves around some strands at

The tendon profile of posttensioned member may be supports to prevent the bond transfer so the

g tendon or smooth curved, but no sharpp

one straight prestress force will be less at that section

corners

Load – Deflection – Concrete Stress

g

Design

g

Cracking Moment

Failure Types

A l i ffor Mn – Rectangular

Analysis R t l Section

S ti

T-Section

A l i ffor Mn – T-

Analysis T Section

S i

prestressed beam

3: Self weight + Prestressing force

4: Zero deflection ppoint (Balanced

( ppoint)) with uniform

stress across section

5: Decompression point where tension is zero at the

b

bottom fiber

fb

6: Cracking point where cracking moment is reached

7: End of elastic range (the service load will not be larger

than this)

8 Yielding

8: Yi ldi off prestressing

i steell

9: Ultimate strength (usually by crushing of concrete)

Prestressing Steel Stress Cracking Moment

The pprestressingg steel stress increases as the load

increases Concrete cracks when bottom fiber reaches the tensile

Crackingg of beam causes a jump

j p in stress as additional capacity (modulus of rupture)

tension force is transferred from concrete (now

cracked) to prestressing steel

At ultimate of prestressed concrete beam, the stress in fr = -0.63 (f’c)0.5 MPa (5.4.2.6)

steel is somewhere between yyield strength g fpy and

ultimate strength fpu

Stress is lower for unbonded tendon because stress is

distributed throughout the length of the beam instead of

just one section as in the case of bonded tendon

At ultimate, the effect of prestressing is lost and the

section behaves jjust like an RC beam

which depends on the geometry of the section and

prestressing force Fracture of steel after concrete cracking. This is a sudden

F Feo Mcr F ⎛ eo ⎞ Mcr failure and occurred because the beam has too little

σb = + − = ⎜1− ⎟− = fr reinforcement

Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Zb

Crushing of concrete after some yielding of steel. This is

Solve the above equation to get Mcr called tension

tension-controlled.

controlled.

Crushing of concrete before yielding of steel. This is a

Mcr = F (eo − kt ) − fr Zb brittle failure due to too much reinforcement.

reinforcement It is called

Note: Need to input fr and kt as negative values !!!

overreinforced or compression-controlled.

Failure Types Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity

Analysis assumptions

Plane section remains plane

Pl l after

f bending

b d (linear

(l strain

distribution)

Perfect bond between steel and concrete (strain

p y)

compatibility)

Concrete fails when the strain is equal to 0.003

Tensile strength

stren th off concrete

c ncrete is neglected

ne lected at ultimate

ltimate

Use rectangular stress block to approximate concrete

stress distribution

Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity

Recall from RC Design that the followings must For equilibrium, there are commonly 4 forces

b satisfy

be ti f att allll times

ti no matter

tt what

h t happens:

h Compression in concrete

C

Compression

p in Nonprestressed

p reinforcement

EQUILIBRIUM Tension in Nonprestressed reinforcement

Tension in Prestressed reinforcement

STRAIN COMPATIBILITY

For concrete compression, we still use the ACI’s

They also hold in Prestressed Concrete! rectangular stress block

Rectangular Stress Block Rectangular Stress Block

⎪

⎪ ⎛ f ' − 28 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞

β1 = ⎨0.85 − 0.05 ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟ 28 ≤ f 'c ≤ 56 MPa

⎪ ⎝ 7 ⎠⎝ ⎠

⎩⎪ 0.65 f 'c ≥ 56 MPa

β1 is equal to 0.85

0 85 for f ’c < 28 MPa

It decreases 0.05 for everyy 7 MPa increases in f ’c

Until it reaches 0.65 at f ’c > 56 MPa

Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity

reinforcement,

i f t we d

do th

the same thing

thi as in

i RC prestressing steel

steel, we

observe that we

design:

cannot assume the

Assume that the steel yield first; i.e. behavior of

Ts = Asfy or Cs = As’ffy’ prestressing steel

Check the strain in reinforcement to see if they (which is high strength

actually yield or not,

not if not

not, calculate the stress based steel)

t l) tto bbe elastic-

l ti

on the strain at that level & revise the analysis perfectly plastic as in

to find new value of neutral axis depth,

depth c the

h case off steell

Ts = Asfs = AsEsεs = AsEs· 0.003(c-d)/c reinforcement in RC

Analysis for Ultimate Moment Capacity Ultimate Stress in Steel: fps

steel is clearly not the yield strength but somewhere For Bonded tendon only (5.7.3.1.1)

(5 7 3 1 1) and for fpe

p > 0.5f

0 5fpu

p

between yield strength fpy and ultimate strength fpu

W called

We ll d iit fps ⎛ c ⎞ ⎛ fpy ⎞

fps = fpu ⎜ 1 − k ⎟⎟ ; k = 2 ⎜⎜ 1.04 − ⎟⎟

The true value of stress is difficult to calculate (generally ⎜ dp fppu

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

requires nonlinear moment-curvature analysis) so we

ggenerallyy estimate it usingg semi-empirical

p formula Note: for ppreliminaryy design,

g we mayy conservativelyy

ACI Æ Bonded Tendon or Unbonded Tendon assume fps=fpy (5.7.3.3.1)

AASHTO Æ Bonded Tendon or Unbonded Tendon

For Unbonded tendon, see 5.7.3.1.2

We can use similar triangle to find the strains in concrete

or reinforcingg steel at anyy levels from the topp strain

We need to add the tensile strain due to prestressing

(occurred before casting of concrete in pretensioned or

before grouting in posttensioned) to the strain in

concrete at that level to get the true strain of the

prestressing steel

Maximum & Minimum Reinforcement Resistance Factor φ

M i

Maximum Reinforcement

R i f t (5

(5.7.3.3.1)

7 3 3 1) R it

Resistance Factor

F t Ø

The maximum of nonprestressed and prestressed Section Type RC and PPC PPC with PC

reinforcement shall be such that c/de ≤ 0.42 w/ PPR < 0.5 (PPR = 1.0)

0.5< PPR < 1

c/de = ratio between neutral axis depth (c) and the

Under-Reinforced Section 0 90

0.90 0 90

0.90 1 00

1.00

centroid depth of the tensile force (de)

c/de ≤ 0.42

Over-Reinforced

O R i f d SSection

ti Nott

N 0 70

0.70 0 70

0.70

Minimum Reinforcement (5.7.3.3.2) c/de > 0.42 Permitted

The minimum

Th i i off nonprestressed

t d and

d prestressed

t d

reinforcement shall be such that

Note: if c/de > 0.42 the member is now considered a

ØMn > 1.2M

1 2Mcr (Mcr = cracking

ki moment), ) or compression member and different resistance factor applies (see

ØMn > 1.33Mu (Mu from Strength Load Combinations) 5.5.4.2)

AASHTO doesd es not

n t permit

ermit the use

se off over-reinforced

er reinf rced RC

(defined as sections with PPC < 0.5) sections

Rectangular vs.

vs TT-Section

Section Rectangular vs.

vs TT-Section

Section

beams are either I-Shaped p or T-

shaped (rarely rectangular) so

they have larger compression

flange

If the neutral axis is in the

flange we called it rectangular

flange,

section behavior. But if the

g

neutral axis is below the flange

of the section, we call it T- If it is

i a T-Section

T S ti bbehavior,

h i th there are now two

t value

l off widths,

idth

section behavior namely b (for the top flange), and bw (web width)

This has nothing to do with the We need to consider nonuniform width of rectangular stress

overall shape of the section !!! block

Rectangular vs.

vs TT-Section

Section T-Section

T Section Analysis

Overhanging

O h portion off flange

fl (width

( d h = b-b

b bw )

Web ppart (width

( = bw )

check if the neutral axis depth (c) is above or below the

flange thickness,

thickness hf

Note:ACI method checks a=ß1c with hf, which may give

slightly

li htl diff

differentt result

lt when

h a < hf but

b t c > hf

T-Section

T Section Analysis T-Section

T Section Analysis

0.85f 'c bw β1c + 0.85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf = Aps fps + As fy − As ' fy ' 0.85f 'c bw β1c + 0.85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf = Aps fps + As fy − As ' fy '

⎛ c ⎞

For preliminary analysis, or first iteration, we may assume fps = fpy Substitute fps = fpu ⎜ 1 − k ⎟⎟ , Rearrange and solve for c

and solve for c ⎜ dp

⎝ ⎠

Aps fy + As fy − As ' fy '− 0.85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf Aps fpu + As fy − As ' fy '− 0.85

0 85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf

c= c=

0 85f 'c bw β1

0.85 0 85f 'c bw β1 + kAps fpu / d p

0.85

T-Section

T Section Analysis T-Section

T Section Analysis Flowchart

⎛ a⎞ ⎛ a⎞ ⎛ a⎞

Mn = Aps fps ⎜ d p − ⎟ + As fy ⎜ ds − ⎟ − As ' fy ' ⎜ ds '− ⎟

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

⎛ h ⎞

+0.85

0 85f 'c (b − bw )β1hf ⎜ a − f ⎟

⎝ 2⎠

T-Section

T Section Analysis Flowchart T Section

T-Section

In actual structures, the section is pperfect T or I shapes

p -

there are some tapering flanges and fillets. Therefore, we

need to idealized the true section to simplify the analysis.

Little accuracy may be lost.

the true section property for the allowable stress analysis/

design

Composite

p Beam Composite generally means the use of two

diff

different

t materials

t i l iin a structural

t t l elements

l t

Example:

p Reinforced Concrete

Concrete – carry compression

St l R

Steel Reinforcement

i f t – carry tension

t i

Typical Composite Section

Composite

p Section Properties

p Example:

p Carbon Fiber Composite

p

Actual, Effective, and Transformed Widths Carbon Fiber – carry tension

Allowable Stress Design

Stress Inequality Equation, Feasible Domain, and Envelope E

Epoxy Resin Matrix

Matri – hold

h ld the fibers in place

lace

Cracking Moment

Ul i

Ultimate M

Moment C Capacity

i

composite

it bbeam means the

th use off ttwo diff

differentt

materials between the beam and the slab

Steel Beam + Concrete Slab

Steel beam carries tension

Concrete in slab carries compression

Prestressed Concrete Beam (high-strength

(high strength concrete)

+ Concrete Slab (normal-strength concrete)

Prestressed

P d Concrete

C beam

b carries

i tension

i

Concrete in slab carries compression

Typical Composite Sections Why Composite?

EEntirely

l cast-in-place

l elements

l t

with removable Save Time

formwork Better Quality Control

Cheaper

Using precast panel

There are some benefits of putting the composite

as a formwork

formwork, the

pour the concrete slab

topping Provide continuity between elements

Quality control is not that important in slabs

There are 3 more things we need to consider specially There are 3 value of widths we will use:

for composite section (on top of stuffs we need to Actuall width

A d h off the

h composite section (b):

(b) This

Th is

consider for noncomposite sections) equal to the girder spacing

T

Transformation

f i off SSection

i Effective width of the composite section (be)

Actual width vs. Effective width vs. Transformed width

Transformed width of the composite section (btr)

Composite Section Properties

Loadingg Stages

g

Allowable Stress Design

SShored

o vs. U

Unshored

s o Beams

a s

Horizontal Shear Transfer

Composite Section Properties Composite Section Properties

Effective Width Effective Width s

The stress distribution across the width are not uniform – the (AASHTO LRFD be be

ts bf

farther it is from the center, the lesser the stress. - 4.6.2.6.1)

To simplify the analysis, we assume an effective width where the

stress are constant throughout

We also assume the effective width to be constant along the span. boverhang bw

⎧ b

b 'w = max ⎨ w Exterior Interior

⎩bf / 2 Girder Girder

⎧b 'w / 2 + 6ts ⎧b 'w + 12ts

be,int ⎪ ⎪

be,ext = + min ⎨ boverhang be = min ⎨ s

2 ⎪ L/8 ⎪ L/4

⎩ ⎩

Transformed Width

Typically the concrete used for slab has lower strength Transformed Width

than

h concrete used d for

f precast section

i

Lower strength Æ Lower modulus of elasticity

Thus, we need to use the concept of transformed

section to transform the slab material to the precast

material

btr = be nc = be ≅ be

Ec ,PPC f 'c ,PPC

< 1.0

Composite Section Properties Composite Section Properties

Summary of steps for Width calculations After we get the transformed section, we can

th calculate

then l l t other

th section

ti properties

ti

Acc = Ac + tsbtr

Actual Width Effective Width Transformed Width

ytc, ytb

b be btr

Igc

Equals to girder Accounts for Accounts for

p g

spacing nonuniform stress dissimilar material Ztc, Zbc

distribution properties dpc

Composite Cross-

btr

Most of the theories learned previously for the

Precast Cross

Cross-

Sectiona Area: Ac

Sectiona Area: Acc

noncompositeit section

ti still

till hold

h ld but

b t with

ith some

ytc

yy’tc modifications

((abs)

b)

(abs)

yt

(abs) c.g. We will discuss two design limit states

p

Composite dpc

h c.g. dp

Allowable

All bl St

Stress D

Design

i

(abs) Precast

ybc

Ultimate Strength Design

yb (abs)

(abs)

Aps Aps

Allowable Stress Design - Composite Allowable Stress Design - Composite

as pprevious; however, the initial moment ((immediatelyy after

Shored vs. Unshored transfer) is resisted by the precast section whereas the service

moment (after the bridge is finished) is resisted by the composite

Stress Inequality Equation section (precast section and slab acting together as one member)

Feasible Domain & Envelope We need to consider two cases of composite construction

methods:

h d

Shored – beam is supported by temporary falsework when the slab is

cast The falsework is removed when the slab hardens

cast. hardens.

Unshored – beam is not supported when the slab is cast.

Shored vs

vs. Unshored Shored vs

vs. Unshored

are different in the two cases

Fully Shored

Precast: Girder Weight

Composite: Slab Weight, Superimposed Loads (such as asphalt

) and Live Load

surface),

Unshored

Precast: Girder Weight and Slab Weight

Composite: Superimposed Loads (such as asphalt surface), and

Live Load

Shored vs

vs. Unshored Shored vs

vs. Unshored

Top of precast,

FULLY SHORED not top of UNSHORED

composite

i

Consider, as example, the top of precast beam Consider, as example, the top of precast beam

F Feo (MGirder ) (MSlab + MSD + MLL +IM )y 'tc F Feo (MGirder + MSlab ) (MSD + MLL +IM )y 'tc

σt = − + + ≤ σ cs σt = − + + ≤ σ cs

Ac Zt Zt Igc Ac Zt Zt Igc

Shored vs

vs. Unshored Stress Inequality Equations Top

p of precast,

p

not top of

composite

From both case we can rewrite the stress equation

q as:

Case Stress Inequality Equation

F Feo (MP ) (MC ) I Initial-Top Fi Fi eo Mmin Fi ⎛ eo ⎞ Mmin

σt = − + + ≤ σ cs σt = − + =

Ac Zt Zt Z 'tc ⎜1− ⎟ + ≥ σ ti

Ac Zt Zt Ac ⎝ kb ⎠ Zt

Initial-Bottom Fi Fi eo Mmin Fi ⎛ eo ⎞ Mmin

σb = + − = ⎜1− ⎟ − ≤ σ ci

Fully Shored: Mp = Mgirder Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ k t ⎠ Zb

Unshored: Mp = Mgirder + Mslab III Service-Top F Feo M p Mc F ⎛ eo ⎞ M p Mc

σt = − + + = ⎜1− ⎟ + + ≤ σ cs

Ac Zt Zt Ztc Ac ⎝ k b ⎠ Zt Z 'tc

!

Mc = M

Moment resisted

i d bby the

h composite

i section

i ((use Z’tc, Zbc)

IV Service-Bottom F Feo M p Mc F ⎛ eo ⎞ M p Mc

Fully Shored: Mc = Mslab + MSD + MLL+IM σb = + − − = ⎜1 − ⎟− − ≥ σ ts

Unshored: Mc = MSD + MLL+IM Ac Zb Zb Zbc Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Zb Zbc

VI Service-Top Slab Mc M E

σ t ,slab = nc = c c ,CIPC ≤ σ cs,Slab

We can also write similar equation for stress at the bottom of Ztc Ztc Ec ,PPC

composite beam

Stress at the top of the slab must also be less than the allowable compressive stress

Feasible Domain & Envelope Top of precast

Cracking Moment - Composite

We can rewrite the stress equations and add practical limit equation

No. Case Stress Inequality Equation

We consider 2 cases

I Initial-Top

p ⎛1⎞

(

e0 ≤ k b + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin − σ ti Zt

⎝ Fi ⎠

) 1. Cracking moment is less than Mp

II Initial Bottom

Initial-Bottom ⎛1⎞ Cracking occurs in the precast section

⎝ Fi ⎠

(

e0 ≤ kt + ⎜ ⎟ Mmin + σ ci Zb ) The equation is the same as noncomposite section

III S

Service-Top

T ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ Z ⎞

e0 ≥ k b + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ M p + Mc t − σ cs Zt ⎟

⎝ F ⎠⎝ Z 'tc ⎠ ! F Feo Mcr F ⎛ eo ⎞ Mcr

σb = + − = ⎜1− ⎟ − = fr

IV Service- ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ Z ⎞ Ac Zb Zb Ac ⎝ k t ⎠ Zb

Bottom e0 ≥ kt + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ M p + Mc b + σ ts Zb ⎟

⎝ F ⎠⎝ Zbc ⎠

Mcr = F (eo − kt ) − fr Zb

V Practical Limit e0 ≤ ( e0 )mp = y b − dc ,min

VI Service-Top Mc M E

σ t ,slab = nc = c c ,CIPC ≤ σ cs,Slab

Slab Ztc Ztc Ec ,PPC

II. Cracking moment is greater Mp Ultimate strength of composite section follows similar

Cracking

C k occurs in the

h composite section procedure to the T-section.

T-section Some analysis tips are:

When the neutral axis is in the slab, we can use a composite T-

We find ∆Mcr ((moment in addition to Mp) section with flange width equals to Effective Width and using ff’c

of the slab

F Feo M p ΔMcr F ⎛ eo ⎞ M p ΔMcr

σb = + − − = ⎜1− ⎟− − ≥ σ ts When the neutral axis is in the precast section

section, we may use a

Ac Zb Zb Zbc Ac ⎝ kt ⎠ Z b Z bc Transformed Section and f’c of the precast section - This is an

pp

approximate value but the errors to the ultimate moment

Zbc capacity is small.

ΔMcr = ⎡F (eo − kt ) − M p ⎤⎦ − fr Zbc

Zb ⎣

Mcr = ΔMcr + M p

Shear Transfer Shear Transfer Mechanisms

p

composite determines whether these two

behavior, it is parts will slip past each other

very important or not is the shear strength at

that the slab the interface of slab and girder

and girder must

not slip past This interfacial shear strength

each other comes from:

Friction (F = μN)

Cohesion

AASHTO LRFD (5.8.4)

Cohesion is the chemical bonding of the two materials. It depends The nominal shear resistance at the interface between two

on the cohesion factor ((c)) and the contact area. The ggreater the concretes cast at different times is taken as:

area, the larger the cohesion force.

Friction Factor

Friction is due to the roughness of the surface. It depends on the Area of shear reinforcement crossing the

friction factor or coefficient of friction (μ) and the normal force Area of Concrete shear plane

Transfering Shear Compressive force normal

(N). To increase friction, we either make the surface rougher to shear plane

(increase μ) or increase the normal force. Cohesion

N

⎧≤ 0.2f 'c Acv

Vnh = cAcv + μ( Avf fy + Pc ) ⎨

Vhu

COHESION FRICTION

⎩ ≤ 5.5

5 5 Acv

ΦVhn =ΦμN

Shear Transfer – Shear Transfer – Cohesion & Friction

Cohesion & Friction The normal force in the friction

formula comes from two parts

Yielding of shear reinforcement

Avf

AASHTO LRFD (5.8.4.2)

(5 8 4 2)

If cracking

k occurs at the h

interface, there will be tension

in the steel reinforcement

crossing the interface. This

N=Avf fy

tension force in steel is balanced

b the

by h compressive i force

f in

i

concrete at that interface; thus,

creating normal “clamping”

clamping

force.

Permanent compressive force at

the interface

Dead Weight of the slab and

wearing

earin surface

s rface (asphalt)

(as halt)

Cannot rely on Live Loads

For Vn/Acv > 0.7 MPa, the cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement

crossing the interface per unit length of beam must not be less than There are two methods for calculating shear force per unit length at

Width of the interface (generally the interface ((the values mayy be different))

0.35bv equals to the width of top flange Using Classical Elastic Strength of Materials

Avf ≥ of girder)

fy Factored shear force acting on the

Vuh =

( ΔVu ) Q composite section only (SDL +LL+IM)

If less, then we cannot use any Avffy in the nominal shear strength

Igc Moment of Area above the shear plane

The spacing of shear reinforcement must be ≤ 600 mm Moment of Inertia of the about the centroid of composite section

Possible reinforcements are: composite section

Single

S l bbar Using Approximate Formula (C5.8.4.1-1)

Stirrups (multiple legs)

Total Factored vertical shear at the section

W ld d wire

Welded i fabric

f bi Vu

Vuh = Distance from centroid of tension

Reinforcement must be anchored properly (bends, hooks, etc…) de

p of the deck

steel to mid-depth

Ultimate Shear Force at Interface Some Design Tips

The critical section for shear at the interface is generally the For T and Box Sections which cover the full girder spacing

section where vertical shear is the greatest

g with thin concrete topping (usually about 50 mm), we may

First critical section: h/2 from the face of support not need any shear reinforcement (need only surface

May calculate at some additional sections away from the support roughening)

g g) – need to check

(which has lower shear) to reduce the shear reinforcement accordingly

For I-Sections, we generally require some shear

Critical Section For Shear reinforcement at the interface

We generally design the web shear reinforcement first (not taught),

h and extend that shear reinforcement through the interface. Then

we check if that area is enough for horizontal shear transfer at the

h/2 h/2 interface.

Resistance Factor (Φ) for shear in normal weight concrete : 0.90 If not, we need additional reinforcement

If enough, then we do nothing

Composite

C it section

ti iis usedd nott only

l ffor prestressed

t d concrete

t

sections, but also for steel sections. The analysis concept is b

Benefits is that the slab helps resists compression and helps prevent similar to that of

lateral torsional buckling of the steel section, as well as local prestressed concrete.

bucklingg at the compression

p flange.

g There are also:

Effective width and

transformed section

Shored and Unshored

Construction

Sh

Shear Transfer

T f att IInterface

t f

Final Notes on Composite Behavior Final Notes on Composite Behavior

There are various ways to transfer shear at steel-concrete interface Shear Stud is one

of the most

common shearh

connectors – it is

welded to the top

flange of steel

girder

Spirals Studs Channels

but you should be aware of !!!

Unbonded and External Prestressing

Anchorage Reinforcement

Camber and Deflection Prediction

Detailed Calculation of Prestress Losses

Shear Shear - MCFT

Traditionally, the shear design in AASHTO Standard The shear resisting mechanism in concrete is very

Specification is similar to that of ACI,

ACI which is empirical- complex and we do not clearly understand how to

based predict it

Th axial

The i l force

f from

f prestressing

i reduces

d the

h principal

i i l AASHTO LRFD (5.8.3)

(5 8 3) uses new theory,

theory called

tensile stress and helps close the cracks; thus, increase “modified compression field theory (MCFT)”

shear

h resistance. Th actuall theory

The h is very complicated

l d but

b somewhath

simplified procedure is used in the code

This theory is for both PC and RC

The nominal shear resistance is the sum of shear strength We need some transverse reinforcement when the

of concrete,

concrete steel (stirrups)

(stirrups), and shear force due to ultimate shear force is greater than ½ of shear strength

prestressing (vertical component) from concrete and prestressing force

Av fy dv cot θ

Vs = If we need it,

it the minimum amount shall be

s

bv s

Av ≥ 0.083

0 083 f 'c

Vc = 0.083 β f 'c bv dv fy

Minimum Transverse Reinforcement Unbonded or External Prestressing

For vu <0.125f

<0 125f’cc pp y for unbonded

not apply

tendon (the strain in

smax = 0.8 dv ≤ 600 mm steel does not equal to

the strain in concrete

For vu > 0.125f’c near it)

smax = 0.4dv ≤ 300 mm The strain in tendon is

averaged along the

length of the beam

Must subtract the area of duct to the width 5.8.2.7

Post-tensioning

anchorages

creates very high

compressive

stress behind the

bearing plate

Anchorage Reinforcement Anchorage Reinforcement

pprincipal

p tensile

stress in the Traditional

T d l

transverse direction, (Approximate)

leading to concrete Strut-and-Tie

cracking Method (new

(

We need to for ACI and

determine the AASHTO))

magnitude of this

Finite Element

stress and design

some reinforcement Analysis

for it (complicated)

Strut-and-Tie Method

But excessive camber and deflection causes uneven rides

and the impression that the structure is not strong

enough

The structure may deflect and vibrate too much that it

cause fatigue failure (due to repetitive stress cycles),

cycles)

especially in steel connections.

Vibrations may cause discomfort to drivers on bridge

Strut-and-Tie Method

Detailed Calculation of Prestress Loss References

In many cases,

cases it is adequate to use the “Lump

Lump Sum

Sum” loss

AASHTO (2000). AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications – SI

Units, Second Edition, 2000 Interim Revisions, American

IIn some cases, we Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials,

need to know Washington D.C.

exactly

tl the

th stress

t in

i http://www.transportation.org

the strands so we

can determine the Naaman, A. E. (2005), Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design:

camber and Fundamentals, 2nd Edition, Technopress 3000, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

deflection h //

http://www.technopress3000.com

h 3000

Cantilever

Construction

Repair/

Rehabilitation

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