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(1) Societal/Cultural Integration

Social-level Integration
Milton Gordon presented seven dimensions to analyze the societal/cultural integration of
1. Form of acculturation
2. Degree of structural assimilation
3. Degree of informal relations
4. Degree of prejudice
5. Degree of discrimination
6. Degree of identification with the dominant group
7. Degree of inter-group conflict (especially over the balance of power)
(1) Acculturation:
A method by which cultural differences between the dominant culture and any minority
culture groups are resolved or treated. Most prominent ways are:
Unilateral is a process by which minority culture members adopt the norms and
values of the dominant group in the organization (assimilation).
Pluralism is a process by which both minority and majority culture members
adopt some norms of the other group. In this approach minority culture members
are encouraged to enact behavior from their alternative culture as well as majority
culture (i.e. able to retain a sense of identity).
There is another way cultural separation, in which there is little adaptation on
either side.
(2) Structural Integration:
It refers to the presence of persons from different cultural groups in a single organization.
The workforce profile data has typically been monitored under traditional equal
opportunity and affirmative action guidelines.
(3) Informal Integration:
It recognizes that important work related contacts are often made outside of normal
working hours and in various social activities and organizations. It also includes the
mentoring and other informal developmental relationship in organizations.
(4) Cultural Bias:
It has two components.
1. Prejudice refers to negative attitude toward an organization member based on his/her
culture group identity. Prejudice may occur among minority culture members as well as
among dominant culture members but the impacts of prejudice by majority culture
members are far greater than that of minority culture group. Why?
2. Discrimination refers to observable adverse behavior for minority. It can be personal
or institutional. The institutional discrimination refers to ways organizational culture and
management practices may unintentionally disadvantage members of minority group.

(5) Organizational Identification:

Refers to the extent to which a person identifies with and tends to define as a member in
employing organization. Here the concern is with the comparative levels of identification
for the members of different cultural identity groups.
(6) Inter-group conflict:
Refers to levels of culture group- based tensions and interpersonal friction. Research on
demographic heterogeneity suggests that communication and cohesiveness may decline
as members of group become dissimilar.

Types of Organizations
1. Monolithic Organizations
2. Plural Organizations
3. Multicultural Organizations

1. Monolithic Organizations

2. Plural Organizations

3. Multicultural organization

(2) Creating Full Structural Integration

1. Education Efforts: For an organization with no correlation between ones cultural
group and job status means minority members are well represented at all levels, in all
functions and in all work groups.
1) To achieve this objective skill and education levels should be evenly distributed.
Organizations such as Kodak, Digital Equipment, Quaker Oats etc. are actively
involved in various kinds of education programs.
2) The community involvement with joint effort with educational institutions and
community leaders is important to achieve competitiveness.
2. Affirmative action: The full integration of minority group should be an affirmative
action program. Most large organizations like PepsiCo and Xerox have such programs.
3. Career Development: Many companies like IBM and McDonalds have started career
development efforts for minorities. IBMs program Executive Resource System is
designed to identify and develop minority talent for senior management positions.
4. Revamping Reward System: For structural integration The organizations
performance appraisal and reward system should reinforce the diversity management.
Many companies like Coca-Cola, Exxon, Merck have tied their compensation to
5. Benefits and Work Schedules: changes in HR policies and benefit plans can facilitate
the structural integration of minority groups which will make it easier for employees to
balance work and family role demands. Many companies have made changes in areas like
child care, work schedules and parental leave.

(3) Creating Integration in Informal Networks

1. Mentoring and Social Events: Company initiated mentoring programs should be
organized to include the minorities in the informal networks of the organization.
Another way to integrate the minorities is company sponsored social events.
2. Support Groups: Minorities have formed their own professional associations to
promote information exchange and social support (i.e. provide emotional and career
support to members).

(4) Creating Bias-Free Organization

1. Equal Opportunity Seminars: Different methods are used to reduce the cultural bias
such as equal opportunity seminars, focus groups, bias-reduction training, research, and
task forces.

Unlike prejudice, discrimination is a behavior and therefore,

It can be influenced or controlled by organization.
The underlying cause behind discrimination is prejudice, so indirect efforts should
be made to change the mindset and attitude of members of organization.
Plural organizations have used equal opportunity seminars, including sexual
harassment workshops, training on civil rights legislation, and workshops on
2. Focus Groups: Organizations like Digital Equipment used focus groups as an inhouse, on-going mechanism to examine the attitude, beliefs and feelings about culture
group differences and their effects at work.
In their program, valuing differences using small groups (called core groups)
four major objectives are discussed.
1. Stripping away stereo types.
2. Examining underlying assumptions about out-groups.
3. Building significant relations with people from different culture.
4. Raising levels of personal empowerment.
Discussing the differences openly is the most effective tool.
3. Bias-Reduction Training: Training specifically designed to create attitude changes.
Companies have (Northern Telecom) designed programs to help employee to identify and
begin to modify negative attitudes. Kodaks training conference for recruiters to eliminate
racism from hiring process.
4. Leverage Internal research: Conducting research on employment experience by
cultural group can help to reduce discrimination. Time Inc. company conduct an annual
evaluation to ensure comparable pay and equal treatment.
5. Task Forces: Another way to monitor the level of biasness is to form task force that
monitor companys practices and policies for evidence of unfairness.

(5) Minimizing Intergroup Conflict

Certain degree of conflict is healthy for an organization but excessive is
destructive that may be in form of cultural clash, language barriers.
Survey Feedbacks: Survey feedback is the most effective tool to avoid
intergroup conflict. It leads to the benefit of knowledge base for planning change
and leverage to win employee commitment to implement the needed changes.
Conflict Resolution Training: Conflict management experts can assist managers
in learning and developing skill in applying conflict management techniques.
Managing and valuing diversity training and focus group tools can be used for
conflict resolution.