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THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMOUR AND SATIRE

WITH SPECIAL

IN PERSIA

REFER NCE `_"0

CUBAID ZXNI
PRE*SEMED B Y'

ALI

ASGHAR HALABI

THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF


EDINBURGH FOR THE DEGREE-OF DOCTOR OF

PHILOSOPHY IN THE FACULTY OF ARTS


JUNE

80
19
,

DUN/,
Fa
m
xz
N 3`

ABSTRACT

in

satirist
to Persian

(d.

Zkni

'Ubaid-i

Persian

his

He has been unjustly

The aim of this

systematic

analysis

with

some general

early

exponents.

on Persian
branches
brief

consists
life,

divided

is

its

as a literary

(Chapter

on Arabic

and Persian

and the conditions

IP presents

a survey

an analysis

three

sections:

Chapter VI9 the sources

humorists

of the society
satirical

of the topics
religious,

of "Ubaid's

own

this

political

work

chapters

on the other

and satirists:
II).

concerning

to some
both

Chapter

III

'Ubaid's

in which he lived,
writings.

of 'IIbaid's

satirical

in his

genre and some of its

(Chapter

evidence

of his

by a

and then proceeds

and historical

of the historical

ideas

to preface

and dwells
I),

and indecent

two introductory

presents

techniques,

literature

of a survey

into

as they are presented

thesis

motives,

properly.

(3ahannami)

necessary

and

contribution

great

to expose some of his

has been thought

(or semi-historical)

offered

thoughts

Hence, this

of satirical

education

is

remarks on satire

satire,

and Chapter
there

and it

information

legendary

of his

thesis

his

been evaluated

yet

as an "infernal"

libelled

satirist.

major treatises,

has not

position

humorist

most eminent
despite

However,

literature.

satire,

was the

771/1369)

satire

and ethical.

anecdotes

In Chapter V
which is
In

are discussed.

ENTS
ACX&OWLEDGE
I would

like

L. P. Elwell-Sutton,
invaluable

library.

to

grant

also

like

enough

and Mr. Robert

My thanks
Mr.

throughout

I would

Ferrard

to

Wells,

encouragement

the

Edinburgh

they

which

Ntiq,

help,

both

throughout

Christopher

English

style.

Persian

writer,

a devoted

man of

financial

and

my period

of

study

at

University.

I owe a particular
who enabled

me to obtain

London, thus providing


studies.

to Dr.

me on the

Nsih

Moreover,

own private

the celebrated

and the

offered

thesis.

my gratitude

are due to my friends,

for

and offered

to use his

who advised

and Mr.

time
of this

preparation

express

Professor

my supervisor,

of his

me permission

Jamalzidah,

psychological,

Without

debt of gratitude

from the Tihereh

a scholarship
financial

this-timely

to Dr. M.A. H. Ktouzin..

support
aid

for

from that

the last
charitable

Centre in
year of my
centre,

all

my

would have been frustrated.

efforts

My thanks
Miss I.
help

the

Mu1ammad 'Ali

letters,

to

who gave generously

advice

he was kind

my debt

to acknowledge

also

Crawford,

throughout

to Dr. D. Straley

secretary

for

typing

of the Department,

my stay in Edinburgh,

ii

this
for

thesis,

her kindness

and to
and

INTRODUCTION
It

was while

I was drawn,

bears

still

which

on this

embarked
that
all

not

full

of

examples
body

powerful

this

oppose

some of
study.
facetiae

of

of

this

While I myself
aspects

genre,

fact

encouraged

of their

authors,

poets,

themselves
with

of vexation.

principles

to
to
has

literature

of

for

prose or verse.

types

these

their

This
that

of literature

readers,

to avoid

in order

weight

or rid

confrontation

they quoted verses

by the authorities,
which lent

some

were moral and religious

to entertain

Furthermore,

and the

I realised

these texts

have included

in order

many

an impression

confirmed

few exceptions,

with

a distaste

works which do not contain

by reading

held sacrosanct

to the legality

of

actions.
The second point

for

history,

as contrary

type

is

adab, in general,

of Islamic

in particular,

me, for

from Koran and the Traditions


their

it

regarding

humorous or satirical

books or diwins

too,
exists

throughout

to some degree,

my study

enaugh, but they nevertheless


in their

common to

are

of hand.

entertained,

examples of facetious,

all

morality.

consideration

there

Hence this

are only a few literary

there

single

trend

which

literature,

however,

Iran,

has attempted,

which

out

diwns of the Persian


that

and their

literary

particular

of this

of Islam,
in

with

general

thesis,

this

of

the

comes from
in

genre,

opinion

been dismissed

often

of

marks

topic

reluctance

and witticism

those

and conventional

religion

the

My reluctance

including

peoples,

the

the

to

some misgivings,

without

satire,

while

aspect

on another

working

that

literature

of Islamic

the
fact
task
in
was
air
encouraged
me
which

a long time I had come to the conclusion


iii

that

all

Persian

that

poetry,

iv

with

the

the

larger

possible

nobles,

kings,

reading

of

Iran

insipid

part,

local

this

type

of

in

an unbroken

history

and poetry

from

the

own time,

we are

kings,

all

lead

all

in whose reign

the sheep and the wolves

this

is

and to a great
that

clear

fools,

neither

feeling

quick

degree,

the satirists

nor bitter

and indignation
My third

in their
motive

for

'Ubaid's

used

to read

books

of Arabic

fact

that

unfamiliar

Arabic

popularize

them,

'Ubaid

a ruler

However,

The main literary

bare fact

is

the satirical,

literature

of this

the fool,

They were often

on this

nation.

were

sensitive,
their

disordered

poured out their

along

a_,

and from
these

had borrowed

giving

topic

works

common to

names to
thus

honest,

the mice.

at peace with

this

our

from the very

people who, observing

dwelling

reading

by the

up to

anger

writings.

while

many anecdotes

did not drink

ethics,
that

by and large,

were,

of the authorities,

time,

across

of

history

B. C. ),

550-485

the indecent

by nature.

and the immorality

society

Iranian

and those who played

and sophisticated

prospered

many books

was not the case.

source which enables us to understand

It

(c.

society

and at no time do we find

and the cat did not live

every man of sense knows that

the

that

conclude

and compassionate

of

of

and nobility

wise and meritorious,

humorous,

In

of

praise

An uncritical

to

elements

the Achaemenian

ministers

like.

reader

an impression

given

in

of wise

and harmony.

compassionate,

same spring,

the

for

contain,

written

and such

generations

government

of peace

of Darius

reign

would

by unending

period

verses

ministers

poetry

whose blessed

under

and epic,

mystical

and unattractive

suzerains,

has been blessed

rulers

the

of

exception

the

is
the

with

time

separate
many of

better-known

them greater

that

a long

d%wn of Hifizr,
to

time

them,

I would

changing

Persian

I
come

I was struck

works.

appeal

for

ones in

to his

only
order

Persian

the
to

I was therefore

readership.

between

similarity
this

them.

(Chapter

thesis

satirical

the

'Abbis

late

writings,
the

in

copied
however,

of

in

Paris

(Suppl.

purpose
MS in

an undated

helpful,

Persan

for,

anecdotes,

824,

the

latter,

however,

besides

and critical

purpose
satires

and to throw

their

nawdir

copy

works,

is

to discuss

Neither

character

save Hamdallh
"from

a noble

Mustawfi
family

are

full

changed
The
having

authentic,

satirists

draws

authors

throw

(d.

750/1349),

and has written

as

career

of Persian

period
age.

hardly

reveal

however,

ca.

personal

who lived

satirist-poets
but

humorous
as far

origins

'Ubaid's

much we know,

do contemporary

the

Many of

'Ubaid's

to its

reference

of the Persian

'IIbaid,

was

death.

of that

most

6303),

date,

taste.

and'seems

conditions

'While

a later

he has arbitrarily

a more modern

his

not,

a1-amthl,

the-general

This

MS is

or careless.

important

persona.

him as being

at

copied

upon that

certain.
in

personality

Nationale)

light

A. H.

century

him is

Bibliothbque

the

thesis

special

was the greatest

eighth

Museum (Or.

The former

by

edited

the British

'Ubaid's

of this

with

and to study
'Ubaid

in

of $Ubaid's

two MSS of

anecdotes

after

text

I have used

in the hope of reconstructing

and character

included

version

inept

much older

a very

64 years

is possible,

is

attempt

a published

being

to suit

and words

is

only

The chief

history

the Persian

phrases

been copied

the

and note

an authentic

1430).

and especially

and in

mistakes,

about

this

834 (Sept. -Oct.

Muharram

Arabic

the

For
is

many of

it

supplement

writing3to
Igbl.

I required

seems to have been particularly

copyist
the

however,

first

very

of this

The result

the

second

collect

VI).

For such a study,


complete

to

encouraged

else

anything

something
a veil

any light

of their
his

across
upon his

who speaks
peerless

in

of

treatises.

"

vi

is

That

all.

less

considered

of his

record

important
intellect

The topics

satires.

thesis,

present

life

of

thn

the

The external

and this
satire

been divided

into

he held;

views

is

his

of

seems to

a satirist

for

three

what

the

parts:

is

matters
in

registered

clearly
have,

have been

his
of

purposes
religious,

the

critical
this

political

and ethical.

In

' baid's

one finds

in

and there

throughout

his
at

then

his

ethical

ridicules

the

virtues.

These

the

is

merely

and in

superficial

the imitation

of 'baid's

Finally,

which afflict

full

Here,

ridicules

those rulers

and this

indecent

an inner

the

history

of bitter

meaning
of Persian

realities

defects
holds

servile

however,

of his
that

imitation

the fiercest

and local

invites

attack

to be found in Persian

exposes the futility

who are intoxicated


of war,

rulers

age.

and Muslims in particu-

constitutes

satire

and

"religion

by everybody".

the satirist-poet

at the expense of victims

these

and partly
This,

critiques

and

"have been surpassed

political

of sovereigns

literature.

and the hopeless.

in

age,

towards

contain

mankind in general,

the latter

'Ubaid's

on the despotism

a world

religious

of the ancestors",

consequently

they

of the moral and political

understanding

the

period

force

tour'de

us to

of

untranslatable.
for

describes

philosophers,

amusing

partly

are

aspect,

the

bout

some attempt

he first

peripatetic

morality
of

virtually

are

He introduces

last

the

here

true

particularly

case,

which

scattered

the

nobility

attacks

is

are

we can observe

on the

we have a veritable

the disasters
lar;

the

of

ideas

but

to

own attacks

they

The synopsis
is

In

according

critical

that

their

this

his

attitude

extent

literature.

a true

This

satires,

Virtues

Capital

he launches

to

treatises.

satires.

of the kind

no regularity

and his

and political

in

the Four

his

is

works,

philosophical

religious
order

there

writings,

by their

of warfare

success in battle

the dead, the wounded, the homeless

and

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract

Acknowledgements

ii

Introduction
Chapter

I:

iii-vi
Satirical

Summary of Persian

Techniques

and

Terms

1- 55

Discussion
terms
on hazl and hajX and related
The Motives for Satire
Techniques of Satire
List of Satirical
and Facetious Terms in
Persian and Arabic
Chapter II:

Arabic and Persian


'Ubaid

Satirists

1- 14
14- 20
20- 45
45- 55

up to the Time of
56-138

General remarks on Humour in early Islam


Short discussion
on Ash'ab, Juh, Muzabbid,
Jumayyiz, Jammz, Buhll al-Majnun,
Abu 'l-'Ayn',
'Ubidatal-Mukhannath,
Ab
Yazid, Iys b. Mullwiya
Semi-Historical
Persian Humorists:
Ab Bakr,
Rubbi, Azhar-i Thar, Talkhak
Historical
Satirists
and Humorists
A. Arabic: Hassin b. Thbit, Hutay'a,
Jar1r, Yazid b.
al-Akhtal,
al-Farazdaq,
Muffarigh
Bashshir b. Burd,
al-Hizyarl,
Ab Nuws, Jlhiz al-Bari,
Rghib
73- 94
al-I.Iqfahni

56- 60

60-"69
69- 73
73-138

B. Persian:
Alib b. 'Abbd,
Rudaki,
'Asjadl,
Manuchihrl,
Ab Iayyn
Azragi
of
al-TawIIdl,
Hert,
'Am'aq of Bukhr,
Rashidi
of SamarTarmidhi,
gand, Tayyn of Marv, Manjik

Anwarf, San'i, Khigini,


Suzni, Mawlawi-i
Rums, Sa"di, Majd-i Hamgar, 'Adud al-Din
Iji,
Qutb al Din Shirazi
94-138
Chapter

III:

'Ubaid's

Life,

Learning,

His Life

Patron, s

-139-165
139-147
147-151
151-165

His Learning
His Patrons

vii

viii

Chapter

166-194

IV

P&l-nma-i
Burj,
A. Serious
Writings:
Fln. ma-i Wuhush u Tuyr,
Sang
Mathnawi-i
Tarsh and Nawdir al-Amthl
B. Satirical
Writings:
Akhlq al-Ashrfif,
Ta'rift,
Ta'rift-i
Mull du Piza,
Risila-i
qad Pand, Rish-nma,
RisAla-i
both
Dilgsh
Arabic
of
examples
and
-from this
Persian
treatise
with
anecdotes
on 'Ubaid's
sources.
a short discussion
Hazllya
Maktbt-i
Asheir-i
wa Tadmint,
Qalandarn,
Mush u Gurba -- the analysis

of the tale

Chapter V:

The Topics
I.

Part

Religious:

The Shaikh,
The Khajib,
Rind, Sfi

of "Ubaid's
Shiites

and Sunnites

Fagih and Imm


Zhid,
W' ig and Qri

III.
Ethical:
cardinal
virtues,
abrogated

Chapter VI:
1.
2.

Arabic
Persian

Bibliography

195-250
195-201
201-207
207-212
212-218

on politics
governments
in the Islamic
in politics

'Ubaid'-s views on four


both accepted and

The Source of "Ubaid's

169-194

Humour and Satire

Part II. Political:


Some notes
and the nature of tyrannical
in. Persia in particular,
and
areas in general
Accepted and abrogated views
Family -- Women and Children
Part

166-169

218-221
221-229
229-237

237-250
251-274

anecdotes
252-261
261-274

275-288

CHAPTERI
SUMMARYOF PERSIAN SATIRICAL

It

should be mentioned
definitions

precise
rarely

first

this

The Arabic
but it

the case with

term "Hil"

number of words both in

(abuse),

tahakkum (derision,
(mockery,

sukhrivva
jarifat

(humour),

(facetiae),
educated

1.

(humour),
mnz4
often

himself

Ibn Rashiq,

is

little

to defining

a -'Umda,

(ridicule),
madhaka
admit

will

evidence

p. 170.
1

that

baaddha"
witticism),
(insult),

=
tta'n
hii

distinction,

of little

these various

Vol. II,

(display

(witticism),

ab'i

463/1070),

whose exact

(derision),

taaruf

people and even men of letters


and there

languages

dushmm (abuse),

khush-

derision),

a satire

We have a vast

"1

and Persian

irony),

or insult

and finally

Words such as istihz_

Socratic

and many others

of another,

diatribe

assertion.

Lanz (irony),

or "epigram",

to Ibn Rashiq (d.

according

the Arabic

(mockery),

as a lyric.

by "satire"

invective,

and frank

are not known.


taskhar

We know well

another.

translated

often
a curse,

between insinuation

definitions

to do so are

satire.

"H_ij",

prose or verse...

"varies

into

poem, thence an epigram,

an insulting

in either

applied

is

denotes more precisely

in verse,

never easy to frame

or not a given poem should be defined

whether

more is

Still

is

but we are sometimes hard put to

enough what is meant by a lyric,


determine

it

and attempts

genera,

one form blurs

for

that

of all

of literary

profitable,

TECHNIQUES AND TEI (S

(sarcasm),

and hazl
and

use one of them in place


any Islamic

terms.

This is

scholar

has

the case to

in Western

some extent

languages

We have words

such as buffoonery,

hoax,

invective,

humour,

raillery,

witticism,

and so forth.

them.
is

style

are

difficult

types

of

literature,

from other

of unvarying

style

all

First

satiric

irrelevancies
seriousness,

of all,

contain

to say that
under

embellishing
he is

good and effective

in

not

satires

"subject-matter

of

texture

strictly
his
writing
are

its

of

in

used
in

other

satire

writings,

whence Persian
contain

--,

"'

satire.

distinguishing

satirical
-

and techniques

thoughts

most

and effective

in Arabic

writings

waggery,
defines

sometimes

aspects

some general

materials

his

although

most concentrated

and we can venture

colloquial

satirists

cruel

and

anti-literary

as soon as the author


logical

headings,

literary

style

satire.

In

constantly

in

other

varying

and to
a tone
words,
both

in

and content.

The original
merely denotes
Satire,

1.
2.

all

to arrange

away all

and,

and mostly

certain

words;

vocabulary,

almost

are

in Persian

have obtained

cut

mistake,

the

and the

vocabulary

forms of literature.

particularly

indecent

to

its

mimicry,

that

purpose

that

probably

fun,

travesty,

satire,
the

particular.

facetiae,

lampoon,

joke,

perhaps

is

but

however,

are,

is

this

for

diatribe,

sarcasm,

It

multifarious,

There

begins

ribaldry,

One reason

satire

jest,

in

and English

general

comic,

irony,

obscenity,

of

in

Latin
"medley",

again writes

word "satura",
"hotch-potch",

from which the word satire


or simply

things

mingled.

G. Highet,

Highet,
The Anatomv of Satire,
p. 231.
C. W. Mendell,
"Satire
Philosophy",
as Popular
pp. 138-9;
Satires
tr.
of Horace and Persius,
Naill
Rudd, pp. 1-3.

The

comes,
2

"full",
and then comes to mean "a
means primarily
It seems to have
things. "
full
of different
mixture
We have the
been part of a vocabulary
of food.
of a sort of salad called
satura;
a dish full
recipe
to the gods called
offered
of mixed first-fruits
to
lang satura;
no doubt in allusion
and Juvenal,
by the name of another
this
of meaning,
calls
strain
farrago,
given to
mixed food,
a mish-mash of grain
1
cattle.

is

This

too,

the case,

Take, for

example,

Igfahani;

nobody is

Ibn Qutayba,

Jhi.;,

able to find

to witty

subjects

just

another

like

a song, only

sings

the nightingale
to fly

of his

to

person
tree

on a certain

to sing a different

to another

says at the very beginning

al-Faraj

from a certain

which sits

philoso-

go from serious

They usually

ones and vice-versa,

al-

of these famous
as in logical,

and regularity

literature.

books and serious

phical

satirists.

Abu '1-Faraj

and especially

in the writings

the same classification

writers

and Persian

most Arabic

with

song.

and
Abu

book al-Aghini,

celebrated

The nature of human beings are created so that they


to another, from
wish to pass from one subject-matter
what is known to what is unknown. And passing from a
previous subject with which he is acquainted to a
fresh one, is very desirable,
and anything which is
yet to come dominates the heart more than anything
2
which has already arrived
...
Thus, we are proposing
Persia

can be divided

and in

the latter

element

in this
into

(facetious

saying)

and "hi

The Anatomy of Satire,


Satirist.
P. 51.

2.

al-AghAnI,,
ilI

'

jn;

Vol.
iw)

jI>
l

c.,
css (t1s. 1

it

terms,

1.

b. i

Before

language.

and facetious

satirical

the satirical

all

(satire)

'"

p.

231.

1fi

cQ.

wJ

critical

of Persian

to discuss

first

"hazl"

in some detail.

See also

lo P. 4:
;

a list

necessary

of

and the playful;

and coarse

presenting

is

literature

the entire

the serious

two groups:

is placed

of Persian

that

thesis

G. Highet,

Juvenal

the

JUL;

}-e

if

./i

l
s
..

u.

ti
-+

rief

'
'61

"2
+.
e
.

,a

in Persian

"Hazl"

(bihudeh

nonsense

According
hazl

to

denotes

nor

the

whereas

hazl

the

meaning,

the

nor

as a lot
fact

description
are

the

to

is

not

precise,

for,

coarse

author's

first

is

is

of
than

irony,

to hazes]; and finally

means both facetious

this

definition

hazi,

meanings

29

Ta'rift.

p.

3.

Dihlthud,

Luahat=nmaj

Burhin;

is

a word

as

as "a poem
ascribed

not

limited

in

prose

is

in

hazl.

and in

only
as

to the

recalls

there

hzil.,

are:

habitually,

mind

no doubt-that
this

respect

hazliyt,

Farhang- i Mndln.
under "hail".

other

the plural

sayings.

184.

the person who makes

coarse language;

in

of Ghazna has used, i. e. hazl

Kh. Tabrizi,

muhmal),

or anti-ethical

but

and sarcasm in

and laughable

1.

signifies

terms from hazl


bitter

of

have been written

right,

the man who does the same thing

which San'i

hazls

seems,

qualities

hazl

that

noting

It

hazl

some impolite

rendered

part

defines

that,
real

nonsense

and inadmissible

worth

rather

definition

and utters

is

its

a word

same meaning

letters

man of

and anti-ethical

The derivative

addicted

the

exactly

neither

if

which

maintains

serious.

becomes

it

metaphorical,

excellent

of mit

intended

opposite

it

of

is

speeches

471/1078)_

the

by which

Nonetheless

(d.

talking
,

wa lddhb).

waai"a

and is

A contemporary

or a speech

and in

jokes

wa khilaf-i

by which

conveys

sometimes

and uttering

a1-Jurjini

definition

this

one.

poetry,

there

letters,

men of

real

meaning. "3

the

truth

lying

somebody has been insulted,

which

well;

(duruah

the use of a word

serious

to him,

the

the

that

neither

to

the

muzah kardan

means humour

and finally

guftan)

metaphorical

however,

in

to

opposite

are

literature

words,
of hazliye,

hazzl,

a man
which

There are two other


niush,

the person who

terms

person
for

jokes

and fancies

listens

jokes

who sells

the

facetious

or

by means of

people

been evaded by the class-conscious


the term hazl

that

Turkish,

is

writings

and indecent

or even hearing

of mentioning
private,

in particular

particular

used hazl

disorder

and immorality

of Persian

and poets
in

their

bitter

of this

language

attack

they could understand


religion

and ethics

even to talk
part

of life

conversation.
and

2.

a,

Ethics,

and other

it

serious

is

necessary

like

and reacted

Aristotle

of this

68-6-

p. 167.

'-

it-is

is

that

badly

and
"one

entertaining

minds exhausted

they were realists

Most of

in vulgarity

These were frank

gladly

language

chastity;

of knowledge,

of their
fools

that

to teach philosophy,

their

profession.

follow

age.

or false

They do so to refresh

of the slow-witted;

p.

of their

and indulge

and one aspect

"2

however,

not to use this

branches

is relaxation,,

in

to make fun of the social

ascetism

They believed

would not tolerate

adt

although

in

even the most pious writers

the corruption

hypocritical

'Ubaid

own rank.

does not,

nonsensically.

seriousness

seriousness

order

for,

sometimes to be witty

too,

necessary,

that

field,

ashamed

but in which they indulge

It

age.

and

feel

classes

could not afford

against

to do with

them had little

the pretentious

meaning, in

of his

Arabic

to those harsh and obscene

in public,

in this

he was the only pioneer

in Persian,

writers

the people of their

with

and has probably

not mentioned,

applies

that

jokes

entertainment

language.

and witty

the meaning which is

However,

the

furush1,

or provides

sayings

coarse

and hazl

sayings,,

and playful

by the

people who

to the ponderous
attempting

to convey

in their
tried

the nature

writings

to demonstrate

the indecent

believing

the human beings

Khusraw,

Hfi;,

'Dbaid,

This point

neglecting
human beings
honesty
in representing

anybody who makes an effort


manner, is

ara"

Anwarf,
Jiml,

and his

a hypocrite

either

of Isfahan;
Yqt

illustrated

you observe

possess little
superficial

following

greatness,

the author

nobility

the

and the

Persians

Saldi,

Sizani,

quotations:

that

the names

they wish to

find

out that

and dignity

But

they

except

in

to a

the same manner,

When the names of sexual


organs,
or an indecent
act
in your presence,
do not be outraged
mentioned
nor
from speaking
to the people or turn away
abstain

a1-Hayaa,

author

extent. "1

Ibn Qatayba writes

1"

of

384/994),

the path of abstemiousness.


you will

of

and many others.

pretending

abstain

or

writers

"who when hearing

JAi4,

any of them carefully,


chastity,

r., Rind,

At

in the following

organs and copulation,

from moral pollution

(d.

626/1228);

Yaghm& of Jandaq

4 'nI,

is well

(d.

Khgni,

Sna'!.,

456/1063),

Q141 Tan0kh1

4amawi

or

famous opponent Ibn Qutaiba

Ibn Hazm (d.

are a pack of people, " Writes

of genital

of human life

or normal and abnormal -,

Ilfahani;

Rghib

al-Muhte

Nsir

if

of Bagra,

Abu al Faraj

Sawa al-Uamma;

be far

that

in a heavenly

such as Jhif

"There

- They never

Among these can be counted a group of Arabic

unobservant.

of Nishwar

in reality.

they were eager to show that

of good and bad -

and dishonesty,

Dinawar;

the good facets

only

ones; instead,

are a mixture

poets

of man as he is

are

Vol. II , p" 40:

"

v; '"'

%''
,,

` ( I .. 1I

lam!ua

7
humility,
displaying
for the names of the organs cause
in fact,
the sin is caused by the act of
no sin,
insulting
lying
talking
people,
untruly,
and backbiting.
But by saying
so I do not mean to give you permission
to use them constantly
I permit
in your speeches.
it in an anecdote or in a
you only to indicate
be
tradition
I
that
and
you
again
should
stress
...,
to utter
to the tradition
content
a little
according
),
(salaf-i
honoured
forebears
for they
of our
s;
felt
free and behaved naturally
not to play
careful
1
the hypocrite
or act superficially.

(d.

Jurjni

'gbd al-Qidir

471/1078)

writes:

The learned men, in order to make the Koran and its


difficult
or strange words and its pronunciation
have inserted
in their writings
i'rb) fathomable,
words and couplets in which are mentioned many abuses
and nobody has censured them,
and obscene actions,
in reproducing
them was not
because their intention
for the sake of insult
or nonsense, and neither have
2
they quoted them for the sake of poetry itself.
From the above passages it
of sexual

organs and actions,

no harm either

lind

and other

from the point

the writings

rate,

believers.

true

San! '!,,

so-called

poets

that

the very mention


things

shameful

of view of religion

of great Persian

of obscene language while

being

can be understood

At any

or nature.
are full

and writers

no one would doubt for


in his QalandariAt3

have

of this

a moment their

poetry,

mentions
I

..ffP.

vol.

3-4:

;-

Pv

2.

Dal lil

al-I$Jiz,

3.

..,

..

pp. 32-3:

53
'.

'es

J"

II

"1

I
j-Q'-1 Jll'> ji

Haadd%,pp. 689-750.

1-:Jo

j 5'

/.

I &" 1 rU >'

17

wr

"r
rr

.,.

fi'

the

all

almost

sexual

organs

hypocritical

politicians,

gluttonous

or homosexual

was the

age of

to behave

the

honestly

rigour

the

of

philosophical,

sight,

indecent

of

the

the

corruption

he was able

and proverbs

a great

the writer

laugh,

irrespective

a kind

and poets

did not feel

Haies, Hi ',

his

someone by numerating

his

offences

somebody in verse

or prose. "3

and in particular

Persian

Haidiaa,

p. 742:

It

literary

find

transparently

shameful;

organs in it
writers

them.

fault

alternative
with",

"to

masdars of
blame or reproach

and finally,

however,

in

"to

insult

the terms of Arabic,

of lyric

r-.

/j

this
2.
3.

and

and the Persian

men, "a sort

,. _.

126 such

of

laughing

of sexual

or defects",
is,

first

works*2

or criticism,

These are three

means, "to

complex

these

at

a total

are

which is

ashamed of using

Tahi".

which literary

satire

every

would,

of witticism,

of writing

and the

explain

which

--

or poet uses the names and actions


to strengthen

probably

is,

own time

satirizing

by means of

There

mystic.

his

same in

to

discussions

and mystical

and

and he cannot

people,

did

authorities,

anecdotes

therefore,

making others

1.

Mawlawi

that

the

and anyone who attempted

examples in his Mathnawl and other

Hazl,

H-V,

'

mystics

age arguing

and immodesty

furthermore,

ethical

seem unworthy

the

of

to be mocked by these

religious

indecent

so-called

dishonest

leaders,

nobility

and joyful.

the age;

of

absurdity

2...

is

them to

men and women and assigns

religious

shamelessness

to be happy

afford

of

See Mawlawi in Chapter II of


thesis.
Ibn Manir, Lisn al-'Arab;
Dihkhuda, Luahatnma.

poetry

iii

which

'I l 1

is based on a painful
an insult

urges

(to

khndan

(satirical
There

are the derivatives

recite

are

ha

satire,

epigram);

t
muh

(mutual

'

critique

and compound words of this

haiw

terms

t ahii

(the

satirizing

in

nima

(a book

(a

collection

to haw

act

of

which

of

mutual
one is

haiwiyya

satire);
the

Persian

latter).

as well:

(pl.
uh wwa

; uhiiyya,

term

satirize);

of

in

are used

which

(addicted

(to

hajw guftan

haiwiyt

some Arabic

also

this

although

satirize);

satire);

poem or writing);

(satirist);

hii

(to

haiw kardan

in Persian:

critique,

mockery. "1

and coarse

The following

hajw

and bitter

ahii,

and finally

satirizing)
dominated

and the

other

dominates).

It

is worth noting

hill,

or weakness, bitterness

strength
different

hiii'

into

from the point


or softness

Ibn Bassirr (d.

categories.

divides
satire

that

two sorts.

of the nobles

The first

(or the satire

of view of its

has been divided

303/915)

into

himself

a satirist,

MAI

al-ashrif,

he calls

of the high

norm),

.-

the

and it-is

to him,

according

in which there is apparently


no bitter
a kind of satire
language or indecent words, rather its meaning is
disturbing
From the ancient times this
and painful.
sort of satire was adopted by the Arabs, and it has
caused the destruction
of families
and the vagrancy
The poet usually used devices such
of whole tribes.
as reprimand and sarcasm in a bitter
manner but with
less insult
The second type
and apparent offence.
(which he did not mention by name,Lithe hii'
al-ardhi
,
the satire
of the humble or the satire
of low norm) is
not so destructive
as the previous type, but the satirist
2
usually
employs harsh language and indecent words.

1.

Jubrn Mahmd, a -Rilid,

2.

Husain

alMurai,
.

p. 1552, under al-Hi

a1-Wasi- at al-Adabiva,

vol.

':

I- loo

II,

p. 82.

,f

10

The satirist

could provoke

making fun of his victim


A satire

travel

splendours:

hearing

this

'Umar summoned Hutay)


or insult
its

is

. Umar did

so, and then

'Umar smiled
Righib,

after

call

that

Hassn b. Thbit

them.

this

event,

recording

In Persian

concerns

word of insult,
Persian

1.

can be found in

Sultin

satire

it

of the Believers
and ask his

mentions

he has stripped
literature,

that

Zibrign-turned

Rghib, MuhMdrt,
vol. II, p. 447; Baihaqi,
p. 308. The poem is as follows:
Baihagi,
Trikh,
p. 309.
M'a rt, vol. U,
,
- -p..-447:.

Shihn'

bereft

one of the finest

Shhnma, pp. 17-19.

against

me of what grandeur

which overshadowed Mahmd's splendour

See Muntakhab-i

He

the best example of this

4.

judgement. "

the muaddama to Firdawsi's

nevertheless,

can

of a single
examples of

and sovereignty.

Tarikh

cJ
2.
3.

fathom no satire

and the understanding

Mahn d of Ghazna and although


is,

of the libel.

but armed himself

Zibrign,

and dismissed

I had built

It

and

heard the case and the poem.

assn

"Oh Caliph:

type of satire

the Prince

b. Badr:

them.

of

"I

the poet, "and poetry

to 'Umar and said,


up. "3-

search

the person who should-feed

commented, "He has not satirized


him. "

in

not

by

deficiencies.

him
to
and
asked
explain.
,

not a thing

Therefore

comprehend.

his

poem, came to 'Umar and complained

in that, ". replied

subtleties

second type of satire

kind is Hutay, a's poem on Zibrign

Be seated:
for you're
1
clothe himself,
Zibrign,

in this

by mentioning

simply

of the first

Abandon

laughter

Mas'

%J' c

11

If

it

be difficult
types

and other

satire
language,

yet

mentioned

at

various

the

case

the

are

etc.,

remains

held

deriding
English
It

It
(Juvenal),

that

follies,

or writing,

languages
stupidities,

and modern

of sarcasm,
(Shorter

of any kind"

is

(Webster's

"

and contempt.

in

a word used

and perhaps more subtle

cannot,

despite

rival

tragic

or

Oxford

and noblest

among us is

looks

His vision
has a kinder
optimist.

Juvenal,

at life,

determines

is

as if

The Sixteen

by some great
is

hopeless

it

neither

his

mission;

he persuades
optimist

Satires,

rather

writes

It

it
has

Swift,

geniuses

aware of the paradox,

or Racine,

and nauseatingly

to life

Rabelais,

by which

defeat,

become of two types:

and finds

approach,
It

for

claims

Voltaire,

The satirist

destined

contemptible

ridiculously

minds --

by Sophocles

Here the satirists

or crown.
satirist

formulated

of

and memorable forms.

and occasionally

Goethe and Shakespeare.

type

greatest

of one of its
1
drama and epic poetry.
But still

challenging

Aristophanes;

the

not

the ambitious

by some energetic

instance,

is

satire

one of the most original,

Pope, Horace,

1.

ridicule

is

and other

vice,

which

abuses or evil

be known

has to

been practiced

for

"in

English

as has been

Dictionary).

masters

like

kind,

A. second,

folly,

literature.

is

in

between

coarse

literature
Satire

chapter.

employment in speaking

"the

vice,

Western

meaning

up to

New World Dictionary).


meaning is,

this

original

in

literature'uttered
so with

of

to distinguish

and Arabic

critical

of special

work

abuses,

of

beginning

the

senses:

a literary

in Persian

while

nor comic,

pp. 61,1,51-57.

but

He is a pessimist.
the philanthropic

than denounces.

in order

martyrdom

the misanthropic

tragic,
hateful.

for

the best

to heal,

He is

an

the pessimist

12

One resembles

in order to punish..

However, it

executioner.

two groups,

into

independent

--

is

author

single

fittest

perhaps

all

satirists-poets

characteristic.

the

most pessimistic

Szani,

field

of

Hafiz

is

1]25)

(d.

of Marra

and Schopenhauer

themselves
bitter
their

systems

philosophical

Ab al-'Ala'

and coarse

system of thinking

the lives

of all

are

varying

and
for
2

elements.
in

masters

the

will

the philosopher-satirists.

Khayym

or

(1788-1860)

optimistic:

are

which

they find

in whatever

are nothing

and suffering".

! dam
of
are corrupted

For Schopenhauer
farce"

For Abu al-'Al',

and bastards.

See pp. 2-3 of this chapter.


In his Sixteen Satires,
the Eighth Satire,
See also,
obvious example for this claim.
Satirist,
pp. 113-121.

3.

A. Schopenhauer,
The World
Chapter XLVI,
pp. 573-588,
II,
Diwn, vol.
p. 169:

"4

and at
"the

Shayym, the

pp. 177-194, is an
G. Highet, Juvenal the

as Will
and Representation,
"On the Vanity
and Suffering

9'

to

incompatible

but "a tragic


3

They

They launch

built.

they have already

519/

pessimists.

all

nor do they evoke laughter.


satire

(ca.

Nishbr

of

1.
2.

4.

coarsest

no exception,

and happy

by

marked

are

the

pessimistic

either

Germany

human beings

the same time "blind


whole progeny

is

not the same with

449/1057),

of

do not laugh,

irony

In Persian
and indeed

techniques

perhaps

laughter

and

satire.

The case, however,


Their

the

;a

variety

O baid,

is

who is

is

and

pessimism.

variety

among the

counted

are

simply

as an optimist,

bitterest

Roman satirists,

we can observe

satires

of Persian

all

satirists

Saturn

so.

who mastered

Even Juvenal,

this

Anwaris

this

an

they are willful

one satire

by the

of

exponent

for

pretend

marked

the

his

they

of writing

capable

satire,

even in

and black,

least

by another

it

following

would be unwise to place

the white
or at

the other

a physician,

II,
vol.
of Life".

13

best-known
in

his

in

for

poetry,

permanent
it

is

his

his

unvarying;

If

he would
preferred

have

liked

not;

but

and as "this

is

life

be spent

in

gaiety

in

his

Parwin

(thawr

in

Arabic,

you observe

poetry,

"1

is

the

is

is

and

have

unwillingly,
it

is

better

no laughter
and its

these

or

name is

beneath

another

see between

then

frank

he would
it

sky

its

as to whether

choose

into

There

in

there

you will

his

and suffering",

a bull

a bull),

to

or not,

world

by sorrow

is

deeply,

in

he were allowed

and sleep.

"there

is

any satire

he has been brought

intoxication

and pessimism

and superstition

this

even

the

earth.

two bulls

of donkeys. "2

pack

This
H&ti;;

but the tone of satirizing

there

rate,
satire

is used by Anwarf,

coarse language

pessimism and optimism:

varies

1.

Rfiba'lylt,

Ibid.,

it

is

a mixture

of

the

destructive
appealing

PP. 114 and 91:

Sa'di,

'Ubaid

between the two poles


and fly

and delightful

constructive

on the one hand, and painful,

other:

Szani,

the wasp they sting

like

is attractive,

the

2.

if

preceded

satire,

is

of folly

to come into
while

thought,

of

there

critique
that

can be distinguished,

quatrains,

constancy

He believes

Now, if

his

characteristic.

constant.

to

the West for

on.

of
At any

elements in

and hateful

and the

and

ones on

a.
app

,".,

p. 107:

cosmological

He refers
to the ancient
globe is seated on a bull,
is also imagined as having
pp. 17-19. -

view according to which our


The star Parwin
and the bull on a fish.
the shape of a bull.
See Surat al-Ards

14

The Motives

It

is

on the

motives

would,

however,
here

recorded
of

the main

in fact

since

it

to

at

least

and there

both

in

Western

of

satire

of satire,
be useful

motives

is

a no'ticeably

large

feeling

of personal

and exclusion

from

a rankling
poverty

of this

within

one, "Menippus",

Satire

discussion

scope

not

the

for

is

to dwell

a vast

topic

allude

to

these

and Eastern

length
It
It

that

sources
inferiority,

and

by

injustice,

of social
As for

group.

is
one

have been impelled

number of satirists
inferiority,

itself.
motives:

of personal

a sense

a privileged

in

at

the

Western

Highet,

relates

Bion's father was a slave, and he himself


was a slave.
Horace's father was a slave,
was sold in slavery.
Pope and Dryden
although Horace-himself
was born free.
in a Protestant
were both Roman Catholics
country.
Lucian was a Greek-speaking Syrian.
Swift and Joyce
Byron, Orwell,
were Anglo-Irishmen.
and Waugh
(Byron, though he
Anglo-Scots.
called himself an
"English
Bard", was brought up in Scotland speaking
broad Scots.
George Orwell's
real name was Eric
his

Blair:

family

background

was Scottish

and he

Evelyn Waugh's father


spent his last years in Scotland.
he also suffered
from going
was an Edinburgh publisher;
to a not-very-good
public school and a not-very-good
)
Oxford college,
and he is a Roman Catholic
convert.
Pope was tiny and painfully
deformed.
Boileua was
Cervantes, Gogol and Parini were
nervous and sickly.
forced into careers which they felt
all men of talent
to be useless or degrading.
1
Voltaire

was ugly

so coarse and wrinkled


if
tion

they

stretched

to its

and tiny.
that

on bone.

later

of his

people used to liken

hands and face was


them to leather,

The Academy of Science

membership arguing

enough, although

The skin

that

refused

he was not academically

on he was elected

with

1. G.Highet, The Anatomy of Satire,


p. 240.
2. C. E. Vu11ianr, Voltaire,
pp. 47-49.

great

his

as
applica-

educated
2
The
acclaims.

15

case was the same in the East,


JWV

was deformed,

to'satirizing

in particular

to one of his

and according

God, for

be. to God who created

in the Islamic
servants

he used to look at the mirror


me.

was accustomed

my creation, '"'

And what a good job with

feel

but if

anything,

me."3

Bashshir

"If

said,

a fly

dirty.
forced

Abu gayyn al-Tawhidi,

x_

to court,

who pretended

and Ibn al-'Amid,


eat the vegetables

of the desert

a debtor

not provide

1.
2.
n

3.
49
5,

"

LJ

vj

a>

. ,

'f

...,..

d.

although

of talent:

writes,

ol

and
was

he was contemporary

"very

qhib b.
often

p. 315:

to

'Abbd

was forced

to

Firdawsi

was

"6

starvation.
winter

and was unable

low

"' !

, >.

>/`

pp. 62-64.

',
aj,;;,
j

UIJ,,

,
"

'l
U--

pp. 141-2:

al

of a non-Arab

and knowledge,

Ibid.,
p. 316; Yqt, I_r
vol. VI,
Ibn Manor, Akhbr Abi Nws, p. 141.
See Irshd,
vol. V. p. 152:

oc1
:

Ab'Nuws was

and being

food or coal for

c.. it Az; rJ
U

torments

qualities

all

II,

it

was both ugly

to avoid

Ababibl,
al Mus atraf,
p. 241.
Kurd 'Ali,
Umar' al-Bavn, vol.

tJ''r,

6"

and could

paralyzed,

of Ivfahan

patronage

and as he himself

protruding

part

and deformed.

homosexuality

with

He

of iy body I would not

to another

short

Abu 11-Faraj

to wander from court

two great

close

heresy,

were among them.

flies

b. Burd was blind,

accused of many defects:


descent

they cut a part

"Praise

saying,

was called both J4if


and Hadagi because of his indecently
2
eyes40 In his old age, a part of his body was completely
and as he himself

world.

.0

i; ;

Q.

16

to kill

a sheep for

homosexuality.

too,

'Dbaid,

"a pure

anus",

release

him from

is

that

to

Szani was poor and accused of

was permanently

say an honest

disaster

the

was the

This

a whole year.

of

debt

and generous
and creditors.

There

common motive.

in debt constantly
man, in
2

a few other

are

seeking
order

to

motives

Worthy of mention:

condescending
that

asserts
only for

however well

62-114)
"I

punish

he has banished

he turns

that

author

of Juvenal's

awi to bring
too,

motif,

Satire

One, his

and the world

ylt,

i>

grudge,

(c.

at large

Pliny)

The Sixteen

to
notice.

as his

subject-matter:

and p. 549 text:


''>rte',

.0 '00

ar

all

pp. 22-3.

"3

that
an

announces "indignation"

Satires,

candour,

envisaged

1 Car

Juvenal,

A. D.

into

i?

3.

however

opportunity

oneself

and

writing

cannot help but feel

manifesto,

11 CJ's _'

p. 80:

he is

characteristic

with

and a glorious

satires,

(Introduction),
9
p.

S=,

Kull

here was a signal

programme.

,.

2.

The younger Pliny

a smile.

this

of contempt,

(who may have been on bad terms


with

as his driving

1.

into

or a twitch

it,

to avenge misfortune

guilt,

identical

to conceal
it

that

feelings,

personal

or

he disclaims

of course,

"On the death of Domitian"

wrote,

The reader
their

all

hatred,

But he always has a rankling

good.

he tries

reflected

Frequently,

amusement.

the public

gracefully

is always moved by personal

the satirist

Firstly,

17

All human endeavours, men's prayers,


Fears, angers, pleasures,
joys and pursuits,
1
The mixed mash of mayverse.
The same satire

conveys

again

his

firing

anger

these make

in

clearer

following

the

canto:
Need I tell
you how anger burns in my heart when I see
back by a mob of bravos
The bystanders jostled
debauched his ward, and later
Whose master has first
The courts condemned him,
Defrauded the boy as well?
Who cares for reputation
But the verdict
was a farce.
If keeps his cash? A provincial
exiled
governor,
boozes and feasts all day, basks cheerfully
For extortion,
his province,
In the wrathful
eye of the Gods; it's
still
After winning the case against him, that feels the pinch.
Are not such themes well worthy of Horace's pen? Should I
Not attack them? 2
The similar

prose and verse;


writes

for

and hatred

anger

but perhaps with

can be observed

more laughter

in

Persian

and irony.

satirists'

San! -":E

example:

0 people!
our age is the age of immodesty,
It is the turn of impudence and outrageousness,
Unless with roguery and libertinism
How you can be happy and joyful...
3
In the same manner, "A libertine",

'IIbaid,

relates

was disputing
with his son thus, 'how many times must
I tell you that you do nothing worthwhile,
and that
in vain; how many time4 must I tell
you waste your life
you to learn the art of gymnastics,
and learn how to

1.
2.
3.

Juvenal, The-Sixteen
pp. 65,66.
Ibid.,
pp. 66-67.
Haidiaa, p. 742:

Satires,

(of
23
p.

introduction)

J' iii
-J7'CJj.
C('
(S"

UL)O)(Y
to
a

r!

^'>l'J1Vii)

and the text,

(Jilll

(4)1

18

make a dog jump through


a hoop, and the art of slipping,
If you do not take my
in order to enjoy your life.
to
I'll
advice,
you to the corner of a seminary
exile
damnable
learn
the scholars'
and become a learned
sciences
be
in
left
live,
long
man, and as
as you
you will
not even a
earning
abjectness,
misery
and adversity,
1
mouthful
anywhere.

is

The second motive


to

or if
"is

the

that

frank
is

physician

an enemy to his

disease",

to inveterate
This

point

pity

from

their

Juvenal,
ears

the

sayings

enlighten

poets'

Persian

but

teaching.

not

deceive

Dryden,

goes, on to

say

leisure

language

of satirists

Kulli7it,

2.

Dryden,
"To the Reader".
preface
(The
189
Poems and Fables of
p.
Press,
1978).

3.

The Sixteen

p. 115.

Satires,

Satire

that all
dm-6w-

claim

d then

their

imposture

to

release

people

other.

Thus,

on the

kindly

whispers

calmly

"Listen

They all

in

the

"My facetious

to satire
"Do not

seriously.,

despise

abuses,

mean that

the

the hard

innocent

(First
Absalom and Achitopel
John Dryden,
Oxford University

One, p. 65.

even

and reasonably

say,

should not mislead

1.

for

(Mawlawl);
"
you.

tongues. " ('Ubaid).

the

remedies

they arge

frequently

(San'i);

harsh

unnecessary,

to listen

satirists

than

offender

one cannot

wish

of Roman ages,

"

writes

or "Do not be vexed of beggars'

and satirists",

and indecent

they

demogogues

the

you have the

and buffoons'

but

true,

while

satirist

does

the

and misanthropic:

you. "3

are nothing

playfulness

satires

"If

He then

and condemn authorities

and punish

coarsest

of people,

I will

its

misery,

"

diminishing

in

aid

satire",

to make surgery

be entirely

one hand;

on the

and evil-doing

end of

to

They wish

when he prescribes

patient,

are vicious

ignorance

people's

true

no more an enemy to

in order

may not

by nature

satirists

"is

satirist

and thus

by correction.

amendment of vices

the

"The

it.

removing

possible

folly,

and ridicule

crime

stigmatize

avowed by many satirists.

openly

people.,

Part),

19
and causes no harm to morality

and honesty;

commit crimes intentionally,


of importance

feels

his

in

a strange

be attracted

by their

there

serious

always be several

steps

things

away in disdain.

The satirist,

his

or paint

best

to write

on a irall,
which is

forcing
no less

The fourth

At first

think

sight

it

satirists

satirists

exemplar

to copy;

they state

much in

common with

'Ubaid,

1.

The Sixteen

least

Satires,

will

well-known

for

is

that

age --

without
like

positive

fifthl

pp. 117-123.

motive

is

tries
any

them,
talent

satirists;
to it,

idealistic.

and at any
the jokers

even the most misanthropic

an ideal.
in his

all

not admit

they give

are visionary:

to turn

or painter,

and hangs it,

--'

will

good enough to

the reader

writer

of his

it

This needs an aesthetical

seems not operative

but the fact

that

and taste

causing

picture

a satirical

artistry.
the

and perhaps

the
in drama or

that

so brisk

a serious

us to notice'them.

the pessimistic
about it,

like

or moralist

than serious

to use them must

of humour combined with

readers,

without

a real

a historian

reservation'of

flow

or

are both

no doubt that

an imagination

ahead of his

him to say shocking

allow

by manipulating

from what we understand

a lively

of view,

point

patterns

perhaps no objection

needs a huge vocabulary,

a strong

rate

There is

is

Any writer

who tried

and any writer

are different

but still

epic poetry,
writer

men

motive.

however,

of satire,

difficulties.

of-satire

third

own special

The patterns

and complicated,

aesthetics

those who

either

who suppose themselves

the

is

way,

in making his

pleasure

chosen material.

interesting

is

or merit.

Aesthetics,

artist

fools

or those

butt

its

advice,

Juvenal,
satire

seldom
of

they set up an

who in many ways has


describes

"a

dependent's

20

dinner

in a great

deliberate

worse wine,
it

would be better
introduction

invites

a friend

criticizes
looking

idealistic

inclination.

But in his

in his

He satirizes,

directly

and indirectly,

morals.

This

fact

In a nutshell,

all

humanity
is

discussed

fully

be it

the most important

politics,

literary

sexual

pomposity

genres is its
a wide variety

of literary

a fairly

limited

deal\

with

the harshest

1.
2.

"'Ubaid's

is its

Satires".

absurdity
types

The satirist,

but nonetheless

This,

however,

or

of literary

of course,
he is

Although

Many attempts

G. Highet, Juvenal the Satirist,


The Sixteen Satires,
pp. 239-43.

of

subject-matter

from other

apart

or smile.

nobles,
favourite

Topics

its

of human existence,

realities

laughter.

the

hidden

idealists.

range of techniques.

to make us laugh

of what constitutes

forms,

this

of

of Satire

to the subject.

approach

he is

The whole treatise

example

of satire

it

and

in which generosity

bad manners, personal

relation,
what sets

only

simply

aspect

after

he

ideal,

pay no heed to his


in

Techniques
If

a vivid

they

satire,

or in a society,

governs.

are at heart

satirists

that

Yes: when a satirist

mocks and derides

curses,
because

is

menu.

one in a morality

'Ubaid

of

al-Ashrf

own home, his

among a group,

and, in short,

eleventh

of Roman gourmandise,

the modest but tasteful

a peaceful,

the Akhl4

"'

dinner

facts

and tolerance,
of

to a quiet

bad food,

evening,

No moral is drawn, except

on the absurdities

the available
for

a hideous

humiliations.

in the streets.

a short

then describes

house:

nobleman's

bound to use
contents

satire

raises

uses

often

is meant

the question

have been made to define

Chapter XI,

Satire

Five,

pp. 83-4.

21

but it

it,

seems that, still


held

have generally

that

but this

surprised"',,

the "human being

makes the matter

then ask why he should

suggest,

"is

a set of physical

of abdominal
control.
complex.

"2

muscles;

and not weep?


"Laughter,

symptoms --

even weeping

Another

ways of ridding
definition

is

explanation

itself

symptoms is,

that

in an Arabic

medical

Literary

" they would

cases loss
however,

"laughter

is

energy. 3

of superfluous

one may

spasmodic guffaws,

or in extreme

But the cause of these

for

more complicated,

laugh when surprised

scholars

because he is

laughs,

are not helped by the psychologists.

critics

Persian

wrapped in obscurity.

shaking
of bladder

obscure

and

one of the body's


There is

another

book which runs as follows:

Laughter is (the result


of) the boiling
of the natural
blood (which happens) when a human being sees or hears
him and thus startles
and moves
something that diverts
him.
to think
If then., he does not employ his ability
in connection with its he is seized by laughter.
4
This

definition

definition
they

introduces

man as "a

laughing

One of the best studies


Henri

Bergson's

treatise,

comic" in general.

animal".

on this

the

connected

Peripatetics

with
in

matter

in

the present

to explain

'+

c )L.

S"JI

is

the "meaning of

point, " he writes,

Qutb al Din RAzi, Sharh al-Risalat


al-Shamsiva,
M. Hadgart, Satire,
p. 108.
Ibid.,
p. 109.
F. Rosenthal,
Humor in Early Islam, p. 132.
K

which

century

to which attention
should be called is that the comic
does not exist outside the pale of what is strictly
human. A landscape ywty be beautiful,
charming and
sublime, or insigni
cant and ugly; it will never be
laughable.
You may laugh at an animal, but only

1.
2.
3.
4.

the

in. which he tries

"The first

are

which

has come down to us from

which

defined

some points

p. ll.

22

in it some human attitude.


because you have detected
but what you
You may laugh at a hat,
or expression.
the
is
fun
in
this
piece of
not
case,
of,
making
are
but the shape that men have given it,
felt
or straw,
It
has
it
human
the
assumed.
caprice
mould
whose
that so important
is strange
and such a simple
a fact,
degree the
to a greater
one too, has not attracted,
defined
have
Several
man
of
philosophers.
attention
have
laughs".
They
"an
equally
might
animal which
as
him as an animal which is laughed at; for if any
defined
the
lifeless
same
produces
object
or
some
other animal,
to
because
is
it
man,
resemblance
of
some
always
effect,
1
it
to.
he
it
the
he
the
or
use
puts
gives
of
stamp

The nature

the

aim of

make people

satirical

(d.

laugh.

1.

In

to reduce his

and it

In this

(Tahair-i

clothes

1.
2.

to show that

use

satirists
the

giving

and Arabic

Reduction

This is

the device
person.

list

of
it

languages,

as English

or degradation

for

belittling

the supports

satire

is

is

is nothing

Laughter,
pp. 3-4.
Wasila, p. 82; Ibn Rashlq,
Mursafi,

the removal

underneath

al-'Umda,

all

the

or cutting
tries
of rank and

concerned,

probably

him.

or even dares to imitate

of reduction

is

Here the satirist

from him all

(1667-1745)

there

before

you mast

satire,

them.

by removing

factor

laugh

Sha'n).

as far

famous Arabian

"When you write

that

may be,

laughter

of

and the

dwell

us to

allow

nature

make people

of the satirized

field,

not

the Persian

in

a few of

no one can match Swift


very penetrating

to

appears

terms

victim

the

has said.,

order

of satire.

down the position

status.

"2

to discuss

technique

study

whatever

3.10/728)

Reduction

does

to make us laugh,

and critical

fitting

first

but

is

satirist

techniques,

several

present

matter,

Jarir

satirist

is

of

on this

further

this

of the victim's
his

gorgeous robes

p. 172
tj
'D

23

an ordinary

except

first

A Tale of a Tubl,
and here,

body.

and mortal

and Moderns of seventeenth


than merely "contemporary".
the pssing

since

values,

which

their

Catholic,
for

Gospel,

and Puritan
left

of clothes

and according

he saw, at least,
returned
Catholic,

remained unregenerate,

untertook

such radical
Christianity

coat Swift

defends Martin

brilliant

wit

attempting
It

is

to discredit

mentioning

the idea of nakedness,


idealised

2.
3.

has nothing

The naked,

satire,

to do with
and heroic
on the other

and

Peter,

the

Jack (Calvin),
of his

inherited

sight,

but the result

non-original

was the

bad, because

purity.

forms of dogmatic

here that

human body, both erotic

begun by the Greeks.

1.

all

suit

and himself,

seems at first

Jack and Peter,

to make them naked of all

is worth

brothers

the dissenter,

It

contesting

least

the very fabric

was damaged.

against

is

of

point

of Christianity-

This

to the primitive

that

reforms
-

of his

while

to embody in

forms

father.
(Luther)

Martin

as he could

and moral

as brothers

were acting

the degeneration

as closely

intelligence,

But the important

them by their

to Swift,

those who,

Rome, have moved away

the three

that

and means more

might be thought
2

philosophy.

to expose the fact

Anglican

a suit

humanity,

works,

of Ancients

comprehends all

age of Classical

of integirty,

and their

is

satire

it

the best of the ancients

literature

this

England and France,

For Swift

of the great

from the standards

to the famous quarrel

relates

century

early

"modern minds",

the self-indulgent

satirizes
"modern"

of course,

one of his

in

Swift,

that

of his

Christianity

by

and borrowed clothes.

although

dealing

nudity.

The nude is

in

the noble

with
the

tradition

hand., means undressing

(London-New York, 1975 ed.,


See A Tale of a Tub and Other Satires
by Kathleen Williams).
with an Introduction
(Introduction),
Ibid.
p. av,
and the text,
section VI in particular
Ibid.,
pp. 121-135.

24

in

down,

trousers
,,

inappropriate

a wholly

in

caught

dam and Eve according


glorious

aware

that

they

to conceal

their

were

the

to

nudes:

state

"the

context,
act

simply

parts

naked,

with

books

the

eating

in

were

prohibited

and in

fig-leaves

caught

or shame. "

guilt

heavenly

the

after

of

man is

naked

--

their

Our first
the

parents,

pre-fallen
they

apple

became
tried

embarrassment

the first

his

with

of divine

victims

"'

satire!

is

No doubt this
full

its

exploits

a literary

potentiality

and expose him naked.

Sa'di,

who had worn a precious


turban

on his

about this

head.

robe,

in order
for

instance,

of a cow, ' I retorted.

a man, just
"

"I

writes,

mounted on an Arabian

brocade worn by this

illuminated

his

undressed

saw a fat

horse,

fool

Egyptian

What do you think

ignorant

as a golden

He continues

the satirist

to make his victim

A person aske me, '0 Sa'di:

donkey has become like

following

but in satire

allegory

calf

reductive

animal? '

'A

has got the voice


style

in

the two

couplets:
One cannot say that this animal resembles a human,
Except for his cloak, turban and outer appearance,
Seek all his assets, possessions and appliances
Nothing would appear to you lawful but his blood.
2

For Saldi

and according

to the idealistic

ethics

which the satirist

defends,

1.
2.

(New
K.
For more detail,
Clark,
The
Nude
York, 1956).
see
The
is quoted from pp. 12? and 356 of this book.
above quotation
Gulistn,
Kulliyit,
p. 72:
"
''
I j1+ ,
ice'
Ali''
.,.

c>``'c..

25

The human body is honourable


because of the human soul,
Otherwise,
the decent rcb e is not the token of humanity
If human beings are simply:
eye, mouth, ear and nose
What is the difference
between the pictures
on the wall
the human race?
1

in

Voltaire,

and

the same manner, asks,

Where are you going monsieur


l'abbe?
Do you
etc.
that abbe means father?
If you become one
realise
to the state,
do the
you do a service
you undoubtedly
being will
be born to
a thinkable
work a man can do:
divine
in this
But if
There is something
you.
act.
1'abbe merely because you have been
you are monsieur
tonsured,
and in order to wear a dog-collar
and a short
you do not
cloak,
and to wait for a modest benefice,
2
the name of abbe.
deserve

S'ib

(d. 834/1430)

of Tabriz

writes:

it was resolved that by wearing a turban, a man could


boast of being knowledgeable,
Then the Dome of the ShAh Mosque was more learned than
3
anybody else:
If

Reduction

is,

is its

pomposity,
2.
is

1.

of the victim

and the stripping

satire,,

the creation

Kulilyt,
ri
Ui
cJ

The second device

of a comparison

Gulistn,
W

i?.

of all

his

conceits

of

and

device.

principle

Anima3ization.

techniques

one of the most effective

at any rate,

between his

or technique
victim

of the satirist

and an animal

p. 538.
I
CJ's ,;' ---- - _--Ali

62 -l

2.

j ? "0 "1 ),
Philosophical
Dictionary,
p.

3.

Diwin,

4.

I have used "animalization"


rather loosely in the sense of
human beings as in the mariner and sometimes in the
presenting
shape of animals.

p. 193:

Cs'.:
15.

>U

26

their

concerning

feeds,

that
to

to

defecates,

disease.

the

from

just

device

of

man's

lusts

hog in sloth,
blaming

lyric

the

the

"l

be a fetid

abundant treasure

is,

field,

he is

proud

of brute

instinct:

a putrefied

and between these

two the

example the Indian


Aesop's

Fables,

origin

Munshl,

Animal Farm (1945)


by Ibn

al-Mugaffa$,

Warxini's

day we have an
in their

variant

although

of Kalila

Aristophanes'

and Wasusl Reynard the Fox3s Anatole

Panchatantara

3.

this

Panchatantra,

George Orwell's

1.
2.

in

Take for

of satire.

allih

reduces

quotes an uxilmown satirist

up to the present

From the age of the ancients

Birds

apart
animal

it

to the level

carcass,

left

of excrement. "2

carrier

that

But

"he was at the beginning

megalomania,

ending will

best

is

an essential

of which

or as Rghib

is

mortality

and cartoon:

aims

fox in stealth,

subject

of the

"is

it,

caricature

ashamed,, all

and is

mediation.

puts

of which he is

a mammal

satire

attributes

other

ambitious

in

only

theme of death

or stoic

the

all

counterpart

actions,

his victim's

sperm, his

tragedy,
uses

visual

purposeful

and his

corner:

birth

gives

As we know,

image, " as. Hodgart

animal

the

in

the

is

aspirations
ruts,

death?

satire

"The

world.

spiritual

about

round

literature

mortality,

vast

'menstruates,

But what

kept

usually

his

despite

homo sapiens

reminds us that

The satirist

characteristics.

France's

in the West;
and its

coarseness
va Dimna,

plays,

Penguin Island,

the Arabic

Persian

in particular

text

translation

of
by Nasr-

Marzbn Nma, a group of Rim 's anecdotes

M. Hodgart, Satire,
Mhda,
vol. I,

pp. 118-119.
p. 261:

There is an edition
of Canton's English
Fox by D. B. Sanas (Cambridge, 1960).

translation

in

yI

of Reynard the

27

Parwin

poetess
kinds
of

to

order

quoted,

lind

this

inversion

certain

has been

which
to

brutal

the

the

poet

animal

a lively

surely

who

instance

collection

chaos changed into

literature

harmony,

has derived

must be stated
profession,

engaged in
250/864)

satire

that

one of the basic

books,

The main theme is

or stars.
inspiration

turned

was regarded

in order

to make a livelihood.

who were interested


instructed

tr.
.

of a

a fresh,

is

transformation:

into

of

of men and

stone,

as an occupation,

were many persons

See Ovid, Metamorphoses


M. Innes (London, 1955

devices

The whole of Western European


1
Before going any further,
from it.

and there

in which a teacher

of

best known metaphorsis

the first

of animals

satire

consists

which

Ovid (43 B. C. - A. D. 17) was among

the poet and professional

group of others

is

a poem in fifteen

of tales.

whomen who become trees

technique

changes the form and structure

and perhaps

charming

1.

This

or person or word.

object

His Metamorphoses,

circle

is

This

and objects,

writer.

(d.

in

types

the

of

living

of

style

in which the satirist

the most sophisticated

other

by diverse

device

b. Badr,

7cibrign

different

of

of satire.

of personalities

of satire,

full

are

this

of

example

victim's

all

characteristics

various

-Qal.b , or Metamorphosis.

3.

it

have been uttered

and defecates.

drinks

feeds,

simply

which

Another

his

Persia,

by

i4tads

some excellent

in

concerning

had compared

Hutay'a

and finally

1957)

present

of human beings.

previously

of

and anecdotes

in

animals

(d.

I'tisimi

tales

of

facets

Mush u Gurbap

'Ubaid's

Mathnawi,

satirist
in satire
them that

and with

in

the Islamic
Abu

like

any

world

who

al Hshimi

'a.-sIbar
that

he and a

used to attend

a learning

relates

the first

device

an Introduction

of

by Mary

28

is

satire
the

to

morning,

learn

how to invert

thus,

when we saw each

the

and their

objects

"In

names.

" he recounts,

other,

we used to say 'good evening',


while in the evening we
'Come
would say 'good morning. ' When one of us said,
This teacher
near, ' we retreated.
used to copy a book
throughout
it.
He told me once, 'Plow,
a year and sell
the book, you should pour some dust on
I have finished
it
to dry its
ink, ' and then he gave the book to me.
I
the text.
poured water on it and asaa result
ruined
'What did you do? ' the teoher
shouted at me cursing.
'What have you taught
the year? ' I replied.
us throughout
'For God's sake, go: ' he retorted,
'because you are the
'
1
master of the masters in this
profession.

This
It

type of inversion

is

that

recorded

Koranic

both in Arabic

prevailed

(467-538/1074-1143),

when Zamakhshart
saw the celebrated

exegetist

(d.

Maydn1 of Nishpr

work., the Mama'

which he added a min to the beginning

changing

it

conduct,

to Namidini,

"the

Maydni too,

al-Amthl.

by

of the author's

means:

hearing

name,

"You do not know".,

of the envious

scholar's

books and changed the mim, that

to nfin and made it

sort

Farrj,
Yqt,

or inversion

of salb`

one of the basic

principally

1.
2.

the famous

Zankhahari,

which simply

is

means

cuckold. "2
Another

is

which in Persian

took one of Zamakhshari's

the second letter,

satire.

5l8/1124), 4L utadshocked by envy and took a

pen with

or "you are ignorant".

and Persian

devices

two things:

of satirical

one is

is

the English

literature.

the reproduction

parody., which
It

means

of "a passage from an

Akhb. r Juh, p. 37.


Irshd, vol, II, p. 108:

J
a..
dgl
; ,

J>"

lJ
W.

d,,

".

,W..

-I

11
L

29

author

the other,

subject;

while

author

literary

it

nature

"Sir

Thopas",
3

century.

parody is

It

is

in this

that
4

degree.

poetry

manner.

or enemy in my satire.

There-are

good parodista

among both

of his

predecessors

of Arabic

"romance"
to

intention,

for

sometimes

Anwarf and

Anwarf claims
"5

the Arabs and Persians.

Barmali (224-324/838-935),

among the greatest

importance

Szni,

have no friend

counted

the genre

or fond of parody by

"I

AJmad b. Ja'far

where he

Aristophanes

parodists,

of this

2,

the popular

malicious

is he was addicted

Of Persian

available

In English

of great

not always used with

manner,

to a great

repeatedly,

4.

The Frogs

which parodies
in fact

of an

and not

The earliest

and Euripides.

Taghmi of Jand.aq are the archetypes

2.
3.

"'

may emerge from the sheer joy of travesty.

parodies

1.

characteristics,,

verbatim.

of Aeschylus

Chaucer's

that

salient

inappropriate

and thought

style

are those in Aristophanes'

of the fourteenth
mention

humble, or otherwise

the general

any passage

the style

with

his

exaggerating

parodies

burlesques

to a comic,

reproducing

quoting

necessarily

begins

it

and applying

known as Jahza, could be

parodists;

and wrote verses

he took the heroic

in which he parodied

their

F. J. Lelievere,
in his useful article
called "The Basis of Ancient
Parody", in Greece and Rome, I (London, 1954), pp. 66-67.
See The Wasps, The Poet and the Women, The Frogs, pp. 142-212.
See Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, pp. 194-202, "The Tale of Sir
Topaz".
"Aristophanes,
" writes
Voltaire,
"(whom the commentators
admire
because he was a Greek, forgetting
that Socrates
also was a Greek)
the Greeks to regard Socrates
was the first
who accustomed
as an
This comic poet,
atheist.
who was neither
comic nor a poet,
would
in our society
to write
farces
not have been allowed
for the fair

he appears to me to be lower and more contemptible


of Saint-Laurent:
[in his parallel
than Plutarch
between Aristophanes
and Menander]
depicts him. " It is probable that Voltaire
is criticizing
his
by which he depicts
waywardness and spontaneous sense of travesty
Socrates as an atheist
See Philosophical
Dictionary,
and a sophist.
p. 49.

5.

D1wn, p. 373:

r
,/

30

heroic

meaning changing

of Shiraz,

Ha11j

Ishiq

many poets

known as Bushiq

Abu

827/1424)
Wali

and Shh Ni'matallih

one example of his

is

The following

1430).

; ifij

Sa'dt,

including

(d.

Ati'ma

while

In Persian

'

the original.

the same form and style-of

keeping

of food and drinks,

them to the topics

parodied
(d.

Vifi;

parodies.

834/

wrote:

,
N^f1

Those who are able to convert the dust to gold.,


Would they put on us a kindly
glance..
himself
to
is
Beloved
reveal
the
While
not willing
Why everybody narrates
a tale in accordance with his
2
imagination?
Busbq

When, the ldp-pazhm


Would

as follows:

it

parodied

own

they

open the

on us akindly

put

door

the

of

cooking-

pot

glance

hidden in the melon's


While no one knows the secret
skin
his
Owft
in
wl6t
tale
accordance
Why everybody
a
narrates
imagination?

Another

i'ma

Bushq's DiwanA
attention
considered
It

1.
2.
3.

4.

is

(albisa

Both parodists'

parody.

as his
writings

and Qiri's

of the men of letters,


unworthy

doubtful

if

to dwell

of Yazd, chose the

Mal}md QIri

Ni; m al Din

parodist,

of clothes

subject

'

topic

following

Bushiq's

have been published


Diwn Albisa,

one would say that

in Iran,

of
i. e.

but none has caught the

as though "food

under the roof

line

and humour" were

of Persian

literature.

Bushgq was guided by gastronomy

Irshid,
vol. Is pp. 383-405.
Diwn, p. 132, gh. 196.
Diwan A 'ma p. 74. BIAS, is a sheep or goat's ventricle
stuffed
is
the
a
of
a
pudding
cook
such
rice;
and
meat
and
minced
with
kip"
Rypka, History
of Iranian Literature,
p. 273.

31

and in

alone

the

u kattn)

mu'in

"is

work

Bushq

and the

rulers,

together

never-ending

He has parodied

Khayyam of Nishipur,

colourless

But its

significance

character

flattery

high-flown

own

of
the

of

contemplation.

was their

and obviously

clear-cut

lines

such as Rudaki,

poets

and, in particular,

predecessor
than

sharper

meaning of the term.

of the'epic

section

Persian

work of other

with

the

the

lofty

the

of

nma

Bushq's

time. "'

the

at

as such in the strict

a heroic

Jan

"against

than of these parodists

works identifiable

other

4Zn
and

rightly,

His

and wool.

significance.

it

with

cotton

wool

makes fun

whose parody is

Zk5ml,

of

a political

seemingly

But more important


'Ubaid

war between

prevalent

poetry

literature

classical

praise

as Rypka puts

of Persian

deeper:

lies

the

has probably

a protest",

species

the

of

account

mock-heroic

Qri

case of

Shhnima2, along side


Abi Shakr.

Sa'di,

whose poetry

Balkh!,
and prose

symbol
the
was
of moral codes in Persia.
40
both

To pretend

Arabic

foolishness

they

rather

than

abler
of

the

of

their

fools

satirists

society,

in

a few

but

of

entail

does not

last

1.
2.

Rypka, History
of Iranian
See p". 242
of Chapter

3.

Voltaire,

The Vision

their

"had

they

of

cause

this

ahead of

steps

people

often

general

is

creeds

technique

were

a very

good

very

long,

Literature,
V of this

in

peers

"3

and if

p. 274.
thesis.

of Babouc, p. 20.

No
but

fools,

not

they

were

the illnesses

conclusion",

result.

the

talking,

wisdom;

recognising

the

of

by way of follies.
or idle

age in

come to

to denounce

or

nonsense

their

technique

another

foolishly

act

foolish

who employed

ordinary

follies

abuses,

itself.

in

were

to

satire:
and their

people

foolishness

doubt
most

and Persian
of

"tahaAmua". This is

the fool.

"that

too,

Our laughter

we laugh

at

such

at

32

it

people,

is

by way of

end we realise

that

and unmeasured

actions;

laughter

into

Buhlfil,

to

Eulenspiegel,

the

Turkish

the English

Russian Balakirew,

the Islamic

etc.

to observe

that

said, " relates


being

will

the

Italian

with

folly.

which made his

more useful

than his

life

intellect.

They reproached
But my folly
is
sagacity.

and
clever

bear

strong

German Till
Bertoldo,

the

of the well-known

fools

they above all

He replied
easy,

it

that

and in

this

were in a position
is

the poet,

was this
respect

"It

life.

lind
it

of

was much

Then he added:

me in ignorance
more delightful

for my displaying
and sweeter than

folly,
their

I had pursued intellectual

Encyclopaedia
of Islam, under "Nagr al-Din Khodja".
Farrj,
Akhbr Juh, p. 47, who quotes al-Churar
wal-'Urar,

'W

in

who exercised

a prosperous

who enjoyed

My folly
life,
guarantees my family's
They would have died in humbleness if
life. " 2

WOO
as

burst

fact

a person once blamed IIamduni,

"that

foolishness

1.
2.

were in

those personalities

reveal

was the fool

Farrj,

occupied

the

Joe Miller,

because

a counter-

Rubbi

hero-wits

Khoja,

al-Din

to earn a livelihood;
it

as fools,

of the biographies

countries

in order

Nasr

to launch

Abu Bakr

These Persian

arises

and we therefore

order

(Juh),

it

An investigation

for

Juhi

the

simple-mindedness

matter,

or a group,
in

nd in

them,

their

of

another

and mockery

foolishness.

pretending

resemblance

folly

is

a person

by way of folly
folly.

was because

taha'mua

for

and sympathy

who were known among Iranians

Talkhak,
people,

but

criticize

on their

attack

pity

laughter

our

directly

we cannot

feeling

p. 133:

33
YaWlt tells
the

related

us that

following

and I

saw there

After

greeting

'They
This
But
But

the

who was close

suppose
for

you are

402/1011)

once

mosque of Bagra

great
to the
a poet.

me as a remembrance

his

end of
'

life.

'Yes, ' he
of you, ' I

down, ' he retorted:

say my poetry has changed its mode


is true, for grief prevents me writing
elegy or ode,
I have plenty if that is what go want
of satire
the eulogies are rare for today's nobility
is scant. '"

In Persian,
be numbered

'I

some verses

'Write

requested.

I entered

elder

him I said,

(d.

b. Masud al-'Utbi

anecdote:

a luminous

'Recite

replied.

"As'ad

in

Anwari,
this

Suzani,

group.

'Ubaid', Yaghm and many others

Baihagi

writes

should

that

There was a man in Nishipur


Abu 'lgsim
Rizi.
called
This man used to train
them
slave-girls
and brought
to Amir Nar the Smnid, and returned
with an armful of robes and rewards. Once he had brought
a few
Amir Naer gave him a precious
turban and
girls.
The people of
of commendation.
wrote a letter
Nishipur
him, and he brought
congratulated
his letter
to be read in the Court of Grievances.
I heard from
that the judge Bul-Haytham
my father
observed this
incident
'It
is
and said
sotto
voce in the Court,
that running
brothels
clear
is more prestigious

than being a judge. '

In a period

in which rascals

and the nobles,


penury,

those

themselves

occupied

was so common that


of the possessors

1.

IrshM,

vol.

writers

Trikh

Mas'udi

stood

of original

II,

p. 242:

458
p
, .
.

in the high esteem of the kings

and poets who did not wish to suffer


playing

the heroes of wit

CIA
2.

jokes

the literary
and stupidity
and foolish

fool.

This occupation

attended
anecdotes.

the house
Yahya b.

34

(d.

Parr'
parasite
for

one dirham.

is

It

(d.
Mahd.
of

jester

Caliph

"What

to say that

I saw,

the fool;

playing

Mazabbid
but

like

commodity and a profession

was a saleable

who was the

always memorized

was upset

of

and used

fruit.

the

you reap

an important

illustrate

exchange

them in the presence

rewards.

age:

a strange

The above examples all


is

the AbbAsid Caliph,

remarkable

in

jokes)

Abu Habib

that

too,

recorded,

217/836),

and gained

to comment,

that

ndiras

the

Ibn-Durrj.,

with
(rare

of Mazabbid of Madyan, reciting

the navdir
the

"1

thirty

dictate

he would

that

we had resolved

said that

207/822)

"2

of satire.,

aspect

genres of literature,

other

by which a livelihood

could

be sustained.
#"#*#**###*

Another-group

domination

the moral bankruptcy,


of their

age; and in

a livelihood

reward for

thei`works,

attacked
satirical

social

others.

Its

Dictionary,
archetypes

In Arabic,
of writers

1.
2.

Western

as a weapon to

this

set aside

their

Zadi

own interests
Their

of folly

critique

and stupidity.

that

the social
employed
His

stupidity.
and the

of satirists,

class

to counterattack

expose

imposture

group sought no

standpoint.

is

against

Child

of

and
and
They
folly

by Voltaire

Philosophical
Nature

are

field.

and particularly

and poets-who

Akh_,
Ibn Shkir,

Letters,

this

counterpart

stupidity

and political

writings,

consists

type of folly

Philosophical
in

they

generally

closest
folly

who exploited

rather

too,

employed a deliberate
of

from their

from an ethical

evils

satire,

of superstition

to the above-mentioned

contrast

who derived

and feigned

used folly

of satirists

Persian

literature,

employed the above method.

PP. 36-7.
Fawt, vol.

II,

pp. 592-595.

there
Ji; iz,

are plenty
Ibn Qutaybah,

35
Abu 1-Faraj
Persian

history,

this

Tughjr, " related

employed it

(heretic)?
cA

of man is

wife

in the anus, ' replied


distress

great

a r

was by its

the following

maxim, "by pretending

and it

by symbols,

is

religious

and so forth

and their

aspirations,

to show that

being manipulated
symbolic

mach realism
just

his

with

Tughjr

showed

and here 'Ubaid

thus sums up this

foolishness,

which is

fundamental

red star

is

'What

which

displays

technique

we demonstrate

This is

discussed

to satire.

in

fact

in
the

above, but it

This

technique

the cross,

or political:
are symbolic

goes even
consists

an emblem is
by tyrants

and impostors,

as possible

a piece

of cloth.

act

of circumcision

1.
2.

!ut,
a.1,-Ha

the thing

p. 105.
n, vol. II,

on his

p. 114:

not to understand

to present

in other

wishes

satirical

who

ends or is

unjust

pretends

in itself,

When Voltaire

performed

The satirist

and tries

meaning and significance,

and the

of groups and sects

a way of life.

being used for

of.

Men live

the tricolor

representations

for

standing

to the

related

the symbols which seem sacred and respectable.

attacking

its

Jhig

of the Symbols.

of "undressing"

technique

wishes

Sbirzi,

of fools. "2
Destruction

further

"Amir

Twice I was a

to define,

of the question.

5.

folly.

around the meaning of the term rfidI,

the absurdity

foolishness

theologian.

'Woe is me:

difficult

very nature

to attack

even the

'The man who copulates

the great

and confessed,

were the anecdote pivots

in order

'

Throughout

was so common that

"asked Mawln Qutb al-Din

'Ubaid,

kind

among the best.

of satirizing

style

men of learning

greatest

being

and RAghib of Igfahn

with

words,

the flag

to desymbolise
hero Huron,

" da ,

as

the

the Child

0 '=
1=
je -
' c.9

36

of Nature,

when becoming

follows:

"Grace

last

at

for

He had no doubt

to read

my foreskin,

sacrifice

and the

to this

since

all

Quaker.

he ends by using
"orthodox"

finally
"Our

Lord,

without
the

of

hats

with

two little

final

stroke
is

all

as his

Quaker

which

two feet

is

are

wish

us to

stretched

the

literal

description

one of

the

various
of

dressed

of

of

foremost

for

the war;

endure
sea and cut
in

by makLng'a
skin

aspects

purpose:

the

cross

citizens

But

manners.

and to

enemies

tightly

and surely

who

any real

some murderers

enlisting

an English

attack

without

on the

assuredly
is,

because

high,

sticks

it

does not

certainly

our brothers

desymbolisation

sanctification

our

I mast

to maintain

sectarian,

to

mouthpiece

was waged mostly

Book

is also vulnerable,

of dress or formal

the

the

are peculiarly

strange

and particularly

in

Religions,

he describes

while

who has commanded us to love

throats

'"'

better.

was to be

no doubt

is

examples of military

the fashion

religion

complaint,

wearing

that

the

war itself

there

by making fun of this

to comply with

refuses

been;

promised

step
person

of symbols in order

Letters,

Philosophical

He begins

a single

Militarism

of attack.

One of the brilliant

is Voltaire-Is

first

complex set of symbols,

armies use a variety

"morale".

of

kind

the

as

scene

of Nature

not

the

sooner

the

Child

that

is

who had not

because they use a highly


vulnerable

'There

as he said,

I have been given

and the

prevailed,

to become a Christian.
circumcised,

he describes

a Christian,

red,
noise

an ass. "2

the
the

drum:

and

The

for

slaughter

of millions.
'Ubaid,
holy

1.
2.

too,

when wishing

ware which were fought

to show the absurdity

by Mubriz

al Din,

Voltaire,
ZadiS/L'ingeneu,
p. 117.
Philosophical
Letters,
Letter I, p. 7.

his

of the so-called
attacks

couched in

37
desymbolizes

form,

the coarsest

of the King's

raising

flag

When my prick's

It

his

desymbolisation
On another

aroused

of the religious

laid

'

eaten of the Shaikh).


eaten"

khurdeh"

Here,

and "tamm khurdeh",

and the butt

To give an example of military


to quote Voltaire

to denounce, by his

1.

KU1UYt,

2.

Ibid.,

', '

In his

again.
strong

is

satire,

'0 Khwja pass me the


for

(lit.,

the Shaikh's
completely

is

one, that

is

to say the

on the words "nim-

to play

the superstition.

"The Vision

the-head

rushed

A person who

meal.

desymbolization,
tale,

al-Din

meaning of "completely

vulgar

but of course the point

period

were both guests in

Shaikh's

the allegorical

to an extremely

an allusion

organ;

genital

1"2

Sharaf

the common guests

the meal,

of the Shaikh

because I have my fill

age,

of his

"Shaikh

'Ask someone else

He replied,

the

and hypocrisy.

of his

personality

said to him,

did not know Mawln 'Adud-al-Din


leftovers.

despotism

authorities.

is in fact

the superstition

of the blessed

the leftovers

is

boast,

vulgar

"and Mawln& Adud al-Din

a noble man's house. When they

flag. '

Shah's battle

to attack

mouthpiece

" he relates,

leftovers,

organ:

genital

the

erect,

he employs the great

as his

up desiring

of his

of the emblem of the sovereign's

and the falsehood


Daragazini,

likens

and stands

appear to be a simple

occasion,

Adud al-Din,

Here he simply

to the erection

is no meaner than our Ghizi

What may at first

Shaikh's

flag.

it

would suffice

of Babouc",

of the military

he tries

establishment.

p. 62:

p. 138:

Uff' " .

". ^

ssW

t c1.J1,. I, ll

, ,,

Cvj
Js

' '&

./"i

:
j
c1_,
1

Jar

cY4

1r
i.
,

"

38
Ithruel

the- genie sends Babouc to the earth

because

the

wrath.

Mounting

some days,
is

with

the gods, " said

the

in

India,

army of

"I

the soldier,

Persepolis,

After

servants.

He finds

his

engendered

the Persian

with

know nothing

consists

you want to know why we are fighting


the captain

neither

nor the other

Babouc the cause of the war.


says the following

words:

waste for

twenty

army,

a soldier

which
at

the last

years,

'and a custom-house

it

of high rank

is

no

"

But

war, which has laid


sprang

in the service

...

to

can explain

Asia

out of a quarrel

to one of the wives of the great


clerk

"By

one of the generals

many wanderings,

originally

and being killed

speak to my captain,

officers

After

about it;

of killing

"The cause of this

between an eunuch belonging


Persia,

his

out with

sets

emah, he falls

of mine; my livelihood

business
If

fight

Babouc

camel,

have

the Persians

of

to ruin

from the camp, and asks what was the cause of the war.

distance
all

his

on approach1
to

going

and disorders

follies

in order

of the great

Sing of
King of

India. "2
Here the point
house clerk

and the target


(ca.

Firdawsi
Persian,

too,

around the soldiers,

revolves

941),

is

the banality

who is

desyanbolises

and absurdity

the greatest

militarism

eunuch and custom-

poet in

and military

of war*

epic poetry

in

men in the same

manner:
The head of a warrior
can fathom no knowledge,
There is no honour in warfare either;
The head of a soldier
could not help but folly,
For hatred never mingled with wisdom.
3

1.

is here made to the wars between England


note).

Allusion
lator's

2.
3.

Voltaire,
Shhnma,

The Vision
Furughi's

of Babouc, pp. 3-4.


Muntakhab,
pp. 141-42:

and France

(trans-

39

6.

Tahakkum., Imprecation
the

perhaps

them,

between

literature,

a sort

outward appearance

of tahakkum is

lies

whereas satire

1) "Each has guardian

for

him into

his

saying:

head
This

man!
[the

is

depths

taste

this,

for

punishment

in

the

derision,
statement'

for

which

(45.7-8).

is

but it

a condemnation
will

These

boiling

there

is

over

water

3) "Give

provided

obvious

are

him

and honourable

(49.44);

'"

you doubted.
for

out

of him,

'Seize

cry,

an illustrious

you are

of

would appear as a sort

Then pour

good tidings,

them. "

is

that

of the explicit

2) "A voice

of Hell.

punishment
the

unbelievers]

implies

which at first

to Hell;

the

the

but it

(irony)

him and behind him, who watch him

the unbeliever

they lead him directly

and drag

serious,

before

angels

homage or honour for

two is

connection

are examples which are quoted from the Koran:

(13.12),
command"

by Allah's

the

between

the reverse

in reading

books2 there

In literary

Tahakkum

both

in

close

is

there

and

devices

many satirical

them together.

difference

the

satire,

of

and because

discuss

we shall

of

forms

outstanding,

and Persian

Arabic

fact

most

These are the last,

and Abuse.

a painful

examples

of Divine

satire.

Among the Arabs Ab Nuws (d.


exponent

great

of this

tahakkum.

exploits

field,

197/S12)

and a great

should

deal

be accounted

of Persian

poetry,

as a
too,

Ab Nuws writes:

I have not the means to satirize


you
For my tongue does not flow about you;
When I thought deeply of your dignity,
3
I pitied
my poetry.

1.

Murgafi,

;; '
2.

3.

Wasslat,

'mal
II , p. 82:
d,
.:
1.. u v ,aa,
..

vo1.
;

' 1c';'pl

'Jpjl
j,
l
i
{
J
c
lJ ,
I., yI"L
tX
,
fPc--

>
.hq1.11
See, for example, Bhattb Qazwini, Talkhiq al-Mifth,
(Cairo, 1934), p. 98.

Diwan.

p.
",

,. y

under Hazl

40

Anwari borrowed it,

in Persian:

writing

that Anwari should satirize


God forbid
you
Neither
he nor of any other of the rank of poet;
It is not because of your greatness,
for your defects,
Neither
satire
can proceed nor even dare the imagination:

which seems at first

Invective,

them with

He is

victim.

the temptation
the greater,
Invective,
poets

constantly

learned
will,

not only

is

of Shirwin,

vol.

as his

because he tells

to invective

nonetheless

his

mastery

in Persian
student

father-in-law

II,

p. 499.

invective

of this

to the
needs

of content,

implicitly

technique.

and son-in-law.
dog of Ganja",

See also

for

and

The poet or writer

is Abu al-'Ala'

"the

necessary

it

To be effective,

the grossness

his

and abuse.

attention

the open insult.

launch

his

of invective

Diwn,

is

by others.

to mitigate

abusiveness

his

committed

of vulgarity,

of the form to counteract

him, calling

use

but also because he faces


2
This danger becomes
and vulgarity.

pride

abuse pretended

sort

should

him as well

to use as a weapon to attract

and thus demonstrate

1.

vulnerable,

a sign

whenever possible,

Tgni

and injure

the more the writer

and writers

elegance

backfire

of spiritual

although

outrageous

may be, the satirist

of

(and sometimes untruths)

truths

unpalatable

this

these devices
they

lest

caution

their

devices

or abuse, are the commonest and simplest

However simple

satire.

the two poets want to praise

to be a coarse satire.

but soon turns

victims,

that

sight

or indirectly,
A fine

Ganjawi's,

example of
poem on

When the latter


"mlhid"

Shams Qais RAzi,

abused

("the

al-Mu'lam,

p. 336:

(S 1f
2.

Satirists
of their

like Suzani, Anwarf, Yaghm and many others were proud


dexterity
in launching bitter
satire
on their enemies.

41

atheist"),
is

"the

a "ghoul",

to say Satan,

etc*

Khgni:
But listen

l,

he sent him the following


is

Your skill
with words
free advice;
to this

Najdi",

and "Shaikh

son of a harlot"

very

poem:
nice,

A man your elder,


you should never satirize,
Perhaps he is your father whom-you do not recognise:
which implicitly

hints

being a harlot

without

and Persian

Many Arabic

Sana"i,

Thus Suzani,

and invective.
Persian

replies

Bashshr,

as his

that

frankly

he must employ his

of satire,

principle

Imprecation

Tuhfat

Abu Nuws in

the coarsest

perhaps

occupation

device

When
is

the

which is insult

and most abusive

in my satire
You pray me not to offer insult
What should I then present?
delicious
Roasted lamb and chickens,
sweets
3
And robes of finest
silk?

1.

amongst whom we

writes:

satirist,

According

mother

word.

were abusive,

satirists

Suzani and Yaghmi of Jandaq in Persian.

Anwarf,

reproached, tbe satirist


writing

any indecent

Abu 1-'Atbiya,,

Farazdaq,

may count Jarir,


Arabic;

using

and his

being a bastard

at Khigni's

that

or curse

(a'n

573/1177),

"satire

means curse

235-7:

pp.

'

--

common form of satire.

another

(d.

Wa it

to Rashid al Din

al-'Iraain,

is

y"

V/V'

>I

. iii//

":

, y.
CSi9J..
1
>

2.

Mustawfi,

3.

Diwan, p. 43:

Trikh-i

Guzidah,

p. 723; Dawlatshh,

pp. 80-81:

i, L

42

the

holy

found

books.

in

the

On a simpler

"1

and imprecation.

kind

This

you blind

camel. "

in

Jeremiah

after

his

Again

each neighing
verses

(23.23),

straining

guides,
(5.8),

"They

neighbour's

is

"Woe to you

a gnat

at

"

In

the

scribes
a

and swallowing
lusty

were as well-fed

wife.

occasionally

Koran,

too,

stallions,
there

technique:

this

exploit

which

or even invective

curse

in

device

this

we may observe

e. g. Matthew

New Testament,

and Pharisees,

are

of

level

Perish the hands of Abu Lahab:


to him, from all his welath, and all his gains,
Not profit
Burnt soon will be in a fire,
of blazing flame,
His wife shall carry the crackling
wood as fuel,
fibre round her own neck.
A twisted rope of palm-leaf
(al-Masad, sra 111)
There are other

satire,

which in its

For in

that

teacher,

period,

encomiast;
"2

was satire.

This

even the Prophet

Gabriel

he was a warrior

type of satire

was so fatal

was forced

them [the

infidels

to

of
would
times.

a prophet,

and his

weapon

and effective

b. Thibit

assn

and the tribal

tribe,

as

that

as a weapon in launching

to use it

he said

This lind

of his

oracle

but above all,

We know that

counterattack.
"Satirize

the poet was "the

himself

described

in pre-Islamic

tribes

poets and their

and

imprecation,

meaning was an abusive

strict

the power-of

demonstrate

(Sra 75.54).

from a lion"

asses fleeing

"frightened

of cursing

We see the disbelievers

in the Koran.

abusing utterance

in the style

here and there

verses

poets

(54/674),

of the enemies]

and

help you: "3

will

(including)

Diwin

2.

C. Huart,

3.

Ibn Wgil, Tairid


Qjsq
al-PLghinl,
vol. II, p. 418;, Thalllibl,
'I
A_O
102:
al-Khgs, p.
K
.
enemies
Many poets later
their
by way of this justifion satirized
(635/1237
),
for instance,
Kamil-i
IsmA611
cation.
wrote:

A History

4ad'i4

p. 519.

1.

al-S=

of Arabic

.q

p.

45.

,A

), v lti
See Adhar,

Literature,

- ' ,"
tashkada,
vol.

III,

u C-,
p. 999.

)) ), a(I

CM'

43
and the

Imprecation

of

act

wage war among themselves.


of money to

good amount
it

Finally,

use it

only

device

enemies'

side

in

group

definition,

claims
of

satirical

Aristotle,
irony

Delphic

oracle)

people

questions.

himself

being

understood
Socrates'

of its

man of his

own knowledge.

he wanted,

that

Surely

but searching

they did not,


4
knew nothing.

1.
2.
3.

al,
G. Highet,
See Ethics,

4.

A. W. Benn,

intend

to

make fun

his

But

all

lyric

is

that

of

predilection

for

opposite

of boasting,

and "the

practice

is

the

neat

authority

he explained
to learn

at least,

it

cross-examination

of Ancient

(the

that

that

from others
convinced

usually

he

who

believers

Surely

and why they were doing it?

vol. III9 p. 317.


The Anatomy of Satire,
p. 167.

469-

he went about asking

time,

or,

(ca.

Socrates

they knew more than he?

and more important,

History

thesis

therefore,

professions

what they were doing


mild

irony).

this

his interrogations,

To justify

were eminent men in their


in their

their

tahakkum

called

in

pronounced by a sovereign

the wisest

knew nothing:

the

is

Their

effect.
from

reaction
it

satirists

We have dramatic,

and poet

is

best

shock

and Socratic

for

him.

abusing

"3

ostentation.

After

fierce

by irony

famous

was paying

the

produce

and Persian

intended

The best known exponent


399 B. C. ).

the

to

and imprecation

significance.

orator,

that

to

particular

(reticence

What is

or a person.

Scriptures,

In Arabic

the writer,

which

the

of

al-firif

invective

to avoid

helps

contain

irony.

avoidance

in

from

although

sanction

irony.

taihul

do not

and tragic
sort

which
is

and sometimes
ironies

the

Bashshir

that

recorded

Abu al-Shimigmiq

that

occasionally,

standard

is

prevent

be said

should

more or less,

have,

It

by satirists

was used

satirizing

they

Yet under
became clear

they knew not that

they

p. 165.

Philosophy

(London,

1936),

pp.

45-54.

44

The term "Socratic


taihul

and Persian
It

was Plato's
the

a polite

desire

through

the

here irony

with

scholars

Here,

again,

Arabic

it

by f baid who wrote:

recorded
'My family

bless

you without

do you say "without


The word "knowing"
relationship.

among the finest

knowing"?

"A

Perhaps

I saw a pretty Persian


the city,
illuminated

Bi
girl

West.

for

it

is

and

merely with

The

The first

is

to Mawln Adud al-Din,

Adud al-Din

replied,

they have already

here has two meanings:

of Persian

types.

person said

passed

However.,

has had some influence.

knowing you. '

The second is

the

of Socrates,

are two examples of the different

following

with

forms by Persian

cannot be dismissed

satire

to

be termed "sarcastic";

which can probably

so wounding that

irony

and imposture.

as that

to

characteristic

and thence

superstition

himself.

coupled

of Socratic

in various

and gentle

sense

and ignorance,

The concept

Islamic

dealing

of the sort

smile.

(2)

the

a good

was the

which

Socrates.

is not so mild

is

(1)

of

Romans to

usually

is

of weakness

assumption

used by Socrates
in

who used irony

to be enlightened,

in their

satirists

sexual

Aristotle

to the Arabic

comes nearest

however,

was not,

concept has been presented

This

mostly

gentle

technique

dialectic

which often

al-'rif,

pupil

describe

irony",

known me. '3

acquaintanceship

a poem by Bahir

'Why

ani a

(1866-1951),

which

as:
in Bagra,

whose radiant

face

to recite
She was learning
the Koran from the Shaikh of the
by her coquettish
she captivated
city,
whose heart
glances.

"who employ understatement


"Ironical
people, " writes Aristotle,
in character,
because their
subject is
appear more attractive
felt to be not profit
but avoidance of ostentation.
They also
disclaim
that are held in general regard,
especially
qualities
just as Socrates used to do. " (Ethics,
Book Four, pp. 166-7).
2. For more details,
Dialogues:
Protagoras and GorRias,
see Plato's
the latter;
Aristophanes,
The Clouds.
especially
3. Kulliyt,
p. 112:
3
r
'
U
G
1>
1.
r'
Cf
c
`
i1l
ff'
i
`,
.
1
cS
asG
^'''
et
.4
eta
1.

45
(3)

her to say, '"dall


The Shaikh was teaching
al-mubin"
[manifest
perversion),
and his repeated
of
enunciation
the did of "dall"
reached a climax,
But the girl
the c "ad_
was unable to pronounce
correctly
of "dall"
with her rose-bud
mouth,
"dall
The girl
would then respond by enunciating
al-mubin"
[manifest
the
the Shaikh would repeat
coquettry]
while
phrase over and over again.
And. I said to the Shaikh:

(4)
(5)

(6)

to this extent
Do not follow the mode of a1 [perversion]
For this whimsical girl will
not change her enunciation
It would be best if you retained your own pronunciation
[manifest
"dall
perversion]
and she in her
al-mubin"
[manifest
1
"dall
coquetry].
al-mubin"

(7)

The apparent

meaning

target

of the

poet

in

teaching

the

but

the

the

Shaikh

beautiful

Persian

"is

said,

in

the battle

is

of satirical

conduct
to

kalm-i

to become surprised

fresh

" as Frye

has

and to make him

"2

and facetious

mubta al,

terms in

a trite

and witty.

p. 5) alongside

Diwn, vol.

II,

N. Frye,

at a poem, to find

JbiV has used it

zagt

p. 631-2:

and d

(Kitb

k(1anghter).

'"'

The Anatomy of Criticism,

p. 223.

of

to make the reader

complacency
stupidity.

the

and

speech.

J.

2.

uses irony

the world's

commonplaceness;

Istiirf,

1.

"satire,

(10:. 32),

verse

of Koran

to wid)

the satirist

a list

irony

by way of

At any rate,

vain.

a Koranic

and Arabic:

non-serious

III,

to deride

pronunciation

against

to

a reference

to shake him out of his

Ib_,

anecdote

is

is

irony:

The following
Persian

in

girl

militant

uncomfortable,
ally

ll
ac}

of

a poem or an
al-Ha

wan, vol.

46

fun;

being

(a poem, prose,

to find

Istigrf.
fond

making.

witty,

and an anecdote)

of witticism.

IstihAln,

cavilling,

IstihzFL#

derision,

fault-finding

in someone's speech or writing.

It

mockery.

is used in the Koran eleven

times

(19: 25; 2: 14; 9: 66; 6: 65; 6: 66; 6: 10; 13: 32; 21: 42; 4: 139; 2: 13; 15: 95).
Istihz'i

irony;

Socrati,

Socratic

irony.

Uh uwwa the words or odes by which the satire


hiiva,

is made.

the same as above.

Bad-dahni

, abuse,

ribaldry.

Bad-zabini,

abuse;

indecent

talk.

abuse, backbiting.

Bad-gal.,

For the latter

meaning,

see 4i;,

p. 33, Gh. 55.


Badh',

insult;

B_,

insulting

Ba
dirty

abuse,
each other.

a, witticism,

or sexual

Badhla-pardazrr,

humour,

jokes.

'Ubaid

Derivatives:

(see Ku

has used it

uttering

witticism;

Badhla Bzi.

witty

jokes;

t,

uttering
p. 62);

Badhla aas., witticism,

derision.
hazi;

Balilat,

See a1- avwn, vol.


Kitb

al-Ba, t&,
Bi-adabi,

Bi-

has used it

Jahi;

pp. 5 and 9; see also

in this

meaning.

pp. 313-326,

al-Fihrist.

Book on Buffoons.
impoliteness;

impudence,

Bi-khurdasrl,

being

in one's

outrageous

immodesty in one's

impoliteness,

Anwari has used it

Bi-sharmi,
Sani'i

III,

saying.

speech and

See 4! iV, Digging p. 45, Gh. 64.

writing.

writing.

facetious

shamelessness

has used it

frequently.

rudeness,
frequently.
in one's

speech or writing.

boldness

in one's

See Diwn.
action,

See Haidlga,

speech or

2: 492,2:

340.

speech and writing.

pp. 163,209,311,419,

etc.

47
to be impudent

Tabassn4,

(see Kalila,

others

Taihul

the men of ostentation,

and self-deprecation

(the

Ethics,

For

166-7).

Takhlit,

more details,

fi

ignorance
irony

understatement;

have been quoted from Aristotle's

two latter

al-takhlitu

display

the simpleton,

play

reticence,

to deride

pp.

or speeches with

173,392).

pp.

al-frif,

intentionally

in one's writings

43-44

see pp.

kalam,

of this

to be delirious,

chapter.

talking

to rave;

nonsense.
Tar and, idle
Tnrraht.,

falsity.

talking,

trifles;

ramblings,

has been used in both Arabic


Minovi,

"alongside

things),

khuft

or exhilarating.

"

has used it

turrhAt

uzft

-,

Ka

tales

aiming

--

talks,

The word has a Persian


(p.
a

in Ha

weak

they may be witty

609) in

origin.

the form of

him

and. Shams-i Qais has criticized

mistakenly,

" writes

to look down at it,

idle

are meant, although

hazl

word

unmeasured words and

a,

appears that

it

lay p. 78).

alongside

of d

poetry

by which,

or baseless

expressions,

(pl.

"This

books frequently,

and Persian

(superstitions),

or making fun of it

Sani6i

hazl,

facetiae.

talks.,

idle

al-Mu"

am,

P, 268).
Taskhar,
tasakhkhur

Tashahul,

entertaining
alongside

is

later

the Persianized

to

entertain

conversations.
ba lat

kardan,

by means of

oneself

JahiV used it

and arfat

form of Arabic

on two compound verbs

zadan, to mock, and taskhar

Ta nuz, to make sarcastic


other.

It

mockery.

from which in Persian

made, taskhar

5-6)

derision,

(al-Hay

have been

to deride.
jokes

and idle-talking;

n, vol.

III,

(witticism).

irony;

using

sarcasm against

each

pp.

48

Tam,

Both terms have been used by Avicenna

the same as above.


Kitb

a -Shif',
Tagruf,,

to

T_narruf,

PP. 38-39).

al-Shi'r,
display

witticism.

to display

witticism.

to indicate

Ta'rid,
to criticize

one's

implicitly.

writings

by means of derision;

implicitly

something

See Khgini,

Diwn,

149

pp.

and 508.
to find

Ta'vib,

fault,

fault-finding,

in someone's speech

cavilling

or writing.
Ta hfi

.,

funny.

silly,

folly,

foolishness.

Derivative,

See Ibn al-Jawzi,


to utter

T_,

witty

Kitab
jokes

to be humorous with

Taflffh,

fool,

muahaffal,

foolish;

al-Hamaa wal4 u haffalin.

and humorous anecdotes.

somebody by means of kindness

and

witticism.
Taabi24, to denounce,
creeds,

reproach,

and vice

of the former

Tahi,

or overlay

versa;

of somebody's

rudeness
to satirize,

indecency

one's

in creed

irony,

in Persia,
al-'Arab.

or speech, ribaldry,

family

or speech;

or wife

with

impudence.

indecent

words.

fault-finding.

mockery.
derision.

For more details,

see pp. 39-45 of

chapter.
Jamz, derision,

instead

ribaldry.

Tah. in,

Tahakkim,

See Lisn

in one's writing

abuse; to insult

derision,

to display

gold and silver,

We use tamwih,

or wrongly.

Tahiil,

T=,

talking.

with

sophistry.

term loosely

Tah
ttuk,

idle

rambling;

Tamawwuh, to plate

this

disapproval

speeches or writings.

Taari'a,

as right

denunciation;

sarcastic

mockery,

scornful

folly.

49
(pl. Aiw1ba

Jawab
for

response

a question,

Its

awb.

and Jawfibt

in Persian

khushk and nfsuz.

or his words,

his style
(reversion)
a great

This kind

in Kal1la

deriding

it

is a type
poet's

sometimes called

mockery.

the meaning of idle

revealing

talkh,

or belittling

It

each other).

facetiae,

lie,

called

etc.,

other

see pp. 28-31 of this

parody,

a truth-like

Churbak,

however,

awb is

as a

iawb-i

the frame of'the

(contradicting
or munigada

degree English

frequently

of

uttered

treatise),

In satire,

him mostly

and attacks

and meaning.

(or

are as follows:

in which the poet borrows

of poetry

is

which

a book

a critique,

adjectives

ar jmand, nitig,

poetry,

, anything

nag4

resembles

to

chapter.
It

is used
(see Kalila,

talks

pp. 42,70,109,327).
Charand,

Charand u varand,

rigmarole.

Khabitht.

mean and indecent

kalm or kalima

are firm

is

like

and its

an evil

tree

(14:
"
29-31).
roots.
Kul

torn

is also

to abuse,

and shorn of all

the name of a part

word
its

of Sa'd11s

humour.

abusiveness.

talking;

But an evil

and facetiae.

Dhar'a,

dushnm ai,

opposite

are in the sky...

out of the earth

abusiveness,

Dushnm, insult;

to its

of

Its

witticism;

idle

the adjective

compares a good word to a good tree?

Daridah-zabni,

Dharul at,

is

talks.

bt

ribaldry

insult,

idle

branches

It

t containing
Khush-4ab'i,

It

the Koran in comparison

in

"Do you not see how Allih


roots

words.

ramblings;

outrageousness.

abusiveness.

abuse.
abusing;

Derivatives:
dushnm girl,

dushnm ddan, to abuse;


addicted

to receive

insults.

50
imprecation,

Dhamm, insult,

to madh (praise,

is opposite

It

panegyric).

idle

Zh9tzh-kh! 9i,
bush
top

of a thorny

plant

of hills.

People

however,

digs

it

useless,

and thus
"idan,

zhzh-dar

P. 389,

is

wild

gather

it

and use it

flat

joking

was the

deserts

or on

it

supposed

zhzh-kh'I,
in

and zhzh-dni

zhAzhmjl

"Zhzh

as firewood.

People

used

allegorically

the

in

and grows

and chews it.

zhAzh as delirium

applied

Origianlly

which

babbling,

idle-talking,
they

out

babbling.

talking;

untasty

and

zhlzh-khai'idan,

their

Whereas

speech.

(Minowi,

"

to imply

speech

and nonsensical

and nonsense.

The camel,

Kalila,

footnote).

Sabb.

insult,

Imprecation.

abuse,

Sakhar, raa,

Sukhrlvya,

Safhat,

talking

Saga

tan,

to make fun of.

derision,
idle

nonsensically;

talk.

See G istn,.

abuse, insult.

p. 84.

Shatm, abuse; insult.

of Jahig

of Basra,

a -Shuttk

facetious

debauchery,

Shatrat,

(d.
the
Umayyads
of

caliph

So then he describes

him as being

Irshid,

Shani'at,
Shan"at,

indecency;

Shkh-zabimi,
Shfikh
Shkhi,

ab'!

VII,

'Abd al-'Aziz,
among them.

and addicted-to
p. 303).

obscenity,
in

obscenity

ribald

biography

AkhThi

101/719)

(2Mtj&)

p. 80; vol.

VI,

vol.

in his

He puts Lam, b.

of the Ribald).

the son of the pious

over-drinking

Tcpit

by him called

a book written

mentions

(The Ethics

saying.

one's

writing

or speech.

humour, witticism.
humour;

humour,

Duhka, a scornful

having

witticism,

facetious

laughter,

saying.

derision.

a sense

of wit

by nature.

51

a! n,
Ta'na
implies

taunting.

sarcasm;

sarcasm

to speak

fault-finding,

reproaching;

his

in

ironically,

speeches

(pl,

Zargfat,

of

it

unknown, although
It

is

FajMt,

reproach.

witty

poems and anecdotes,

( 'rafs

&arif

used in Arabic

synonymous with

Fahhsh,

The origin

that

of the word is

is to say zhzh u fushr.

or speech.

action

idle

a majdar which means nonsense,

fud%il. is

a person

books and Mathnawi (Book II,

zhzh,

in one's

obscenity

In Persian,

f; fiz,

insulting.

nonsense, delirium.
is

insult.

abuse; abusiveness;

Fudl . Fud%ili these two words are used diversely

meaning:

however,

it

is

the person,

mostly

talk;

in Persian.

and MUT

used in just
is his

and n1fill

is

its

reverse

qualities.

See

Diwn, p. 127, Gh. 188; p. 126, Gh. 186.


Falda,
9adh,
Cadhf,

(especially

Faldha,
reproach

ramblings,
ironically

to attribute

h,

ribs

d,

hizil,

lineage,

on one's

shameful

women), abuse,

talk.

rubbish

acts

buffoon.

like

insult.

adultery

to someone

insult.

reproachful

Kawza, Kawzha, derision,


Li

to

wittily.

babbling;

Fushr,

noun.

kardan,

ta'na

Derivatives:

subtlety.

to abuse, abusive,

Fndu is

zadan,

(g. ve).

Fuhsh and Fahhisshi,

as well.

ironical

ba , good words,

witticism,

zag na,

addicted

ta'na

sarcastic;

and mean another;

who

ridicule.

to khabitht

witty;

person

,a

humour; witticism.

Tavviblt
opposite

or writings,

alna : z, sarcastic,

Tang. scoffing,

'i

Derivatives:

say something

speak ironically;

Taibat,

derision.

to make fun of,


Lghi

(CiNIP

facetiae.

" ribaldry,

buffoonery.

the

190)-p.
`

52

La "fa,
dni,

joke,

sari!,

witticism;

latifa

va-bi,

atifa

seeking
imprecation,

See also

41-43

pp.

Laghw, idle

witticism,

the

curse,

curser,

of this

chapter.

being

(Koran,

buffoon,

lawda,

for

It

is

example.

min al-iunn
of this

the pioneer

to a m in, " relates


'If

wind is

sin. '

replied

the miin. "

sarcast,

saucy;

other

is

absurdities.
(52: 23; 23: 3;

times

lighiya,

in speech;

("ribaldry
field.

is

Ma

to divert

is a bit

a sin,

proverbs

miin,
vol.

III9

that

al-mu n

Ab Nuws
"They said

ribald.

p. 402), "'To

then defecating

n, a. person addicted

meaning of

to Abra Nuws'

of insanity").

Derivative:

is

the real

not adoptable

in Arabic

RAghib (Muhdart,
farting

But "Mniin, " as Ibn al-Jawzi

"is

recorded

break

is blasphemy, '

to ribaldry.

Hut_,

In the same meaning there

are two

shameless.

words:

(Sa'd1,
maze- at

muzh was a common form of witticism


recorded

talks,

Derivative

ribaldry.

however,

Au z54., humour, witticism.


Arabic

imprecated.

cursed,

humour, obscenity

p. 11) literally,

al-Zirf,

This,

u tarafun

lain,

la'nat,

88: 11)..

witticism,

a word to another. "


mains,

la'n;

under

idle

God's

clown.

Mu n, dauntless
puts it

damned of

in the Koran eight

buffoonery,

LawdaglP clownery;

put

imprecator;

5: 91; 25: 73; 19: 63; 56: 24; 78: 35; 28: 55).
nonsense,

of humour;

a sense

of being

state

laazhwiy9! t,

nonsense;

The term la-rhw has been uttered

indecent

latif

witticism;

possessing

curse,

l'in,

talk;

latifa

maxims.

mal'anat,

imprecation;

curse,

Derivatives:

maxim.

latifa-Pardzi,

Zvi,

witty

Derivatives:

mercy.

jest,

facetiousness;

witticism,

La'n,

humour,

wit,

to have used it,

therefore

Gulistn,

p. 62) and mazi}.

and even the Prophet


some scholars

is

As

himself

have made attempts

53

to

give

Cairo,

to it.

a definition
1334/1915,

212)

p.

true

character

of

also

Rosenthal,

' Humor in

mumzahat,
mizi4,

fun

to find

costs

Those who refuse

called

haz

and vulgar

maskhara-bzi,

is fitting-here

between humour and buffoonery


code as usual

in his

for

to say anything

funny

people are regarded

and take exception


(agroikos
and sour

as boorish

humour with

their

say 'nimble-witted'.

good taste
(Ethics,

"

to be

feelings.

victim's

themselves

regarded

a laugh than upon

raising
their

moral

themselves

persons who exert

and consideration

of other

It

ridicule.

in being funny, " holds he, "are

as one might

witty,

to

mockery,

the buffoon.

to play

but those exercise

and skleros);

utterances;

ridiculous;

and who are more set-upon

decency of expression

to the jokes

wit,

the buffoon,

an average ethical

(bmolochos)

funny at all

addicted

who draws distinction

"Those who go far

as buffoons

to

maskhara-miz,

ridiculous;

to quote Aristotle,

system.

humourous

to play

monkey business;

when he tries

mizh,

exchanging

mazz`A , addicted

buffoonery;

buffoon,

buffoonery,

derivatives:

See

woman.

Maskharaxi,
maskhara,

other,

the

of
harm. "

of causing

Other

Islam.

al-Luahawiva,

a mis-representation

no intention

with

each

(Fur-a4

claims

"Muzh is

Early=

of

humorist;

a witty

mziha,

that

something

making

witty,

A1-'Askari

are

Book Four,

p. 167).
(S. madhaka)), ridicule,

Macih_
harmless
Aristotle,

causing

again

who writes,

or deformity
instance

Here

joke.

that

not

productive

(The
"
Art
pain.
ridiculous;

stock,

everything

we owe the

of pain
is

of Poetry,

madhaka-adz,
provokes

definition

of

or harm to others;
something
p.

funny,

laughter.

neat

33).

ugly
Mudhik,

comic;

or speech,

writing

may be defined

ridiculous

laughter,

excites

funny,

"The

ridiculous

the

term

to

as a mistake
the

mask,

and distorted
laughable,

madhaka-anziz,

for
without

comic,
laughing

54
deriding

Mutes za,

Mutvaba,

wittiness,

MunQada,

contradicting

(pl.

Ndira

Raftri,

ndira

a given

critic,

to

addicted

the critique

literary

nigid,

of terms

in

--

muntagid,

Ra-vi, witticism.
and demerits

or prose;

verse

of prose,

naagd,

critic;

assessing

nagd al-shi'r,

of the meanings;

the
critique
,
and finally

of

naggdi,

naad al-alfz,

critic;

naad al-ma'am

Some writers

do not differentiate

(abusiveness)

and fgLhtlshl

young writers.

The other

point

is that

in particular

naad-i

adabi,

between naagdi
among a pack of

both the term tanaid

(critic)
and munaagid

have not been applied

the grammar, although

frequently

peoples.

as

criticism.

Notice.
(critique)

on the

and compound words:

criticism;

the critique

nand al-nathr,

on

Derivatives:

ndira

the merits

to-assess

criticism;

of poetry;

laughable

point

pp. 31-2.

edition,

intigd,

and demerits

merits

however,

has used it

the author

Derivatives

speech.

criticism;

critique,

is,

From a few nawgdir which

humour; ndira- yis

criticism,

or

It

and jokes.

or intellectual

emerges that

wittiness,

writing

or writings;

speeches

p. 5).

III,

hazes,. See Nafisi's

d, critigtie;
NNCa

and tales.

jokes

"The nawdirir open the ears and enlighten

(Muhdar
"
the minds.
, vol.

synonymous with

used

42.

or maxim which is

an insight

Thus, Rghib writes,

occur in Qbus Nma, it

p.

is

term

language.

a tale

the terms of men of letters,

other.

other's

anecdotes

rare

nawidir),

al-Shi'r,

humorous

exchanging

the one hand, and contains

the

See Kitb

each

This

sarcastically.

by means of harsh

each other

reversing

in

as I know.

as far

by Avicenna

each other

in Arabic,

used among the Persian

and it

(critique)
is

against

and Turkish

55

Nukta,

a delicate

point,
delicate

nukta-pardzi,

uttering

nukta-parwari,

possessing

andzi,

nukta-girl,
Hu an (S,

It

the

-sagacity;

witticism,,

point;

a witty

has been used

the

making

to

cavilling,

fault-finding.

in

in

Persian.

criticism;

make a delicate
witticism,

defect

as singular

a witty

nukta-sanai,

criticism,
hu'na

point,
merit

Derivatives:

criticism.

speech

point;

nuktaa delicate

making

and writing,

See Nsir

fault-finding.

Khusraw,

Diwin,

p. 501.
Hadhyn, hadhavAn, hallucination,
It

is

it

reads as hadhvn,

and for

idle

the former

too.

nonsense,

talking,

dirty
derision,

scrable;

talk.,

talk,

harza-4vi,

mockery.

See Istihz'.

but

in

Persian

p. 89,

p. 327.
Derivatives:
abusiveness,

harza-dari,
insult.

cheekiness.
idle

babbling;

ywa-Rrv!. insult,

nonsense.

Kullivt,

see 'Dbaid,

abuse.

language;

y wa, nonsense,

dar! rubbish

Diwn,

idle-talk,

as hadhavn,

For the latter

rubbish

Wagahat, immodesty,
Yfa,

Arabic

original

see Farrukhi,

Harza,

Huz'.

in

and read

written

raving,

talk,

facetiae.

y-wa-sari,
facetiae.

Derivatives:

indecent

rywa

speech., gibberish.,

CHAPTER II

ARABIC AND PERSIAN HIIMORISTS UP TO THE TIME OF OUBAID

. In

the

Aristotle

term it,

would

inclination
the

imminent

the

teachers,

causes,

day of
all

their

misdeeds"

injunctions
Thus,

the

attracted

of the people from following

is

from the large

their

shall

attention

who shed tears

mystics

as "a1-Bakk, 'in. "1

refers

were not enough to prevent

such restrictions

by

and its

Koranic

505/1111)

majority
clear

inculcated

literature.

the simple

as

of

expectation

on laughter

(9: 83)

or,

a natural

and shed many tears.

little

to whom al-Ghazzli"(d.

seems that

the

as a restraint

above all

characters,

day and night,


But it

from

is

otherworldliness

humorous

but

laugh

however,

Islam,

act

humour

that

conversations",

and the

we include

shall

of many pious

to

combined

be rewarded

In

judgement

among which

such as "They
they

"entertaining

human beings.

in

has been suggested

it

chapter

previous

the

inclination,

natural

corpus of humorous literature

as

both in Arabic

and Persian.
Authors
Ibn Abi

such as al-Tabari
(656/1258)

'l-Hadid
jokes

which

persons.

Thus,

he told

enter

paradise.

he quoted
Paradise

1.
2.

verses
will

said

have related

to have

played

woman that

an old

RAghib (d.

310/922),

and others

he is

practical

to

(d.

old

When she became greatly


from

the Koran

be equally

young.

to
2

the

Although

''! l!

"cJ 1 It.

L .'

LL r--1;

. Js

f1
'

women were not

there

1
-.!

all
are

own

allowed

statement,

women in
many other

examples

56: 35-7:

LL J
I
'J

56

by his

that

a1-Ih9,,
vol. IV, pp. 182-4.
Nahi al-Balgha,
vol. V, p. 330; Koran,

? i
s
it:;

the Prophet's

and

upon unsuspecting

upset

effect

502/1108)

'

c:1'
!1 c_JI

Ij
1t.

+d::
.J
I.

57

of

the

aspect

this
to

and told

joke

As for
to

of his

them,

first

to them.

the

and there

in

too,

Jhij,

"'Umar

that,

writes

asked him what it


his

rather

'God's

curse, ' retorted

little

the

books

against

humour and jokes,

authors

at least

For,

inclination,

the product

provide
art

a brief

summary list

from the early


It

Islamic

should be noted that

of this

1.
2.

study

stomach,
'No,

the man.

briefly
words

"2
to discuss

coarse form,

it

their

the

satire,
natural

is beyond the scope of this

of humour throughout
in the extreme.

Islim,
It

and indeed
suffices

of some of the famous exponents


period

to the time

of

humour can be divided

the humorous act and the humorous word.


the historical

Rghib

of which can be found in the humorous anecdotes

would be tedious

any such attempt

fat

and in Rosenthal's

people could not resist

instances

work to catalogue

to his

entertainment.

the books of adab; likewise

which fill

b. Abbs.

from enumerating

of humour, or its

mentioned,

as already

or nawdir

had some qualms about the legitimacy

is not the purpose

or illegitimacy

legitimacy

adab jokes

'Abdallh

could not refrain

time upon such light

However, it

attributed

However, even those who admitted

'Umar. "

the injunctions

one's

of

' replied

blessing,

of humour,

of wasting

used

some humorous words from

relates

the naturalness

even the "later

prophet

humour is

very

saw an obese man and pointing

was.

stress

"'

and from

Ab Bakr and. 'Umar and even 'Ali

"the

that

note

truth,

caliphs,

to

seem reluctant

and merely

but

four

here

although

are related

character

nothing

the

biographers

his

humour,

Prophet's

Islam,

into

In the earlier

p. 6.

of the

'Ubaid.

humorous act which becomes the subject

283:
Muhida
II,
vol.
p.
,
F. Rosenthal, Humor in Early

to

two types,
period

it

is

of the anecdotes,

58

only

a later

at

topic

this

of

in

origins
Iraq

humorous

beginning

pleasure-seeking

if

did

and continued

of the needy,

poverty

They
to

almost

centuries

A. H.,

without

'Ubaid

at banquets,

that

records

Parasitism

(tatfit)

parties

or friendly,
on the

when a parasite
I do.

"Indeed

he replied,

and

on the one hand, and

on the one hand and gluttony

invitation

that

this,

and his

advice

al-'Iad

(vol.

of this

Tufail

al-'Ar'is

to his

followers

VII,

It

is

without

There are three

parasitism

my supposing
anecdotes

or parasites2,

was asked

my only

asset

the first

who

in

in many sources,

is recorded
The archetype

that

representative

"no two persons

have

they wanted to give me some

'Ubaid's

writings

concerning

in their

behaviour

and the humour lies

at

to which they were uninvited.

these functions
Effeminates

were the passive

in Iraqi

-Vat,
Ibid.,
pp.

p. 230).

was perhaps

who used to say that

group was Ash'ab,

ever whispered

2.

and Baghdad

buffoons
(tufailivvin),

parasites

(mughaffalln).

on the other.

is recorded

Kull!

the

in

world. "1

including

1.

is

appearance

Here

of the fourth

its.

finds

genre

fools

and the

and the rich

It

cultivated

the

of the courtiers

he had an appetite,

food. "

A. H.

groups:

and the beginning

In one of these

in this

three

this

whose first

century

second

Basra

form,

written

took the form of attendance

assemblies
other.

its

the

Although

they deveoped as a consequence of the wealth

seems that

usually

of

in

themselves

the abject

in

(mukhannathin)

the end of the third


and it

the

of

become fictional.

act

and personage

act

mostly

were

effeminates

established

the

humour

is

work

and humorists
the

stage

the

the

at

does

society

p. 106.
96,97,106.

homosexua]. whose companionship

of the time.

Their

actions

were not,

was

59

however,
songs

and play

such

as providing

doubt

to homosexuality

limited

that

like.

venues

their

clients

However,

immense

instruments,

musical

the
to

ability

most
evoke

appropriate

conversations

entourage.

There
the

enjoyed

high

esteem

because

obscurity,

they

striking

point

laughter

and deliver

most famous representative


Fools,

their

wise people
implicitly
Bhlul

folly

played

and Juh.

and humorous utternaces

and immorality

of society.

His list

the names of 19 semi-historical

Ibn al-Nadim
not

to claim

age.

1.
2.

us a concise

The

clear

that

Among these were


list

of books on

of two parts:

humorists

Bat

some

or to criticise

up to the date of the composition


consists

in

n),

of

the first

contains

the second part

(mughaffalin).
tells

authorship,

the religious

with

and died

is

to prosper,

book in 371/981.

enumerating

it

in order

of the humorists,

9 fools

for

the buffoon

gives

who never

caused laughter,

contrived,

Ibn al-Nadid

and their

and in the circles

was often

the corruption

the exploits
his

strange

and

was 'bda.

at court

element

was their

of humour.

quality

of the effeminates

were a necessary

Their

of power.
although

too,

the

of

no

and such

or fools,

and lived

is

delightful

caliphs,

effeminates

or nobles,

bereft

courtiers

most

the

qualities

and there

character

the

of

presence

of kings

their

of

tufailis.,

were

and the

rich

fine

sing

immoral

and pleasure,

the

the

to

used

possessing

included

in

they

besides

debauchery

for

other

were

for

alone,

us that

the authors

perhaps,

in order

authorities

or religious

of these works preferred


to avoid

views of people

At the same time we can observe the natural

al-Fihrist,
p. 313.
For more detail,
see al-'Tad,
al-'Arab,
vol. IV, pp. 1-99.

vol.

VII,

any confrontation
of their

inclination

pp. 230-245;

Nihyat

of these

60

to humour,

people
not

them from

prevent

most

Ash'ab

(d.

famous

of

(d.

Asma'i
from
at

that
2

'Uthmn.

of

and seems fabricated.

in

books.

Islamic

in the Bitb

historical

across

story

his

name in J(d.

on "Akhbr

Apprently
Ibn al-Nadim
who died
for'us

in the fact

that

Persian

have cited

his anecdotes

his

actions

1.
2.

al-'IQd,
vol. VIII,
p. 143.
al-Bukhali,
p. 379.

Humor in

to other

Early

well-known

Islam,

p.

17.

is

shot

well

frequently
contained

half

(d.

of the tenth
the

by Zubair

poets have frequently

although

270/884).
in

of Parasites).

At any rate,

victims,

we come

in al-'Igd

to him has survived,

Persian

recorded

were

not

however,

available

(Stories

of their

or tales,

is

Not much later,

(Akhbr
book
him
Ash'ab)
on
a

cites

and it

appears to have been accepted

about him is also

devoted

120 years;

is

on Ash'ab

during

age of

which

and Ibn Qutaiba

al-Tufailiyyin"

b. Jubair

name occurs

the ARhni,

255/869)

name to denounce the greediness

3.

his

256/869 at the age of eighty-four*

lies

arrows

developed.

Before

no single-work

the

in the first

(154/771)

A good deal of information


the section

means that

death

He was the

he was born

however,

career,

information

was fully

literature.

the

However,

This

date of Ash'ab's

alleged

long

fullest

al-ARhn!.

the Ash'ab

century,

into

"The

that

he had seen Ash'abl,

This

documented

Medina.

and reached

he was collecting

could

subject.

in

claimed

35/655)

that

claims

favourite

and died

Some have
(d.

restrictions

and was known as Ash'ab

group

'Uthmn

himself

house

He lived

greedy).

or social

on their

writing

tug

216/821)

Ash'ab

the

the

of

caliphate

even religious

154/771).

(the

al-Tamm'a
the

so that

although
b. Bakkr,
his

importance

used his

and Persian

satirists

sometimes they ascribe

humorists.

"Ubaid,

for

example,

61

one of his

quoted
Persian,
"I

but

did

second

then

that

defecated

"

treasure.

the

non-religious
of

the

is

"Ash'ab

had said

that

which

and I have

Ibn

pp. 82-105;

(d.

Juh, Juhi

as Pellat

it,

puts

to doubt

the

historic
Abu 'l-Ghuln

tained

there

from

Bagra,

But this
religious

1.

for

SeeDJuhrL in

better

a fool.

foibles

that

the Prophet

believer.

When

had forgotten

one,

VII,

vol.

pp. 87-8;
XVII.,

vol.

Encyclopaedia

informed

It

fool

of

name,

also

have

scholars

from

main-

gufa.

by some rigourous
to accept

claimed

that

that

a traditionist

Juh was the

known as Naar al Din

Islam.

no reason

one was a traditionist

or a mock-hero

created

is

However,

moreover,

"1 Some Islamic

difficult
is

there

who might,

(ahmaq)

who found it

of Ashdab was Juh

has been denied.

by this

division

the famous Turkish

the

al-"Iad,

of Juhi,

could have a sense of humour:


prototype

'"Ikrima

personage

we are

seems an articifical
authorities

true

of

towards

attitude

A near contemporary

Nuh al-Fazri.

other

on the

report

the

no sign

p. 132.

were two persons

and the

'Ikrima

When

and sometimes

p. 138; al-Aghni,

existence

been called
that

! Islam,

160 777).

"until

but

political

shows his

on alp back,

"

as a historical

whose existence

are

he

of my burden.

weight

A good parody

'Abd Rabbih,

Kullivt,

'Ubaid,

there

replied:

other.

Rumor in Ear]

Rosenthal.

treasure

of

but

came true,
dream,

his

my incontinence

of

characterised

the

Bibliography:

great

he heard

Ash'ab

were,

the

Talkhak.

part

of

into

word

mock-hero
first

a sack

humour.

that

says

forgotten

nature

transmitters

two qualities
they

the

that

his

(hadith

tradition

asked

for

word

favourite
the

evidence

in

almost

which

due to

notable

elements

religion.

asked

the

It

his

I was carrying

on my robe,

I awoke I discovered

it

"in

Talkhak,

not. "When they

dreamt

"I

replied,

name to

the

changing

had a dream, " said

the

translating

stories,

Khoja.

62

However,
What is
fool

not

we are

is

clear,

or comedian

Ibn

Qutaiba,

likewise;

Ibn

especially
for
It

that

from

after

metrical

al-Nadim,

Jawhari

(d.

the

early

from

and a half

found

the

the

sixth
in

in

it

fourth

notice
(d.

Manuchichri

occurs
in

432/1040)

Again,

mentioned
tells

his

sixty

years before

name twice.

us, Mud mentions

hero of 'Ubaid-i
Dilgush

(pp.

His name occurs

91) 105 twice,

example of one of his

name three

108,117,140).

perhaps

the

year

586/1190.

almost

a century

JutA

as follows:

and ribaldry
(satire]
and

(d.

Sana'i

times.
six

poetry,

as Juhi,

mentioned

however,

In the Ma_,
Ju}ji's

Mini.

Anwari,

Persian

that

scholar

and

Arthur

(in

In our time the market belongs to facetiae


And the currency is possessed by Rbibi's
Ji4A's scoffing.
2
at least

al-ihh)

Juh

who died

of this

such as Jiz,

century.

of

mostly

Diwn.

Anwari's

books

claims.

name as a

his

400/1009,

ca.

these

of

period

Arabic

appearance

century,

the

escaped

earlier

first

validity

Abbsid

early

frequently

reasons)

has however

the

the

with

occurred

and in Persian

Christensenlhas

here

concerned

535/1130)
as Christensen

He was also

times

in

a favourite

'IIbaid's

The following

is

Risla-i
an

stories:

They stole
the door of Juh's
house.
He went and picked
it homeWhen he was carrying
up the door of a mosque.
up the door
ward, they asked him, "Why have you picked
"They have stolen
of the mosque? "
my house door, and
God, the owner-of
this
Thus,
mosque knows the thief.
he will
the door
receive
when he gives me the thief,

of his house, " replied


Muzabbid,, Abu Ishq.
lived

1.
2.

in the second/eighth

Juh.

He was a member of the Medinan jesters


century

during

which

period

the city

'Ajab Vama, pp. 131-137.


Diwn. p. 112:
110
jb,,,

),)c3

ti

Dl

&')
c

Ji

C1'.

who
of

63
Medina-was'a
Iraq

the

at

could

-he

as he was ugly.

Husrt

used to

memorize

his

complain

to him,

to

used
But

humour

date-wine

sold

for

venue

nawdir

the

not

enter

into

that

Abi

i; alb,

and recited

only

it

between

This

would

on,

are some of the celebrated


Muzabbid's
al-Bayn

nawdir

(vol.

(p.

254);

the

caliph's

the

IV,

p. 122);

Muhdarat

(vol.

I,

The following

is

and you reap. "

that

I saw,

he sometimes

IV,

was looking

at his

my womb turns
me if

out like

z, Ab '1-A5rith,

on the topic

like.

you. '

out. like

jokes

of food.
in Iraq,

The rich,

his

house

as a

received
was common

the al-Mukhannathin

called

Hanab, Tuwais and Fanad

in many books including

p. 82);

(pp.
II,

vol.

D11

Hugri's

(which

is
wife

and said,

Rghib's

pp. 18,203;

III,

vol.

pp. 92,97,98,136).

also quoted in Ibn Qutaiba's


One day she

was pregnant.
'Woe is me.

Muzabbid immediately
me. "

p. 277; vol.

372,391);

(Kulliyat,
sha

Jzhiz's

Jam' al-Jawa5hir

'III,
39;
p.
vol.

I.

"Muzabbid's

countenance

he does not turn


Ju

their

Risla-i

p. 122):

made and

such behaviour

that

Thimr al-O lab

is a nidira

'u in (vol.

II,

pp. 29,83,118;

p. 245) and 'IIbaid's

own jester,
and Muzabbid

Dalll,

"Uyn (vol.

Tha'libi's

presence

caliph's

even provided

suggest

are recorded

Ibn Qutaiba's

It

to

ones.

p. 51; vol.

II,

caliph.

men and women, and thus

of these Zarjn,

effeminates),

went

'Abbgsid

in Medina in those days among the group of people


(the

however,

them to Mahdi,

for

occupation,

and sometimes

meetings

rewards.

169/785),

"How strange

nabidh),

illicit

financial

claims

his

was not

He later

humour.

(d.

of Mahdl

time

nevertheless,

seems,

their

for

centre

('Ubaid,

a second century

If

the child
': ioe is

replied,

Ku1Iiyt,

in

p. 92).

Medinan humorist,

usually

He was a member of the group who used to sell


as did Ab DuM a, Ibn Durrj

and even the caliph,

used to invite

al-Tufaili

and the

these purveyors

64
of

to their

nawdir

family,

and kept

as the

centre

and to

'1-'Ibar

in

young,
Thus,

to

during

the

acquires

It

Yahyi

who introduced

A great
(vol.

II,

(vol.

III,

(vol.

I.

P. 317);. 'Ubaid,
The following

of

replied

'

'Yes,

Ab '1-Hrith.

"

and jesters

pay. "
increases

and their

was closely

(Pp. 7,179);

II,

profession
to

related

house

'Is

of

b.

Ja'far,

p. 350; vol.

al-Haywn,

Ibn Qutaiba,
(pp.
III,

35,37);

'III
Rghib,

p. 135; vol.

IV,

97).

one of his

as long

when we were

we used to

247/861)

Th1m9r al-Alb

t (p.

it

quotes

contemporaries,

which

and the

The

Hujri

can be found in Ji, iV's

nawdir

p. 142; vol.

'Is

(d.

the

al-Rashid.

Tha'libi,

is

for

of humorists

family

al-Bukhal'

Kulliy

hazl

came to

people.

of a famous wit,

Jumayyiz

Barmakid

of his

Ab 'l Hrith,

eight?

number

him to Hrn

p. 362);

was Ab H-arith.

al-Mutawakkil

of the

part

group

interested

near

later

professional

to

in

seems that

Pp. 51,252);

Muhdart

asked

of

prestige.

Mu4ammad b.

lessons

from

jesters,
a possible

humorists

learn

Ghdiri

However,

people.

trade

house

the

how the

caliphate

to

one of Ab 1Arith's

learn

we can observe

this

of

to frequent

order

in

stock

al-Hshimi,

"We used

saying,

of its

a1 Mutlalib's

these

as Damascus,

and also

cities

'Abd

their

Dalll,

for

centre

and consequently

and other

representative

Aamza b.

as Ash'ab,

was the

seriousness

Iraq,

their

present

most famous
Abil

to

in

such

there,

the

shifted

from Damascus

province
wits

for

was renowned

the

Hijz

was located

government

centre,

time,

sums for

pay enormous

patronage

jesters

company with

Up to his

and others.

on,

he found

As a Medinan,

stories.

and would

gatherings

anecdotes

possible

that

as related
a son could

as he has a neighbour

of

by 'Ubaid:
be born
twenty

to

years,

"They
a man
'

65

name is

Jammz, whose full


(ribald)

miin

goes back

b.

to Sallim

were Ab Bakr's

family

Ab Nuws the

satirized
and JgAV

(when the

His

indecent

ri's

the

and Tha'libi

have recorded

exclaimed,

"What:

Zamsa (p.

275);

Husri,
(vol.

Muhdart

Rghib,

Jam'
III,

p.

and he
al-Ziydi

fragments

of

nawdir

can

his house,

Pederasty,

house that

p. 175);

I,

(Pp.

too,

is

not

and two witnesses.

of a guardian

242);

ca.

Jammz was shocked and

this

A slander:

al-Jawghir

(d.

"Janmz took a boy to

the boy left

(vol.
al-H"ayw5m

Jhi,

Bibliography:

his

company of

'JammAz took me to his

the sworn testimony

proven without

that

an example which is

is

Hearing

me violated?

too,
the

of his

record

Rghib:

boy asked him what he did.

violate

lineage

Ibrahim

author).

the boy.

His

and indecent

The following

a famous

'Amr,

of Ab 'Ubaida

Ab 'l-'Athiya,

When, however,

him, ' replied

he kept

friends

coarse

predecessor

him.

said,

was a budding

Jam$.

and his

is

Bagra,

but a more complete

his home to violate


another

and it

was very

including

latter

stories,

quoted by 'Dbaid

both

b.

century.

second

When in

were

Ibn al-Shajarl

be found in al-Hu

"

Ibn al-Shajari,

7,22,93,94,97,202);

Baghdgdl,

Trikh

Bazhdd

(vol.

lunatic

of.

p. 125).

III,

Buhll

(d.

al-Main-an

KSfa,

and most probably

(vol.

II,

to

sir,

language

many notables

Jhiz,

'Amr al-T.

they

poet'

too.

the

nawli.

179/795),

his

in

lived

of Bagra,

Iiuharaad

Ab 'Abdallh

the

Islamic
attributed

of

books,

jokes
the

of
"wise

the

who depicts

passers-by.

fools"

meet him in al-Ba-vin


him as a simpleton

He is

(al-'uoal'

a number of anecdotes,

to him.

He was a so-called

We first

a Shiite.

1hi;,
230)
of al
p.

rough

prototype

192/807).

usually

regarded

al-mainin).

both pious

As in the case of J.45,

it

as a

In various

and impudent

is claimed

exposed

that

are
he was

66

a traditionist

it

is

of

the

Abi

the
in

al-Najd

His

Buhll).
Adab books

nawdir
us that

tell

following

a favourite
of his

two examples

are

various

Dinanda

to Hrn

al-Rashid

the
too

to enumerate for them all


Buhlul
"That would take
Buhll
replied,
"
the
men.
wise
enumerate

Buhll

Caliph.

replied,

vol.

Kulliyt

(p.

IV,

in

al-Mansur,
lessons

'
me?
asked the
admire
you

will

but you cannot obtain

admiration

p.

II,
481);

al- 1a

pp.

n (vol.

202-203);

xghib,

T5.rikh-i

Hustawfi,

II,

p.

230);

tiuhat

Guzida

(pp.

Dhahabi.
(vol.

I,

637-8);

'Ubaid,

140).

Abu1-49Ln",
born

it,

'Perhaps,

Jhi. z,
(vol.

al-riizn

18;

I fill

my

Bibliography:

p.

'The person who'most fills

'"

on credit.

Lisn

'If

"Hrn askedBuhll,

quoted by 'Ubaid:

the man you most admire? '


' he replied.

The

na:

"The
They said to Buhlnl, who favoured Shi'ism,
merits of Ab Bakr and 1Umar were weighed against
those of all the other Muslims, and yet they were
found to be heavier. " "Very likely, " replied
Buhll, "they have been using crooked scales. "

belly,

literature.

' baid.

of

mock-hero

wise

and Persian

Arabic

2)

'Tho is

In

(the

They asked
lunatics.
I'll
long,

anecdote

hash,
characters

1)

There is another

N19il,

traditionists.

genuine

in

Imm b.

to learn

with

he was a contemporary

He was also

193/808).

frequently

appear

of

order

dn or Buhlul-i

known as Buhlul-i

he is

circles

he has been confused

that

probable

a while

same name among whom can be found

Persia

(d.

b.

and 'thim

'Amr b. Dinn
but

for

who attended

Ahwz and lived


the

QAsim b. Shalld

Muhammad b.
in

Bagra.

second. Abbasid

of Abu 'Ubaida.,

4sma'i

caliph.

(191-282/806-895)

He was a mawl of Aba Ja'far


Abu '1-'Ayi

and others.

' attended

He was renowned

the
as a

was

67

an improvisor

stylist,
that

he attended

"What

build

house, " said

al-Ha

n (vol.

(vol.

the world,

but

III,

pp.

(pp.

al-Shu'ar'
Tawhidi,

Rghib,

Akhlg

Muhidart

71,93,97);

(vol.

Baghdad

Trikh

Ibn

212);

p.

III,

the world

(p.

al-Ha=n

415-417);

I.

people

can be found

in

265);

Ibn
Shadhart

al-'Imd,
45,46,55,60,

'Ubaid,

Kulliyt

170);

p.

in
JAii;,

(pp.

a1-Nazirain

(vol.

"The

caliph.

nawdir

rlakt

recorded

known as al-Ja'fart.

palace

the

is

you have built

His

37,49);

It

wit.

built

newly

Ab '1-'Ayn'.

180);

p.

73,159);
(pp.

in

Tabagt

II,

and a great

our palace? " asked

of

houses

your

al-Mu'tazz,

nawdir

al-Mutawakkil's

do you think

usually

of

'Ubaid,

Kulliyt

by 1Ubaid

and his

(P" 97).
The following

is

Rghib

predecessor

an anecdote

'Do you wish

complainer

replied
in

why not,
man replied

'Ubda
favourite
towards
used

that

he would
fact

that

that

if

his

wife

died,

al-Mukhannath
of the

his

to place

family

a pillow
used

Commander of

faithful.

the

amused by these

216);

his

R ghib,
gtubi,

coarse
RAghib

(pp.

145-146):

(vol.

The

to

die

his

"

It

and,

"Here
is

said

happiness. '"

sheer

mAjin

is

that

recorded
his

uncovering

and, a

hostile

who was very

It

robe

out,

cry

of

An effeminate

and followers.

Tawhidi,

Akh14
(vol.

tiuhldart
Fawt

(vol.

icuUi

nawidir

from

by her.

'Ubda

own bald

comes the bald,

obese

that

was highly

Mutawakkil

antics.

Bibliography:

p.

he was so tormented

al-Mutawakkil,

under

head and dancing

him

250/864).

caliph

When the

then. asked

he would

his

about

Ab-01'l-'Ayn'

not,

the

(d.

to Ab 'l-'Ayn'

die? ' asked Abu 'l-'Ayn'.

to

of

'All,

175,252);

her

view

jester

quoted

"A man complained

only.

own wife.

is

which

III,

p.

t,
216)

pp.

al-Wazirain
I,

, p.

(pp.

p.
429).

62;

'baid,

92 and 152),

and the

vol.

second

145,146,150,

II,

p.

too,

the first
from

Akhlig

208;
quotes

III,

vol.

two of

of which

comes

al-W'azirain

68

1)

They said to 1Ub9da, "What did


four
"Just
from her husband? "
'UbacLa.
replied

2)

Sl; ib Diwn patted


Majd'
When ghwdja Bahfl' al Din
the latter
immediately
Hamgar's backside,
al-Din
"'Thy did you break wind? " asked Bah'
broke wind.
"It
is hardly
fitting
Majd al Din
replied,
al Din.
to go away empty-handed:
"
to allow the supplicant

(d.

134/751).

hostility

between

coarsely;

this

defeat

the

either

in, the

for

lasted

also

supported

each

satirized

and neither

could

no other

two poets

Ab Yazid

al-A-hni
253);

biography

(vol.
'Ubaid.,

VII,

the caliphate
and nawdir

his

in
love

(p.

Kulliyt

Ivs bs Mu'wiva

(d.

I,

with

or

among Arabs,
period

of

Jarir.

with

a woman,

He died in

b.

'Abd al Malik.

see YAqt, Irshd

(vol.

overcome

conflict
affair

very

(vol

IV,

p. 173);

pp. 142-143; vol.

III,

100).

122/739).

a1-Muzani

was born in Basra.

the first

and the second centuries

AkhlgA--al-4azirainr.

of Walld

rt
p. 44); Muhda

other

such a long

has undertaken

of Abil Yazid's

us an anecdote

was a lasting

which is so coarse as to be untranslatable.

For his

1.

that

said

or Islam

Jbiliyat

Bagra in 134/751 during

p.

years,

there

that

recorded

b. FJrith

He was a fine

al-Basri.

and they

forty

is

It

Parazdaq
gives

is

him and Jar1r,

other.

satirizing.

It

poet.

and stylish

a story

for

characters

b. Khlid

Khaddish b. Bishr

lmown as Abi Yazid al-Bulaith

al-Tamimi,

'Ubaid

ones.

Ab Yazd

orator

Persian

two familiar

Here 'Ubaid has substituted


two Arabic

inherit
your daughter
months and ten days, "

AS W&'ila

Iys

He was one of the great

pp. -145-6:

of Islam,

b. Mu'wiya
characters

and was renowned for

of
his

69

intellect

and wit.

unsoluble

problems

of his

during

the

writes

that

his

post

'Umar b.

'Abd

Mad'ini

Abu '1-Hasan
too,

'baid,

nawdir.

p. 101),

of

caliphate

and wit

up the

relates

For more details


(pp.

al-Bukhal'

al-Havwn

were

the

with

some legendary

Our information

them is

about

However,

their

enormous

r8le

The following
information

or semi-historical

legendary
in

both

is

a short

which

Ab Bakr Rubb1 (third

during
recorded

the reign
also

biographers
(rebeck).

is

said

of Sultn

that

of

century

in

there

Persian
to

validity

daily

).
H.
A.

history.
some degree.

played

life

of the

an
people.

the

with

Mandd b.

Mahmd of Ghazna (d.

None of these reports,


is

pp. 55-56);

and writers,

names together

he was the director

certain

I,

IV,

pp. 6,152).

to have been a buffoon

have also indicated

What is perhaps

and

(vol.

personalities

and the
their

i;

on them.

we possess

as Ab Bakr Rubbi,

and lacks

literature
list

(vol.

II,

poets

or semi-historical

the

on Iyis

al-'Arab

characters

slight

Al-J5

Humorists

humorous

historical

101719).

al-Bavn

Persian

B. Semi Historical

Together

Nihvat

(vol.

Basra

(Kullivt,
him
of

an anecdote

see Jhi;,

204,401-2);

(d.

in

a monograph

which can be found in Nuwairl's

pp. 10-11).

he exploited,

judgeship

al-'Aziz

many

He again'gives

which

of the

compiled

solve

mind.

prodigious

deep insight

when he took

he could

al-Jhi;,

of his

by virtue

us a few examples
particularly

to

According

that

his

virtuosity

however,
there

is

It

singers.

in playing

by this

and more likely

is
His

the rubb

demonstratively

was a person

not in the time of the Ghaznavid Sultn,

and bold satirist

421/1030).

of the court

knwn

'Abdallh,

historical.
name, but

a century

70

(p.

Diwan

first

as. the

him,

before

the

Here

112).

lyric

satire
Rubbi

and Juh as the

poet

of

archtypes

name is
of

complains

dull-market

and the

and scoffing

of his

appearance

of serious

poet of the sixth

mentions

seem that

therefore
not

distant

very

Rubibi

he would

Rubbl

from

was not

century,

alive

each
while

have

naturally

and Jub were


other

in

time.

Manuchibri

of

giving

and ribaldry,
[satire]
and

(d.

546/1151),

in a couplet.

contemporaries,
It

was writing

too

It

would

or at

least

too

seems probable

any confrontation

avoided

Manuchihri's

currency

poetry,

Adib Sbir

RubAbi and Juh together

Abi Bair

the

in

and scoffing:

satire

to facetiae
In our time the market belongs
by Rubbi's
is possessed
And the currency
1
Juh's
scoffing.

Another

found

his

poetry,

with

such

that

otherwise
a bold

satirist.

Rubbi is
four

of which he relates.
The following

facetious.
pronounced

mock-heroes in

among the favourite


However,
is

'Ubaid's

they are generally

one in which the critical

anecdotes.,

coarse

aspect is

than the indecent.

to steal.
Abti Balte Rubbi used to go out every night
but the more he tried,
One night
he went out as usual,
In the end, he had to
the less he found to steal.
in
his
he
it
Putting
his
turban.
armpit
own
steal
"What have you stolen? " asked his wife.
came home.
"But it is
but this
turban, " he replied.
"Nothing
"Silence
What you don't
woman:
yours. '" said the wife.
this
is that I have stolen
so as not to
understand
'"
Rubbl.
forget
replied
noble
art.
my

1.

2.

Diw,rn, ' p.

112:

Diwn,

72:

p.

:j

(S Ci(o 1 (_

li".
cS

Lj

c?
(Y
t4u
.. -,
-1.

and
more

71

Bibliography:
(p.

72);

Farhan

reads:

genealogy

In Persian

Mahrn.

and in Arabic

ass),
cousin

b.

sources

hero (gfird)

Yahy b.
he is

and the chief

(fool).

is

It

Again it

comes down to us in the Trikh-i

probably

in the fifth

ceremonies,
therein

that,

A. H.

century

and many distant

been conquere by him.

Nevertheless,
laughter.

Sulaimn
(Azhar

265/878)

deals with

a work most
many Persian

We are informed

corners

he played
"

Despite

of the kingdom have


the buffoon
all

these

and performed
achievements,

and his humour has a political

Of his follies

is

tone.

famous.

Once, when the courtiers


stood,
at Yaq'b's
palace
because his finger
Azhar did not rise,
which he had
the door, had
inserted
in the ring used for locking
Realising
the problem
there.
swollen
and was caught
they summoned a blacksmith
and
who cut the ring
he again
his finger.
The next day, however,
extracted
They asked
caught in the same ring.
got his finger
there after
having such
him why he had put his finger
"I simply
He answered,
experience.
a disastrous
or
wanted to know whether the ring had become larger
not. "

A proverb
dar

zufrin

has been coined


kardan".

by the

and

Azhar was a

he was very humble and sociable,


one in particular

the

;chat we know

Sistn,

matters.

Sistn,

a brave man of many achievements,

"Azhar was an ath lete,

to provoke people's

It

and cultural

a wise man of letters,

antics

(d.
that

is recorded

in

he was the

of 'Amr b. al-Laith.

general

manners, traditions

b.

that

said

of the

Khar

known as Azhar-i

about him mainly


written

Born

b. Fargad

Zubair

is Ya'qb b. Laith

that

(d. 287/900).

'Amr b. al-Laith

1"Tuntaht '1-erab;

104,108,117,143).

a mughaffal

as Azhar al Himr.

of two Saffrid'kings,

Diwan

Sabir,

He is perhaps the first

century).

Azhar

AdIb

Safipri,
(pp.

Kulliyt

who can be termed

humorists

Persian

112);

4Abd al-8a4mn

"Ubaid,

Khar (third

Azhar-i

b.

-i

Lughat-Nna;

Dihkhod,

his

Nafisi;

(p.

Diwan

Nanchihri,

poets

following

this

event:

"dast

72

Trikh-i

Bibliography:

Adabi

Chand Mag1a-vi

Falsafi,
(pp.

Diw5n

(Zbs Nama (p.

104-5);

ova Trikhi

(pp.

Lur-hat

Nma; Ibn

Dihkhod,

143,170);

(pp.

Sistn

95-102);

68);

rIanuchihri,
Akhbr

al-Jawzi',

(pp.

136,196).
al-gam
(fourth

Talkhak

(d.

Ghazna

and Arabic

Persian

in

anecdotes

legendary

his

is

'Ubaid

satirical

include

the ling

courts

while

(p.

of the judges
the derision
treatment

he was angry,

(p.

noting

105),

except

the fatalistic

of religious

is worth

and it
order

morality

for

superstition
(p.
remedy
that

noun became dalaak,

later

the

to
would

to

of

name of

of his

him.

age.

Most

seem

launch

of homosexuality

criticism

'Ubaid's

strange

anecdotes

in

his
Talkhak's

(p.

102),

and the immense power of jesters

the idiot

of wars of any kind

133),

to religious

in Persian.

(p.

his

111) where nobody could venture

to the absurdity

alludes

and loose

of

homosexuality.

critique,

as a mouthpiece

sharp

exploitation

against

in despotic

proper

corruption.

allusions

attacks

It

Talkhak

using

of

twenty

attributes

books

mock-hero

above book with

the

and moral

some social

on the

own attacks

'Ubaid

favourite

the Sultn's

of

criticism

Risla

them contain

that

comic

the
picture

He even begins

character.

Throughout

interesting

a very

the

Mahmd of

him comes from

we know about
He is

of Sultin

of him in

no mention

i Di1iush..

Risla--.

and his

Talkhak

is

All

adab.

who depicts

'Ubaid,

of

There

421/1030).

and a few Persian

'Ubaid

in the court

was a jester

Talkhak

lexicographers

to

According

century).

(p.

contentment

to speak to

jester;
132),

he also
the corruption

(p.
the
of
poor

and the preference

of medical

137) and such like.


on with

a common name for

slight

alteration,

any jester

136),

this

or humorist

73
2. Historical

In

the

preceding

legendary

or

is

of historical

a list

and Humorists

Satirists

some information

pages

humorists

given

and humorists.

satirists

semi-historical

has been

about

The following

and satirists.

A. Arabic

It

that

seems certain

the pre-Islamic

wisdom by reason of his

poet possessed supernatural


the spirits.
teacher

He was known as the oracle

and panegyrist,
The. poet's

was satire.
hii,

as both real

a spear,

by ducking

warriors

into

sandal,

his

hair

This kind
cation,

main function,

in that

might

anointed
of satire,

and later
it
did

was to compose

poets

only,

in the strict

way.

the enemies of Islam.

his

shod with

his mantle

continued
The Prophet

one

hanging loosely.

senso was abusive

was supposed to be dependent


tradition

at

to dodge

"led

the power of the poet and his

This

hurled

as he would try

coarse imprecations,

on in a somewhat different

as a weapon against

and his weapon

The poet-satirist

on one side

imprecation.

tribe

impre-

as well,

directly

on the

in early

Islam

himself

used

The Umayyads and Abbasids

the same.
(590-674

Hassra b. Thbit
Khazraj

1.

his

with

In fact', a man at whom

weapons.

aside.

the

a prophet-like

period,

rival

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which

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real

uttering

and the outcome of battle


efficacy

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battle,

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that

alliance

but above all,

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each other
satire

Arabs believed

tribe.

Nuwairi,

In

Nihavat

his

youth,

al-'Arab,

A. D. ).

He was born

he travelled

vol.

IV,

around

pp.

134-6.

in
the

Yathrib
cities

of

the

seeking

"'

74

Ghassn

in

however,

the

Prophet

the kings

particular
in

and Damascus

Ijira

to

order

in Mecca,

emerged

and the infidels,

obtain

that

When,

wealth.

he was converted

among them Ab Sufyin,

is well-known

of Lakhm and

and nobles

defended Islam and the Prophet

and vigorously

It

in

and praised

patronage

to

Islam,

the pagan Arabs

against

who had satirized

Muhammad.

Abi Sufyn in the following

Hassn satirized

couplet:
him when you are not equal to him,
for the best.
of you would be sacrificed

Do you satirize
Thus, the worst
It

is

when the Prophet

that

recorded

to take care of the former's

appointed

was one of the secure buildings

a long tongue has a short

with

to a story

reference
It

is

in

the 'Uthmin

said,

too,

Adab critics

that

that

such effective

his

was very simple,

poetry

achieved
attractive

"Hassn's

surprise

versifying

a high level.

Of the Persian

Shadhart,

vol.

wars? '

in his

"

This is

murderers.

p. 61:,

style

in

of

to many, and to A ma'i,

According

its

forehead: "

such an old man was capable

especially

goodness,

He took part

the caliph's

sharply

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old age.

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poet-satirists

I,

"They asked him once,

to the verge of commonplaceness,

gassAi.

1.

own house, which

tongue used to reach his

that

poems.

in the Jhiliyya,

became concerned with

in his

sword, ' he replied.

and satirized

expressed

wives

in the holy

he became blind

affair,

came out to war, 4assn was

in Medina.

do you not go out to participate

satire,

poetry

was very

but when his poetry

and grandeur

Manchihri

and never

deteriorated.

and Anwarf favoured

"

75

Ibn

Bibliography:
(vol.

IV,

2-17);

pp.
(vol.

Shadhart

I.

(d.

Euter
came from
he used

the

to

the

noble

in

given

and the rich

I,

Chapter

among the

satirist
is

mother

in

Bibliography:
(vol.

I,

(vol.

II,

p. 43);

Islam.

although
according

satire

Trikh

is
in

to

praise

them if

Zibrign

Medina,

they

has been

as the

Arabic.

His

coarsest
on his

satire

pp. 183 and 191);

of converting
with

defamed him among the Muslims as a worshipper

launch

of eulogising

religious
dynasty,

by every Muslim especially


constant

attacks

perhaps

though Jarir

of the Trinity

that

He

to Christianity,

to Islam,

Muslims,

did not care about his

their

al,

who came to Iraq

and remained devoted

He associated

disliked

Fawt

of the Umayyid period.

to the Ban Taghlab,

as a Christian

Kutubi,

b. Ghawth, best known as al-Akhtal,

to time he thought

The Umayyids, however,

180);

317).

poet-satirist

to circumstances.

They were able to

satirize

in
to

who used

regarded

(p.

II,

(p.

Ghiyth

He was a Christian

they were extremely

He lived

about

a -Shi'r
(vol.

Muh4art

and belonged

as he was capable

(obese)

many adab books.

Baihagi,

from time

91,108);

need and circumstances

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or

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pp. 192-5);

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His

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Aws, known as aI Hutai'a

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pp.

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(pp.

Ibn

p. 460).

to different

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vol.

al-Agh

60-63);

Diwn

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pp. 193,199;

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al-Shi'r

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Diw.n (vol.

Anwar!,

Qutaiba,

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affairs,
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men and

76

the

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mockery

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Iedinan

charges

Mecca and Medina


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satire,

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to

order

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of deviating

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spirit

to Christianity,

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unbearable

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to

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of Yazid b. Mu'wiya.

caliphate

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77

is

the

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best,

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Sa'ga'a

A. H.

169-188);

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was born

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a virgin

them drink

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pp.

125-126);

of goodness".

occupy

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to

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couplet,

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than

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true.

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Akhtal

if

al-Aghni

al-Farazdag

end of

Akhtal

of his

al-'Arabi

138-141);

best

him.

of them to provide-a

Bibliography:
Tri1h

matched

giants

poets

a complete

plagiarise

"If

was that

less

disparaged

Bashshr

to say,

coarsest,

contains

nevertheless,
poets.

have

any shame.

cause

not

would

used

al-'A1'

could

no poet

towards

them incline

most of

poet
Koran

The boy took


in

chains

the

and

Koran.

and he lamented

His
him.

Basra,

because

he had already

b. Abi

Sufyn,

the

newly-appointed

78

of

governor

but

where

Sa, Td b.

was one of Mu'wiya's

himself

drinking

with

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sacred.

admired,

b.

Zain al-'bidin

him.

release

but he respectfully
for

by the

most eminent

his

of

part

contain

It

and follies.
belief

the sake of God and for

life;

it
dabila
where

severe

own diwn

provides

sufficient

however,

has been

He also

panegyric

warned

them saying

that

to ignore

in admiration

of truth.

of Zain

After

he had written

Hasan

He eulogized

Hishm tried

sent him ten thousand

that

all

of the Iraqis.

him.

he

reproaches

home,

writers.

the defence

is

for

of which Hishm imprisoned


al-'Ibidin

long

poet.

satirical

contempt

the Caliph

a splendid

His

the

and his

and his

Shiite

poems

who was his

and his

weak morality,

'Ali

as his

and came to Medina,

in Mecca, while

rejected

and

from his

He contracted

years.

plans

Zain

occupied

enemy Jarir,

role.

of the treacherous

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Farazdaq versified

al-'bidln,

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died

satire

Farazdaq

them by means of a ladder.

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demonstrate:

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the poet was boasting

Two events

Kufa

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Here,

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secure

gave him refuge,

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governors.

Marwfin b. al-Uakam (d.


satirized

he was not

favoured;

to Medina,

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too

Iraq,

his

dirhams,
the poem

79

Many wonderful
Farazdaq's
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have been told

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Habib

poems of Farazdaq,

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poets,

for

would

women, and was

however,

is not recorded,

Jarir

rival

a single

never fell

in

he was a master of sonnet writing.

a woman, but at the same time,

love with

were not

language

liking

Farazdaq had an irrepressible

very fond of their


couplet

it

style

"

been lost.

Although

"If

say,

the Arabic

of

one-third

to

and men

and diverse

expression
used

al-Nahwi

of

Driml

Critics

poet-satirist.

delicate

at his

coarseness

Miskin

except

anybody

was a great

surprised

the

about

and Khigni

Anwarf

favoured

Farazdaq.
Bibliography:
pp.

18-190);

Farazdaq,
pp.

(vol.

IV,

p.

(Beirut,

Diwn

1960);

al-'Imd,

(vol.

IV,

pp.

al-Tamiml,
the

(d.

(bdi

desert

popularity
Farazdaq,

tempted

satirized

his

miserliness

while

II,

vol.

Tairid

(vol.

I,

(pp.

99-117);

(vol.

al-Auhni
pp.

150);

p.

al-Muwashshah

il,

Ab Harms: Jarir
Yamma during

101-104);

and the
to
(like

his

be 'Atiyyat

'All's

IV,

Nuwairi,

comfortable

of

the

him.

It

is

with

Thaqni

in Persian,

own father,

However, when later

Basra.

life

compete

a boy,

al-Khatfl

because

Here

said

especially
he.

that
for

be Mu'wiya

Jarlr's

he obtained

the

poets,

see p. 123)

and Yazid

living

After

caliphate.

he entered

a while,

he was still

poem to reproach

yet well-known.

in

Jarir

father

Marzubni,
IbnWi.

72;

p.

XIX,

vol.

183-5).

a) for

of poetry

Is

Shadharat

110/728).

was born

205);

pp. 186-197;

VIII,
(vol.

al-'Umda

Ibn

Jarir

his

Rashiq,

140-145);

Nihyat

in

a1-ARhini

Ibn

Irshd

Yqt,

(vol.

poetry

an audience

his

plagiarized
was not

of Yazid

80

in

his

the poet

palace,

knowing

that

the

"My father

said,

left

(perhaps

caliph
this

world

mine, " and gave Jarir

poem was not

time Jarir

From this

without

a reward

for

of second rank;
al-Fri,

and a

Vajjj.

He wrote

excellent

wit

for

the

powerful

time,

the

Ayyub,

an A'rbi

and extremely

fine

poetry,

and they

met in

in

defaming

his

poet's

life

was his

poet,

of his

forty-three

other

time.

known as al-Bardukht
The first

and continued
was favoured

until

satire

where

Aajjj

Apart

of each other

satirizing
their

is

poet-satirists

of

as the greatest
he satirized

themselves
said,

as

was his

equal

began in about 65/686

deaths which happened in 110/728.

by many Persian

poet's

outstanding

and Farazdaq,

None of them, it

Hajjj

the two giants

regarded

from Akhtal

Satans:
used the

The most

justly

of

him who possessed

the

of

made

on behalf

city

a Satan

against

experience

which Jarir

had come to

adversaries.

He is

by him.

Their

Wsit,

the

of

some of whom used to pride

poets,

been satirized

but Farazdaq.

governor

that

Farazdaq and Akhtal.

poet-satirist

having

best

not respond.

to Ftajjj

satire

of this

event

did

coarse

no heed to the poets

paying

b. Kh lid,

'Ali

him, but Jarir

of Hakam b.

praise

with

and robes of honour came from a panegyric

of rewards

sent

of Iraq

example,

satirized

launching

embarked upon satire,

on most of the poets

attacks

his

poem to the

of honour.

robe

in

recited

and Yazid

intentionally),

his

including

Jar1r

Manuchihrl,

Anwarf and Suzan! in particular.


Bibliography:
(vol.
Shi'r

VII,

Ibn Qutaiba,

pp. 38-77);

al-Basra

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al-Shi'r

al-tiuwashshah

91-104);

Jarir,

(pp.
Diwan

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283);

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al-ARhni
Sharif
1960).

(Bu1q)

Qsim,

81

b.

Yazid
is

b.

'IIbaidallah
above

poet

right,

for

Ziyd,

a long

from

which

however,

him to

severe

he circulated

him only

therefore,

and a dog.

"shbram"

around

the

city

in

was not

long

before

were watching
trousers.

this

of

funny
the

"In

to

His

poet

on his
prison,

and his

him,

home.

subjecting
to kill

permission
proposal

a very
then

officers

same time

seeing

this?

) and the

hast
u nabidh ast
Wa dunbi farba pih ast

up with

dysentery.

got
scene,

is

take

the

and at

"What
chist".

touchiness

and Syria.

Ziyd

the

rejected

poet

ridiculous

They asked,

pronunciation

the

date-wine.

this

Iraq

Yazid

him to be tied

ordered

with

way to

own

and allowed

harshly.

poet

Then he forced

called

It

nevertheless,

the

him in

against

from

the

satire

and reimprison

and seeking

punishment,

to punish

Ziyd,

to recapture

was able

The caliph,

poet.

saties

With

of

the

of his

poet

put

'Abbd

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brother

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Ziyd,

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family.

infamous

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b.

This

Ab1h (d.

b.

he was a great

Although

and began

he managed to

Ziyd,

as the

he was ignored

while

he stopped,

Wherever

him.

on Ziyd

when 'Abbd

was appointed

A. H. ).

century

satires

that

said

he was irritated

and his

patron

coarse

is

accompanied

a poet,

the

It

family.

and his

(first

al-HHmvari
his

for

famous

mainly

of

Muffarigh

"

a pig

laxative

strong

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paraded
shameful

what

of Bagra

flowed

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"in

Arabic,

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poet

manner.

The children

("In
poet

a cat,

Yazid's

was answering:

'Usrt-i
zabib ast
Sumayya ru sapidh ast:

This is the water and date wine, and the juice


of the fig
(the
Sumayya
And the fat and the oil,
and
mother of Ziyd)
is a harlot:

This
of

simple,

the

first

but very effective


Persian

poems after

and coarse satire,


the

domination

is

regarded

of Islam

in

as one

Iran.

82

Jhiz,

al-Bavn

209);

al-ARhni

(vol.

192);

Ygat,

Bibliography:
(p.

a -Shi'r
(vol.

II,

p.

I,

Mag1a_(vol.
1968,

pp.

pp.

(vol.

b.

Abbasid

caliph

of the

Abbasid

built

artistic

in

1ih b.

of

from being

in

poetry,

(d.

al Azdi

abari
Bist

Qazwinl,

(Tehran,

Sukt

(1975

ed.

Dr.

'Abd

only Bashshir

on the Persian
Bashshir

satirists

of the Mu'tazilite

and also tried


he consequently

demonstrate

something

impossible

Iys

b.

(d.

their
in

other

170/787),

Ab Dulma Zand b. Jawn


Bashshr b. Burd,
of the highest

poets

of their

Ab

rank

time.

only in BaghdAd.

origin,

He praised

asserted.

school.

They
but

Of all

these

great

influence

Wsil
But,

b.

'AtA'

a handful

of the

even

of the

(d.

131/748),

as he used to prefer

the demoralisation

the friendship

and possibly

he was in Basra he made

Uhile

is Manichaean dualism

to represent
lost

from

and humorists.

of the theologian

that

poets

in Bara and Kfa and the like,

among them Sulaim b. Hishm.

religion,

before

and Ab Nuws, because of their

as he himself

the acquaintance

city

to

was born in Bagra of Persian

race,

capital

order

167/783)

eminence and fame was recognised

we discuss

the

long

amongst the outstanding


up mostly

the second

r,

not

These were humorists

were born and brought

ancestral

297);

a1-4an

(d. 211/826),

Ab '1-$Ataiya

Nuws and many others.

founder

p.

and made it

were Mutt'

characters

4Abd al-Qudds

16]/777),

nobles,

Trikh

Diwn

145/762

came there

field

the

Among these

cities.

of royal

51-73);

was therefore

It

the Empire

talent

their

pp.

Ab Ja'far

in

Baghdad

family.

of

corners

apart

Ibn Qutaiba,

A., 'Du (arn

MMfufarrigh,

Bashshr b. Burd (693-783).

(d.

p. 61);

Ab Slih).

al-Qadds

all,

I.

VII)

Kb,

Zarrin

Yazd

121-122);

XVII,

Irshd

39-42);

(vol.

great

to Islamic

the
his

beliefs,

of Bagra in his
theologian.

poems,
It

is

83

recorded
the

Bashshr wrote

that

Ever

has existed

it

since

He was always
had many enemies,
him for

saved

but

his

the matter

But as he was by nature

in

forbade

their

pretending

There,

ship.

him

died at the age of nearby


Bashshir

mh

I should

have been the greatest

capability

a misanthropic

that

and spit

right

His first

and once he opened his


He had already
very ugly,

for

it

of all,

thank God for

his

poetry.

minister

Consequently,

the caliph

summoned the poet into


lashes

of which the poet

he was ten years


in the hope that

did not do so, presumably


he had answered me,

in my time. "

should

having
is

He was, as J4 i;

Concerning

be noted that

he was

and as he was

made me blind

the people.

relates,

mouth, he won the admiration

his congenital

assets

old.,

the

It

so that
is

recorded,

a poem he would clap his hands,

one of the important


besides

the

poem was satirical,

which I hate, " that

and left.

and facetiae.

women in

satirized

man of letters

satirist.

when he was to recite

forced

provocative

ribaldry

mention

Jarir

however,

first

I need not see that


too,

however,

169/785)

y.

in satire,

he used to say, "I

blind,

language

coarse

enemies,

Bashshr used to say, if

him too young.

his

seventy

Jarir,

thinking

brilliant.

caliph

himself.

he had satirized

would answer him.

is

Mahds (d.

had began to compose poems before

and used to boast that


latter

to

to go hunting,

they inflicted

of his

harmful

he first

a satirist,

and fire

They displayed-the

seriously.

Ya'qb b. Dwd, and then the caliph


and the minister,

the

of his

over-indulgence
first

therefore,

The caliph,

supported

"

it.

for

The pressure

a while.

dark,

is

man, and because

panegyrics

on women and his

lyrics

"The Earth

men worshipped

suspected

to take

the caliph

that

doctrine

Manichaean

a poem in which he strongly

of satire,

infirmity

a great

cough,

orator,

of his audience.
that

is,

which had left

he was
him

84

with

two pieces

with

small-pox.

him to
not

of

It

the

is

"People

body? "

that

recorded
fear

of

and his

once a woman told

fear

a lion

pitted
likened

adversaries

when you have

you,

do not

he was deeply

eyes,

obese,

very

why people

understand

replied

instead

He was also

a buffalo.

and deformed

flesh

red

him,

such

because

"I

do

an ugly

face

of his

beauty,

"

poet.

to his

According
only fragments

biographers,

have survived.

he wrote

nearly

A good many of his

12,000 gatidas,
satirical

but

poems

and coarse nawdir have come down to us in al-A, -h.ni.


Bibliography:
(p.

al-Shi'r
(vol.
69);

IV,

497);

Tri-kh

213-259);

pp.

Huart,

Is

His father

Maran b. Mnhanad
His mother,

(d.

however,

Persian
abundant

terms,

phrases,

touches

Persian

proverb

following

gi

f a:

(pp.

298-303);

67Ibn

better

a1-1ikami.,

poet of the

poets of Arabic

was an Arab,

He was

a_.

and served in the army of

the last

was a Persian

learned
Ab
Nuws
"

(pp.

al-'Arabi

al-Axh5ml

Literature

is perhaps the greatest

132/749),

washerwoman in a fuller's

112-118);

pp.

Hasan b. Hai'

and one of the greatest

born in Ahwz.

Ibn Qataiba,

PP. 71-73).

known as Ab Nuws al-Ahwzi,


period

pp. 122-3).;

of Arabic

al-Adab

Ab Nuws (139/756-197/811).

Abbasid

III,

VII,

A History

Tr1'kh

(vol.

Wafast

(vol.

BaFhdd

A. Hasan al-Zayyt,

Shallikn,

(vol.

al Haswn

JhiV,

of the Umayyad dynasty.

caliph

named Jullabin

who worked as a

yard.
Persian

from

his

and proverbs

in

of Persian
and employed

taste
with

mother,
his

poetry.

and nature.
great

and used

charm

His

He inserted
and mastery

to

employ

poems have
an old
in

the

85

I petitioned
many
a kiss from her and I succeeded after
twists
and turns,
for the sake of God
"0 cause of my torment,
Then I said,
bestow on me another
my desire";
and fulfil
horn
to
however,
the parable
She smiled,
and told
Persians
which is no lie:

you do, he will

"Do not give one to the baby, for if


" 1
demand another insistently.
Later

on, Farrkhi

in the Rhazal.
following

(d. 429/1037),

of Sistan

used almost the whole of this

one of his followers

superb gi

la in the

poem:
from her ruby lips
I wanted two kisses
and said,
"Water a fading
plant
with your water of grace":

"and if you take the second,


"One is enough, " she replied,
it will
cause an uproar, we have experienced": many such,
My kiss is the second life,
and it is impossible

For

anyone

Many Persian

words

which
in

suggest
that

Bagra

At

al-Asadi.

the

the

Arabic

advice

language;

1"

full

his

the

same time

D1W811

tongue.

the

P.

of

Later

on,
in

al-Ahmar

end he came to

the

throughout
language.

that

of

of the

period,

he spent
order

study

in

the

the

pure

dlwn,

was,
b.

however,

al-Hubab

and Ab

and mastered

IshAq

Baghdd.

It

al-An$rl,

a year

to

his

Wlibat

poet

Ab Zaid

he visited

grammarians

be found

teachings

the

"

life.

a second

understanding

he enjoyed

of Khalaf
at

be given

and names can also

two great

'Ubaida,
of

to

the

subtlties

desert,

al-Mgill

through

Bedouin
(d.

205/820)s

i
",,

1"

* L_ !

,
"%/

,.!

",

f/

tS,p- I c
2.

Diwn,

Ja- ,`,

p. 149:

LS-J--

0
_,
t

i,

/ice

+i

--

86

the

great

the

poet

later

Life,

the

best

198/813),

graphic

him for

The poet

wrote

It

is

of his
his

defects

the

charge

he ordered

to be read
that

in

poet
vol.

II,

death;

it

family,

is

however,

Akhbr

recorded

that

Abi

Concerning
for

example,

p.

his

wrote:

is

his

porno-

was forced
him with

threaten
you kill

and
to

death.

Ab Nuws,

where

him

and in

in

announced the deposition


to be written

manshr

Ab Nuwis

(Husri,

pp.

prison

because

praise

Zuhr

patrons,

Diwn,

and indecent
al-Adb,

of this

versions
his

on

Among them was

infidel

a sarcastic,

different

are

he died

anti-religious
Nuws,

loose

with

was so coarse

caliph

and

of Amin

particular

of Thursn.

he satirized

men killed

us that

in

Baghdd,

to
reign

al-makshf)

"If

pulpits

that

There

tells

extremely

the

12-13).

and their

short

and in

a charter

he had accompanied

named Hasan b. Hni',


pp.

and so he

was a poet

and even to
prison,

and

had disappeared

(d.
218/833)
Ma"miln
when

said also that


Amin,

house,

"

another?

brother

the

the pleasure-seeking

from

line

during

(al-adab

time,

a short
this

you find

will

even

Barmakid

generosity

satire

and

What he

caliph.

in Egypt,

who himself

But his

caliph,

Ab IJuws returned

life

literature

that

imprison

his

of

the poet.

anti-religious

death,

the

b. Hamid al-'Ajam..

Khagib

that

son of Hrn,

or indecent

the

of

praise

claiming

years

the

like

morality

the

Hrn's

After

the

enjoyed
(d.

Egyptians,

country.

in

the

of

praise

to

poet

was not comfortable

nonetheless,

satirized

in

of Egypt,

governor

the

introduced

panegyrics

he found

the

on of

that

fine

wrote
however,

wanted,

of Hrn

musician

171-172);

the

poet's
Nawbakht

his

biographer,

of a poem which

of fornication

(Ibn

was

Man; r,

97).

ability

as a poet,

much has been written.

Jhi,

87

in vocabulary,
I have not seen a person more knowledgeable
fond
in
in
of
poetry
more
simplicity
style,
elegant
more
in all kinds of
He was experienced
than Abi Nuws.
in explicit
himself
but he distinguished
satire,
poetry,
in his explanation
of his own
veracity
outspokenness,
His description
of wine was so
nature
and community.
[Hasan
gasans
two
that
the
delicate
even
and effective
both died in the year
and Hasan b. Strain,
al-Basra
time,
heard it,
they
the most pious of their
110728],
in order to enjoy it.
travel
would immediately

Of lower

were his

quality

But in all

by superficiality.
one of his

merits

was his

out the weak and unfitting


poems are usually

other

it

for

is

It

is

poetry

splendid,

that

said

he used to

it

because of this

is

that

his

short.
and what is not less

Nothing

he possessed no library.
within

his

and marked

one day, and the next day take

couplets;

His memory was extraordinary,

bookcover,

aspects,

self-criticism.

a poem, and would leave

write

which were unnatural

panegyrics,

which lay

remarkable,

his death save a

was found after

containing

only a manuscript

notes on

grammar.

His diwn contains

the most satirical

preference

for

boys over girls

expressing

his

debauchery

Diwn, p. 128).
brought

and infidelity

Many times he boasted

of committing

derided

on the unlawfulness

this
also

the tradition

subject

one should

Many Persian

His boldness

in

him many disasters.


He

of wine and claimed

that

except

than God (DIAL

him in praising

poets have followed

as an effective

1.

pp. 76 and 194; p. 239:

explicit

's

weapon against

r.

`)(rte(3(3i1
Ltv

Y
!t

AIAS
00/

M.
j!!-J

and narrow-minded

f. 0

s
*

He

wine and adopting

hypocrites,

in

p. 76).

to Mecca, and the time of prayer.

the satire

Diwn,

including

atheism.

every sin

obey Satan rather

made fun of the pilgrimage

remarks,

-'o

88

Suzani,

particular
Nuws. "
three

Manuchihri,

Farrukhi,

including

people,

this

regarded

his

in

anecdotes

himself

who regarded
too,

'Ubaid,

Rii,

Shatranji

as "the

true

libertine

on Ab ITuwis,

writings

and in
of Abi

successor

highly.

There

of which

is

are

the

following:

Ab Nuwris saw a drunken man and expressed surprise.


They said to him, "What provoked your laughter,
when you
are like him? " "I have never seen a drunken man," replied
"How is that? " asked they.
the poet.
"Because I get
drunk before everyone else, and do not come to my senses
I know nothing about drunken
until
after them, therefore
(Kullist,
"
Nuws.
Ab
men, replied
p. 95).
Bibliography:
III,

119;

vol.

(pp.

263-289);

pp.

155);

p.

al-Ma'mn

73,99);

Trlkh-i

pp.

was at that

time

He owes his
projecting

Ma'mar

theologian

of the East",

the

teaching

the

discussions

al-rfuthann,
of

that

of

circle
of

time,

Ab Is1iq

all

the
al-Nag;

greatest
im (d.

95-6).

"the

which
He

of adab,

the Ban Kinda.


with

genius

devotee

of the,

of knowledge.
learning.

(123-216/740-831),

the Mu'tazilites.

and above

(pp.

pushed him towards

al-Asma'i

143-4);

pp.
21,25,

(Ji*h
the
of
eyes

was a real

desire

II,

up in Basra,

to

and

He met Ab 'Ubaida
scholar
231/845),

VII,

al-Raf'i,

"Amr b. Bahr,

and the cradle

who has been called

age an invincible

into
b.

of learning

Farad

Kuli

'Dbaid,

Abu 'Uthmin

to a malformation

Arabs and the Voltaire

He attended

'-712);
771.

(vol.

Baghdd

D1wn (pp.

Manchihrl,

118-

pp.

al-Muwashshah

(vol.

Lubb

of mawli which belonged

Jhi;,

cornea).

Trikh
1939);

'Awfi,

II,

vol.

501-3);

was born and brought

the centre

sobriquet

From an early

pp.

(160-255/776-868).

was from an obscure family

(pp.

148-151);

216-248);

(pp.

56;

p.

al-Shi'r

21,43,96,97);

as J'ai;ig al-Basra,

well-known

VI,

I,

Ab Nuws (Beirut,

Guzidah

Jhi al-Bag.

entered

Qutaiba,

(vol.

III,

D1wn (pp.

Farrukht,

Ibn

'Umar Farrukh,
(vol.

(vol.

al-H"avwn

al-Aahani

439-449);

"Asr

Jl; iz,

and
and from

89

then

doctrine

his

on supported

follower

not

a simple

for

he developed

Concerning

his

ability
Koran

being

man of

letters

of the

signs

of the

Almost

every

great

He spent
by the

of his

most
different

city

the reign

b. al-Zayyt

al-Malik

retired

to Basra.

finally

died in

other

was forced

arts,

poetry.,

point

of his

writing

at his

the majority

not a complete

This

oratory
is his

J544

hemiplagia

and

is not,

It

of the literate

buffoon,

at least

world
a kind

first,

anecdotes;

his

animals,

military

But the most striking

his

of mind, fit

turn

about almost

the serious

to mingle

and society.

coarse satirical

posts.

and wrote

and psychology.

ability

is because of two factors:

occasions

'Abd

to death,

and-put

theology,

including

time,

comic sense and satirical

for

and

Muhammadb.

of ministerial

writer

His immense power of observation,

human types

that

thiq
1J5,

he contracted

and prolific

was a many-sided

politics,

caliphate

255/868.

the year

current

portray

terms with

life

in

and remained

to resign

"

respected

the

Mu"tagim,

times

three

his

it.

and wrote

During

caliphs:

At the end of his

every subject

playful.

during

the latter

When, however,

J& i;

of three

in

and elsewhere,

Baghdad

on, he was on intimate

Later

Mutawakkil.

for

Bagra

belief

as unrivalled.

style

and legality.

"one

that

note

and was greatly

Iraq

of

power

he left

his

motherland,

their

however,

during

his

in

life

's

was Jhi;

regarded

defend

of Ma'mn,

if

called

to

suffices

a miracle,

or governors

to

it

as a writer,

rulers

dissertations

that

a new doctrine

and founded

own ideas

his

was

of Mu'tazilism,

or a mere student

of al-Nazm,

however,

Jh.;,

energy.

iyya.

Jhi;

his

great

with

with

the

light-hearted

scepticism,

him admirably

to

for

therefore,
of Islam,

JWj

nothing
remains.,

of knowledgeable

jester.

numerous witty

and on

secondly,

perhaps,

because of

90

his

own deformity,

major

for

motive

his

books

helped

Kitb

Damascus,

of his

strength

Nishbr

is

known to

scholars

as the

have had a high


in

his

perhaps

opinion

best

one of the

"Jbi

of Thura

of Jhi;.

There

this

throughout
and
field

by al-Baghddi.

style

of writing
(d.

known of them,
"Ubaid,

and is

too,

one anecdote

seems to
him

about

works :

Bibliography:

(pp.

al-Adab

Yqt,

Encyclopaedia

al-'Arabi

(pp.

RARhib al-Isffaahni

letters,
details

well-known

a theologian
of his

life

the year 502/1108.

Ras"il

(d.

pp. 211-290);

(pp.

145-148);

502/1108).

al-Milal
'Dbaid,

nothing

exegetist

is known beyond that

Some regarded

Mardam,

al-Bayn

1943);

Ch.

T=

(pp.

80-83);
(p. 136).

Kullivt

Ab '1-Qsim Husain b. 1-hinmmad

as RAghib a1-Isfahni,
and an erudite

'Umar'

A. ; Iasan al-Zayyt,

Shahristni,

"

Khalil

(Cairo,

al-JAhi;

of Islam;

257-260);

Zuhdi J. Hasan, al-Mu'tazila,

IV,

MuhammadKrd 'Ali,

Hasan al-Sandbi,

al-JAhi;,

b. Mufaddal,

(vol.

Irshd

(Damascus, 1930/1349);

312-493);

Pellat,

and
400/

ca.

i1, "If a pebble of the Ka'ba


A jurist
asked al-J
should enter into a person's shoe, it would weep
towards God until
they bring it back to its proper
its throat becomes
place. " -"Yes, it should weep until
"But the pebble has no throat,
torn, " replied
al-Jhij.
then how can it
"If it has no throat,
said the jurist.
weep?" answered al-TtEV;.

al-Jhiz

Ch. Pellat,

Tawhidi

n".
is

in

quoted

Ab Iiayyin

turn

its

subjects

(ed.

his

Jhii;

admired

argumentation.

of

1009)

k,

in

of humour

works

wal-tadwir

al-Ma&M.

is

serious

most important

Kitb

I,

sense

with

al-Tarbi'

have

letters

his

any rate,

His

lost

Chapter

entertaini

Kitb

and the

Many men of
the

them.

al-Bavn,

1955)

deal

him to

to popularize

include

At

witticism.

enabled

in

as was stated

which

was a great

man of

of the Koran.

Of the

he died perhaps in

him as a Nu'tazilite,

but a short

91

at his works in particular

glance
(for

example,

Fakhr

al-Din

and states

that

Incidentally,
orthodoxy

him alongside

Fakhr

(d.

al Din

al-Our'n

discredits

6061209),

he was inclined
(d.

Gharib

and Muhdarat

al-Rzi

al-Ghazzli

Ash'arites.

'adl)

shaf"a,

abr,

fl

al-? "'ufradt

too,

towards

this

confirms

Ash'arism,

who was among the

5051111),

claim.
his

putting
greatest

writes,

The philosophers
agreed to take for granted the existence
[maitah,,
things,
spacious
gyyz]
of certain
which are neither
such as the
entities,
nor would enter in spa
intellects,

They even

and matter.

souls

believed

that

the things which everybody indicates


saying, "I am existent",
and nobody has said
are not solid matter or corporeal,
that those rho held such an idea denied the self' -evident
truths (that is, the existence
of non-spacious things).
We can quote man jiuslim
scholars who followed their
(i. e. p4lsophers),
doctrine
among them Ma"mar b.
al Rghib
and Ab '1-0sim
al-N: uthann from the Rifidites
(i.
e.
of our colleagues
and Abi Iamid al-Ghazzall
Ash'arites).

from this

Apart

clear

on Mu'tazilites

hints

leave

"a group of Rafi4ites

believe

he is permitted

leaves

no room for

in the wiava

references

doubt that

studies

(d.

685/1286)

'al

Paw'id

1.

Muh

on the

rt

is

contents

said

al--aur'n,

,,

vol.

III,

to

wife,

Dictionary

of Koran

have taken
now lost.

p. 236:

are,

His

sr-,.

views

is when

There are

and Raficjites

which

Ash'arite.
noted above,
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famous Arabic

Ass

Encyclopaedia

vol.

I,

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k,.,
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,
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of

Islam,

al Rghib,

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Abbasid

al-Tagdis

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In this

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BuRhyat

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humour and self-indulgent

charaters

Bibliography:
al-Suyuti,

who claim

authorities

which
is

(prurience),

He personally

literature.

The fourth

The latter,

that

ubnat

up to his

of both approving

and indecent

intolerant

i gra (hiring),
(panderism)

There are certain

and nonsense)

everything

almost

1Ubaid, never-

sporadically.

ribaldry

(effeminancy),

satire

except

'1-muin

(homosexuality),

liwta

literature

interesting.

he puts

reference

which cannot be found else-

Muh

"I-sakhf"(On

main

Risla.

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not even Rghib.

source,

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Rghib

the time he was writing

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14

4.

94

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It
deal

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"humorist"
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individuals

Apart

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reference

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necessary,

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Khusraw,

it

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or Ibn

dispute,

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principles

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satire

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Poets

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A poet who [by misfortune]
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Those poets who disapproved
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'Awfi.,

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II,

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biographers

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poetry

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Your donkey father used to make bricks:


And your mother play the tambourine
by the tombs of the dead
While the first
read scripture
The other played tabrk near the house of the people.
1
A good example of his

scoffing

(tanz

is the following

fragment:

What point is there in bowing Mihrab-wise


While your heart is taken by Bukhr and the beauties
Tarz?
While God accepts your love affairs
2
He certainly
the false prayer.
rejects
Bibliography:
Tehran,

Said

1309,1910,1319);

Chahar Mag la

(pp.

Ahwl wa AIi

Nafisi,
Awfi,

51-55);

Lubb (vol.

r-i
II,

of

Rdaki (3 vols.,
pp. 6-9);

'Ara I,

Skhan wa Sukhanwarn (pp.

Furuzanfar,

18-

26).
Sbib b.
al-Tilagni,

'Abbd (326-385/937-995).
well

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a town of Iqfahn

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Rukn al-Dawla

1.

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Ibn al-'Amid,

died at Hamadn at the age of sixty,


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Ab '1-0isim

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ib's

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in the poet's

al-Aghni,

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II,

p. 214.

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of Baghdad and took common cause with

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SSihib b.

b.

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men of letters.

patronise

'Abd

and as a reward for

adab books.

he was also

and gasida,

this

is

couplets,

various

Yqt,

412-415);

him among 'Unsuri's

has come down to us.


thousand

(pp.

Only about 10 couplets

sum of 100,000 dinrs.

of three

like

just

141-145);

pp.

as one of

regarded

numbers

on the conquest

panegyrist

You look

Ahmad Bahmanyr,

Ab Nazar

Mahmd in his expeditions,

panegyric

III,

Guzida

94-95);

pp.

is

Dawlatshah

poets.

obedient

TArikh-i

432/1040).

court

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known as 'Asjadi,

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I.

University,

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Tha'libi,

Wafayt

Khallikn,

down,

"Sit

and said,

Shib

"

bird!

Bibliography:
Irshd

times.

he bowed down several

tradition

with

the enmity

of Baghdad.

man, and perhaps for

the great

literati

and Ibn Sina,

them

and

and to a

100

degree

great

al-Biruni.

He was a great

theologians

and philosophers,

the

and also

including
Islam.
fi

His

flatterers

al-Furu',

kind

character
admired
Ibn

60,000

of

is

which
him could
teils

Athir

attributed

a book

to

problems
jurist.

But we also

quite

opposite

to

defender

to him called

of its

matters,

and
his

to

side

even: those
of his

side

Tafrid

example

have another
for

of

who

character.

us,

There was nothing


reproachable
Once when informed
venality.
he summoned
man in Nishbur,
The man
of being a Qarmati.
"Thus I an not a Qarmati,
but
you want and do not
whatever
great
sum of money and wrote
his good faith.
1

Secondly,

adamant

former,

the destructive

disguise

not

the

them as "atheists",

religious

concerning

Shisites'

and poets,

them was an excellent

class

him a first

called

him as the

according

which

consisting

even

scholars

admired

and Mawlawi

San'i

' dismissing

Many Sunnite

or bad-nadhhab.

"irreligious"

the Ftimites,

enemy of

he was a notorious

in him except his


that there was a wealthy
the man and accused him
to the accusation,
replied
I have money.
Take
libel
me. Thus he took a
to
a charter
attesting

of whom Awfi

pederast,

tells

us,

lives
for the sake of
lost
their
Two of his ministers
their
One of these was Ahmad b. FJasan whose page
pages.
(ghullm)
However,
by the sultan.
the
was favoured
to the lust
to surrender
of his
minister
refused
Ashqar whose
The second was Abu al-'Abbas
sovereign.
too, and hence both
He refused
Rknish.
page was called
2
were killed.

Ays b. Uymq is also

His love affair

with

love

Mahmcdplays

story

with

anecdotes

can be found in

Gulistan,

Rumi's

1.
2.

a great

'Unsuri,

role

very famous,
in Persian

Chahr Magala,

mathnawl and many others.

al-Kmil,
vol. IX,
Jawmi' al-Hikayt,

p. 401.
vol. II,

pp. 191-192.

lyric

Attar's

'baid's

and this
adab.

page's
His

mathnawis,

multifarious

101

too,

anecdotes,
however,

plays

involved

with

king

Ays'

a deep thinker

male

female..

'Asjad. i,

Manuchihri,

and indecent

Of the remaining
facetious

or satirical.

'Asjadi's

violation

with

a furnace-stoker

The first
a boy;

each

other,

the

and at

a somewhat

Khwaja

is

great

is

satire

the

58);

Hji
246.

J9m!,

Kashf

Manuchihri
Manuchihri
first

lived

1012-1029),

(p.

Bahristn

Khalifa,

(vol.

Awfl

(d.

(vol.

95);

I,

at

II,

the Ziyarid

certain

elements

king,

great

pp.

poet

for

Watjwt,

of

al-Ma'5.1i

and took his

them

satirical

words

poet:

The third

the

at

man:

monies,

50-53);

Abu al-Najm

of

conversation

of a wealthy

p. 219},, Nafisi,

of Falak

description

that nobody enjoys


he leaves no dirt

Rashid

432/1040).

court

overcomes

and no hair

of Dmghn was another


the

and

poet's

They hurl

scoffing

and possesses

bath-attendant

Bibliography:

among them;

as to render

the

about

bath.

But such monies and assets


His miserliness
is so that

For

for

of them are either

so coarse

verses

and literary

mild

the

of

preferences

indecent

a very

the worker

end

were

poets

contains

three

is

a public

at

the

be

not

would

scenes.

The second

untranslatable.

of

and clear

poetry

poems of 'Asjadi,

of

diwns

'Unsuri

their

satire

with

Now, where
it

by pedereasty,

afflicted

indications

together

sense knows that

sufi.

a world-denying

'Arudi,

Mahmud of being

acquit

man of

every

of homosexual

of pornographic

is

but

full

therefore,

to

order

and the

of

ITizmi

predilections.

history

were
over

nor

were

the books

if

period

in

love,

physical

and ministers

strange

ironically

on words

he was neither
the

homosexual

to his

refer

it:

the bleeder!

(pp.

Had, i4

Ahmad b.

147-150);

flaws known as

Ghaznawid

lrIanuchihr

21,54,

Qbs-nAma, pp. 237-

awsh1-i

the

(pp.

Dawlatshah

b.

period.

He

Qbs (403-420/

pen-name from him;

there

is,

102

however,
knowledge
at

His

in

his

intimate

His

is

of

Arabic

the

same rhyme and some words

a work
art

no high

content

of

are amazing, and caress

himself

was aware of his

the ear like

artistry

to the extent
be rendered

and there

year

432.

Concerning

he was

that

in

Persian
of

Sometimes

the

poem) which

a peerless

original

and

standards.
normally
there

and although

in this

melodious

He

music.

as he writes:

field

Thwnad
madih-i 'Unjuri
massmau-i Manchihri.

The peacock reads 'nsuri's


Manuchihri's
As the francolin

The content

true,

to Persian

regard

or autumn,

spring

number him

in them, the rhyme and buoyancy of the words and

phrases

Tiwus,
Du=j

in

beauty

(a
is, rvusammat
multiple

description

the

with

great

into

masterpieces

whose

Tabaristn
and

diwns.

and their

poets

the
of

in

not

noting

worth

Arabic

characteristic

panegyrics
musammats.

of his musammats, however,


that

if

one extracts

the grapes),

with

the vines,

puts

are monotonous and lack

the meaning from them all,

the vine keeper

as follows:

long conversation
(takes

all

in

the

produces

begins

He died

is

translates

where

still

first

the

this

seems that

it

neither

excellent.

both

Amin ahmad Rzi

with

he keeps

is

he died
is

poetry

came to Gurgn

acquainted

he merely
style

seems that

imagination

former

diwan.

his
is

and it

his

Our

king.

of

(421-432/1030-1040)
Ghazna
of

but

it

talent,

poetical

his

that

praise

reason

very

although

when the

courtiers,

on Mahmud in

no note

the

Dawlatshah'and

426/1034.

among Mahmild's
is

enough,

entered

poet

year

for

in

limited,

very

was Masud

patron

the

the

poet

developed

second

is

and perhaps

age,

nor

service

this

about

a young

mature

couplet

no single

his -diwan

in

goes to the vineyard

is irritated

them together

in a big

and cuts
jar,

their

brings

variation
it

can

and after
throats
them to

103

his

house,
blood

their
leaves

it

lid

of

the

his

patron's

them in

lays

it

and pours
for

three

jar,

and presses

a wine-press
into

a large
After

months.

sees it

earthenware

three

months,

takes

fastens

vat,

he again

a bowlfull

takes

glittering,

them underfoot,
it,

opens

and drinks

the
it

to

health.

Concerning

his

he was a young poet living


and pleasure

bear

constantly

in a court

were the norm.

seeking

blame drunkards

one should

satire,

in

mind that

in which wine-taking,
Therefore,

pederasty

he mocks those who

and pederasts:

You told me that drinking


wine is the cause of sin
Upon your sour soul:
I only laugh at what you say:
Should all who imbibe wine commit a sin
Then sure Mecca and Yathrib
are sinned in every day!
If vinegar
then why not wine, I ask,
is lawful,

both these drinks

For surely
He was attracted
this,
nor

believing

than females

to males rather
that

committing

are made in the same way.

such action

and openly acknowledges

should

neither

bring

blame

shame:

The wine

boys I

cup and young

love

Therein I feel no cause for blame and censure


Well do I know that both have been forbidden
But

Although

only

satire

in

them stupid
poetry

place

literati

(sabukdi

the

cesspit.

(tazwir

pleasure.

in Manchihri's

reproaches

),. hypocrite
for

can I find

who plotted

He first

satire.

as suitable

things

has no great

to the contemporary
them through

forbidden

against

poetry,

he reacts

him, and he attacks

his

literary

ar

and dismisses

foes by calling
his

1.

c1

<F
l--

VjJ

rivals'

104

Diwan;

Biblipgraphy:
Maimal

(vol.
h_
.

al-Fu

Ab Hayvn
is

little

books

of

adab,

or his

his

works.

"I

mention

his

because

he is

the

Abi Said

al-Mannigi

order

(d.

of Sistn

the

man of his

Disgraces

al-Shirazi

us a

almost
"any

all
biographer
indeed,

"
the literary

from

arts

attended

the circle

time,

Ab Sulaimn

al-Wazirain

contents

own difficult

of these

later

to the service
his

to give

among men of

and yhib b.

because of his

of

(d.

with

421/1030)

(The Ethics

function

he began a work on friendship,

as an inspector

and

He therefore
of the two ministers),

renamed Mathalib

of Ibn Sa'din

Rayy

But he

'Abbd.
character,

two viziers.

by scholars.

him

of

surprising

and Ibn Miskawaih

Baghdad, he was recommended by Zaid b. Rif'

(after

lifetime.

Here he became acquainted

b. al-'Amid

of the two ministers)

the mathematician

the

Baghdad, perhaps in the year 370/980 for

Akhla

which because of its

Shirs.

in

Yqt,
is

and this

ca. 381/991).

because of the arrogance


a book called

" writes

and later

381/991)

in

and studying

he learned

368/978),

He left

partly

attempt

among philosophers.

to meet Ab '1-Fal

was disappointed,

to

134-151).

no mention

a philosopher

mystics,

certain,

(d.

al-'miri

and many others.

wrote

(d.

al-Sairfi

Abe. '1-Hasan

partly

head of

him,

quote

his

virtually

first

come across,

not

name or

is

man during

Hidyat,

(pp.

to be found

life

collecting

of the most knowledgeable

teaching

in

have

as we know for

As far

the

apprently

and a man of letters

letters,

his

there

of him after

biography

extant

who would

is

Yqt

death

his

pp. 53-55);

He was born

400/1009).

ca.

he was an unhappy

after

II,

Sukhan wa Sukhanwrn

concerning

save that

works.

picturesque

(d.

al-Tawhii

two centuries

543);

p.

information

There

For

'Awfi,

I,

(vol.

Lubb

After

(The

al-'dazirain
his return

to

and Ab '1-Waf al-Bzjnl


better

known as al-'Arid

of the army).

For him

'a1-ad5.aa, which' was only finished,

105

thirty

however,

Hayyn

remained

an intimate

evening

receptions

his

all

questions

literature

information

the

in

vizier,

Sa'dn

was

373/983.

Ab

attending

almost

His other

gossip.
arat

are

and they

of the

i. e.

works,

wal-linAparat,
life,

different

theology,

philosophy,

a reconstruction

his

end of

in which

Ab Hayyn

life

mines

should

doctrines

of
prove

the

of

his

own books,

became extremely

and thus

has come down to us from

"Whatever

youth

some copies

belongs

works,

hands

the

and

to

according

his

came into

already

bitter

to

the

of

"

people.

As for
although

in

indications

his

satire

we shall

all

of his

extant

and facetious

him,

including

bad-tempered

only mention his

we refer

malevolent

and benevolent;

imprecation

to Yqt,

Irshd,
)Iwf

vol.

II,
yd"

"1

noted,

As for

his

He himself

those

Abi

him for

his

his

Ly

of his

sufferings

for

predilection

w~

)'

when
was

complained

-J I'A

L
4.

both

stock-in-trade

he mourns his

acknowledges

being

was satirical

"He was insatiable

writings

satirical

who wrote

Hayyn

He constantly

p. 213:

al-Wazirain..

irony,

condemned

whether

who writes,

invective.

and throughout

and disappointments.

As already

he was a satirist,

and occupation

circumstances,

bantering

have unanimously

and coarse-tongued.

book Akhla

we-find

works

tales.

Ygiit,

by nature,

wwi

including

intellectual

and destroyed

al-Suyli,

1.

the

Ibn

philosophers.

disappointed

about

for

388/998)

of

and al-Mha

source

Towards

his

topics

on contemporary

an invaluable

(d.

us that

where he had to answer the vizier's

aid court

wal riu*gnasa

al-Imt'

tells

courtier

on multifarious

philology,

Baghdad

History

to Samsm al-Dawla

vizier

appointed

later.

years

it

,I

106

derision

the

writing

his

behind

Hayy,

leaving

Shib

and Ibn al-'Amid

his

family

He claims

he was moved to

in

his

he left

hope that

the

mastery

Baghdad

and would

down on him and disparaged

take

Again

revenge.

from him and in return

I suffered

motives, for

that

and relatives

would 'appreciate

But SA1ib-looked

merits.

and thus

book.

above-mentioned

his

mentioning

explicitly

and satire,

for

both
evaluate

his

qualities,

he writes:

he suffered

from me.

his Wight,
He attacked
me with all
and I, too, retaliated
he
by hurling
satire
and invective;
at his head wrathful
find
did
best
to
fault
deprived
and I
air
me of my rights
He
and sharp criticism.
with him by means of cavillLn
him; he made me the real
belittled
me and I. disgraced
target
so as to really
of disappointment
and I libelled
that the initiator
is more
hurt him.
But it is clear
more excused,
and if he did
ruthless,
and the revenger
I too, did not see
of his generosity,
not see me fitting
to uncover
tried
him worthy of justice,
and I therefore
all his defects.

While

it

Si}ib was a very arrogant

Hayyn on the other

with

all
of

observer

and irrational

personalities

should

irreligious

(p.
paramour

(p. 103),

features
(p.

a khali'

of a harlot
117),

It

Ahib as a ruthless

reveals

(p.

60),

who was abusive

he lacked.

Ab

authorities

him to express his

is understandable
As a result,

that

an effeminate
(p. 122).

(rascal),
(p.

such

the book AkhlAQ

unashamed ribald

a raga'

well-

and was endowed

(p.

a man whom Satan has touched

(shameless),
113),

the

and

he was disillusioned

events;

which enabled

come to conflict.

al-ylazirain

insane

way.

of

virtue,

was a sensitive,

contemporary

attitudes

in the most effective

in reality

defects

of either

characters:

He pretended

man.
that

his

a vast knowledge and vocabulary

feelings

fool

qualities

hand, with

man, an excellent

by defects

and conceited

to himself

used to attribute

awl merits

we can form some idea of their

of the two antagonists,

read

to judge the justice

is impossible

45) and

and made

having

the

113) ill-humoured

In one place,

he writes

that

107

is'recorded

"It

about

another

he quotes

place,

pederasty

Wafayt

(vol..

I,

Sharh-i

HR-i

Ab Sulaimin

Bist

1933);

(vol.

Magla

Akhllg

Azrgi

own,

Sist

pp.

166-178);

and M. Kurd

al-Wazirain
(d.

contemporary

to this

refuge

the eternal

of all

began writing

poetry

while

214).

Ibn Khallikn,
M. Qazw]it,
Sane,
Muhyi

a1-Razz5q

II,

vol.

Ab Bakr

His father

Ism'il

of his

princes

of the Saljq

(d. ca.

4761083),

early

al Din

the Saljgid,

for

In poetry,
claims

1.

Diwn, p. 51:

Abi

whom he wrote

Azragis

superiority

It

life.

is

the first

over

",,,

twelve

a disciple

his

master.

was a

and thus

literature.

gained,

Azraql

said

that

he admired

two fine

two
Amirnshih

panegyrics;

ilb
Tughnshh b.

and

Arsaln,

panegyrics.
of 'Unsri,

He pretends

'. d

of me
1

being Hmmal-Dawla

'1 Fawris

is

b.

a young lad:

to whom he has dedicated

the second, Shams al-Dawla

495-

pp.

;larrq

poets,

of Persian

he was still

dynasty,

al-Din,

escaped from Mal}-ad, he

of Persian

scholars

Zain

This old world does not produce young men the likes
Endowed high ambition,
and yet unaged.
well-versed
We know little

In

1965).

the greatest

gratitude

208).

79-81);

Umar',

the latter
when
-and

of Firdawsi,

(p.

in

his

(ChalowSur
'Abd

`All,

465/1072).

ca.

(p.

concerning

(pp.

ni

Man igi

(Ribt,

Imm"

pp. 211-70);

II,
Bughvat

Suyti,

II,

1949);

of Hert

(vol.

Irshd

a treatise

doctrine

of iiu'tazilite

Warrq was born in Herat.

IsmA' l-i

affected

a poem of i}ib's

the

411-13);

pp.

Ab H1awn (Cairo,
566);

expected

Yqt,

Bibliography:

he wrote

that

hidden

defence

and fiery

faith

loose

he`was

that

he claimed

which

his

but on occasions
humble

contentment

he

108

the

with

the

praise

and ignoble

rabble

(nkasn).

hyperbolic

of whom he spoke with


find

reader

for

admiration

it

is

when talking

of

the

the

praise,
the

to

his
have

survived

this

fine

in

story

Fliigel).

the

has been doubted, "but it

"it

by him.

should be Alfiyya-i

of grossly

precedents

indecent

in antiquity

Alfivva

also

before

Azraql

and especially

II,

in verse

has

which

other

314,

survived,

poems that

such

an illustrated

as a commentary on

of literature

has its

the cynic

the original

aware of such a work,

us,

(Browne believes.

serves

in Diogenes

fragments

p.

not

p. 323) is

This type

period.

and secondly

Nadim tells

(al-Fihrist,

wa Shalfivva

us that

came from the pre-Islamic


was also

work,

vol.

pictures.

Again Ibn Nadim tells

followers.

and as Ibn
period

The Alfivva

Shalfiyya",

poor.

Sandbd Nma only

from Azraql's

clear

where the text

work of pronography,
scenes

is

can

works

Sandbd Nina

of

poetry,

second

his

sovereigns

two works which have been

pre-Islamic

of his

The authorship

a work was written

the

in

Of his

of

collections

comes from

and nowhere

versification

wa Shalfivva.

Alfivva

composition

his

firstly

him:

ignoble

and the

man and the

to,

mere pretence,

dignitaries

ordinary

However, we are here concerned with


attributed

he be drawn

nevertheless

people;

have admired

He seems to

lest

life

sustain

know to whom he refers

and we do not

the

to

minimum requirement

text

Manuchihrt

and his
of the

living

long

as we see in the following

couplet:
In the light
of your good fortune and high ambition
Your enemies are more shameful than the pictures
of Alfivva.
.W

'
.

yW

,;
.

109

too,

Baihagi,

(d.
Ghazna
of

Mas'd

for

Hert

in

living

for

him,

cure
book.

in

Alfivvva

is

offered

recorded

sovereign.

Azragi

Some scholars

tried

The poet,

however,

book.

this

him,

In
"If

famous

book and read

gifted

in

composing

of graceful
Finally,
was its

whether

author,

then

As such this

p. 72:

should
that

and if

ask for

my

a person

talented

in

who so

the

composition

which are still

disputed.

facetious

However,

to a Persian

be attributed

doubtful

and whether Azragi

or not,

of a genre where the aim of composition

Diwan,

of

by Azragi.

of ressurection,

the birth

1.

and authenticity

and reminds

you

be also

the Alfi? rya existed

such a work should

of

esteem.

works. "1

are questions

the development

greater

effect

Amirinshh

that

in

designed

such a

very fact

nor artistic.

of such

aid

he has written

recognise

would

to

a book whose significance

in. poetry
you will

became

failed

versified

patron

the day

until

base poetry

and elegant

his

to write

any artistry
it,

being

poems that

addresses
like

in

existence

of its

in. his

and famous
of

the

particular

me, I would

any proof

was held

to dispute

the

with

book had the

consequently

poem, Azragi

you let

you want

resulting

indicates

be outstocmding

would

the

having

court

the

surrounding

Tughnshih

patron

problem

a was written
was a youth

The legend

of his

physicians

fi

sovereign

his

was that

his

in

a book and story,

him.

to cure

that

this

while

entertain

and the

a while,

Azragi

It

on the

such

to

order

the

entitled

a work

432/1040)

of Azragi's

composition
impotent

that

records

is neither
is

composition

the

poet marks
serious

an important

landmark

writing.

/(PcJ_i;

".

rL
. 11

WJ

Jill

rJ

no
Awfi,

Bibliography:
(pp.

Tadhlra
122);

(Tehran,

70-71);

1957,

II,

(p.

314);

al Hukm'

(pp.

al-Pihrist
khbr

al-', ifti,

Iba

Lubb (vol.

pp. 86-88);
Baihagi,

of

great

court
place

of learned

great

548/1153)

the master,

benefit
that
that

told

also

other

poets

read in two distinct

metres.

because Dawlatshh

statement,

was in the composition

talent
benefits

Persian

could not match his

1.
LP)

(5' )i'iJ'

own mastery:

fL'

in his
'

skhan).

...

He is

The

of Farghfina
enormously

respected

to serve him. "


which

however,

rely

one to eve

the only

of elegies

enumerates

verse

and enjoyed

of Ysuf,

We should not,

Sizan1,

satirist.

satirists,

dynasty

the story

is

(ustd-i

of the poets

other

court

who was perhaps

to

We are

could be
on such a

related

whence he derived

of honour above all

and a position

was also a gifted

his

reached

in Samargand was the gathering

ought necessarily

'Am'aq versified

the service

Amir 'Am'aq and Najibi

of that

in the service

information

"Among them, " as Ni; 5mi 'Ardi

and men of letters.

"were Rashidi

the extent

all

(d.

of words"

and Amir 'Am'aq was the prince

...

but we lack

even the poet Anwarf included

of the Nhidr in

relates,

He is

fame gradually

and his

dynasty,

him the "master

calling

own poetry,

Shahb

al-Shu'ar'

of Transoxania,

poets

Khaniyya

so that

heights

Asir

His fame begins at the time he joined

Kh.n of the

xari

Diw5m

Azragi,

'Am! aq was born in Bukhr in 440/1048.

numbered among the greatest


youth.

121-

S.: iafisi).

ed.

Ab '1-UTajib

about his

(pp.

Trikh

42-43);

(440-542/1048-1147).
'Am'aq of Bukhr
al-Din

Dawlatshh,

it.

great

poets.

the coarsest

IAma"q among theose satirists

His
material
He
of
who

111

When I take to writing

satire

Thousands the likes


of r"Tanjik cannot surpass me:
Thatiri
Khwaja Najlbi,
Khjasta,
and ayyn,
Qari', 'Aufa q, and 4akkk the monkey and babbler
in my time
If they were living
boast.
1
Still
only I could make this

are indeed

His satires
are

only

surpassed

satirical
to

them;

a'war,

arial,

These phrases,

effective

in Persian,

We may observe

original.
gi
girl

fa which

murda,

sent

to

in

besides

being

how 'W

aq uses
king

a Turkish

many arising

iilf-i

abusive
these

took
slave

they

called

are

phrases

away his

Rurba-i

ahba zan,

translation,

are
fresh
in

the

favourite

Ughul:

the victim:

His face is like the devils,


a magi's anus is his mouth
He has an ear that's
like a fan, an anus like a large
2
milk-pail.

2.

Diwn,

p. 170:
IOU

tY't

extremely

following
slave

But is it fair-that
such a dog should dare embrace
My star-faced
dear, my tulip
adorned sun?
cypress

to describe

and

and

God and my king, they both command


I am the obedient servant,
yes-man,
a silent

Then he begins

and

meaning

Iblis,

muph, chrug-i

little

respect

a satirical

given

anda-baahal,

convey

was composed when the

and presently

has

di vs kiln-i

which
for

least

or at

khirs-i

so on.

He has coined

of Suzan:!.

such as ray-i

words
sag-i

by those

and phrases,

words

and in this

coarse and abusive,

"

112

###*#*#4i*#

Another
in

the

Chahr Mag la,

the

'Am'aq,

and like

respect

and obedience

object

of his

king.

One day,
say of

needs

having
the

to

the

his

in

for

salt.

just

poet-laureate

he replied

that

it

a quatrain

on this

was about
now what

"

the following

Chahr Maala,

I reproduce

was

was the

the

king

prince

of

both

had elapsed,
to

sit

he thought

with

"His

entered,

The King

of Rashtdi's

said,

Brown 's translation.

do

verse,

"

but
and
"I

poetry,

asked
and

Now you must compose

a bow, sat down in his

fragment:

pp. 273-75:

"What

and correct,

Rashldl

down.

the

of

'Am'aq,

poets? "

chaste

special

favour

asked

You stigmatize
any verse
as "wanting salt",
And possibly
you may be right.
my friend,
My verse is honey-favoured,
sugar-sweet
And salt with sweetmeats cannot give delight.
Salt is for you, you blackguard,
not for me.
For beans and turnips is the stuff you write.

1.

young,

Zaynab

being

Rashidi

the

The Lady

the fullest

with

matter

still

was good, but wanted spice.


topic.

this

Tj

have shown

though

the

excellent,

in

even

name is

court

Rashidi

absence,

of Rashidi,

made obeisance,

but

and he enjoyed

When some time

"

and improvised

art.

at

he should

court

recorded

whose full

He lived

poet-laureate,

Rashidi's

"is

other,

the

of

is

satire

of Samargand,

poets

panegyrics,

the verse

the

replied
it

other

in

learned

nevertheless

whose

Muhammad Rashidi.

was to be disappointed,

latter

'Am'aq

of

was Rashidi

rluhammad b.

al-Shu'ar'

you

poet

contemporary

place

113

this

Hearing

four

on Rashidi

attributed

would seem that

such a work,

form of an incorrect

correct

Ni

Bibliography:

Diwan (p.

200);

'Am'aq,

detailed

information

T..rikh-i

Baihagi

king

in

this

for

poor

to

the

if

it

'Ardi,

Lubb (vol.

Awfi,

Dlwn;

Maala

Chahr

Tav n of Marv (fourth

).
11.
A.

fourth

bricks)-i

century.

Farhang-i

Asadi,

century

Marghazi,

written

by Asadi

mentions

him as a ribald

category

the Saljgid,

in praise

p. 686:

zhzh

For

Ta'ligit-i

in

his poems are recorded

in

465/1072).

the

His date of

of worth

concerning
is frequently

Szani enumerates him among the

in his

a satirist

(nonsense).

condemnation

himself,

of a noble man, placing

as Tayyan'a

adi a

satirist

Suzani,

212).
p.
,

field,
him
the
in
to
match
who are not able

Pigh Malik,
couplet

72-74);

as a coarse satirist

noted in the d1wins of the poets.


satirists

(pp.

II

admiration),

lived

(d.
Ts
of

However, his reputation

life.

but

Tayyn (the maker of

know
little
death
and
we
unlrnown,
are
and

birth

poet.

marks

best known as Zhzh-khAIs


from Marv,

Originally

mischievous

would have been

see S. Nafisi,

pp. 1160-1193).

the

the Zinat-I1ma,

of the diacritical

reading

of

abusive

of his poetic

the object

he bestowed

childish

indeed existed,

III,

sun-dried

1.

the

that

tradition

see the

on IKhniyya dynasty,

(vol.

the

a work entitled

(after
Zainab-Nma
the

entitled

his

We thus

to Rashidi

Awfi

to

according

money destined

and diverting

act

250 dinars

times

of Transoxiana.

princes

it

satirical

was so delighted

king

the

answer

Juh's

wrote

and San'!
of Hakim T1i'i.
the following

satires

in

the same

114

S. Nafisi,

Bibliography:
pp.

Tarmidhi

Maniik

was born

Manjik,
the

AmIr

(fourth

century

Tarmidh.

Like

Muhtlj,

b.

Ab '1-Muzaffar

Ahmad b.

he wrote

on his satire.

mainly
invective

Fadl

(d.

of

ca.

Muhammad Chaghni

a good amount of serious


Awfi wrote,

during

"

first,

second

329/240).

poetry,

"None could ward off


satire.

the

and the

327/938)
(d.

Samanid

family,

this

b.

'Ali

Chagh. ni. n in

in

Transoxania

over

two princes

or evade the net of his

samples of his

Ab '1-Hasan

he lived

Daglqi

Chaghni

Ab Yahy T htr

Although

A. H. ).

who ruled

He admired

times.

and Ghaznawid
Amir

11i

of

service

in

III9

Asadi.

Farhana-i

1181-84);

Rdaki (vol.

Ahwl wa Ashfr-i

The following

his

fame rests

his

darts

of

are two

satire:

That day we wanted to drink wine cup by cup


But when you came we only got half drunk
gaAtL
Z there's
Of human kind in your
none who
escaped
The satire
of Manjik which catches them one by one. 1

Oh master you're not the butt of my cheap wit


Rather you're the true test of my tremendous genius
Like the tempered blade tested on a dog
2
It is the cur which recommends the sword.
Bibliography:

al-Sihr
Ahwl

(p.

53);

wa Ash'r-i

1.

Awfi,

Shams-i
Rdaki

(vol.

Lubb

Qais,

al-Mu"iam

(vol.

III,

Cie
1
Uli r>
-_..

II,

f' 1,_3'
b

pp.

pp.

13-14);

Watwit,

(PP. 324,346-7);

Hadgfiq

Nafisi,

1214-1216).

>r'

(1
.
,

-s t

115

(d.

Anwar!
born

Badna,

in

was his

Anwarf

himself

employs

neither

his

is

that

said

1156)

after

Concerning
poetry

a small

the

date

Anwarl's

becu#se

simply

was acquainted

but

his

came to
his

he did

not

in

of Rhwarn

his
his

gasida
the

want

to

himself

suffer

the

we should

music and astronomy,

philosophy,

in any of them.

his

knowledge

On many occasions

of these

sciences,

this

of

55]J

monarch.

note

he was not

penury

(d.

Sanjar

of

reluctantly

It

and youth.

Sultan

praise

for

He

; 1e do know

childhood

poets,

accomplishments,

of the

nobles

poetry.

in

was

of Vs.

was Hhwari.

of Saljq

court

he devoted

the

takhalls

most of

first

Muhammad Anwarf,

name which

much about

not a specialist
considerable

district

the

amongst

greatest
rather

with

is

the

position

his

the

b.

'All

previous

nor

recited

or panegyrist;

poet

and it

birth,

poet

having

in

village

name Anwarf

of

the

was not

Awhad al-Din

pen-name,
on him,

bestowed

court

585/1216).

that

a simple

to

poetry,
He

scholars.

even if

he was

he alludes

to

as in the following

verses:
Of logic,
music and philosophy I have a little
acquaintance
I speak the truth,
I possess a good share of them
In Metaphysic too, as much as a clear mind would believe,
If you believe, me, I am quite skilled
at commentary
In

mathematics,
in solitude.

some problems

also,

have

been solved

by me

And in that no one could help me but God's grace,


Also in Philosophy I am not less than Lugmin and Plato,
If you do not credit me, dare to test me, for I am ready.
However, nobody would deny his
extent

It

his superiority

Diwn, vol.

/'A

II,

in this

realm.

mastery

of poetry

Even the great

and to some
poets regarded

pp. 686-7:

"''f'`sJIJ)Lc;

'
v uff=
:, "_ v,

116

him as one of the landmarks

of Persian

"his

Jim!

as a miracle".

poetry
in

prophet
truly

field

the

the

pierced

The following

of

(d. 898/1492)
Another

panegyrics.

considers

him as a
that

poet claims

ranks him along with

cgiij.a

speaks of

"he had

justice".

of

pearl

Awfi

literature.

Firdawsi

and Sa'di:

there are three prophets


In poetry,
Though truly "there is no prophet after ne"
All men are agreed in this one point
Firdawsi,
Anwarf and Sa'di excell in description
1
Ode and lyrics
respectively.
Concerning
one should
definite

Anwarf"s

attitude

he is inclined

times

from his

patron.

poetry.

While

His works are

content

and regards. contentment

as burden on the spirit;


and insistent

towards philosophy

and reproaches

raised

misanthropism.

The following

of his

personality:

above all

creatures.

and sometimes follows


samples serve

and eschews

his

when
patron,

Sometimes he
the path of extreme

to illustrate

the variance

The earth-bound darts of Fate descending from the heavens,


Even should they bear the name of some other unfortunate,
Enquire before reaching the earth
2
The way to Anwari's house.

Gl,

CSC,f. ,,

at

requests

unfaithfulness,

demands he is not averse to satirizing

the path of merriment,

literary

is hard to adopt a
poet.

to make inordinate

he admires virtue

whom he had previously


follows

this

of people

Sometimes he tends

in his

glance it

Sometimes he is

variety.

predilection,

and satirical

which to approach

and the obligation

as an elixir,

frustrated

with

stance,

at first

bear in mind that

marked by great

other

ethical

117

is

There

comings
of

law

Sa'di,.

much critical
of

are

His

society.
of

great

Hfij

in Anwari's

satire

diwn

,a theme which

importance;

is

later

short-

officers

taken

up by

Zkni.

'Ubaid-i

and particularly

and the

of municipalities

mockery

the

concerning

Yesterday I saw an officer


of the law on my way home
Who had taken a thorny stick in his hands
And was beating a beautiful
woman
Whilst people were looking at them from the house-tops
I asked someone why the man was beating the poor woman with
a stick,
"while this man is a
"This is a poor harlot, " he replied,
person whose wife is a harlot. " 1
In this

y3t! a the humorous poet puts his


There is

of the people.

first

redspi-zan has a double meaning:

his

is

and the other

prostitutes,

his

along with

the person who punishes

ungenerous

is a prostitute.

a man whose wife


himself,

Anwarf does not even exclude

satires

Ta_3'a

(pp.

Idhar,

tahkada;

af',

Trikh-i

(p.

17);

Ma ma' (vol.
1'

2.

ubib

DiwAn

(ed.

Is pp. 376-8).

II,

History

Persian

II,

he curses

himself

pp.

khan

Nafisi);

(vol.

A Literary

Classical

(vol.

Fu=Zlnfar,.

Adabi_wt

Browne,

A. J. Arberry,

Awfi,

94-98);

for

In

patron:

We praised an undeserving ingrate


From whom we saw no generosity
A fart in the beard of the eulogiser
A penis in the anus of the eulogised.
Bibliography:

the mouth

poem; because the word

in this

an amphibology

in

sharp criticism

125-8);

Dawlatshih,

wa SukhanwarAn
(ed.

D%
pp.

5]2-519);

of Persia

Literature

Mudarris

(pp.

(pp.

Radawi);

Kirmni,

(vol.

II,

115-120);

332-56);

'Tad
pp.

al-'Uli'

365-385);

Hidyat,

118

(473-535/1081e1140).

Sani'I
is

the

one of

dexterity

in

during

we know very

little

of his

(d.

his

Sa"d-i

Sa1m&n (d.

585/1189)

and eulogized

He died

515/1121),

(d.

Hasan Ghazaawi
(d.

writers

and the third


the humility

Ja11 al Din

that

(d.

as

Born im

satire.

he was attached,

(d.

Mukhtiri

the

Ghaznavid

of Mas'id-i

544/1149),

ca.

Sayyid

520/1126),
'Uthain

with

Anwar
Mukhtri

by Szani.

was satirized

the first

(the

excelling

he was a contemporary

he himself

He is

of

Bahrmshih

of

court

AmIr MI'izzi

while

of Persia

save

He was on good terms

and Szant.
Mu'izzi,

composition

life

4Uthss

556/1160),

about 535/1140.

mathna

that

We know also

552/1157).

the

to

period,

earlier

the

! dam San'i

b.

who besides

poets

mystic

had great

a mystic,
Ghazna,

Persian

greatest

Majdd

Ab 'l-Majd

of the three

great

mystical

second being Shaikh Farad al-Din

Runs) who, though by far

Attar

the greatest,

had

to write:

Astir was the face and SanAll its two eyes


1
We came after San'i and AttAr.
We come across,. - :other
following

homage paid by Rums to San'i.

For example the

couplet:
An agitated
Turk I am, and immature
Hence you should ask [the truth]
from the Ghaznawid wise
(i. e. San'i).
2

San'i's

work,

and a d%.
his

as it

has come down to us, consists

But we are here concerned


the Vadiaat
,

ma

to Ba ramshih,

al-

his benevolent

aa

Sultan

patron,

s)

2.

the most celebrated

(Garden of Truth).

.1

with

of seven mat_

.00

of Ghazna.

of

It

is

dedicated

It

is

a moral

do

119

book of

and mystical
in

first

bitter

book,

which

It

in

is

the

among the

termed

San'i's
the

periods:
what

material

and the

satirizing;

in

hardly

seems a realistic

second

period

almost

the

of

world

he did

not

abandon

aa

his

best

immediately

after

satire

and facetiae.

coarsest

Concerning
mere idle

his

many critical
Hadfca is that

In

first

life,

satirical
thnax

and in

it

elements.

this

This,
even in

and
however,

the

We know that
age and died
work

we find

must be said that


Suzani,

The striking

he is writing

and

enjoyments

poetry.
old

every

pederasty

for

in

two

he did

almost

these

contemporary,

that

ninth

into

period

debauchery,

completion,

the poet denies

the

and abstemiousness.

his

the

by his biographers

of his

of his

in

(libertinisms).

and experienced

known

and constructive

however,

Qalandarivvt

humour and satire,,


as that

ribaldry

its_

of Bahrmshih.

praise

he gave up all

description

the

and circumstances.

nobles

mysticism

books,

ten

own condition

divided

period

second

into

lie,

such as wine-drinking,

the

the

in

spiritual.

the

and praised

pleasure

he wrote

men of letters

is usually

forbidden

into

his

lifetime

he fancied

escaped

discusses

poet

tenth

facetiae

and coarse

satire

divided

verses,

of God, and the

the praise

Sam"i's

11,000

about

for
point

invective

it

is

it

contains

He elsewhere
satirical

thanks

gives

and coarse

writing

to the serious

are examples of his

authority

to God that

the men of art prefer his


2
The following
of others.
writing

satire:

--

not

in the

satire:
I have [great]
ambition although I lack
There is no invective
in my poetry.
1

his

120

I called

0 donkey:

man in

you a noble

my poetry

In the hope that my affairs


will be fulfilled
You gave me an invalid
note instead
from

What results

Three of his

this

except

a fraud?

by
taken
'Ubaid
been
have
up
anecdotes
900 107,125;
pp.
,

Ku11i

Treatise

my fraud

see also

by you
1

in his

the last

Joyous

chapter

of

thesis).
but invective,

His critical,

defects,

and individual
jurists,

mystics,

satire

and in particular
astrologers

physicians,

been taken to account


have been given

satire

in his

bantering

throughout

an example in which he criticizes

this

covers almost
ethical

bankruptcy:

and many other


satire.
thesis,

the social

all

classes

judges,
have

A few examples of his


and the following

is

astrologers:

These astrologers
affairs
enough of the world's
are ignorant
heart throughout. their affairs
There is no enlightened
but
Astrology
rubbish
nought
are
nd
and
Only women might be dominated by such teachings
The words of a fortune-teller
would have no benefit
Those who measure the sphere are like those who measure the
wind
baseless
The judgements of wind-measurers
are totally
You should abandon their erroneous judgements
in their
For there is no understanding
Rise and break wind on the astrologer's

1. Diwn,

2.

adi

p.

a,

303:.
'>I'
C

p.

rJ

work
beard.

1.

703:

described on the ground, in which


Mandal is an enchanter's
circle
they sit when endeavouring to conjure up demons or spirits.

121
San'i,

Bibliography:

Haidiaa;

Diwn;

(pp.

Skhan as Sukhnwarn

Furuznfar,
(pp. 106-111);

Natal

253-260);

History

A Literars

Browne,

JAmi,

Dawlatshah,
(vol.

of Persia

(P.

t al-Uns

537);

Tadb1 ra

II,

317-

pp.

322).

b.

(52o-595/1126-u98).

Th

is

of Shirwin

'Ali

a cook of Nestorian

information

on his

himself

ThAqni's
his

in his works that

insistence

that

therefore,

satirized
his

he should

with

with

At the end, however,

the uncle as his

when he was twenty-five

Ni; m al-Din

Manchir

Ab '1-"Al',

given

the pen-name

later

gave his daughter

).

lug

Safi

supervised
to

ThAqni,

years

his

uncle
himself

death,
father

not tears
1
to you.

of age, whereupon he
in the court

him to the prince.

to Thgni

to

father:

real

of Khq! ni by the prince.

in marriage

.9,..

are

are implicit

to devote

the poet laureate

who was to introduce

Shirwinshih,

his uncle

carpentry.

Oh Thgni weep blood upon your uncle's


For that uncle has shown himself a true

visited

that

was not content

case and the young poet was allowed

his uncle

mother

reason there

very

and there

poetry,

occupy himself

his father.

He lost

and his

our poet was vexed by his father's

Thus, KhAgni regards

poetry.

ga ida

and philosopher,

his father

seems that

son to occupy himself

indications

pleaded

It

education.

certain

a physician

Badil

We have insufficient

diwin.

but we know for

life,

'Umar b. 'Uthmn,

al-Din

in his

this

for

al Din

of Persian

was a carpenter,

and perhaps

to Christianity

many references

allow

his father

origin,

jam Af4al

among the greatest

regarded

Born in Shirwa,

writers.

Hassn al-'A

and provided

01

of

He was

The laureate
him with

122

financial

considerable
Abil

heaped innumerable

_I wealth,
to you

I gave

of

and began to satirize


The cause of this
gradually

acquired

fellow-poets

have no evidence

MAI,

he satirized

Khgni should

speaking,
unfair

to place

even San'i.

his

order

His satires

to force

demonstrate

his

I try

belittling

).
41
p.

to praise

nature. "3

"the

us that

ghgni

although

He however,

in his

Hence, generally
But it
as that

that

would be

of Suzan!,

my invective
to satirize

each of us may

in common with

Persian

many other

cs,., J'ofJ
3.

,.

JpCSC-9''Jci1
Diviin, pp. 905-6:

Ti

'; 19'e1r

e;v
10

,.

or

as those of

enemy provoked

order

we

was very

him, and the more he tries


him in

had

Mu'izzi,

are not as coarse or bantering

He tells

was Khgni.

and the latter,

in the same category

me to satirize

me, the more will

too,

be ranked among satirists.

satire

two predecessors.

'1-'A]. ',

Khgni,

Ab '1-'Al',

out

enough his contemporary

naturally

I,

fell

would appear that

of openly
2

(Chapter

seems the initiator

jealousy.

and 'Uneuri.

the former

satirized

his

dear.

and son-in-law

perhaps Abi

to the extent

Rdak

At any rate,
turn,

in poetry

to confirm

ability

'Asjadi,

But it

him including

envied

proud of his

not known.

mastery

father

and it

each other,

is

blessings

fame and my daughter

was not long before

However, it

in

couplet

'l-'All':

On you have

his

as we see in the following

aid,

123

poets does not keep his words,, and has no doubt in calling
He also

"bastards".

adversaries

Perhaps

as "effeminates".

Watwt whom he calls


the whelp at his

was presumably

cat-eyed

door,
is

The following

his

nature
temper

(Kurba-chasm),
penis

on his

is

satire

and philosophers

on Rashid

dog-like,

and so forth.
father

*All,,

jealous

al Din

effeminate,

pagan,

1
the carpenter,

which

in his youth:

written

I have
What a rascal
It seems God created
His
His

bitterest

the dog's
a satire

denounces philosophy

his

for a father
him from fire:

than his chisel


sharper
as his saw.
as cutting

is
is

Though I am the best product


of this
world,
He is ashamed of my knowledge and intellect.
Wishing
that Thgni should
Rather than a man of letters

be a weaver

Though my soul has been sore tormented


By his crude and incongruous words
He is however,. God's appointed guardian of ay livelihood
So therefore
disasters.
God preserve him from the world's
Bibliography:
"Sharvn

1.

II,

Daxlat

Dawlatshh.,

(pp. 88-94);

Ta=

Maiall-i

(year
Armaghin

pp. 200-20;

Khgni,, Tuhfat

yi ,Shirwin".,

Malmal (vol.
Trikh

D%;

al-Saliuc

(pp.
vva

Ibid.,

P. 892:

Hidyat,
'Imd al-KAtib.,

al-"Iraain:

183-184).

"

,
L.
-i
2.

Nafisi,

5, Nos. 9-10);

/, 1

D! w. n, pp. 173-4:

,,

/,
''l

""

-.,

C/

it

;'

^.

Cal

124

(489-569/1095-1173).

Silzan!

is without

Suzanl,
produced.

the coarsest

reservation,

father,

His

Tj al-Shu'ar'

too,

he claims

Pirat,

pious

that

Born

on his

satire

in

has ever
(or

Nasal

he came from the hone of Salmin-i


Persian

and respected

Oh ging;
take me back to the piety
For, I understood through my father
In another

Persia

satirist

was a poet-satirist.

Nakhshab in Persian)
the Prophet's

Muhammadb. Massd

companion.

of Salmn
that I come from Salmn.

eneay, Suzani writes:

Your origin
goes back to Caesar's dog-keeper
keen companion.
While mine goes to Salmn, the Prophet's
We do not possess any sure
that

it

is

to obtain

clear

that

information

and as far

does not go beyond the tradition,


Persian

bitter

satires.

he came across

in school
(szangar)

and fell

of the genealogies

dhlras

in

an apprentice

love with

him,

tell

about. his
for

admiration

a soldier

milliner

boy.

a hat-maker's

However, his

seems inconsistent

Among Suzani's
Arsaln

for

with

KhAn Muhammadbe Sulaimn

during

his

time

d%wn he tells

us

and about his

love

as a needle-maker

his

career

as a court-poet.

characters

are better

of Khniyya

his

went to the

and subsequently

apprentice,

dynasty

or

known:

who ruled

first,
during

1"
2.

' 1.
.

of

of needles

occupation

three

patrons

us that

In his

no

of the nobles

of a manufacturer

master and asked him to teach him the art.

this

and in fact

enabled him more to write

Hence, this

The literary

Only

as we can see from his D_,


adab and genealogy;

poet was so knowledgeable

his age as Suzan! was.

life.

early

from Nakhahab to Bukhr in order

he travelled

an education,

about his

125

495-524/1101-1130;

the second Sanjar

511-552/1117-1157,

and the

b. MAI(e hh who ruled


tsiz

is

third

Prom

b. Muhammad (524-551/

1129-1156).
Suzani

other

He has cruelly

minor poets.

and Rashid 1atw

by the

were afflicted
to

He replied
then

their

poems,

them.

satirized
Khm-Tina.

called

The other

who was of Christian

long

least

and at

this

This

period.

was with

diwin

and
a poet

or Fskim
lasted

satirizing

of Suzani's

one-third

this

was Jalli

victim
mutual

poets

and Mu'izzi

involvement

greatest

origin.

in

of San! '!

those

name of

lived

A,nwart

is

devoted

to

on IJakim Jall.

satires

Concerning

his

whom he regards

satire,

as his

whether
avoid

He writes

that

he followed

of Abfi Nuw s,

him to satirize
he writes

that

this

path

everybody
if

he were to

to boys,

booklet.

companion was ayyn's


"

He has coined

compounds which regardless


and great

of their

facetiae,

many satirical

invective

or Hakkk's
phrases

meaning,

and

are of high

elegance.

D! w n, PP. 58-60;

pp. 97-8:

1f
'I

follower

In another ggs.ida

His "constant

quality

a loyal

then he would lose the honour of embracing


I
He sometimes compares himself with
to Abil Nuvis' dust. '

making love

pornographic

poet is

Ab Nws ordered

young or old.

on a pilgrimage
Jarir.

this

master.

because he dreamed that

1.

his

contemporary

to have

especially

However

Jall

period,

His other

misfortune

great

Dingn

but regarded

San'i

satirized

some respect.

with

Najibi,

Nizmi of Ganja and some

of Tarmidh,

Adib gbir

San'i,

AU Shatranji,

Anwarf,

'Ani'aq,

of

was a contemporary

C:

'f}1

10

126
I

on San'i

His satires
for

poem indicates,

following

as the

would &a. "

San&'i

not

satire-writing,

that

SanA 1 was

and he hoped

a satirist,

that

to him:

satire

writing

believed

Suzant

but

panegyric-writer

an excellent

come from San'i's

presumably

cone and bow low

Oh SanA'i

from the blast


Save yourself
of my trumpet,
has been bestowed on you
To praise
1
then all
Surrender
satire
which is mine.

However,
for

Suzani

also

wrote

therefore

regarded

Moreover,

it

too,

his

although

of Ganja,

on Nijimi

life

satirizes
amtender,

is

recorded

the famous nathna

existence

1.

Diwn,

satire.

without

slave-boys

d! w n nine
indications

always that

for

his

and girls,

own poetry.
being

He thus

a flamboyant

and so unscrupulous
2
none may spend a happy day.

that

because of

.
".

p. 402:

I2(
2.

satire

and also he led an extravagent

in Nizmi's

writer

boasting

poet,

infidel

an outrageous

his

write

emerges from Suzant'a

Greek and Caucasian

with

none of this

San"i

in his

which occurs
It

indeed.

goes back to the Sassanids

and princely

that

"a poet

that

was a proud and even arrogant

origin

to

continue

to San'i,

appeal

claws. "

is very coarse

Nijiml

to

entitled

as a commonplace

without

His satire

that

himself

to

likely

and we may presume

panegyrics

was held

a lion

was like

times,

was hardly

such a proposition

Diwns pp" 89:


LVVf).

',

14

(Sid'ClcUi"%

..ht1G)tJ(jI
i

'1
V C

J/
p

(J

v,

127

is

The following

perhaps the best

is still
Though Niimi
Through composing his

of his

on Nijni:

nine satires

I imagine
him as dead
alive,
my poetic
right
elegy I fulfil

lament him
For, if I wait for him to die and thereupon
He would not hear it,
and what then would be the point?

I will
therefore
write an elegy so fine
That he should wish to die right now
I utter a thousand imprecations
upon Nijimi
Both in my sleep and in my waking hours

and his verse

One of my best deeds throughout my life


1
Was to torment this evil-doing
cur.
Suzani's.

was open to criticism

mildly,
this

own words are enough to suggest

in a very fine

and reproach,

that

his

life,

to put it

and he actually

poem of which the following

acknowledges

two couplets

are fairly

famous:
,
I was snared in the Devil's
I trod in the path of Devil,
Till
my evil conduct made me to surpass the Devil in sin:
I-spent
no single day without committing a sin
As if not committing
a sin, seemed to me a sin:
His biographers,

such as Awfi,

this

of all

most ribald

penitential

1.

D%,

Persian

Mustawfl
poets,

and Dawiatshih,
in his

us that'

old age composed a

cli

e>o,

D1win, pp. 170:


lp

poems of his

f p. J d cb)

ch i>
2.

tell

poem, and God pardoned him, and indeed those

pp. 63-4:

in

128

he had changed his attitude

that

old age show clearly

must be said that

Finally,

it

satirist

among the Persian

of Anwarf,

humour and witticism

and delectable

even the fresh

Suzani was the most eminent

although
his

poets,

towards poetry.

ZekAni,

'Ubaid-i

and particularly

of his acknowledged

witticism

the

lack

however,

satires,

and

master,

Ab Nuws.

Guzida (pp.

Trikh-i

Mawlawi-i

733-34);

in 604/1207,

Ru: d (604-672/1207-127-3).

Jal1

known in the west as -Ed,

his

some religious

differences,

xhwarazmshh's

jealousy

with

and finally
It
both
the
future

He accepted

little

this

Shaikh
Jall

journey

Fand

al-Din

al-Din
in

his

blessing
his,
him
gave
and

Ilbi-Nma.

to

Baghdad to Mecca,

al-Din

for

ten

almost

KcUqbd Saljugi

and in Qunya he occupied

the invitation

of his followers

and disciples,

died in 628/1230,

was during

visited

Muhammad

forced

Asia Minor

from 'Ala'

and the guidance

teaching

Walad,

celebrity

of Sultan

He went through

throughout

an invitation

in Balkh

al-Din

great

and was consequently

homeland.

and travelled

in Qunya.

to settle
himself

and hatred

or five

fame and perhaps because of

increasing

he became the subject

westwards from his

accepting

Muhammad

among the four

is

of his age, who enjoyed

Because of his

years before

al Din

Mustawfi,

111-U5);

Muhammadb. Husain known as Bahl'

mystics

thence to MalAtiyya,

(pp.

Born to a noble family

ever produced.

father

was among the great


and respect.

Tadhkira

315-319).

poets Persia

pp. 191-194);

II,

(pp.

Mawlawt, better

migrate

Dawlatshh,

Sukhan wa Sukhanwarin

Furuznfar,

greatest

Awf1,

D%;

Bibliography:

(vol.
ubb

that
Atlir

Bahl'

al-Din

of Nishpur,

arms and prophesied


and a copy

of

his

and Jall
and the
his

al-Din

greatness

celebrated

took

latter
in

mathna

the

129

of

his

from
(d.

638/1240),

in
for

the

was to prove

and it

642/1244

of this

the product

was at the request

It

successor.

fruitful

guide
took

place

acquaintanceship
The Diwn-

achievement.

In 657/1258

of companionship.

period

Chalabi

4usim al-Din

he appointed

spiritual

Shams al-Din

an extremely

of Had Is spiritual

nourishment

Shamssis

to

then

of Tarmidh

al-Din

favourite

most

sciences

death,

latter's

Burhin

introduction

His

of Tabriz.

Shams al Din

his

on from

and later

Islamic

current
the

until

Shaikh

disciple

former

father's

his

father

his

with

mainly

period

the

seems to have studied

al Din

Jall

(d. 684/1283)

as his

of the latter

that

spiritual
the

Rum! wrote

Rum! died in Qunya in the year 672/1273 at the age of

Mathnawi.
sixty-eight.

lyrical

Both his Mathnawi and his

to both Western and Persian

standard

according

however,

is with

satirical,

for

although

mysticism,

his

humorous qualities

and he mingles

anecdotes

dignified,

others

contains,

grotesque

has the reverse

idea.

of unity",

comment, "A perfect

A Literary

of facetiae

i. e. pantheism

of Persia,

our ideas)

(dkn-i

III

the six

books of

"a great

number of

disgusting.

and
"1

if
the

his Mathnawi is "the


wahdat).

has to be like

vol.

ones

serious

and "disgusting',

indignifed
that

the

Persian

some sublime

character,

He believes

poet or orator

History

it

is

and humour come together

" as Browne noted,

(in
and even
finds

throughout

that

of all

than his

are not less

of the most various

reader

market place

1.

"It

Mathnawi.

the most eminent figure

and the playful

the ordinary

however,
author

the serious

book.

the sixth

rambling

he is

Our concern,

scholars.

of Rum! and his

and the culmination

the Maw,
in

aspect

another

of a very high

Diwn are poetry

p. 520.

He himself

was to

a cook on whose table

130

to

something

mast be prepared

of food

kind

every

his

liking,

delicacies

literary

to also

for

providea

as. the vehicles

hence it

is

compatible

with

the

serious-minded

their

for

"Pacetiae

that

but

He uses satire

his

explaining

does

sublime

mystical

can find

even atheists

in it

of

not

neglect

and
views;

something

views.

Like his predecessors


believed

a good variety

people,

and humorous-diet.

can find

everybody

he provides

Accordingly

that

not strange

that

order

"'

playful

facetiae

in

San'i

is

to some extent,

and 'AttAr,

to be treated

teaching

he

as serious. "

He

writes:
Il

Haz

is

teaching

treat

you should

And you should not


Any serious
speech
While the facetious

be deceived
is a playful
is serious

A rough count would suggest that


facetious

or playful

the anecdotes
'Ubaid

anecdotes

and approximately

quoted three

as serious

facetious
by its
appearance,
on the tongue of the facetious
from the mouth of the wise man.

the Mathnawi contains

in about 1,000 couplets.


293 couplets

of these anecdotes

pp. 99,108,129).

As is mentioned

ful.

For instance,

no subject

and nothing

more dreadful

earth,

it

not abandon his humour; to explain

Twenty-one

are in the sixth

in his

Risla-`i

above he mingles

matter

eighty-nine

is more serious

than death.

But here,

the priority

book.

Dilriah
serious

of life

2.

Book 3,

Mathnawl,
I1

_.,

p.

Book 2, p. 238:
(of
'

1w

L!
(r. 71rJVP.
1

playon

to death., he

311:
)

1t

Rund does

writes:

1.

(B

with

than life
too,

of

J)

bpi;:

131

if only with half a soul


I am content to cling to life
And to watch the world from the anus of a mule:
.1

Poet

TA

and Mystic

1g-i

MawlAn

(London,

1950);

MoRol (pp.

"A11'

Furuznfar,

al-Dawla);

(Tehran,

Nicholson,

1932);

1945);

Riimis
dar

Risla

Igbdl,

'Abbs.,

History

E. G. Browne, A Literary

534-36);

Bad! '

R. A.,

Bad! ' al-Zann,

Furuzinfar,

Mawln (Tehran,

Ahw1 wa Zindaarni-i

Trikh-i
(vol.

hl-i

Sharh-i

al-Zamin,

(ed.

Mathnawi

Bibliography:

of Persia

Pp. 520-24).

II9

Saa'di (d.
known as Sa'di

695/1295).

Mushrif

Abt 'Abdallh

was born in Shiraz

or Shaikh Sa'di,

b. Mullib

al-Din

Shirazi.,

at the beginning

of

in the religious
2;
and he himself
sciences, and were famous for piety and abstemiousness
3
Sa'di after having begun
was accustomed to prayer and early-rising.
the seventh century

his

school,

in order

masters

of the tine,

639/1241)

for

to

complete

his

After

Syria,

the peoples

great

Ibid.,

his

Ku

3.

! ulliyt

ordinary

enthusiasm

to Shiraz

Nijimiyya

entered
.

he visited

the celebrated
(d.

b, al-Jaws!

studies,

t,

the merriments
considerable

and sufferings
experiences,

and served in the court

P. 41:

and

of the

yoo
p
'?
'L

p. 21186:
[Gulistn],

ca.

he began travelling

Book vi., p. 593:

civ
2.

Here,

Ab '1-Faraj

era and accumulated

then in 654/1256 returned

1.

and there

and North Africa.

Asia Minor

of his

studies.

learned

'Umar b., Muhammadal-Suhraward. t (540-632/

completing

He observed with

were all

Baghdid,

in particular,

and Shahb al-Din

1145-1234).
through

left

in Shiraz,

education

His family

A. H.

of

132

AtAbakfin dynasty

of Firs

b. Sa'd b. Zangl

(d.

of this

dynasty.

Mecca.

On his

and took his pen-name from Atbek Ab Bakr

658/1259)

and gained the respect

the Mongol conquest

After

through

return,

Asia Minor,

and found access to the presence


his brother
both viziers.

in the year 695/1295,

(_)

near the waters


Concerning

no Persian
this

his

writer

poetry

of writing,

in 8aw4a_,

Juwaint

(d.

part

P_

that

and poetry

is

Persian

a living

is

was not,

a greater

he was justified

language,
mysticism

however,

to say that

suffices

but wherever

or a wider

(Rose-Garden)

in Bah_

(d.

boast

K. wfi

completely

...

half-pious,

works in the Persian

This Macchiavellian

aspect

is well
the king

out the eyes of the leopard. "

remain

of the period,

half-worldly

language"

(vol.

he
of

one of the
II,

p. 525).

chapter

of

mercy those who

without

cornered,

side
is

in the eighth

destroy

ALY^ because
when the cat is

writing

so long as
will

in particular

explained
"to

fact

in

would

and as Browne noted,

spiritual,

most Macchiavellian

"Prose

the literature

l
and the Gui_

and it

of Sa'di

criticism

al-Din

1270/1853)

that

and in

reputation.
has been

Mu'in

stn,

Qni

in his
.

dominated

character

of

own convent

such as Najd al Din

the last

the Persian

where he advises

in Shiriz

in his

celebrity

possessed by Sa'd! ",

on the whole the astute

are afraid

it

in Gul_ stn

"represents

Gulistin

and

life

but none was able to match it,

a territory

Although

unwritten.

of his

and was buried

(d. 898,/1492)

and many others;

therefore-seem

by

A. H. ) in Nigiristn,

century

683/1284)

and was well-received

day, not only in Persia,

especially

' Jim!

(eighth

Juwainl

Sa'dl

of Shams al Din

by many famous men of letters

imitated

for

at Azarbaijn

and prose-writing

language is cultivated,

His style

left

of RuknAbd.

to this

enjoys

Sa'di

arrived

He spent the remaining

died there

of Firs,
Sa'di

(623-681/1226-1282)

4AtA Malik

and the favour

it

will

scratch

and

133

from

Apart
critical

It

tales.

forerunner

for

and in

in

particular
to

preferable

Gulistn,

(hazliyvt),

Youth",

very

famous

the

of

Ethics

Aristocracv,,

"An expedient

falsehood

Kullivat.

150;

p,

'Ubaid

(ed.

Gulistn

1937);

Browne, A Literary

Sa'di,

Gu_

History

belonging

to that

There are
his

quotes the tale

Sa'di

of Persia,

686/1287).

of Yazd.

to the Sassanid dynasty,

"On Love and

as non-ethical.

relations

of him and Qutb

(Taldra,

p. 255),

Nma (Tehran,

by Muhammad 'Ali

(ed, by 'gbd al-'AVIm

from a noble family

of his

(d. 715/1315).

and prefaced

Hamgar (d.

editions

p. 106) and Dawlatshlh

Muhammad4azwini,

Sa'di,

mock

and obscene poems

of Gabst n

chapter

and regarded

one of him and Humn-i Tabrizi


Bibliography:

three

in the adab books concerning

t,

li

his

in official

omitted

men of importance.
(K

including

(khaBitht)

the fifth

with

recounted

Shirzl

in his

closest

him implicitly

('Ubaid's

writing

coarseness

have been criticised

Maid-i

he was the

and

criticized

statement,

truth"

and facetious

together

other

al Din

his

in

so many

many satirical

that

has

especially

which are usually

humorous tales
with

works,

of incredible

"t

including

"Ubaid

a-mischievous

His satirical

Kul

his

wrote

9).

p.

homilies

fact

In

writer

be said

may therefore

'Ubaid.

and there

here

Persian

no classical

poems and parables

anecdotes,

facetious

is

'Ubaid

(vQl.

Garakni,

Majd

al Din

He used to think

and in his
dynasty.

'

1937);

Furughi,
II9

Tehran,

pp. 526-40);

Tehran,

1931).

1'
Hamgar originally

himself

poems he 'always

came

as belonging

takes great

He spent most of his

pride

poetical

life

134

in the service
the
(d.

of 5ulghurid
and the

of Isfahin
683/1284).

and Sa'di,

and is

his

Joyous Treatise,

poetry:

son of famous

humour and satire,

that

humorous tales",

"they

Imni of Herat

asked Sa'di
or Majd-i

of Herat

(d.

Diwn
686/1287)

that

about him in
in

recorded

and after

'Ubaid's

the Trikh
quoting

he

Guzida.

the anecdote

who had got the upper hand in

Hangar? "

us the following

gives

hib

be noticed

should

Sa'di

Hangar who has never said a prayer in his


Can surely not match the merits of Imiml.
Mustawfi

Xd ammad,

rigides.

anecdotes

two of which are also

writes

of

it

There are five

speaks of "his

Shams al Din

to Immi

as a writer

appreciated

was a renowned jester.

below,

of Frse and Bahl$ al-Din

He was a contemporary

Concerning

Mustawfl

Atbeks

anecdote

answered:
life
1

about Hangar:

Majd-i Hamgar had an old wife, whom he left in Yazd.


However, she came to Isfahan,
and while Hamgar was
teaching his students
his disciples
of
one
entered
,
the room and said, "I have got good news for you; your
wife has cone from Yazd and is now in. your house. "
Hamgar replied,
"It would be good news if you were to
tell
had fallen
on her head, "
me that the ceiling
This remark was reported to his wife, who reproached
Hamgar with the following
words, "Ye have both lived
many nights and many days, " to which Hagar replied,
"You may well have spent many nights and days, I
haven't. "
certainly
Bibliography:
(pp.

Guzida

119,123,184-5,196-7,201,242);

'Ubaid,

1.

Trikh

Kuli

tiJ

(pp.

1.
)
!)
c'

(pp.

749-752);
Igbl,

Dawlatshh,
Trikh-i

135,152).

i c113

Mouul

TadhkIra
(p.

537);

135

al Din

4wi

al-Iii

b. Ahmad al-Iji,
the

life,

except

that

years

in

length

between

he is

Shirdz
the

the

and his

of Ij,

His principal

who has published

a brief

for

his humorous aspect,


books nor his

it

for

hunourous aspect
writings

it

the overall
as a great

that

Dilausha.

which

jester

by his writings,
fanaticism,

above-mentioned

who has
that

the

in his

mocker.

book (Ku]livt,

examples of his

critical

following

an example of these:

on his

sharp contrast

'Ubaid

a libertine

In the following
outlook

is notable

of him is in

and a great

116,131,135,139,147,150).

'Ubaid,

side

of humour.

'Ubaid depicts
created

It

the huriorous

man does not show itself

celebrated

Al-Iji

of these two

neither

us in his Risila-*i

bereft

work.

But as we are concerned with

through

of this

a philsophical

al-OAdudiv-vaP which

observe it

celebrated

enemy of despotism,

being

this

and we can only

impression

"Ubaid's

fron

comentaries.
be noticed

he

to Europe through

reveal

a somewhat facetious
times in

should

less

which are quite

The picture

several

and

in 756/1355.

al-Kalim,

treatises

other

character,

depicted

'Ilm

known as al-'AQ'id

catechism

many

mediator

Muzaffarid,

He died

two chapters

for

speaks of his being a

too.
fi

cajd

As his name implies,

IJAfij

teacher,

of

the

discuss

known of his

and became the

mission.

work is al-Mawaif

has been the basis

of his

post

book which has been introduced

and theological
T. Sorensen,

the

al Din

in Firs.

and respected

authority

also wrote

in his

a fortress

is

Inja,

Mubiriz

rival

little

he held

of Ab Ishq

time

to have failed

reported

great

relates,

'Abd al-Rat}mn

whom we will

Very

chapters.

as Kutbi
at

"Adud al-Din

and philosopher,

following

latter

was a native

756/1355).

theologian

in

at

(d.

society

presents

to
him

of noble rank,

His name occurs nine


pp. 108,110,112,
three

chapters,

have been given,

more
the

136
for:
hiring
Turkish
Mawlna "Adud al-Din
servant
a
was
father,
however,
boy's
The
was not
price.
a certain
he
but
in
the
the
end
was
price;
with
satisfied
the
"I
you
offer
provided
accept
saying,
satisfied
to
in
to
his
take
order
enable
other
work
should allow
his agreed wage. "
him to earn some extra
money besides
"
"But in our house there is no work only discussion,
'Acud al-Din.
replied

A1-i Mu%affar

(ed.

S. Nafist);

Ahw,1--ia_fi;

(pp.

21,29,75,99);

of

Q. Ghani, 9 Bjahth dar

dar Trikh-i
wa Afkr

Athr

wa

Encyclopaedia

Ri;

' baid,

(d. 710/1310).

Shirazi

634/1236 in Shiraz
the greatest
Persia,

fame rests

of the seventh and early

the sole

except

on his

mostly

father

He belonged

al Din

Diy"

who treated

physician

After
Asia Minor,

the'sick

of Ibn Sin's

from him,

Sixs

and of Malltiya

wrote

more than twelve

mostly

medical

Al-Ti

li

he left

al-Qnn

family

hospital

Shiraz

a1-Tibb.

and was then appointed

for

of Shiraz.

al-Dubbi

His notable
which includes

Iraq,

Khuraan,

some of the

In Qunya he attended
shams

to the judgeship

(680-683/1281-1284).
Ahmad
Takudr
under
books in the different

of physicians,

an experienced

Tsi and solved


fi

and

a philosopher

being

the Muzaffari

sciences

and philosophy.

Ghurrat

in

648/1250)

His

but at the sane

Qunyawi (d. 67], 1273) and learned

of Sadr al-Din

and mysticism

(d.

as

in

centuries

to a prominent

Na7nal-Din

and attended

difficulties
the circle

Massd

medical

studying

as an astronomer,

regarded

(d. 672/1273).

'Sal

being a man of medicine,

a traditionist.

finally

He is

eighth

of Nagar al-Din

himself

time he distinguished

was born in

Shirizi,

in 710/1311.

and died in Tabriz

scholar

with

Mahmd b. Mas'd b. Muslih,,

or Qu b-i

known as 'A11ma-, -"i Shirazi,

better

Il J isva

Mawbib-i

under al-Idji.

a_,

Qutb al Din

his

Tazdi,

al Din

Mu'in

Bibliography:

branches
Persian

He

of knowledge,

book is

12 branches

of

the Durrat

of knowledge,

137
(d. 706/1306),,

to Amir Dubj

and is dedicated

the Ishigwandi

ruler

of Gilan.

It

is recorded

4adith

(experienced

al-mutafarr'nin

"Acud al Din,

unlike

humourous of all
independence,
he lived

at a distance

of a mystic,
duties,

and it

of his prestige

from the court.

is

said that

and played

conjurer
in

it

al-Din
being

heard this,
then I shall
'Ubaid
al-Din,

is

said that

He wrote
he said,
write

disorderliness

respect

he led the life

this

idea.

"If

name occurs

one of "Ubaid's
of the society.

loved

chess player
himself

permitted
skilled

people in Persia.
disputes

For

ghwaja Rashid

with

who was libelled

produces

and

many amusing anecdotes

a commentary on the Koran,

a work of exegesis

religious

he was also a very

he had continuous

Rashid al-Din

his

He, however,

and Shifi'1

There are still

seems to have put his

and his

presents

In this

Hamadn1 (645-718/1247-1318).

Fac}lallh
a Jew.

and courtiers

about him among the educated

circulation

instcmce,

the rubb.

his

princes

fond of it;

chess and was himself

playing

to preserve

with

He was a Shifi'ite,,

continuously.

tried

that

the most

as perhaps

He was a brilliant

wine and sat among the scorners.


played

be noticed

should

he sometimes neglected

disputes

al-Suytl

although

it

He always

scholars.

and in spite

studied

and perhaps because

has been recorded

Qujb al-Din

Persian

he ardently

life

in many fields).

his humour and libertinism,

Concerning

Qutb al-Din

gave him the title

Abu '1-Fid'

studies

wide-ranging

of life,

on the subject,

notes

and made some critical

of this

years

the end of his

and towards

to Tabriz,

retired

in his later

that

as

and when Qutb al Din

a tafstr

on the Koran,

on the Torah. "

own ideas

into

the mouth f Qutb

10 times in the Joyous Treatise,


own criticism
Throughout

on social
this

and each

and ethical

thesis

some examples

138

of his humour have been given.

is another

The following

example of

them:

Qutb al-Din
conversion
and Jewish

to
He
pretend
used
witty
man.
a
very
was
to Christianity
or Judaism in the Christian
societies,
and to Islam in the Islaadc

faith.
It
he
that
of
another
was
community, pretending
happened that on one of these occasions Shaikh Sa'dl saw
the people into supposing that he would
him, tricking
and they responded by providing
convert to their faith,
Sa'di watching the scene was surprised
rewards and robes.
"Oh
Qujb
in
his
him
al-Din,
ear,
whispered
and approaching
"
Muslim;
been
have
a
never
you
Bibliography:

Abis 'l-Fid',

al-Fuwati.,

al-, 4awidith

(vol.

p. 76);

(PP.

III9
137-8);

Muaaddana-i

md'a
al-J

Sayyid Jalll

Khwnsri,,
Durrat

al-TL;

Raw,41t
Igbl,

kh (vol.

T"
(p.

358);

al-Din

IV,

Trikh-i

Ibn

Khw&ndmir,, Habib al-Siyar

Tehrai,

al-Jannt

pp. 65-6);

(p.

Gihnima-i

508);

Moro1

1311

Misbkt,
(pp.

506-7).

Muhammad,

CHAPTER III

Ni; m al Din

Khwija

1.
figure

of the eighth/seventeenth

humorist;

he is perhaps

details

one invaluable
is

the

biographers

source

Trikh-i

Muatawfl

could

wkose writer
which

(d.

At the end of his

treatises.

I.

article

"Among then,

"3

See Trikh-i

This

that

Guzida,

(v r.

2.

of his

limited

the bare

(manshr

rescript

to just

who finished

tribes

of the

addressed to them

is to say,, the Zknis,


who has some fine

This

Hamdallih

celebrated

compatriot

poet's

ever

career,

'Ubaid.

of

was a contemporary

but important,

scant,

mentions
is

that

our poet
honoured

poems and unrivalled

information

throws

light

on

p. 7:

iCJiGJ`Llj1j
la

we know is

on Qazw1n, the author

'Ubaidallh,

writer

from the surrounding

He speaks of ZZIr nis as notable

and quotes an Arabic


2
by the Prophet Mnhammad.

Khwaja Nizm al-Din

All

our

Banu Khafja

as follows:

poet and philosophical

sure information

refrain

a remarkable

and satirical

was composed by the

750/1349),

his work in 730/1330.1

of Qazwin is

a writer,

parodist

anecdotes.

Guzida

Qazwln

of

the greatest

imaginative

with

century,

We have but little

produced by Persia.
and few of his

ZIcUT

'Ubaidallih-i

)(

s(,, "111. w

L')}I.,

Lj
C/"
_,

)j

Ibid.,

p. 804: j'

i) CS. '

" _^',oGig-

'i)

"' 1L )
CJ
ci
zit

Bane Thafja,
of the Hawzin tribe of "Ugail which~
a subdivision
remained as powerful Bedowina longer than most of the other tribes
the Arabian Peninsula at the dawn of Islam.
For
which inhabited
Nihivat
see Nuwairl,
more details,
al-'Arab,
vol. II9 pp. 340-42.
3. Trlkh-i
Guzida, p. 805:
""
W
j
(!
. j L?
l

139

140

some aspects

life.

of our poet's

of the Bans Khafija

had settled

that

explains

It

having

who after
is

'Ubaid

travelled

this

perhaps for

(d. 778/1376)

Siwajl

poet Salmin-i

fellow

Arabs,

Qazwin.

outside

it

membership of the Zekni family

his
because
Zkni
of
named
branch

First,

was

who were a
to Iran,

reason that

'Ubaid's

him "rustic-born"

called

rst-zda):

that infernal
Zikni,
'Ubaid-i
satirist.
Is destined to be ill-fated
and bereft of religion
Though he is not from Qazw n, and is rustic-born
1
to call him a Q,azwini.
It may be appropriate
that

The second fact

name, his

full

our poet's

his

above information,
because 'Ubaid

himself

we can derive

and descent,

family

name was 'Ubaidallih,


gives

information

from Mustawfi's

In accordance
is

and this

the

with

quite

is

correct,

his beloved:

his name when addressing

to others and oppression


If you do injustice
2
Do not do the same to 'Ubaida3. llh Zkni.
In the meantime,

is

clear

' baid was already

730/1329,
and this

it

suggests

that

that

a man of note in his

he could

in

book was written

when Mustawfi's

homeland,

not have been born much later

Qazwin,
than

700/1300.
As far
Dawlatshlh

as secondary

sources

are concerned,

we have the Tadhkira

of Samargand who composed his book in 829/1486.3

p. 324:

He devotes

1.

Dawlatshih,

2.

Qazwinis are regarded as stupid by the inhabitants


of other
Su li 't, p. 71 ;
e! i "n)
L
n
o i9' V1L
. w-

3.

Tadhkira,

-W
Op

fu

of

, ^,

towns.

(Leiden,
by
E.
G.
Browne
First
1901).
A new edition
edited
appeared
(Tehrin)
in
1958
by Muhammad 'Abbsi.
and corrections
with additions
Dawlatshh
quotes only two poems of , Ubaid,
one of them is on "debt",
(pp.
famous
in
his
diwn
is
71-2),
the second is
and exists
which
in his own _;
it seems, however,
that it is not
not extant
because
both the style
'IIbaid's.,
and significance
are not apt to
his poetry.
See Tadhki ra, p. 326.

141

fal, on 'Ubaid

a long but less informative


from

poems is

his

(d,

1700)

(d.

Khw ndmir

al Din

are

both

very

by Hidyat

al-Fu
reluctant

942/1535)

Iglim

tashkada
and

(d. 1288/1871),

that

by Ghiylth

al-Sivar
'Ali

of him is

(d.

Idhar

made in

1195/

Ma ma'

because the author

perhaps

Dawlatshlh

Habib

by Lutf

name in his

to mention a satirist's

quotations

by Amin Ahmad Rani


in

offered

and no mention

meagre,

From the information


that

the Haft

The information

1023/1617).

ca.

in

reproduced

fuller

which with

was

book.

gives

us,

it

is worth noting

he says,
At the beginning
'Ubaid was not a ribald satirist.
He
on rhetoric
composed a treatise
which he desired to
The courtiers
present to the king,
and favourites,
however, told him that the king had no need of such
Then he composed a fine panegyric,
rubbish.
which he
desired to recite,
but they informed him that his
majesty did not like to be mocked with lies,
exaggerations
Thereupon, 'Ubaid
and the fulsome flattery
of poets.
said, "In that case I too will pursue the path of
impudence, so that by this means I may obtain access to
the king's most intimate
society,
and may become one
of his courtiers
and favourites",
which he accordingly
did.
He. then began recklessly
to utter the most
this elegant quatrain:
shameless sayings, and versified
In arts and learning
be not skilled
like men
Or by the great - like me despised thou 'lit
be.
Wouldst earn applause from this base age of thine
[Take boys to the courts] Beg shamelessly,
play lute
libertine.
1
Although

anecdote,

1.

the description

concerning

of Daw1atshih

the reason for

'Ubaid'a

is

and

no doubt accurate,

flieht

to satire,

this

does not

Dawlatshih,
T_,
History
p. 322. See also Browne, A Literary
of Persia,
vol. III,
pp. 232-3, which I have 'reproduced his translation.
The quatrain is as follows:

Vif/)'CSs

This quatrain
manuscript,

is

r
not extant

in

'Ubaid's

Kuluyt,

published

ow-)

or

142
of truth.

have the ring

and the

mockery

the

although

OUbaid'a preoccupation

like,

was probably
the

of

corruption

the two poems which DawlatshAh


first

is

one, neither

centuries

We know nothing

of 'Ubaid's

in his

is

hardly

applicable

by Mustawfi

honours

'Ubaid's

and titles

the two first,

particular

have no evidence

and it

that

However, we do know that

honoured at least

in some courts.

above, he himself

in one of his

Besides

and
sources

Mu"az aM (the

in

some
but we

to any of his

he never officially
he was almost

held

certainly

these biographers

poems in praise

honoured

al-PucPa]

These titles,

to people who held

such a position.

Shuj'

childhood

and Mafkhar

is

and what

in different

having been a minister


seems clear

two

and there

writings,

such as $hib-i

were applied

of "Ubaid's

kings,

contemporary

nearly

or to those who were of the same rank5;

position,

ministerial

who died

to his

men)4 are not known.

of the learned

pride

'Ubaid's

complete

(a
Khw
a
man of distinction)3,
and

minister)

Of

motive.

not in

of what has been said

Again the veracity

temperament,

and we have quoted the

and youth,

childhood

and

own natural

one is

the first

'Ubaid's;

witticism

been a great

has recordedl,

period

youth.

(the

age must have

of value about this

we are told

about

of his

because

and the second was composed by Anwarf,


2
before 'Ubaid.

KullIYAt

little

with

mentioned

of the Muzaffarid

Shih

writes:

1.

Tw hkra,

2.

Anwarf,

3.
4.

Tarikh-i
Tadhkira,

5.

Like

p. 323,

Diwin,

vol.

Guzida,
p.
P. 322.

hib

The second quatrain

II,
85.

is

as follows:

(ed.
581
Radawi).
p.

b. 'Abbad and Khwja Rashid al-Din

and a few others.

143

[and nobles]

Kings

have ever honoured me

beginning
of
Your Majesty

From the
Now from

mapchildhood
I expect the

Which I have seen from the world's


This
Shh Shuj'

from his

that

in the city

was residing
childhood

only a few years before

his

among his family,

lived

of the kings,

courts
given

death according

is

as an honorific

indicating

title,

which would complement the scant


forced
for

to look

regard

as a libertine
or indirectly.
life

contrary

1.

2.

3.

to his

the titles

is hardly

for

committing

who always

avoided

What we may infer


and studies

his

were not in Shiriz

at a date approximately

KU131

fron

t,

p. 33:
01,1, 1r(..

oCS

mystic,

as Dawlatshh

it

frustrated,

seems he had

either
is

characterized
directly

that

'Ubaid's

writes3,

on the

between 742-758/1341-1356

we are

He is best

own writings

were

For information

about himself

"

the

a judgeship

our hope is

to posterity.

speaking

in

by Mustawfi,

too,

an unworldly

himself

like

rank.

offered

Here,

lived

'Ubaid

he acquired

position
social

details

own writings.

our writer

although

little

early

that

clear

He also

one.

when

Shih Shuj',

to his biographers,

to him not because he held an official

rather

would seen

in which he praised

which was a noble

but it

Hence it

of Kimin.

the time

until

and kings.

nobles

the two years 766-767/1364-1365,

during

ode was written

time;
up to this
same courtesy

at the

In a selection
to which is prefixed
of 1Ubaid's la ivif,
a Persian
(d.
by
NIrz
I9fahin
Habib
131]11893), printed
preface,
of
probably
in 1303/1885-6, after
at Istanbul
quoting DawlatshAh,. 'suggests that
'Ubaid returned to Qazwin and there he had the honour of being
appointed to a judgeship (g dwt .
Tadhldra,
v'
P. 32
ri>I)

144
beginning
for

the

of

Shiraz,

of Shah Shaikh

reign

there

and stayed

territory

of Shiraz",

mna4li

P
RW6%6.
and

t'

the reign

of the Inj

dynasty

his

vizier

except

learned

poems on various

"transitory

al-Din

which he had built


destroyed.

utterly
on this,
It
there

to the royal

1.

2.

family,

Kullivt,
j j

Ku li

3.41fi4,

'baid

was a beautiful

t,

the

at the beginning

of

of Abi Is} Aq, whom,


he praised

"Amid al-Mulle,

Later

occasions.

on, he saw the end of

Abil Ishq was killed


only four

while

years before

has composed two panegyrics


the fourth

quoted-in
'Ubaid

and witty

was living

and Amin al-Din

PP. 65 and. 55:


"%t ej`>a''(l

chapter

and his
his death,

of Jahrn4,

palace
was

and two qi a#s


of this

at the court

named Jahin

poetess

Khtn,

thesis.

of Abt Ishq,
who belonged

a member of Ab Iahq's

"-i- s",",
i1/
f(.

y4

p. 113:

Dtwn, p. 140:
(,

4.

years,

$ulm al-Din

in 758/1353,

that

or four

at the court

in 758/1356.3

one of which is
is said

of

of Abis Is4Aq at the hand of the MuWfarid

prosperity"

amir Mubriz

breeze

in which "Ubaid composed the


2
to Shh Abil Ish1q.
'baid,
was

three

for

occupied,

in different

by the

was captivated

the year 751/1350

therefore

with

'Iraq

he left

Fars,

to "the

attracted

mathnawi 'Ushsha Nima dedicated

together

in

is

The second date

"heart

his

while

and he felt

Ab Is4lq

I-

Jahin Malik ghtun


was the daughter of
5haraf al Din Mal d Shah-i Inj.
She
beginning of her dfwan (of which there
Nationale
at Paris, Supplement 763) as
See yaf, Trikh-i
dar Iran,
Adabiyvit

cii

Jalal al-Din Massd b.


introduces
herself
at the
is a copy in the Bibliothbque
"Jahin bint-i
Mas'dshih".
vol. III,
pp. 1045-1050.

145

court

married

and they

her.

'Ubaida
not

were

seemingly

on good terms

poems as "womanish"

her

marriage,

"TTbaid composed some very

is

quarrel

of this
extant

in Shiraz,

'Ubaid,

leave

Because,

it.

for

death,

It

Khtn's

and seeing

lines

with

of

them both.

or any poetical
Diwans.

the chaos which had erupted

so fond of Shiraz,
"Shiraz"

no longer

was perhaps at this

decided

to

"was a residence

time that

philosophical

he composed
lyrics

from

are quoted:

Shaikh Amin al Din


JahrWi,
who stood in high esteem of ShAh Ab
Ia1 Aq, was a jester
of his,
not a ministor
as Dawlatahih
puts it.
(pp. 129),
his name once in RisAla-i
Dilaush
'Ubaid mentions
him only as a jester.
Some scholars
have said Hifil
quoting
(Diwn,
him
but it seems that
the person whom
praised
p. 363),
(d.
HfiV admired was Shaikh Amin al-Din
KAzrn
745/1344),
of
not
Amin al Din
him as
of Jahzum, because the immortal
poet describes
not as a jester:
a great mystic,

See also
Hidyat,

2.

has

this

The result
of our career is nothing but disaster
is nothing but evil result
And the interest
of life
I fully
admire the accomplished sage who said:
"Shiriz
is not residence fit for intellectuals"
Poverty, loneliness
and trouble know no bounds
Oh "Ubaid: I am no longer able to bear such frustration.

1.

her

'Ubaid

satirizing

"Ubaid or Jahin

and most deeply

most pessimistic

which the following

coarse verses

quotes,

as he puts it
"

Hearing

which Dawlatshih

who was formerly

intellectuals.

one of his

in

either

Abii Is1iq's

After

fit

satire

contest

each other.

with

and "insipid".

described

But no trace

had a poetical

arently
,

11 t,

1
.

Zarknb-i
Shirazl,
RiyAl al-'rifin

p. 53:

Shiraz
(Tehran,

Nma (Tehran,
1942),
1938),
pp. 104-5..

pp.

173-6;

146

At any rate,

the conquest

after

of Pars by the Muyaffarida,

sUbaid did not wish to remain in the service


and ill-tempered

hypocritical
to praise.
fine
al-Din

odes and a tarkib-band


t (757-776/1356-1364),

in praise
better

in Baghdad.

there

that

for

If

he indeed

Salmin had already

in

reported

this

unfriendly

in many other

cases.?

sharp tongue in satire,


never criticized
social
grudge,

and throughout
In this

attack.

were social

although

even against

or satire

critics

get away from that

with

2.

Ibid.,

was not friendly,

time the latter

no other

he is

'tbaid

it,

biographer

poet like

Salmen, he

mind was so open that

a single

to Mfi;

equal
difference

that

or more accurately,
in an imaginary

friend-

had an able pen and a

a powerful

probably

only.

impossible

pleasure-dome.

J
Tadh]dra,

p. 324.

c,r.,s"

-- --1f

Vilr

veL.

-c>1

or

personal
They both
"tried

41fi;

his

motive

to

social
"Ubaid,

pp. 40-41:
lp
X.

has

as he has done

one cannot find

the possible

unpleasant,

is

satires

did not take the form of personal

atmosphere and to take refuge

1.

and this

and his

his writings,

regard,

must have been

however,

has fabricated

anybody personally,

criticism

it

in his

which was to end in a lasting

Dawlatshlh
For,

Mu'izz

a while

as none of these two poets'

meeting,

that

one suspects

ship,

'Ubaid,

for

journey,

own d1wns, and furthermore

their

recoraed

But,

Sullin

known as Shaikh Uwais and sent

This visit,

satirized

the former.

satirized

of the Jalayerid

made this

he met Salmn4Swaji.

himself

he composed some

a-patron,

on he went and lived

them to him, and perhaps later


court

whom he could not bring

ruler,

in the search for

Therefore,

of a bloodthirsty,

c1 Cb1!

147

hand, threw himself

on the other
the

of

and his

times,

into

tells

us that

al Din

brother

During

Mahmad over Shiraz.

or the news of Mubriz


went to Kirmin

of Kirmn",

the state

affairs

his

his

768/1364,

came back to Shirz,

Shh Shuj'

until

which

his

In fact,
his

he praised

He

after

of "the
arranging

our poet accompanied


(771/1369),

for,

and an open-minded

the last
connection

ShAh Shuj'

and only date we can


with
for

king

this

the

conquest

is

the

of

Turning

now to "Ubaid's

merits
to his

and qualifications,

to go back again

According

to him "Ubaid was a member of a family

M. Farzd., Rats against Cats,


11-i Mu affar,
flutbi,
Trikh-i
.
J,

there,

a refuge.

in praise

death

was-a. poet-king

poems concerning
in

domination

panegyric

necessary

Ab

had abandoned

'Ubaid

And when the king,

most probably

of men of letters.

fron

Isfahn.

Shah Shuj'.

there

father,

supporter
derive

time

and was seeking

composed a fine

of 8irman,

him, and stayed

decline,

al Din's

and there

conqueror

unlike

this

of Baghdd, perhaps because of Salmin's

the court

1.
2.

defeating

soon after

himself

" Shuj'

2.

Mubriz

"'

satire.

blinded and deposed by his own sons Shah


was unluckily
2
and ShAh Mahmnid. Shah Shuj" was also in conflict
with his

Ishq,

year

s"*

the degeneracy

against

than

other

weapon was none


*ssr

History

the fight

1v;

49

contemporary

p. 11.
p. 63:

cL ' r

For details,
this
133_
4
pp.
of
see
,
3. Kullivt,
Pp. 32-35i

it

compatriot
of lords

seems
Mustawfi.
and ministers

-w

.
' I' C 4iIi) `
chapter.

I...
,

148

(arb&b wa
"were

lords

afiy

al-Din

the

fine

are

honoured

childhood

amongst

master

Khwja

poetry

he learned

speaks

in

poetry
of his

youth
to

the

and he afterwards

sages;

"2

philosophers.

"Ubaid

Guzida

was not

in

flattered

more than

probably

by Mustawfi

Trikh-i

Guzida,

in

p.

l
il
G,I1,
;
2.

l.

Xu li

>ji ip'i

vi>
t,

p.

J.

and sayings
stopped

his

the

that

certain

and as stated
thirty

years

of

early

Qazwin

at

that

the

manner

of

someone present

time,

it

because

youth
and

and recent
finished

abovve, at

of

himself

letters

Mustawfl

age;

genuine

of his

men of

the

studying

of

'Ubaid

beginning

of

is

and Persian

talent

Incidentally,
the

his

that

rank,

culture

with

"From

730/1330,

he was an inhabitant

that

that,

we know for

Besides,

book Tirikh

parody.

never

then

of calligraphy,

art

Islamic

of

from

'Ubaid

to this
the

them all

books

His

who has some

that

appropriate

mingling

study

said)

because he was from a noble

said,

knowledge

by saying

at?ib-i

"'

and practiced

and excellent

minister

of +gazwin,, and from

we can imagine

literature

(s

'Ubaidallh,

al-Din

a manner

a good general

he attempted

1.

family,

and civilization,

satirical

Nijim

" he writes,

and means.

lords

noble

to what Mustawfi

ministerial

and acquired

the

honoured

territories

of

writings,

was educated

say,

owner

today

poems and unrivalled

and perhaps

his

was the

Zkni

Now according

to

Of them the

and ministers.

descendants
is

"The second branch of the ZaAnis,

udr

this

date

seems too
he was

rather

than

805:

Ute"' '1 C
:
11
l!,

51:

L U1

.:.

1.

1
Cf. jl llJ ,/''

I.

J 1 1,"l c. j
rc'i.

el i

jliJ
u
o

149

far

person
the
in

away.

of ShAh Ab Ishq's

time
Shirz",

Abi

earlier,

IsVq

it

1341-1356);
a ministerial,
king,

on the

even in
have

would

Iraq

for

in

of Shih
(742-758/

Firs

up in

who had grown


and was now in

house,

illiterate

remained

age of

domination

reign

a person

a well-to-do,

from

the

at

and uneducated

the

to

we can derive

the

his

knowledge

according

Shiraz

with
of

that

seems unbelieveable
or

dates

"in

"Ubaid

obtaining

For,

the

coincides

beginning

and the

Shiraz

over

date

of
left

'Ubaid

This

forty-five.

in

mistakes.

and by virtue

own poems and writings,

more than

his

one of

that

statement

was occupied

reign

is

undoubtedly

given

reasons
his

Dawlatshih's

Therefore,

attendance
that

until

date.

for

was famous as a writer

'Ubaid

Firs,

of Qazwln, because Mustawfi

some fine

treatises.

At

poems and unrivalled

the

can discern

and the

style

Aristocracy,
complete
and his
tradition,
practical
here

subtlety
is

mastery
practice

his

of

meaning.

enough

to

the

former

in

the

sciences

in

and on the

his

in

of his

time,

mismanagement

both in astrology
called

of

learning

discernable

on religious

authorities.

im) and astronomy

al-Ashir

literature,

especially

are

attacks

and

the Koran,

particular

philosophy,

religious

the

of

and Arabic

qualifications

the

(tan

The Ethics

in

documented

of his

maturity

thorough

and finally

but

the

of Persian

scholars

treatises

and unique

treatise
his

exhibit

These

satirical

we have a book on astronomy

both

His

jurisprudence

or khuldiyt.

morals

"
poetry

education

of

exegesis,

was interested

of

own

he "has

in 730/1329,

wrote

'Ubaid's

of

reader

extent

alone,

and there

matters

the

any rate,

in his

at least

and poet,

birth-place

from Iraq

his departure

a long time before

for

is that

The truth

wal-AthmAr,

(nu m

He

for
,

the manuscript

150

from

'Ubaid

which

volume

incidently

Ishq,

recording

copied
bears

had passed

in

extant
in

an endorsement

it

that

being

still

into

the
his

hands.

private
writing

'

This

'Ubaid's

of

son.

by inheritance

possession

in 772/1370-71.2
It

is worthwhile
death,

'IIbaid's
al-Ashir

passed into

'Ubaid's

The "verses

But his

style

short

date

of Persian

of-each

phrase. "5

ravages

appears

of his
that

clear

is

testify
another

and "lays

able
class

And as far

with

son Ishq in

'Ubaid

the year 771/1370-71

would seem to

and Arabic

to 'Ubaid's
It

matter.
his finger

a single

as freshness

is

mostly

and

education.

"

and

short

on the characteristic
word or in a

appropriate
and aesthetic

They are extremely

verse

thorough

qualities

the verse and prose of "Ubaid have not suffered

of time indeed.

was not

death.

superb in both Persian

in Arabic

His pen is

concerned

it

of 'Ubaid's

is

ability

prose.

shortcomings

the possession

time and consequently

be the more probable

laconic.

we have two dates for


4
Now, because the book
and 772/1370-71).

as an inheritance,

at that

alive

7'71/1369-703

wal-Athmr

772/1370-71

here that

mentioning

valuable

are

from the

poetical

documents

for

obtaining

1.

The author of this book, 'Ali ShAh b. Muhammadb. q sim a1-Khwrazmi,


his book in 687/1288.
We,
was born in 623/1226, and finished
however, do not know his date of death.
He lived in the service
There is another manuscript of this
of the house of Juwain. t.
Mehl dated 688/1289 (M. M1novi, "Ijtim'-i
work in the Kitb Khina-i
582/1186", Maialla-i
KawAkib dar Sal-i
Dnishkada, Tehran, 1955,

2.
3.
4.
5.

a closer

acquaintance

with

the Iran

of that

period.

No. 3s PP. 27-58).

It is preserved now in Malik Library,


and "Abbis Igbdl describes
it fully
in his introduction
to 'IIbaid's
R li t, pp. 5-8.
See
Persian Literature,
Classical
also Arberry,
pp. 259-260.

Suggested
by Adiq Igfahni
Kishi,
Tagi al-Din,
Khulsat
J. Rypka, History
of Iranian

in Shbid-i
al-Ash'r
Literature,

Rdig (Tehran,
Tehran,
1960),
p. 272.

1963),
p.
P. 181.

149.

151

as Arberry

Unfortunately
his

lyric

poetry

which,

and in surprising

1IIbaid's
thesis

--

may read
appears:
suddenly

too,

have,

them again
a single
take

contemporary,
humour

and bantering

satire

word

on a more vivid

and after

as discussed

--

each

reading

circle,
in

Ab Said

freshness.

One

fresh

something

a phrase

in 732/1335,

will

the Mongolian

completely.

anarchy

followed,

of half

and in the interregnum

dynasties

a number of petty

the Mongolian
come to an end,

may be said to have disappeared

A period

a century

divided

power in
of

until

the

the country.

The

best known of them were the Jallyerlds

in the west,

that

(736-827/1335-1423),

the Chilpinis

in Adharbayjin

and its

outskirts

(718-745/1318-1344);

(643-783/1245-1381)
795/1323-1392)

Classical
Ysami,

in

in Fars.

(Hert);

and Shiriz,

Literature,
Persian
Iran,
Rashid,
TArikh-i

pp.
p.

is Baghdid

(737-812/1336-1409)

in SabzwAr and its

the north-east

in Yazd, Isfahn

703-758/1303-1357)

1.
2.

the Tugh Timurids

(738-788/1337-1386)

the Sarbedirs

this

meaning.

a few monarchs who were short-lived,

of Timr,

and

certainly

elsewhere

of perennial

Persia,

rise

l that

the ghat

had
Asia
Western
practically
and

in Persia

but also

own account,

assume a new significance,

will

These

works.

who moved in the same court

and in

and again,

most fascinating

the gap between Sa'di

into

quality

a nysterious

With the death of Sultan

dynasty

bridges

obviously

is

of "Ubaid's

on their

not only

some new elements

his younger

influenced

3.

author

and introduces

Hfij

to the majority

of attention

because here "the

has been accorded to

attention

though small in quantity,

contrast

poems are worthy

"less

writes,

297-98,
7.

outskirts;

the Mujaffarids

and finally

in Gurgin;

Injs

Karts
(723(ca.

"'

152

These
fifty
the

in

themselves

other,

each

subjugating
and the

other

the

Timr's

conquests.

for

Timr

himself,

for

him.

Of the

various

the

three:
have

Injs,

above

'Al'

al Din
of

study

these

poverty,
paved

did

discuss

we will

some information

was to

'Ubaid

it

is

see

only,

whom "Ubaid

dynasties,

career,

with

not

Muhammad and Ruka al Din


'Ubaid's

the

concerned

to him,

and

busied

events

not

with

three

by year,

suffered

however,

contemporary

dynasty

governors

these

the

in

other,

Mongol

local

All

and Jalyerids,
from

and give

the

the-people

mentioned

Apart

our

each

Year

as the

of war.

although

MuVaffarids

Khwija

to pause here,

of

We are,

dynasties

To complete

al-Mulle.

decline

while

ravages

'IIbaid,

some connection.

two ministers:

against

became more desperate

Iran

homelessness
path

the

wars

(736-807/1335-1404).

of Tamerlane

appearance

situation

between

interregnum

years'

fought

continuously

rulers

praised

'Amid

necessary

about these dynasties

and

the two viziers.


In the fourth

A.
Mu affarids

and the Injs;


that

of the events
are to a great
the chapter
It

is

to Persian
They settled

gutbi,

some remarks

and in fact

inseparable.

are given about

the

because of the interrelation

between these

occurred

extent

Here,

two houses,

their

we supplement

histories

what is in

mentioned above.
recorded

that

from Arabia
first

the ancestors

in the early

Trikh-i

11-i

al-Din

Mueaffar,

.r1

have come

days of the Muslim conquests.

migrated

but Amir Ghiyith


to Yazd during

al-Din,

the Mongol

p. 3:

""

of the Mu4affarids

near Khwaf in Thurisnl,


of Mubriz

the grandfather

1.

chapter

'

'-

0l:,

d0

L> iJ
>l

) I, Ao" I,

Zr1

2
C1V 1-";;

153
1

invasion.

and Mubriz

al Din

kings

Mongol

son Jalil

had three

Yazd,

near

third

His

al Din

Sharaf

Mu1ammad.

Arghun,

Muhammad (713-759/1313-1350
dynasty,

the

father's

his

after

(d.

UljUt

decline

death,

from

years
the

of

seen., was the

at Shiraz.

capital

in

aged ten,
he decided
libertines,

to

the

original

wars
in

He killed

enact

and 4Obaid,

restrictions

seven

758/1356.4

to

al-Din's

extent

the

and his

own son Shah Shuj'

and reacted

sharply

in

the

the

to

the

Kirman,

as we have

737/1336

the
Kirmin.

he eventually
of Firs

little

to

its
Sahli

Muslim,
and the

intellectual

was unable

with
'All

son

pleasure-seekers

following

for

he conquered

province

from

by

offices

Fars,

was a fanatical

al-Din

even apart

In our time it is illicit


Nor does one dare to play

1.
2.
3.
4.

latter

against

in

succeeded

723/1323

over

but

the

that

in

741/1340

founder

power

government,

conquering

laws

in

Ab Is}}Aq,

against

As Mubiriz

severe

his

In

al Din

father's

"ruled

Yazd,

near

jurisdiction.

him and succeeded

overcame

Hfil

least

at

waging

his

795/1393,

of Maibild

his

succession

in

713/1313.

of age,

remained

which

al-Din's

by Timilr

town

little

dynasty

four

as the

years
in

in

Mubriz

regarded

thirteen

was only

This

Mubriz

was added to

After

usually

Mubiriz

dynasty

Yazd and Wahn.

latter

is
who
,

Amir

and was confirmed

716/1316).

seventy-two

son is

'Ali

al-Din
the

died

and Ulj&ttii,

Maibild

at

Zain

who served

His

and although

who lived

Muzaffar,

al Din,

Ghzin

Gaykhita,

He had a son and two daughters.

of

al Din

Sharaf

sons:

Mangr,

poets
tolerate

like
his

quatrain:

to drink wine
the zither,
harp and tambourine

E. G. Browne, A Literary
History
of Persia,
vol. III,
A. Igbil,
Trikh-i
Mogol, p. 414.
Ibid.,
p. 442.
Kubi, TArikh-i
Al-i Muaffar,
pp. 59-63; Browne, vol.

p. 162.
III,

p. 164.

154

All libertines
gave up the habit of drinking
Except the proctor who is drunk but not with
However,

as stated

imprisoned

in

Bam, and died

is

in

praise

nothing

(shah-i

king"

fellow-poet

Vfij

to him in his

The reason for


people

is

rank were the victims

to renounce their

faith.

and his

but

al-Din's

41fiz

instead,

as

celebrated

contemporary

'Ubaid

his

war flag

ruthlessness
that

There

as the

and many other

of his

and

flatterers

indeed.

sharply

harsh treatment
'Ubaid

di,

hypocritical

to Mubriz
'Ubaid,

They were so annoyed at his

two sons,

in which he praises

tariff'-band

that

Ubaid's

"Ubaid

him very

splendour

this

of their

both

by his

when he was sixty-five.

in

and his

Ahzi),

criticized

its

765/1363

ruler

rabble

parodical

organ comparing

in

this

of

he was known among the


"warrior

he was blinded

already,

wine.

refers

own genital
(sun

.2

educated
and hypocrisy.

they were even tempted

writeA:

Now is the time for us to take action


To declare openly the doctrine
of the atheists;
To take residence in the street
of the Magi, the fire-worshippers,
And to turn our face towards the Mongols' altar.
3
In short,

they were not prepared

Mubriz al-Din

1.

gutbi,

presented

p. 42:

it,

to tolerate

Islam

in the form that

by the sword and hypocritical

asceticism.

rr

..,.

Ji
2.

Kuli

t,

3.

See also Chapter Is p.


bid.,
p. 61:

p. 62:

cam,wj
'

s. /L

37.
.i

'

U,

lam
j
.
_

^O

155
(759-786/1357-1384),

ShAh Shuj'
by both

He was the
talent
by Kutbi.

He knew the

He was also

to attend

military
the

a fine

a great

of Persia.

In

greater
happier
of

late.

this

drunk,

king,

Sultan

Shibli,

family

Mubriz
Uwais,

of his

relationships,
He was

al-Din.

and the

whom he ordered

and repented

anyone of this

but one can hardly


about this

which is

obtainable

which happened in 768/1366;


was present

one son,

Sultan

father,

his

his

to

severe

His

he became

a while

house except

odes in which he gave a good impression

from them, either


only fact

than

756/1355).

fancied
be blinded,

action

when it

There are four

49
5.

(d.

part

the

of

he was heavily

Ibid.,

one time

and for

of another,

3.

and at

successful,

by disloyalty

Kutbi,
Ibid.,

learning

Iii

al-Din

age.

military

also

'A4ud

of

man of

were

he was not

1.
2.

men of

years

given

a skilled

expeditions

'Ubaid did not praise

with

of

patron

all

of

disloyalty

was too

when he was nine

and above

poetic

them are

some of

lectures

harrassed

while

by heart

warmly

a fairly'good

the

master

however,

Koran

praised

characteristics.

possessed

and Persian;

Arabic

calligrapher

He was also

tactics.
used

poems in

and wrote

is

contrary,

few remarkable

and himself

of HifiV,

patron

due to his

and Hifiz

'IIbaid

on the

king

obtain
or about

any historical
'Ubaid's

from these odes is


and it

seems probable

that

P. 37.

p. 166.
to 'Ubaid's

li

t,

pp. 11-12.

connection

information

the conquest

pp. 63-4.
63.
p.
III,

of his

own career.

at the time in Isfahn5:

E. G. Browne,. vol.
introduction
-Igb51,

Shah Shp*

'Ubaid

The
of IVfahAn,
himself

156

The morning
of youth,

feast,

the

of

face

the beloved's

and the

days

The clamour of the harp., the banks of Zyanda Rd and the


wine glass;

Good tidings
of Isfahan,
of the conquest
All are the tokens of high fortune
and the
inauguration.
1

B.

The second personality

occurs in his =

is

(757-776/1356-1374).

Sultin

(after

by the historians

regarded

They reigned
most important

who succeeded his


mostly

on his

of four

patronage

Muhammad-i 'Aq$r
rather

to clear

Persian

After

Ll

who accompanied

for

years and is

ninety-six
dynasty

in

the inter-

part

of-his

Salmn-i
al Din

in this

the first

is Sultan

vl;tj
e>

u,

The

Uwais,

His importance
bis

Rmi (d.

791,1388),

too,

he was

he set himself

In 763/1361

year he besieged

SAwaj1, Khwja

regard,
task

dominion.

pp. 3-4:
CJCJ

that

and in particxlar

and Sharaf

succession,

in number.

and were eight

lUbaid,

although

and in the autumn of this

I>

tribe

which was founded by Shaikh

Buzurg in 757/1356.

poets;

784/1382)

his

the northern

Kullivt.,

lasted

achievements

feats4;

than military

successful.

2.
3.
4.

dynasty

Mongolian

Ilkinuyin

was the second,

Hasan-i

cultural

(d.

1asan the Jaldyerid

of the Mongols and the emergence of Timur.

however,

father

Uwais-i

ancestor

from 740 to 836/1339-1432,


figure,

and whose name

as the most eminent

regnum between the decline

1.

This

praised

were an important

Buzurg (740-757/1339-1356),

Hasan-i

gwjdn,

al Din

their

Hulagu on his way to Iran).

rests

Mu'izz

The Jallyerids

the Ilkni

called

also

whom 'Ubaid

hope of

Tabriz

CJ

was

he marched to
and overcame

l"

Igbl, Trikh-i
Moaol, p. 455.
Ibid.,
p. 55.
Van Loon, Trilch-i
Shaikh Uwais, pp. 8-10.

lb

157

Shwja

the

Marjin,

there

went
of

him to flee.

Jq and caused

Akhl

the

Ihzin.
this

area

(the

chief

In

the

town,

he marched

he was faced

of Qara-Quydn1),

to Diylr

Bakr,

him and left

In

Mirdin.

ard

KhwAja

of the
3
his possessions.
In

dominion.

forARab4Q-Rashidi,

Tabriz

to Sulaimn-i

Bairm

however,

The latter,

Rayy and annexed Swa and Gurgn to his


eradicate

Mugil

because

rebel

the authority

refused

who still

the

town

enemy called

Amir Wall in Rayy.

772/1370 he defeated

the

entrusted

that

He promptly

he forgave

him and plundered

Uwais defeated

Jallyerids.

had rebelled.

a stubborn

with

he was informed

766/1364,

and although

he however

mediation,
768/1366

In

Baghdd,

of

governor

and took

nobles'

recaptured

Uwais decided
but fell

sick

to

and died

in 776/1374.4
Uwais was a just
protected

Sharaf

composed
to
his

revive

which

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8"

the Venetians,

He was also

fond

of

of

20,000

in

Tabriz,

traveller

and lodgings.

grand

and built

called

Dawlat-Khna,

to Uwais

to have

Van Loon, Tirikh-i


Shaikh Uwais, pp. 12-13.
Igbl,
Tfirikh-i
Moaol. pp. 458-59.
There are some sixty-three
in his
panegyrics
Uwais and the other members of this
dynasty,
Uwais only.

in

buildings

contemporary

Browne, vol. III,


p. 172; Mirkhwind, Raw at al
pp. 211-212.
Hh. Bayini, Dhail-i
Jmi' al-Tawrikh,
ta'lif-i
part 1, p. 131.

Van Loon, Trikh-i


Shaikh Uwais,
Igbl, Trikh-i
MoAo1, p. 459.
Ibid.,
P. 459; Van Loon, p. 13.

he failed

although

among them a building

by a European
rooms

erecting

tried

He also

and painter.

with

buildings

was Salmin of
5
on his exploits.
6
He himself
to him.

his Anis al-'Uahsha

trade

and promote

poetry, and

earlier,

panegyrics

and was a good calligrapher

was claimed

consisted

1.

verses

attempts.?

numerous

a number of excellent

RAml dedicated

al-Din

He loved

One of them, as mentioned

poets.

SAwa, who wrote

king.,

and art-loving

p. 13.

afA1
41fij-i

vol.

IV,

Abra,

Diwin
Shaikh
concerning
twenty-one
of them on

158

These
than

rather
his

are

death
and for
this

the

that
it

he also

C.

The third

whom 'Ubaid

is

praised

Mongols3,

but it

Under U1jit's

successor,

of Shiraz

ruler

five

the

758/13563,
is

four

poet,

that

too

on

character
Properly
under the

to the dynasty which reigned

given

The founder

environs.

According

Ab Said,

(d.

by Uijit
to Mustawfi,

ca.

'
of the dynasty,,

he was a descendant

the famous Persian

he remained in office,

mystic.

the whole of Fars.

Kulli

t,

=J_
/

7J

the
After

pp. 11-12,

the

and also

Indj.

L-

IpIC

RJJ',:

'
j -*iL

I ;

J)
.

ca/,;,

C/;

(:- C'fAu icy' rte.


(t

and even

by ca. 725/1325 he was practically


and almost

to

716/1316)

Lj

uJ.

to BaghdAd

estates

1,

>

the

after

probable

>

is

odes and

travelled

to royal

applied

of Islam,
-Encyclopaedia
under
Trlkh-i
Guzida,
pp. 663-4:

'

It

and as stated

Shih Shai]sh Ab Is1Aq.

KulliyFEtj
Pp. 5* 13,, 20; 23 and 40,
introduction
to 'Ubaid's
See Igbil's
Dawlatshih,
Ta ra,
p. 324.

about

odes.

the most favourite

(396-481, /1005-1088),

his power so that

independent

3.
4.

the Inju"id

estates.

An&ri

of "Abdallih-i

that

sources

term "IndjU"

the royal

in

'Ubaid's

and it

Mahmdshih, was sent there

al-Din

extended

in

court,

in Pars and its

703-758/1304-135'6

1.
2.

Uwais'

is usually

Uwais

probable

other

no information

gives

came to Shiraz,

never

and at the same time

the Turkish

administer

in

come down from

and from

Ishq

lb

met Salmin.

speaking,

Sharaf

Uwais

king

stayed

trip

'Ubaid

seems very

favourite

a while

for

sources,

existing

career,

of his

which

He has praised

Uwais.

tarklb-bandl

' baid's

facts

writings,

with

from

a single
in

"Ubaid's

connection

understood

historical

all

' il >'>

`N'

ly;
"y

"

L7

> >>>

159

death

of Abil Said,
g'n

Arp

successor
fourth

being

earlier

in

chapter,

attempts

to extend

conflict

with

was besieged

receiving

in

over

to death

for

on his

His death,

the

reign

varying

which

Buzurg

was in

of

he came into
but

the

at

Safid

made his

told

end

Muiaffarids

to Qalsa

I]knf,

and we are

relatives

he made

Shiraz,
but

the

As stated

to the

that-he

in
and

way to
was

a man who had been put

758/1357.3

the death or disgrace

of his

family

caused deep sorrow among the great

poets,

writers

and accordingly

From them 41fif


For above all,

and intellectuals.

at Shiraz

Hfij

and ' baid in particular


he himself

Concerning

However, the most striking


There are some twenty-two

was a poet and a

Ab Ishiq's

brief

but

wrote:

In truth the turquoise


ring of Ab Is1Aq
but alas it was transitory.
Flashed finely

1.
2.
3.
4.

sons,

successes,

he had escaped

prisoner

This

orders.

had four

in

surrendered

Amir gasan

the

of his

Yazd and ICirman,

with

to

order

our poet.

to power

coming

over

from

were very much annoyed.

genial

of

surrender,

and the men of learning.

of poets

patron

itself,

execution

and his entourage,

friend

who was the

he was taken

wherein

handed

al Din

al-Din

some support

Isfahn,

Sharaf

rule

Shiraz

by the

736/1336.1

after

his

Mubriz

Before

754/1333.2

in

Ab Ishq,
this

he was executed

however,

poems on this
panegyrics

event were composed by 'Ubaid.

or fragments

Mlrkhwind, iawdat al-, afils


vol. IV, p. 178.
Browne, vol. III
p. 164.
Kutbi, Trikh-i
Al-i Mujaffar,
P. 54.
Ifil
Diwn,
140:
p.
,

in his

d%

concerning

160

Ab Ishq's

characteristics,

his

The following

death.

By the
his

generosity,
lines

of

that

king

and finally

merits
them:

of

are examples

justice

auspicious
servants,

strength,

who is

to

so generous

The region of Shiraz has become an earthly


paradise;
Shaikh Abil Ishq, the world-conqueror
fortune,
of youthful
better than the whole world's
Well-distinguished
kings.
1
In this

"Ubaid refers
2
towards strangers.

panegyric,

hospitality

Ab Ishq

extolled

to an extent

somewhat irrational
he describes

being

In all

these panegyrics,

that

the beauty

'Ubaid

reminds us of Anxarl

he overrates

of Shiraz,

and the king's

self-exiled

In an ode, for

exaggerations.

him "greater

calling

to his

than the whole world

and his

instance,

Abi Iahq's

and no less

has

in which
virtues,

than anybody

save God the Creator. "3


One, therefore,

would be able

to conclude,

exaggerations

which have been a common habit

too,

loyalty

his

true

D.

The fourth

al-Din

poems,

1.

and once again

refers

an anecdote

Ibid.,

is

praises

huAja 'Al'

to him by name only


in

the Risla-i

''

( c

Zv

%S
-`..

LJG

1- +.
.

"6-s

once in

Dilash,

this

p. 25:
Clip

3.

predecessors

p. 25:
c

Ibid.,

in

amongst his

sympathy towards Ab Ishq.

personage whom 'Ubaid

wal-Vagq Muhammad. 'Dbaid

his

2.

and genuine

beyond the poetical

p. 25:

..

jA

10
.
.

_.

This last hemistich


has been borrowed from Anwarf in the praise of
his patron Sultan Sanjar.
See Diwan, vol. Is p. 133 (ed. M. Radawl).

161

time,

however,

treatise

exaggerated

Dilisusha

the

'Al'

world

"Once

was 'A15".

He was a very

People

out

to a public

his

pulpit

went

the imim

in

us of

relieve

As there
seems that

if

there

'Ubaid

of his

A year

for

After

rain.
in

king

Mazandardn

governor.

his'hands

an

Muhammad ... "2


in

prayer

serious

more righteous,
the

and letters,

was a ruler

of

the

of
In

Ris

a-i

whose name

drought

finishing
and said,

occurred.
the

'0h

prayer,

God;

and 'A191.1113

cholera

is no record

the

noble,

wal-Fagq

prayer

raised

disaster,

lord,

sword

ruthless

beginning

OUbaid names him with

"the

al-Din

the

at

Arabic,

the. men of

of

he writes:

Again

him,

calling

master

in

ministers

in

al-Amthl

manner
the

greater,

him.

satirizing

Nawdir

of 'Ali'

meant simply

al-Din's
'A11'

in Mazandarfin,

reign

al Din

by *Alit

the writer
I

it
has

changed the name of Khursn to Mazandarn, preaumeably to prevent any


4
At any rate, what appears from the
with his patron.
confrontation
documents enables

historical

be no one also
Bhmija

but 'Ali'

'Imd al Din

this

MuhammadMustawfi,

'11'. a1Din

who was, at the beginning,


of Kwja

See Igb1, introduction


Museum, f.
Ms., British

to ' baid's
64; Igbl's

t, p. 6.
Ku
introduction,
p. 6:

I'

1>

Kullivit,

v s(

p.

ice ' ,

)(,

),;

5',

must

the son of the

accountants

"II

4.

that

state

`JI(3
3.

al Din

Paryumadi Thursini,

one of the proficient

1.
2.

us to suggest

Rashid

al-Din

%U(c, U1U1

Fadlan

LJA

115:

e-uJ
d
cri
(S'>r
" 11 ^

L Ili

UL

(introduction
by
IqbAl
This inference
'AbbAs
to "Ubaid's
made
X li
t should not be accepted without reservation.
Although he
does not quote the anecdote in question,
as there is no other
Di1 shl in which the word 'Als' has been
anecdote in the Risila-i
used save that one quoted above, it would appear that 'Ubaid has
used al-'A1'
simply to provide a rhyme for al-ba ' and al-wab.

162

(d.

Hamadini
son Khwija
'All$

a free

8hurisin

as his
the

is

dedicated
he did

so in

book Nawadir
the short

premiership

with

wards '1l'

al Din

'Ubaid

travelled

Apart

737/1336,

Ghiylth
lived

al Din

six

of Khurasn",
'Als'

al-Din
that

and at

later

months
and gave

his

in

house of Sabzwir.
al Din

and

seems probable

in which "A1" al-Din

shared in the

about the year 727/1327,


and it

power

authority

to him; but it

in Thurasin,

he

to GhiyAth

remained

date

when 4Ubaid met 'Ali

al-AmthAl

period

he made. this

that

because afterthat

seems unlikely

to ghursn.

from this

"A110 al-Din,

with

"minister

however,

but

premiership;

Rashid al-Din's

appointed

in 727/1327,

premier

by the Sarbedaran

not clear,
his

Abis Said,

own premier.

year

was ended in Khurasan


It

the

as the

hand
until

in

partner

him to Thursin

al Din
in

his

as his

al Din

Ghiyth

al Din

sent

When Sultin

718/1318).

scattered

information

we come across

poems in which he cries

his

about

name in

out at a "disastrous

which he quotes his patron's

name clearly,

'Ubaid's

connection

one of "Ubaid's

brilliant

debt",

and at the end of

appealing

to him to deliver

him from the disaster:


Others rejoice
in merriment, while I am afflicted
with debt,
Everyone has his affairs
and business, while I am in the
of debt.
misfortune
My duty towards God and my debts to His creatures
bow my neck
Shall I discharge my duty towards God, or my debts?
..
If the khw a does not bespeak for me the king's
favour,
How can poor "Ubaid finally
discharge his debts:
Thwaja 'A11'-i
Dawlat u Din, except for whose hand
None other in the world has given debt its deserts. ' 2

1.
2.

Mirkhwnd, Raxdaal-caf'.
t
vol.
to 'Ubaid's
t, pp. 6-7.
Kuli
't, p. 80:
Kul

c)

(S l alp

'

IV,

pp. 18; Igbil,


-,

introduction

163
poem leaves

This

through

Khwja

'Al'

4A1' al Din

know the king

we do not

Again,

patrons.

no doubt that

was one of 4Ubaid's

He may have been Aba Said,

al-Din.

desired

"Ubaid

whose sympathy

who died

in

736/1335.
E.

the former

and unlike

vizier;

This Rukn al-Din

plentiful.

of Ab Ishq,

court

746 1345).

as his

Yazdi

power

each

with
to

inferior

on the pretext

of his

1.

gutbi,

Trikh-i

2.

Ibid.,

p. 23:

,
, ,,, G ci,ui j6-'
Khwfi,
$I

11-i

ruler

Mujaffar,

rW

that

% '

thus,

for

is,

from Mubriz

and the Mubirizid

captured,

Shiraz

the taxes.
son,

Sayyid

however,

Shams al Din,
left

of collecting

to conquer Sirmin

Shiriz

3.

al Din

two,

Mahmd

Ghiyth

"

feeling

himself

the Persian

Gulf

There he made many attempts


Rulm al-Din

al-Din,

who was living

but he failed

in

and was

put him to death in 746 134503

25-26.

pp.

it
i
cs. sc:

Mu mal, p. 231:,
,.

>i

for

struggling

were

Hormuz in

he

al-Din

cv.J I'GU,

A Ie

See also Khwju's Diwn, p. 197, wherein the poet gives


date of Shams al-Din with his full
name:

J
i>r

'in

of Fars,

moot parts

with

fairly

nobleman in the

Shams al-Din

dominated

These

041

other.

at the instigation

Q4

MaImd together

premiers.

Ghiyth

our knowledge about him is

was the son of another

Is4Aq

When Abi

who was Ab Ishq's

'Amid al-Mulk,

vizier,

whose name is

Shams al-Din

appointed
'Al!

has been sung in

person whose praise

diwAn, is Khwja Rukn al Din

sUbaid's

(d.

and the last

The fifth

LJ

the death

164
The beginning
but

it

on his

that

appears

it

he should

therefore
perhaps

of Buln

at

the

indicates

was immediately
gained

his

that

Tbaid

in

Although

succession,
vizier's

the

glorious

however,

vizierate,

have

time

that

al-Din's

after
position

his

father's

in

747/1346.

a fervent

poem starts

is

unlmown;
death,
It

was
him

ode congratulated
with

king,

the

its

end

accession:

the kingdom of Firs


By the favour of God, the Creator,
than the courts of Paradise and gayer
Has become pleasanter
than the spring ...
Because by the favour
of
hunter,
world-conqueror,

the

crown-giver
successful

Sultan,
ruler,

the

enemy-

Mulk has been bestowed the premiership,

'Amid-i

The man whose


generations,

ancestors
1

were kings

and princes

for

a thousand

in 'Ubaid's diwn concerning


There are nine panegyrics altogether
2
He himself was an educated man and a fairly
this man.
good poet.
3
Tow of his poems have come down to us.
'Obaid's
exaggerated admiration
of this

knew no limits.

minister

the "sun"

his

"slave".

Darius".

The poet

the whole world

1"

Kullivt

He calls

His "generosity"

swears by God that

who could venture

25:
p
' " ".
..

the "moon" his


is

"grander

"there

than that

splendour".

sc'LaiL

and

of

is no peer or equal

to match his

"servant"

in

Only he

;
L-cams
U;

er 6
2.

Ibid.,

3.

This comes from a MS in the municipality


of Igfahin which was
in 782/1380, in which the author of the MS mentions 'Amid
written
is
name fully,
giving two of his poems. The following
al-Mulk's
one of them:

pp. 18,25,29,30,34,

37-8,39,77,78.

-of

See Q. Ghani,

Bahth dar thr

wa Afkr

wa Ahw -i

glfi,

pp. 89-90.

165
deserves
everybody
years

that

in

the master,

to be called

his

court

was obtainable

There are also

life.

a cheerful

enjoys

along

with

in

because of his
lived

"Ubaid

Ab Ishq's.

from the poet's

some scattered

get here and there

for,

at

This

own writings

is

of this

thesis

least
the

ten

in the diverse

t pp. 18-19:

Ku li

2.

Kullivt,

p. 77; p. 30:
/a
t
1
i
&f
(s.
C.
>)))
-'
*

C'
r 1la'-s'C t9
o

cb1>

4i;
i5
t
...

it

r, 4.. 2D a

his

life.

would be able to

chapters.

1.

twelve

or

information

concerning

data which the reader

the course

generosity

' c; 'i1 1(z0"-,ci rq

CHAPTER IV

"UBA,ID'S

Before

in

can be classified

of

to

except

writings,
their

two categories:

This

or witty,

playful

give

works

and their

decades.

which

have been mentioned

However,

nor

vast

possible

in

by his

This

difficult

circumstances

also

to

fact

as a libertine

his

for

provide

that

time,

his

intention

his
of

society,

minds

of his

criticism

preserving

any of

or

in

poet

the

writing

to

mock the

for

purpose

serious

of the present

of

serious

and the dates


'Ubaid's

"Obaid's

lifetime

longevity,

the

spanned
writings

come down to

seem to be partly
the

of

he was not

of

age,

the

kings

He seems to

but
enough

sympathetic

of those

a poem
or to

of
in

was mainly
the

and

panegyrics

or governors

of

us

due not

entertainment

circumstances

age and the

show little

regard

posterity.

Writings

poems of 'Ubaid
study,

his

with

discuss

treatises

short

A. Serious
The extant

to

exception

praise

in

works

and

Thus., when he composed

contemporaries.

his

literary,

contents

and instability

aim was that

With

composed

writings

concerned

or have

would

affairs.

primary

livelihood.

'Ubaid

which

narrow

serious

a treatise,

or wrote

lyrics

and its

life

his

with

biographers

to the

towards

being

chapter,

contrast

voluminous.

that

or

'Ubaid's

sources.

only

the

not
their

of

the previous

seven

neither

some details

that

serious

is

The main purpose

As we have seen in

are

the

thesis

present

composition.

satirical

must be stated

it

any further

going

WRITINGS

have been examined for

in published

166

editions,

and in

two

the

for

167
l,

manuscripts

but

panegyrics,

from
verse

serious

composed this

his
is

to Shih Shaikh Ab Ishq,

it

is refined

in

which,

tarkib-bands

the

(Book

the_'UshshAg-nAma

finishing

it

the

inspiration

"Ubaid has derived

name by Fakhr al-Din

(d.

4Irgi

It

should.,

however,

be noted that

is

_IIshshi -nma of ''Ubaid

and 4Irgi,

for,

love,

intends

profane

mystical
-I

Although

our author
this

however encounter

mathnawi contains
couplets

C3%A, 1 >J'

two

mathnawwiis, and
614/1235)

and

himself

acknowledges

poems with

attribution.

'Ubaid

there

the same

He also has borrowed

and quotes some of his

greatness3,

master's

and it

rhythm,

from a mathnawl, with

684/1289).

the Khusraw and Shirin.

'baid

September 1350, and dedicated


2
in two weeks.
In sentiment

(d. 714/1314) in his


Is from Human al Din Tabrizi
.
(d.
here and there one can see the influence
Nijmi
of
in particular

only

Lovers).

of

marked by an easy pace and flowing

and is

form

main,

and a single

(Ahazalivt),
poems

lyrical

mathnawi on 2nd Rajab 751/5th

it

seems that

couplets

three

quatrains,

also

Apart

tariff'-band.
worthwhile

of 2,753

and consist

a difference

between the

the latter

while

the

is

expressing

love.

no facetious

saying,

one does

such as:

4
1.
2.

See Introduction
'Ushshia-Nima.

(v al=) JI

and Bibliography.
p. 113 of Ku i:

1) (J
iJ >
o'i
.
/ _ ;
1%
f

id,

P.
1P

fb/..
a
,

IF

3"

.c-J

97 of K

li

t:.

;jo

4.

Ibid.,

p.

106.

>

;.

168

which
in

hazai-i

in

written

prose,

composed this
beasts

from either

sixty

'Ubaid

which

a mathnavi

story

It

thereof.

This

or a bird

by a beast

The MSS

is unpublished.

(The Ma

Sang Tarish

in
the
has
been
style
composed
which

in 86 couplets

It

would therefore

it.

Many couplets

'Ubaid's

seem that

but is

strong

the. author

talent

of 'Ubaid.

had neither
It

also

and sense of harmony.

style

are out of rhyme, and there

in any of the two manuscripts

famous

marred by many weak

an un]nown religious

At any rate,

nor the creative

of

it

and phrases,

which do not suit

This

of the Stone Cutter),

the
of
mathn='s
reminds
us
mat_.
2
(Ms
includes
It
Shabfin).
the
Shepherd
Moses
wa
and
of

mistakes.

treatise

illustrations.

In many places

couplets

2.

book.

in this

and Birds).

how one can take omens

each one represented

many of Rilm s vocabulary

1.

up his

and their

Book of Beasts

and the consequences

or birds,

has mentioned

Mathnaw -i

8mi's

given

and horoscopy

to explain

book in order

quatrains,

some fine

contain

each omen.

end of

has not

'Ubaid

(The Fortune

Wuhush

711-nma-i

contains

tone,

fortune-telling

for

at the

and believers.

practitioners

'Ubaid

serious

mocking

characteristic

in

has been

It

and. horoscopy.
inserted

This is

Months).

Book of the Solar

is

a quatrain

is

book

this

Although

but

has been composed

hnawl
mat

telling

on fortune

treatise

a little

metre.

(The Fortune

Bri

This

as well.

magsur

musaddas-i

F1-n5ma-i

is

tone

have a satirical

has composed

author
are plenty

of grammatical

Rmi's elegant

is undated.

It

style,

does not exist

which are in my access.

Ash'ar al-'Aiam,
See Shams Qais-i Rizi,
al-Mu'iam fi Ma'ivr-i
The Persian Metres, pp. 55
pp. 78-81; L. P. Eiwell-Sutton,
-59.
Mathnawl, Book 2, p. 199.

169
Another
manuscript
the

book of parables

Nawdir

title

interest

little

Ibn Qutaiba,

'Ubaid's

The contents

and mostly
(d.

Tha'libi

derived

'Ubaid

collection

idly,

and facetious

sayings

is

tone of his writing

is

He speaks of serious

the manifestation

social

criticism.

This

treatise

unpublished

and in particular
talent

and taste

as idle

That is

from that

and the real

of all

is unique,

and "it

in Persian

literature

who can really

artistry

is

of view his

'Ubaid,
his

writers.

One can say

in his

contribution

must be remarked that

satires

of people in the

and wit.
laid

even

to say, the

serious

problems

them in garments of irony

literature

in their

talk,

purpose.

point

such as

Writings

have a serious

From this

of

Rghib al-Isfahni.

In fact,

of 'Ubaid's

is
are

predecessors

nonsense.

different

under

treatise

not uttering

matters

community by clothing

collected,

are

has been characterised

satire

talks
he
when

that

this

shown his

B. Satirical

Although

writings

from 'Ubaid's

430/1038)

has again
2
and rewriting.

Nevertheless,

of

is found in

proverbs

(The Rare Parables).

al-Amthil

unpublished.

also

where

anthologies

and celebrated

if

be termed a satirist,

there

subtle
to Persian
is

anyone

then it

is

he. "3

1.

leaves in the British


It consists
Museum MS. Nothing
of sixteen
humorous can be found in it,
and it seems "Ubaid noted them at
in it,
like
random, for there is no trace of classification
most
There are 371 proverbs
of his treatises.
and sayings,.
and 191
in it.
the author
Again,
couplets
mentions
none of his sources,
but the poems belong mostly
to the famous Arabic
poets including
Ab Nuwis, Mutanabbi
and Ab Tammim.

2.

This is the book that 'baid dedicated to 'All'


al-Din Muhammad,
See also pp. 160-163 above.
who was Ab Is. Aq's vizier.
Jan Rypka, History
of Iranian Literature,
p. 272.

3.

170

In

discovering

fact,

in

and contradictions
needs
this
his

talent

a rare

Gtaa Aive

fresh

the

witty

their

lose
reader

enthusiastically

"sweet

tongue".

the

line

parting

happens
its

between

insipid

narrative

writings

in

respect

example

of both

Furthermore,

a single

is

other

and from

the

(fashat)

however
they

repeated,

the

carry

which

Therefore,

on the

point

very

style

that

commonplace.

of

one hand,

and 'Ubaid's

narrow;

standpoint

of

was

he possesses

and effective

on the

are

satire

may weaken a poem or a

it

and rendering

witticism

eloquence

word

endowed with

blows

person

when they

it

everybody;

critical

adds new meanings

end.

that

effect

and cold

this

the

educated

may be,

'Ubaid

to

It

minimizing

speech,

But

in

failures

exact

was fully

artistry

every

for

possible

and 'Ubaid

and tales

sayings

immediacy.

not

'Ubaid's

of

Perhaps,

power.

is

observation,

facet

the

and realising

points

human life,

for

Another

gift.

fine

expression

are

and clarity

(ba

of 'Ubaid's

writing

an

'hat)

of

meaning.

Above all,

the reader

attracts

in Persian,
subject

It

suits

to every

of the reader

which contains
Unlike

minimum material
point,

he stops.

saying

that

the point

Wit does not tolerate,


brevity

only

of

some other

one.

It

needs a short

the story
Persian

always writes

at least
explain

as well

introduction

has been uttered,

satirists,

the
as
and

nothing

will

he-does not stretch

his

as soon as he has made his

with

be concise

which

mind, and when the key phrase

to the maximum length;


He

and should

words which are harmonious

or audience's

"Speech should

wa dalla).

element

his brevity.

in few but necessary

preparation

4alla

is

verbosity.

being intelligible

remain.

the most influential

regard

for

and compelling"

the Arabic Persian


(al-kalm

171

It
'IIbaid's

is

true

writing,

an assembly,
say that

that

or

harsher

the

of

and a"coarse

makes it

to

of

reaction

The more the

period.

became the former.

in

recite

however

moralists,

in

element

difficult

was a kind

coarseness

corruption

the

increased.,

satire

among conventional

bitterness

the wide-spread

bitter

to some extent

which

especially

this

is

there

one could
against

latter

Again,

It can be said that the bitterness


of 'Ubaid's
witticism
and his frankness suit other aspects of Eastern life,
because in these areas everything
is hard and acute:
the
colours,
perfumes, dances, love affairs,
sensations,
and
even eyes and faces are mostly alive and penetrating;

the sun of the East is brighter


than that of the West,
therefore
mockeries,
witticisms,
ridicules
and humours
too, should be suitable
to other aspects
of these areas,
life.
Thus, one should forgive
sUbaid for doing
of their
him.
1
so, and not criticize

if

Besides,

as in some other

writings,
interest

humour is

in him than in

him, however,

even hiddenly,

kindness,

our acorn for

our tenderness
In short,
life

a great

to awaken and direct

lived

our sense of
faculties.

actions

He

our pity,

pretention,

the oppressed

ordinary

more

our

imposture

and

and the unhappy.


and passions

of

means and abilties.

in a period

were often

all

feel

We do not forget

our love,

and irrational

untruth

'Ubaid's

scarcely

number of other

the weak, the poor,

to the best of his

ministers

to awaken, not only

he comments on almost

'Ubaid

1.

for

in

who are now forgotten.

others

but also

to laughter

then one could

writers,

because he tries

humour or laughter,
professes,

only equivalent

hypocrites,

in which

the kings

the style

and rulers

of 'Ubaid's

and their

criticism,

also,

Parwiz Atabak!,
introduction
to 'Ubaid's Kul i at, p. 32. It is
necessary to mention here that by referring
to these qualities
it
is not meant to attribute
to the Eastern peoples;
any superiority
these are just climatic
conditions,
no more.

172

inevitably
(d.

7761374),

gifts,

used

poet

Salmn

with
to

his

all

778/1376)
on this

Separation)

religious

(officer

him muhto ib2


_

to call

judges,

he too killed
'ud

witnesses

committing

Shaikh,

make fun of them.

reveals

of public

act,

of wine

morals),
Inj,

wine"

short,

people
and laugh at

and his.

Mubriz

jars

and

and Shh Shuja'

used

never gave up hypocrisy,


both

whose praise

and hedonism;
3
injustice.
The

and

did not fear

as gIfiz

of the Koran,

hypocritically",

puts it,

the mufti

like

IIIbaid

and the
had

and Ulfil

those circumstances

and

laughter

sympathy,

pity

was not a pure joy,


and ridicule,

Bayni, Shirin,
Trikh 11-i Jalver,
Ufii,
Diwn, p. 30, gh. 41:

3.

Daw1atshh,

Tadhkira,

s'

c;;, /C'
o.

p.

10

4.

iiei,

Diwan., pp. 135-6,

5.

Igbl,

introduction,

p.

293:

.0...
gh. 200:

19.

"it

was a laughter

which

and at the same time vengeful.

1.
2.

;l

The Mugaffarid

authorities

and in

and poetic

Fir&a-nma

mathnawi

of which Vfil

and religious

to "drink

except

But this

his breaking

the memorizer

muht asib were acting


no choice

the

Uwais

boy,

a young

people and committed

any inadmissible

because "the

for

passion

have sung, was fond of loose-living

and Hfij

on accasions,

learning

Even Ab Ishq-i

and cruelty.

ruthlessness

of

subject.

as a result

pretensions,

Sullin

composed

known for

Muhammad, well

al Din-i

his

The Jallyerid
patronage

artistry,

publicly

confess

of SAwa'(d.

(The Book of

'Ubaid

the shape of the age.

took

pp. 33-4;
,/1.

50-51.

"

ui

173
Thus, it

seems it

or

a facetious

nor

was his

would not be fair

aim to

benefit

The following
Akh15
this

in

his

is a detailed
(Ethics

al-Ashrf

treatise

because

storyteller,

in prose,

he neither

list

the corruption

compares the "ancient


Jokes,

it

humour, sarcasm and censure


discussed

Topiesof

'Ubaid's

Satire).

the disorder

in prose,

and is undated.

253
definitions.
and
vigorous

character

with

This is

a tract

irony

period,

really

he

was.

he uses.

This

thesis

(The

(Ten
Sections).
g]
just

by

To do this,

present

of only

A few samples of which will


of "Ubaid's

of that

are the instruments

or D_

composed

He exposes,

as it

morality

in Chapter V of this

(Definitions),

Tam

in 740/1340.

others.

writings:

'Ubaid

and individuals.

moral ideals"

is fully

satirical

of the Aristocracy).

of society

treatise

by threatening

of 'Ubaid's

and finished

satirist,

individuals,

satirized

life

personal

way of mocking and sometimes ribaldry,


indicating

of him as a bold

to think

suffice

It

is

composed

seven pages
to show the

and mockery:

The World: that place wherein no creature can enjoy peace.


The Man of Learning:
He whom all men curse.
Bribery:
That which does the business of the helpless.
The Lucky Man: He who never sees the judge's countenance.
The Preacher: An Ass.
The Poet: A greedy coxcomb,
The Shaikh: Iblis.
The Devils:
His followers.
The Vijl:
He who swears falsely
by the Ka'ba.
1
By these

little

definitions

with

a grave simplicity

and a perfect

with

much originality.

In this

1.

Ta
rift,

pp. 159-161 of Kuli

lays

'baid

neatness,

pamphlet,

t.

his

'Ubaid

opinion

before

us

but at the same time


classifies

those words

174
0
which
to

are

used

the
of

them his

each of

precise;

among ordinary

dictionaries,
the

own definition,
these

and although

and are

logicians,

the

at

fresh

same time

those standard

'Obaid

The sections

and their
Sheikhs

these definitions

its

3.

and their

5.

entourage;

On "Bang" and its

appurtenances;

On the Nature

750 in prose,

and critical

Ta'rift-i

as usual,

that

in his

age,

than

and although
some of the

offer

are in it;

7.
9.

2.

customs;

On the Turks
4.

On the

retinue;

On Wine and its

appurtenances;

On Headmanship and its

Mulli

to this
du Piza

small

pamphlet

supplements;

which are named

and "The Definitions


in

here too he gives

These two pamphets consist

the same style


no evidence,

treatise,

as its
1.9

which have

as the Ta'rifat
and says nothing

of 193 minor definitions,

Sad Pand (The Book of a Hundred Counsels).


this

meaning.

are much more realistic

works of reference,

been quoted from the European Books"l,

Risila-i

definitions;

of Men and Women.

There are two supplements

sources.

and

scholars'

On the Judges and their

8.

of his

as those

which prevailed

On the Nobles and their

and functionaries;

But,

way into

ever wrote.

On the Craftsmen

itself.

is

are as follows:

retinue;

respectively

their

as meaningful

moments of inspiration

6.

10.

gives

short,

or as comprehensive

the circumstances

On the World and the Things

1.

found

each of them is

form, u&A in the usual

is an uneven work,
lines

although

He pays no heed to other

with

are bound to agree that

finest

have not

scholarly,

He then

sections.

meaning to each of them, a satirical

Those who are familiar

this

ten

each of which

meanings

not

sharp as a major article.


he gives

in

people,

name implies,

comprises

Composed in
a hundred

175
some serious

aphorisms,
make the
today",

some ribald

refrain

from

other

"Do not

defer

and ironical

so that

"So far

able,

be a bore

you may not

of

pleasures

as you are

to

is

where there

in a street

"Do not take lodgings

the

tomorrow

until

such as,

truth,

the

speaking

people";

you may be safe from the annoyance of cacophonous

so that

minlret,

very

life";

most of

appealing,

and not

friends:

such as "0 dear

mu'adhdhins. "
treatise

of this

The contents

in

further

be discussed

will

Chapter V.
(The Book of the Beard).

h
RisNma
It

verse.

is

beard and its

ruthlessness,

of the period

bear by its

deals

This booklet
especially

on their

attack

(the

and rulers

revelry
enjoyed

these nobles'

affections

beards,

were unloved

set into

the prose like

proficient
he sprinkles
often

1.

master.
Koranic

interpolates

h-ama,
Ris

In accorance
verses
Sa'di's

p. 44 of R

or a fah_

of the age,

poems in this

r4L

in life

composition,

va

which usually
by a
of the prose,

practice

throughout

his

prose.

tract.

CS.,j

i
T

save

his

fashioned

the standard

and traditions

t:

into

in a signet-ring
with

is undated.

but when they grew

He inserts

or a hemistich,
a signet

It

as long as they are beardless,

and fondlings,

and abandoned.

a couplet

ironically

"IIbaid

who sought nothing

handsome youths,

the-

with

the handsome youths

source of goodness).

and pleasure;

here and there,

faces.

dealing

the moral corruption

also with

of the nobles

that

and the sufferings

the beard Ab '1-Ma#isin

calls

is in mixed prose and

of about 11,000 words,

treatise

a short

This

He

176
The following

is

the form of a dialogue

excerpt

a short

from this

humorous writing
and beard.

between the poet himself

in

He writes:

I was at home. Suddenly a corner of the house split,


and
from this split
a person emerged; a person whom nobody
should see, even in a dream. He said, "Peace be with you! "
appearance
I began to tremble.
I rose
his
dreadful
From
or
at once and asked him, "Who are You? Are you Iblis,
(demon), or the Ghl (Giant),
the`Ifrit
or the angel of
death? " "Hey: hey: don't you know me?" the beard shouted
and I
at me. "They call me 'the beard Ab '1-MaiAsin',
have come to do justice
to you and your disloyal
beloved. "
Hearing this claim, I whispered:
If a man's virtues
are such as you
What do you suppose his vices will be like? " 1
Then the conversation
'Ubaid
is

tries

treatise
his

It

over.

seems to me that

there

the subject-matter
Dilaush

largest

of all

booklet

the author

and ribaldry.

'Ubaid

"Debate with

of writing,

8isla-i

means to convince

possible

had Sa'di's

style

although

by all

between "Ubaid and the beard begins,

llbaid's

his time

at the time of composing this

Pretender"2

in mind,

and has used

being many phrases


is

completely

in both which are alike,


3
different.

(The Joyous Treatise).


satirical

explains

writings.

why he occupied

I have no doubt that

This treatise
At the beginning
himself

what 'Ubaid

is

of this

with humour,

has gathered

the

in

satire
this

1.

Kullivt,

2.

istn,
Gul
Saldi b Mdda'L dar bayin-i
pp. 116-21, "Jidil-i
Tawnguntwa darwishi".
In developing his ideas, 'Ubaid also seems to have relied
on the
fifth
bb of the. G
too,
stn "On Love and Youth", in which Saldi,
See Gulistin,
reproaches his beloved for growing a beard.
pp. 86101, especially
the anecdotes which begins with the following
words:

3.

p. 45:

the beard that

and

"

177
book, is

180

about

not his

mainly

ones that

Persian

by his

own circumstances,

Arabic

and sometimes Persian


However,

Persian.

familiar

with
in

he has collected

is

and this

splendid,

'Ubaid,

and how noble

the humour is here. '

It

thorough

As it
thesis,

How just

artistry

and what Dawlatshih

here and there

'Ubaid,

He writes

and others

however,

gives

at the beginning

humorist,

his

fact.

have said
away his

translation
to

and Arabic.
of this

satire

and

seems to a great.,,

intention

Risila

How perfect

testifies

in the course

began to write

of this

They are mere

and how honest:

both in Persian

artistry

because there

and a great

This single

and education

them

his

secondly,

on many occasions

than the original.

has been indicated

degree forged.
satire.

a translator

or

and replaces

readers;

we do not know how and why 'Ubaid

ribaldry,

to sheer imitation

is not an easy task,

may even be held that

has come out better


'Ubaid's

however,

them into

the same but failed.

is

translators.

the image. '

himself

the sake of his

inspired

from previous

or has translated

writers,

who have attempted

are many others

them all

and

anecdotes

and were probably

he changes the personalities

names for

translation

are original,

he has not confined

Firstly

extraction.

from a few Arabic

own, and apart

of writing

the following

lines:

So says the author


treatise
of this
and the writer
of
this article
'Ubaid-i
Zkni
that
the
of
virtue
...
on which the excellence
speech,
of human beings rests,
(iidd)
is of two sorts:
is serious
First
and the second
(hazl),
is satire
is
and the superiority
of seriousness
obvious,
and just
as constant
seriousness
produces
vexation,
too, causes humiliation
permanent playfulness,
and
diminution
have said of this:
of honour,
and the ancients

As yearly seriousness gnaws at people's spirit,


Daily playfulness,
too, produces disgrace.
1

1.

flisla-i

Dilgiishl,

p. 89 of Kullit:
v

k'

J L.

tom

178

boredom and
by way of repelling
But if (the people],
Uji,
the
for
i
as
sages would'have,
causing
amusement,
(1),
in
food
is
like
in speech
occupy
salt
ribaldry
be
they
themselves
should
of
ribaldry,
with a sort
it to this
for our masters have justified
excused,
2
extent.

I penned some witty


Thus, according to this introduction
points and anecdotes which were in my mind, containing
the second Persian,
Arabic,
first,
two parts:
and I
because, in order to study
named it "The Joyous Treatise"
heart and
these pages it is necessary to have a cheerful
God, the Creator,
grants these two
a joyous mind.
3
favours to us all.

proceeds

ribaldry

to all

turn,

that

from adversity,

a cheerful

'Ubaid's

the end he wishes

and joyous

heart

that

this

mind";

in consequence of the changes and turmoil


"a cheerful

he had neither
therefore,

say that

of ridding

himself

'Ubaid
of grief

heart",
believed

nor a "joyous
in satire

or disaster,

or

satire

and "by way of repelling

amusement"; and towards

and deriving
grant

introduction

from this

is understood

It

boredom

that

"God should

denotes,
of that

in its
period,

One can,

mind".

and ribaldry

as the means

and no more.

The Arabic
anecdotes,

section

Dilaush

contains

ninety-three

can be determined,

forty-one

of them

of the Risla-i

and as the sources

come from Abu '1-Q, sim Raghib al-Igqfahni's


from Ibn Qutaiba's

2.

4IIyn al-Akhbr;

five

Muhidarat

from a1-JA iV's

Kitb

five
al Bayn.

Cf . Rgbib, ItuWart,
Ibid.,
pp. 89-90.
vol. Is p. 79: "Ab Bakr
said, 'I was with the Prophet and his poet was reciting
a poem to
"Do you listen
to both the loran and poetry? ' I asked him.
him.
'Sometimes this and sometimes that, " replied
the Prophet. "

u(
3.

al Udab';

Risla-i

Dilaush,

p. 80.

9 ,

IaiaJL
oy4

179
and Kitb

al-;

avwn;
All

wal-Mutamiinin.

some 270 years

is

before

had his book in his


disappointing

the name of his

borrowed from their


Here follow
of the Risia
anecdotes

with

In

their

reference
sources

(d.

author
5021108

both

imagine

criticism,

writers'

that

'Ubaid

was referring

to it.

without

however,

acknowledging

to their

and

only a
culture

who

them.
and Persian

(the

complete

in the final

chapter

sources

are given

is

in Islamic

some examples of both the Arabic

with

the

has not mentioned his source

were many authors

forebears

but

some places,

and he constantly

This

al-Zirf

R&ghib

one can easily

our author

compatriot.

is

"tTbaid's

death).

possession,
that

'Ubaid,

precede

much like

'Ubaid's

Akhbr

al-Jawzi's

authors

one, because there

relative

Ibn

and therefore

words are identical,

is

from

these

of writing

whose style

It

five

portions
text

of the

of this

thesis).

A.

Arabic

Examvles

T)*

in his court to hear the


Once Anusharwin was sitting
"I am oppressed. "
A short man came crying,
grievances.
"Nobody is able to do injustice
to a short man, " said
"0 prince:
the man who oppressed me is
Anusharvin.
shorter than me, " said the crying man. The King laughed
to be done to him.
1
and ordered justice

S)

It is said that Kasri was sitting


in his court to hear
A short man came to him crying,
"I am
grievances.
The chief
oppressed",
and the King paid no attention.
(mubad-i
Addressing
priest
mubadn) was in attendance.
the king he said, "Do justice
to him. " "Nobody is able
to do injustice
to a short man, " replied
the King.
"He
who oppressed me is shorter than me, " answered the man.

*T
1.

Di

text; S
source.
h, p. 90 of Kulliyt:

,, c, 1i'
2.

Nluh rt,
IJJPJ
U3

, i..
vol.

III,

'= ""

cs

w: J

*,

"i

, i,;

'""-

"fi

p. 286:
J-3

180

A woman called
be to God that

T)

from

and the

you,

"Praise
comes

her husband a cuckold and pauper.


because the first
I have no fault,
God, " replied

comes from

second

the

man.

"The
what

5)

her
A woman called
first
is from God,
is my fault? " said

T)

A group of friends
accompanied
each other on a journey,
Each of then intended
to
and a parasite
was among them.
One said,
share in the expenses by paying for something.
buy the sweetmeats, "
"I will
buy the bread",
and "I will
the parasite
"What do you
said another,
was silent.
while
[of
"Only
they
him.
to
"
the
curse
asked
provide?
want
laughed and
the parasite.
They all
God], " replied
3
exempted him from paying.

S)

A group agreed with each other


to share their
expenses
"I undertake
on a journey,
and a pauper was among them.
this, " said one of them.
"I undertake
that, " said another
"What are you going to
Then they asked the pauper,
man.
"The curse of God, the angels and the people, "
undertake? "
the man.
4
replied

husband a cuckold
and the second is
2
the husband.

and a pauper.
from you, thus

sh, p. 92

1.

Di1

2.

Muh arit,

J(a

III,

vol.

1'tApl

p. 227:
U3

death, SanAll
Almost thirty-three
years after Righib's
(ad-'E
this
follows
a, p. 731):
versified
anecdote as

3.

Dil4sh,

p.

97:

,*-

L-

Muhd,

'c6b
r ';

vol.

Wf>

of Ghazna

"J .

-#
I,
11

4.

II,

p. 697:

r';.; .JJs':

L.,.

:,> -,,

', '-

Ic

181
B.

Persian

Examples

The second
About

anecdotes.
from

remaining

anecdotes

anecdotes,

author's

'Ubaid

takes,

and contemporary
the

earlier

century,
Harngar

al-Din

that

we come across

satirists

ethical
as well
as Qutb

686/1287)

period

Persian

this

give

of his

notable

al-Din

Shirizi
It

The

of infor-

of Persian

us a very

as the

like.

Mu Marfit.

part

bankruptcy

and the

Persian

a good deal

latter

to

and has 269

into

RAghib's

also unknown semi-historical

of an earlier

who was Sul'n

contain

opportunity

men such
(d.

In

period.

and the

from

mostly

seem original

the

is

Treatise

have been translated

again

characters,

Majd

is

which

of corruption

picture

these

sources,

the

about

mation

of

seventy

Arabic

various

the Joyous

of

portion

informative

fellow

poets

personalities
(d.
is

in

Persian

of

710/1311),
this

part

jesters

such as Ab Bakr Rubbi and Talkhak,

Mahmild of Ghasna's favourite

jester,

mention

of whom

not to be found elsewhere.


The following

are two anecdotes which

'Ubaid

has translated

Arabic:

T)

l.

and

Once they were carrying


A poor
a corpse along a road.
The son asked
an was standing with his little
son.
his father,
"What is in this coffin? " "A human being, "
the father.
"Where are they carrying him? " asked
replied
the boy again.
"To a place where there is no food, no
firewood,
no clothes,
no bread, no drink,
no silver,
no
gold and no carpets. " "So, are they carrying him to our
house? " said the boy.
1

-Dilzsh,

p. 144:

rr

from

182

boy heard a woman in front


A little
of a coffin
in
house
to
taking
"They
you
a
are
and) saying,
there are no covers,
no
no carpets, 'no suppers,
him
to
bringing
"Are
"
they
light.
fasts
and no
1
boy of his father.
asked the little

(weeping
which
breakour house? "

(henbane)
in a mosque.
him began to abuse him.
that he was
and observing
God has
at him, 0 man:
that you should be so

T)

bang
A man of Shiraz
was boiling
The servant
of the mosque seeing
looked at him,
The man of Shiriz
he yelled
lame, bald and blind.,
not showed you so much kindness
2
fanatical
about His house. "

5)

There
A dog came to a mosque and pissed on the mihrb.
"Are you not ashamed of pissing on
was a monkey there.
the mihrib? " said the monkey to the dog. "God has not
that you should be thus zealous
created you so beautiful
3
the dog.
about Him, " replied
Now, let

Here we find
seemingly
his

1.

that

a total

are mostly

Msrt,

the

original

All

the outcome of his

these events

IV,

vol.

portion

of 120 anecdotes

and companionships

conversations

of the period.

to

us return

p. 201:

are 'Ubaid's

the nobles

treatise.

own, and

on his

reflections

with

inspired

'Ubaid's

of

own age, or

and other

jesters

him to compose these anecdotes;

'

i/.
,

As

'"
a9
"
(d.
672/1293)
Jall
Din
Rumi
Incidently,
al
almost a hundred years
in Persian,
before
this anecdote
4Ubaid had versified
which begins
line:
with the following

,P

=A fu1, > >I(3

Jig

2.

Dilz

sh, p. 120 of Kullivt:

sLW/T

3.

darfit , vol.
IKuh.

-211

IV,

p. 707:

,1

Al

.nom

183

Here

so.

are

being either

therein

the personalities

his contemporaries,

or nearly

a few samples:

A rustic
The preacher
once attended
a sermon.
was
irij
bridge
"The
be thinner
than a
elaborating,
will
hair,
than a sword, and on the day of
sharper
The naive
must pass over it. "
resurrection,
everybody
there be any
man rose and asked, "0 Mawlni
will
ring or handle with which one can grasp and pass
thereover? "
the preacher.
"In that case
"No, " replied
I swear by God that
at your beard,
you are laughing
even a hen is not able to pass over such a bridge, "
1
the rustic.
replied
Iji,
"Why did people
A an asked Mawlana 'Adud al-Din
in the period
of the
claim divinity
and prophethood
"Because they have suffered
but not nowadays? "
caliphs,
that they have
so such starvation
and oppression
2
both God and the Prophet, " replied
Mawln.
forgotten

In these anecdotes

threatened
he also

secular

21) to Qazwinis
constantly

f,

j Cj
:

2.

:.

Dili

at the stupidity

gibing

^'

'>
r"t.:

^
i

p.

j^pf

110:

"j

ol
)
,
iY
.
i%.

of superstitions

In these tales,

reasoning.

and both

which

Ardabil,

Bukhr,

the cleverness

or
(almost

There are many references

whom 'Ubaid

with

kind

Qazwin, Shiraz,

inhabitants.

h, pe 1 0:

Di

like

Qum and Igfahn,

of their

stupidity

all

and logical

thinking

to cities

refers

Hamadn, Shstar,

I.

fearlessly

and satirizes

religion

spreads his wings in the realm of

'Ubaid

sadly

has no sympathy.

inhabitants.

of the city's

/
"y

I..q

He is
Of the

41//
.
...

t,
1
Li
J
i"
_^-J,
ti%j 'l J
->a
AL
it

1 ^'
l Cc'

i. i

G- , f

l)

184
twenty-one
he speak

their

of
the

praises

299 couplets

in

the

which

(tadmint

u Qata"t)
One of

102 couplets.
ten

the
what
being

1.

the

2
form

the

between
other

of

epic

parody,

nobles

have

catamites:

words,

here

Cri me-

poet

heroes

and the
in

gained

poet

in

Rustam

ironically

writes

and glory

rW

is

.,

pp. 133-134 of Kuli

t:

z/ J,A..

w
C.1
CSr

Ibid.,

the

.-" ,

t; '

Akhla al-Ashrf,

p. 133:

Chapter

III,

homosexual

in

and

has been couched

3.

a poem in

describes

satire

r
2.

is

Sh=,

finally

dignity

inserted

of the

a successful

the

Here

65
pp.
and 70:

Kullisat,

is

couplets,

(rubld

of 2kni

which

total

and fragments

parodies

passages

style

two famous

In

these

most comic

Firdausian

forty-three

and 51 quatrains

137 couplets

Poems).

meaning

exact
in

masturbation;

(On Chastity).

al-Ashrif

intercourse
Man.

in

couplets

Akhla

in

its

'

inhabitants.

and Parodic
in

he

contrary,

of its

a tariff'-band

advocates

in only one does

On the

tolerance

satirical

including

satirist

treatise,

(Satirical

wa Tadnnt

one can term

poems which

altogether

and the

of Shiriz

Hazllya

in this

and generosity.

cleverness

beauty

Ash'r-i
Those

to the city

references

in

that

outcome

of

185

of

the

age are
it

writing,
form

of

and consists

undated,

of

seems that

to

sufis

their

elsewhere,

and parasitic

us that

convince

of

style

The first

wants

as nobody

communication

letter

is

to mock this

knows clearly
too

is

in

was not

these

letters

their

style

Wandar

tries

ZkAni
living,

of

so

and absurd.

whose name is Abu 'l-Hasan.


are imaginary

any confrontation

It

verses.

about the authenticity


evidence

irrelevant

is undated,
of Zkai's

of 'Ubaid's

speculation
especially

authenticity,

with

It

the suffs

would
by 'Ubaid

and created

and parasitic

This is a short

and the late


authorship.

M. Minovi
l

which in itself

is

has hesitated

However, there

not being the author

despite

that

available

manuscripts
gagida,

cat in the city

in the khafif

the

copies.

metr , describes

of Kirmn,, and his

its

the author's

and name are given at the end of the ca ida in all


and published

is no

some

not enough to dispute

in view of the fact

of

gaida

takte

1.
2.

on good

of his age.

ninety-two

This

the
because,

of society,

"Ubaid

ridiculous

Mush u Gurba (The Mouse and the Cat).

adequate

of

style

from a person whose name is Shahb al-Din

both of these characters

elements

the

class

In

dervishes

the

two letters

thesis,

mystics.

seem that

to avoid

this

in

to another

order

these

is

It

purportedly

Considering

by writing

Qalandar,

in

of the Derwishes).

in which

each other.

'Ubaid,

a communication,

with

two letters

to

writing

as we have indicated
terms

(The Letters

Qalandarn

Maktbt-i

turning

to piety

the conspiracy
after

seizing

of a
and

M. Minovi, "Qaglda-i
Mah u Gurba" Yamaha', 1957 (No. 10), pp. 31-38.
See for the details
of this metre
----..
-)"
(metrical
its
changes) Shams-i Qais-i RAZZ, al,
and
zihf
The Persian Metres, pp. 4f- 45.
PP. 139-40; L. P. Elwell-Sutton,

186

killing
description

the

of

lion-hunting

cat

whose eyes

Such a cat,
and concealed

search of food,

himself

behind

like

claws

enjoy drinking

Filled

power,

of the danger

of his

a wine-house

In the meantime a mouse

and jumped on the edge of a jar

ignorant

like

and lion-tailed.

went out and entered

a'wine-jar.

with

a ravenous,

sharp

a shield

appeared from a wall,


wine.

poetical,

of a cat,

his

amber,

a breast

a drum,

like

in

a dragon

like

are

a formidable

with

no more cat,

cat:

a belly

leopard's,

begins

The tale

some mice.

induced by alcohol

pride,
foe,

cunning

to

and started
and

he began to boast

of his

saying:
that I may wring his head and fill.
Where is the cat,
his skin with chaff.
The dog is less to me than a
for never he dares to face me in the
contemptible
cat,
2
battle-field.

Hearing
suddenly

leaped

out upon him and seized


changed his

sobered and necessarily


"I

an your slave;

nonsense)

1.

slave. "3

If

and drunkards
It

is

clear

him.

silent.

The mouse now was.

I ate dirt

eat much dirt:


that

.' t;

I am your slave,
to none of

(t..s'(.9 il

-k
zx2.

3.

I_.,

mid.,

p. 169:

p. 170:

(,

/lc.

',

l " '

lJ
r

saying:

[i. e. talked

the cat listened

t:

Mah u Gurba, p. 169 of Ku

But then he

tone of speech to entreaty,

pardon me my sins.

I was drunk,

your devoted

the cat remained

these puffery,

', l. a3(/JA

187

the

mouse's

the

mosque and performed

"Oh almighty

his

I humbly

God,

As he was hypocritically
hiding

in

the

and hurried

to

other

saying

mice,
to

alluded

the

carry
in

repent,

I'll

repenting

of

never
his

good news of
which

and then

his
tear

again

these

the

mice

another

uplifting

cat's

to

went

mouse-eating:

evil-doing,

mosque heard

a verse

him,,

and ate

and repented

ablution

the

of

pulpit

he killed

for

supplication,

"1

apart.
mouse

sentiments
to

repentance

has become proverbial,

the

and is

by 4MI:

for the cat has become a devout,


Good tidings:
An ascetic, a true believer,
a Musulman: 2
To compensate the devout cat's
express

their

to approach,

mice.

throwing

The cat,

and sprang upon them like

After

of them, while

a week of lamentation,

dust on their

heads,

for

they decided to

their

however,

of seven mice
invited

(mubgriz

a warrior

the news of the cat's

to escape and carry

decision,

to him a deputation

of food and wine.

and caught five

of warfare

other

by sending

gratitude

an offering

with

holy

managed

unchanging

to the

that
lost

nature

is wearing
friends,

marched out to battle

in the desert

1.

2.

Ibid.

Ibid.

170:
p.
s

p. 170:

of Firs.

l
's

See also HMV O DiwAn, p. 91:

"y

and

sovereign,

I'

&

{.

black

the mice deployed

the command of their

the cats

day

on-the

the two survivors

an armer of 300,000 in number, under


with

them

ut

After

188

battle,

fierce

cats

was brought

captive,
the

the

on the

the

king

But

the

end the

followers.

This

of the

ca Ida

fine

This

at

king

the

amusing

Though 'Ubaid's

his

three
very

Even so,

writings.

occasions,

there

in Persian

it

However,

it

Pish u Gurba, p. 173:

2.

_"

170:
p.
,
-'

3.

Shams-i Qais-i

is

was inclined

1.

1
C'U's

Rzi,

i1
-.:ail

is

,.

finest

at its

again

still

as a sign

that

in

places

the mice with


there

are a few

from an able pen


of the verses with

of imperfection

an unrivalled

'Ubaid's

sometimes it

and
in its

gang

and a few other

to dispute

here,,

on two or

appears

the ending

was because of these

mast not be forgotten

/.

is

iamatarity

M. Minovi

couplet:

humour

of

regarded

the late

his

or slew

which seem disappointing

poetry,

him to

his

words here than in other

`-'ishb13, which is

that

away from

where the cat insults

and above all

Perhaps it

broke

irony

the alif-i

own right.

who condemned

and also in some places

abuse2,

weak and unrhymed couplets


such as 'Ubaid's,

Zknl.

sense

and above all

famous Turkish

this

and critical

his

mice,

story

indecent

fewer

cat

taken

offender

chief

and scattered

ends with

l bald-i

satire

however,

are,

of the

mice

and strange

Is a memento of

there

and the

before

gallows,

killed

captors,

defeated,

were

points

authorship.

is reasonable

, lc3

al=im,
w

s",

p. 176:

j_
CJ

l
ff

..

V).

. co

in

189

humour
far

to

state

and it

as possible,

humour
scope
reason

is

that

for

the

they

in

a reality

by folk

and the

pedantic

included

not

a special

the

traditional

offer

which
for

and probably

as

of Persian

aspect

or tales,

verses

grammarian,

in

language

and even colloquial

seem that

would

represented

are

simple

histories

little

that

very

of Persian

literature.
this

At any rate,
both satire

gaglda

and irony

the ruling

Its

translations

of this

The Analysis

of the Tale

reader.

gagida

The first

the ruling

spiritual

is

name of religion

majority
right,

that

and justice

became oppressed,

and their

1.

tale

exercise

just

the analysis

even

English.

of this

the attention
'Ubaid

sheikhs,

of the
on the one

explains,
their

,wrldly

relationship

and self-serving

shows how the latter


irreligion

their

even with

even while

under the

and injustice,

as the mice were.

the population
lives

including

and on the other,

and humanity

fairness
Finally,

a general

tale,

Thus, people

cat.

to these virtues.

is

attract

judges,

This symbolic

would be destroyed
justice,

concerning

in this

including

the hypocritical

like

that

was so great

languages

other

of the people,

class

leaders.

and demogogy of

(d.

two viewpoints

hand, the condition


with

into

have been said

tales-but

celebrated

of

1031J1629-) welcomed it by
'
There are a good many
under the same name.

composing a mathna

Many things

too,

contents

because no poetry

aggression

popularity,

such as Shaikh BahAll

some scholars

one, and its

vigorous;

the hypocrisy,

so far.

class

a popular

are superlatively

to criticize

has been able

is

numerical

They ridicule

publicly

pretending

which has been ruled

and livelihood

left

in ruins.

explanation.

See Shaikh Bah'i,

Ku

just

t (Tehran, 1953), pp. 231-249.1

by them
This

190
Another

he had an historical

describe

Amir Mubriz

Kirmin.

As has been stated

writers,

among them qMV

terms with
It

Ishq.

Mubriz

the Jalyerids,
of that

but,

When Mubriz

al-Din

had done in his

reached

of scholars

the
of

and

the provinces

to join

the service
was his

of poverty,

and avaricious

Amir Abe.

supported

4Ubaid left

the hardships

king

to this

to

and our poet were not on good

on the contrary,

hypocritical

ascribed

a handful

Baghdad in order

incur

tries

it

the ruler

Mupffari,

the reason that

for

and thus

intolerant,

qualities

of Shiraz

al-Din,

al-Din

al Din

elsewhere,

would seem that

by Mubriz

ruled

From what has been said

of Amir Shaikh Ab Is1Aq Injil,

the status

allegorically

tale,

when 'Ubaid was compsoing this

is a scene in which the author

the tale

of Fars Iris--vis

ruler

that

in his mind.

event

be seen that

will

is

explanation

ling.

the age of forty,

hatred

The evil
documents.

based on historical

are fully

of

he repented

of what he

life,

early

in 740/1361 (when he was forty years


the son of Muzaffar,
leaders call real
of age - that time which spiritual
heard God's call of mercy, and returned to
maturity),
the threshold
of God in deep repentance and tried very
hard to worship God and pray ... Following
the Prophet's
1
he used to walk to the mosque from his house.
tradition
Again
from

I'll
to oppress
the_

tribes

calling

Kutbi,

1.

the

T! 3:ikh-i

11-i

ofAU hn1,
them heretics;

Mu. affar,

"he

obtained

and regarded

P-

l)
r'
(

d
.
-" t'i>

> ')J1 CS4U

fighting

(approval)
them

p. 15:

A OP
41

a f_g

10

J)
lam'

t.

>
J
_^_

(L 110

>

">-

191
(holy

as ghaz
(shih-i

this

for

war);

they

reason

own style

of humour,

The warrior king and world-conquering


From whose sword blood was dripping.

sovereign
2

"1

Ahzi).

4fiV,

his

him the

called

with

warrior

king

was to

praise

him thus:

His religious

however,

character,

was accompanied by ruthiessnesa,

because it happened on many occasions that while he was


reading the Holy Koran, they brought a group of Ughnis
before him, and he abruptly killed
them with his own
hand. He then washed his hands out of respect for the
Koran, and then resumed reading it.
His son, Shh
Shujid, asked him if he had killed
one thousand persona
by his own hand; and he replied,
"A total
of seven or
eight hundreds only. " 3
In regard

to his

here that

his

fealty

intolerance

son Shah Shuj'

to the Egyptian

nothing

of wine-jars

these events
were disgusted

to the seizing

with

Ibid.,

p. 28:

2.

D win,

p. 367:

3.

gutbi,

p. 7; Hasani,

' ; .

4.

Ibid.,

tJJ j

c5;"

of his

,o...

to mention

sufficient

In 755/135
Billh,

al-Mu'tadid

from the

As a result

extreme policy

he swore

and left

by way of pretence,
of heretics.

>>

Jmi'

al-Tawrikh,

ci

of punishment

of
people

p. 271:

J I
C1U3' =. ,,.
'

P. 757:

(S.)/ /J1;., Allj

is

him6"4

1.

of religion,

and "because

it

him muht.eib.
a_

called

Abbasid Caliph

undone in support

breaking

and rigour

, J. 1)

4., 1il ()J4

`w d l
"; ,

,>1 ly u
CS'.

l
_

r,

_'`

"
Gi ^

192

The writer

of these words,

dynasty';

therefore,

according

to

to

this,

that

the

because

even his

one should
of

spirit
the

the

was the annalist

expect

him

to praise

The truth,

age.

own chronicler

could

of the Muuaffarid

his

patrons

however,

and tolerance

generosity

enemy's

gutbi,

was contrary

of Ab Is)}q
his

overlook

not

was so great
virtuous

qualities:

Amir Jamil al-Din"Shaikh


Ab Ishq, who was junior in
age to all the sons of AmIr Ma nnid, was however senior
than the
of all in morality,
even more celebrated
of the kings in generosity;
majority
and the fame of
his good qualities
was greater than that of the sun,
and his kindness was extended towards the noble and
the humble, the poor and the rich; and in his age none
could have recorded a ruler more generous than him. 2
A cross-examination
person alluded
the other
other
that

of this

to in the character

cats in the "desert

tale

of Frs"

has explicitly

quoted both-the

of Mubriz

1.

Ibid..,

p. 19:

2.

Ibid.,

pp. 31-32:

al-Din's

attack.

s.,,,

J
Mash u Gurba,

pp.

170-171

J>J
of Kul

cat,

is

suggested

place

i>
_c-

>

t:

f
.1F,

_t

with
is none

by the fact

of fighting,

1..'

the

who along

And we know that

w1..

that

the arm- of mice,

routed

Muhammad. This

"baid

would suggest

of the pious

than MubAriz alpin

description

3.

fine

and the
even though

193
Abi Ishq had come before

the army of Kirmn with

"he

was defeated

without

the

consultation

of Aba Is4Aq

"sweet-tongued"
S'in,

learned

Furthermore,
is

al Din

of peace.

peace,

is unreliable.

his

"

although

elaborates

Iji.

the following

who addresses

gave to

al-Din

the king

to Mubiriz

the treaty

words into

his

in search

and gave
the request

seven times,

event with

'Adud

of the king

al-Din

paid homage to Iji

this

and

Shams al Din

minister

but would not accept

expenditure,

'Ubaid

humour, and puts


cat,

al Din,

'Adud al-Din

"Ab Ishq violated

replying,

al Din

'A4ud

and intelligent

who was expert


able

troops,
Again,

Shiriz.

which the cat gave the diplomat

Abi Ishq sent

for

brave

clever,

diplomat"

diplomat

to that

Mubriz

5,000 dinArs

"a

to

the answer which Amir Mubriz

similar

of the mice.

and fled

us of Ab Ishq's

reminds

and his

with

an "elderly

and sending

minister",

any battle"',,

well-armed

for

and he

own sense of

the mouth of the hypocritical

of the mice:

Who is the mouse? Vile is the mouse, and viler


are his doings;
The mouse has eaten dirt,
and I will not move from Kirwan
2
town.
Finally,

the conclusion

is quite

Ir

1.

gutbi , p. 27: rc

2.

Msh u Gurba, p. 171:


j(;

_.,

of The Mouse and the Cat

to the actual

_similar
the hands of the Mubdrizid

3.

of the anecdote

case of Ab Is1Aq and his defeat at


3
Amir.
The iun of which 'TTbaid describes

cjA

L
(S'"'

C>

J1. _

p. 173:

11
cS))
sF-ZA
.%
-:
A, Ji,
^. 3,4
uUJ

194
the destruction
had built

for

in his

tale

himself,

in

brings

to mind the iwan,


poem 'Ubaid

a serious

which Ab Is1Aq
it

recalls

with

great

grief:

He built
an iwn and
Sitting
there happily
But now the time has
of the nightingale
A black-hearted
raven
There-is

no doubt that

and the "vicious


d

ga,

being

raven"

composed

to paradise
a palace similar
and enjoying drinking
wine
that in the place
changed so rapidly
has entered

by "nightingale"

the

is

to AmIr MubAriz

alludes

after

there

of the

event

...

intended

the whole

al Din,

former's

Abil Is4iq

defeat

by the

latter.
Finally,

date of its
The first

1.
...

should

be mentioned

of the event which inspired

nature

being

it

that

this

if

aagida is

composition may be established


marks the date

of Ab Iaiq's

our hypothesis
correct,

as to the
then

the

as 754/1375 or 758/1379.

flight

from Shiriz,

the second

the date when he was slain.

Kulliyit,

CJ >

p. 76:
.
. +>>
s

CS -

-_

X11 C.Jr? r
y

.t'

LJ

CHAPTERT
THE TOPICS OF 'TBAID'S

Although

'IIbaid

who have created

philosophers

in common

systematic

from the Creation

matters

philosophical

encompassing all

he has nothing

poet,

was a philosophical

the professional

with

HUMOURAND SATIRE

arguments

to the

resurrection.
they are scattered

His views have no order;


treatises,

as in a garden where all

search a long time


different

flowers.

different

variety,

out his

picking
If

idea

a clearer

political

and moral satire

in sections,

are planted
he must

from amongst those

to make up another

to 'Ubaid's

of the various

been adopted here in order


throughout

scattered

shorter

bunch of a

he must then adopt the same approach again.

to obtain

views

his

a bunch of one kind,

favourites

he then wishes

should be taken

same attitude

of flowers

varieties

a person wishes to collect

If

at random.

throughout

unsystematic
aspects

and humour.

This

of his

religious,

approach has therefore

together

his works,

and they are presented

with

his

in order

writings

to collect

each one dealing

The

religious,

the various

political

random
together
and ethical

views respectively.

Part
"Religion",
that

1.

is

according

to say, it

Ta'rift-i

consists

Muli

I.

Religiarus

to 'Ubaid,

is

of principles

du Piaza,

the "imitation

of the ancients"1,

which we have accepted

from

p. 166 of Kulliyt:

r
b
c e. ,,,,
j : C/
195

196
our

ancestors

and family

climatic
other

any argument;

without

we have been given

words,

in following

no obligation

anyone who has tried

by the religious

thinldng

adopted

authorities,

however,

to choose his

or

them

choose

"there

that

is

on the one hand,


by dint

own religion

on the other

while

leaders

on religious

of

hand the stern

have left

and preachers

People have,

matters.

which they have inherited

that

prove

In

minds.

has been claimed

a religion"l;

in practice

of religious

ordinances

to

our

social,

has been condemned, and even cursed as a heretic

argument,

rational

it

True,

economic,

them in

emphasized
no opportunity

and independently.

rationally

free

have

factors

and political,

from their

no room for

therefore,
parents,

mostly
family

and

environment.

doctrines

religious
people.

of life,

by everyone.

slapped by every body. "2


is

and the discussions

from the realities

have been surpassed

'Ubaid

and nations.
both explicitly
have destroyed
careerists

and Sunnites,

many witty

wrote

and implicitly
Islamic

and profiteers

unity

Koran,

2.

Ta

ft,

p,

165:

manifestations

of

which has caused

criticizing

to gain advantages

have been

parables

and have created

r1 ;
It

Muslims who

for

the futility

2: 257-8.

have

the cause of suffering


and anecdotes

of these differences
a real

l'

opportunity

from these

disputes.

1.

validity

"Muslims

writes,

to

between

splits

on their

One of the most painful

and even now, is

in regard

particularly

As 'Ubaid

the schism between Shiites

many grave problems,

leaders

have caused serious

and rituals

These differences

removed people

this

between religious

the difference

Again,

: cJ lj

obscure

people

which
for

197
commandments of the religious

The severe
caused
of

great.

to "the

sharl'a

of immensity

in

problems

lifetime,

'Ubaid's

mountain

of qud"',

so that
is

which

he likens

the

the

symbol

pejorative

they said to a Bedouin, "You have grown old and


therefore,
repent
approaching your end: in idleness;
to Mecca. " "I have no money
and go on a pilgrimage
"Then
to go on a pilgrimage, " replied
the Bedouin.
"But when I return,
sell your house, " they said.
And if I do not come back,
where shall I settle?
but have settled
there as a neighbour of God, will
he-not ask me, 0 rascal:
Why did you sell your house
and come here to stay in n house? " asked the Bedouin.
One of the ugliest
leaders
fact

was their

interference

they practiced

would not hesitate

instruments.

to persecute

in this-vice

Although

under different
that

circumstances
this

taking

people
free

intolerable

hypocritically

they themselves

thinkers

bribes
religious

stupidity.
feigning

in public;

It
41fij

In an anecdote
ignorance

but

and the non-religious,

was pronounced

contemporary

musical

illegal,

indulged

was due to such


reacted

sharply

he criticizes

the

about minor crimes which

committed.

They brought an old drunkard to HishAm b. lAbd al-Malik.


A wine-cup and a lute were in his hands.
"Break the
taanbr on his head, and beat him with a whip for drinking

1.
2.
3.

In

pretext,

and destroying

pretexts.

spiritual

of the people.

on the slightest

wine-jars

and his

'baid

lives

what they criticized

show of breaking

and made great

caliphs'

in private

and the so-called

in the private

the intellgentsia,

particularly

against

of clergymen

aspects

load

"Once,, " he relates,

among the Muslims.

and weight

had'also

authorities

Ibid.,
p. 164:
Risla-i
Dilrrasha,
p. 90.
Hishim, tenth caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, who reigned from 105
to 125/724 to 743. His reign marks the final
period of prosperity
See Tabari, TArikh al-Rusul
and splendour of the Umayyad caliphate.
III,
wal
Pp. 312-21; Mas'dl, Mural al-Dhahab, II, pp. 465-79.

198

the drunkard
date wine
whilst
nabidh), " said the caliph,
They asked him, "Are you
was sad, shedding. tears.
"No, air weeping is not
we beat you? "
weeping before

but for your despising


the lute so
for the beating,
far that you call it tanbr.,
and for a wine like milk,
the old man. The
which you name date-wine, " replied
1
caliph laughed at his witticism
and pardoned him.

At the same time,

his

fellow-poet

4fi;

asked with

an air

of

wonderment:
If I and you should drink a cup of wine or two, so what?
For wine is but the blood of grapes, it's
not your blood
2
we're drinking
after all.
and intolerance

Bigotry
ranks

of the religious

servants

of the religious

passed a drunk Qazvrlnl at night.


up.'

replied

humour to irrational
irrational

criticizes

the people's

'But

the Qazxint. "3

religious
religious

creeds,

for

if

I could walk,

'Ubaid

in many utterances

3.
4.
5.

I would go

he also
Jews

on the other:

Risla-i
Dilansh,
D%,
p. 16:
vIii<: )'
Di
sh, p. 122.
Koran, 3: 27.
Koran, 28: 14.

his

above between the Sunnites

A Jew asked a Christian,


"Which one is superior:
(4),
the
dead
or Christ? " "Christ
raised
while
met someone, struck him with his fist
and killed

1.
2.

'Stand

does not confine

arguments between Christians,

and Muslims on the one hand, and as stated


and Shi'itee,

day by issuing
"Some muhtasibs

authorities.

'

the

guards,

They caught him and shouted,

We want to take you to prison.

to aq own houses'

even the lower

such as the night

functionaries,

of the mosques, could darken

commands on behalf

that

were sometimes so rigid

p. 101.

;i:;

Moses
Moses
him (5);

199
(1),
his
he
in
but
Christ
cradle
spoke when
was a child
10 God!
forty
Release
Moses after
years of age said,
the impediment
of my tongue so that. they can understand
me. *" 2

A Christian
said to a Magian, "For how lon have you
(3)
"
"Since they
given up copulating
with your mothers?
4
the Magian.
claimed that they produced gods, " replied
In the former
claims

anecdote

in contrast

of Islam,

'Ubaid's

their

ridiculous

party.

either

disputes

tries

and its

He does this

among the masses.

interpretation

The following

he expresses

to show how silly


by his

or humorous anecdotes,. about how these meaningless


\same religion

question.

are one of the main themes in

He merely
are.

peace-

between the two prominent

and one can see that

criticism,

satirical

sympathy with

and Sunnite,

Shiite

irrelevant

the disputes

As has been noted earlier,

Christ's

In the second anecdote he takes

to Moses' violence.

side because of the Christian's

the Magian's

sects

to condemn both sides'

and at the same time he praises

as nonsensical,

fulness

employs irony

'IIbaid

cause disaster

little

differences

no
and

definitions
over the

and backwardness

are examples of such:

Ab Dlaf (5) was a Shiite,


and he used to say,
"Everybody who does not proclaim Shi'ism,
is a

1.
2.
3.

Koran, 3: 41.
Koran, 20: 28.
to an alleged tradition
This is an allusion
among Muslim scholars
that Magians could marry their sisters
See, for instance,
and mothers:
al-Luzundwt,,
al-Ma"arri,
vol. Is p. 319:
,

4.
5.

,f sl 1

-'j

l. . 11

Dilgrush, p. 91. See also Muh art, vol. IV, p. 619.


A jester
A. H. There is no record
of the second and third centuries
books, although there are plenty of
of his career in the history
his nawdir in adab books. ' As far as I have been able to identify,
(de ca.
he was a contemporary to Naizm,, the Mu'tazilite
theologian
(d. 227/841) the Abbasid caliph.
200/815) and Mu'tajim
He went
(d.
BAbak
Ihurrami
223/837) along side Afshin,
out to fight
against
the caliph's
See al-Aahni,
vol. VIII9 pp.. 248-9.
general.

200

bastard. " "But I do not ascribe to your doctrine"s


said
I copulated with your mother
"Quite right;
his son.
1
Abis Dlaf.
before purchasing her, " replied
A Shiite
entered a mosque, and seeing the names of the
Companions inscribed
Prophet's
on the wall, attempted
to spit upon the names of Abii Bakr and 'Umar. Unfortunately,
The Shiite
his spittle
landed on the name of "Ali.
was
keep
"You
terribly
company with
announced,
who
upset and
them, deserve this! " 2
In Qum, they were beating a man whose name was 'UmrAn.
"Since he is not 'Umar, why are you beating him? " asked
he
has
he
is
'Umar,
"Not
even got an
only
someone.
3
"
they
from
'Uthmin's
replied.
name,
and nn
extra alit
that on the day
A preacher was saying from the pulpit
be in the
the pool of Bawthar will
of resurrection
to
those
its
he
'Ali,
water
and
will
give
possession of
Hearing this a KishAnt rose
men whose anus are pure.
it
in
to
he
has
In
that
"0
Mawln:
put
case
said,
and
a pot, and drink it himself. " 4
A pederast persuaded a beardless youth for a few dings.
But when they began, the boy found out the man's penis
do
"Either
let
it.
did
big,
too
me
not
accept
and
was
"
the
Muliwiya,
I
said
caliph,
or
will
abuse
Mr work,
in the face of injury
"Fortitude
the pederast.
of the
penis is simpler than hearing abuse of the Amir
and during the action
al-Hu'mini n. " Then he submitted,
in support of
he was saying, "0 God! This is little
0 God.' I sacrificed
myself to
your beloved friend.
prevent abuse of Mulwiya, so you help me to be patient.
Thus, it
aspects

is

not strange

of religious

reason he calls

very
while

he defines

conduct

that

"not

his

readers

a "non-religious

Ramadn as sinking

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Dilaush,
Ibid.,
p.
Ibid.,
p.
Ibid.,
p.
Ibid.,
P.
Ta rift,
Ibid.,
p.

to dwell

p. 94.
106.
104.
109.
"146.
p. 164:
165:

:r

poet looks

pessimistically,

to escape the voice

and in order

the libertine

and perhaps

person"
in hell

"good-natured"

in

of the cuckold

in a district

j>>--

"

at marry
for

this
or jocular

the hope of paradise;


mu"adhdhin,

where there

he advises

is a minaret. "

N. .!L: CjL;

'W

201

In this
his

than

rather
the

for

time,

he chose
their

critic

clerical
figure

than
of

in

unique

letter

of

his

The Shaikh,

religious

values

prophets

emphasizes
As the

precepts.

'Ubaid

and practices,
'Ubaid's

following

the

was a

on religious

views

from

have been selected

items

anti-

his

religious

imim (religious

and finally

to intellectuals

connection

philosopher

Sa'di

of Nishbr,

(rind)

libertine

thinkers.

such as San'i

and 4ifi;

or rogue

and inhumane actions

'Attar,

maturity

three

Rums, Fakhr al Din


in
all

the eighth

thinkers,
'sh),

beyond the scope of this


made to collect

of Shirwin,
their

have rejected

for

work.

to the former

through

4Afi;.

Here,

ubli

scattered

speeches

groups.

This
developed

the works of San'i,

and finally

and 'Ubaid.

however,

themselves

call

A. H. gradually

century

and Sa"di,

'Ubaid's

part,

irrational

about their

centuries

with

their

would not be an easy task,

and arrange

ones in the

or sometimes remiss

careful

'Iraqi,

century

of them here,

great

to religion.

in sharp contrast

the following

every

of Ghazna, Bhlgni

of Shirz,

movement, which began in the fourth


throughout

Almost

and even the most religious

they are not very

showing that

man), zhid

(jurist)

fah

and free

and free

The intellectuals

(devout),

terms,

are words which have a pejorative

and narrow approach

rigidity

these

leader),

and poet,

meaning of the word,

strict

should know that

literature

of Persian

(venerable

namely shaikh

Persian

and ImAm

Fagih

Zhid,

Any student

discuss

and he continually

To illustrate

age.

was ahead of

of God and His

authority

and adherents,
the

'Ubaid

treatises.

different

Air

the

establishment

more properly,

affairs

to accept

priests

rather

spirit

that

one can thus suggest

respect,

reached its
To collect

and anyway is

an attempt
sayings,

and
quite

has been
anecdotes

and

202

in the hope of offering

definitions

short

a clearer

of his

picture

opinion.
the

In

fourth

son as an "ass'

and shaikh's
disease

shaikh

the

of

"the

talking

says about insight",


visions

In connection
are in their
bird"3,

with

To find

exactly
for

with

life",

idle

is to say Godliness

the shaikhs,

'Ubaid

is

ascetic

'Ubaid's

real

at his Joyous Treatise


economy of style.

which nb explanation

is

"a

suggestions

and

are "his

followers.

with

those who

"4
and his

recitation

him are "vagrant


of these useless

pederasts.
groups,

in which he makes his point


The following

are some examples,

necessary:

They saw a shaikh who was copulating


with a she-ass
farting,
which was throughout
while the sheikh continued
to give thanks. to God. They reproached him for his
"Why should I not thank God for a penis which
conduct.
from a she-ass, and me a man of
can produce such farts
6
the shaikh.
ninety years? " replied

1.
2,

'Ubaid means by this indication


al-ubnat
TafrIfAtq
pp. 158-159 of Ku1u_v9t

3.

Ibid.,

4.

5.
6"

Ibid.,

p. 159.

p.

164: "

C.

Ibid. s pp. 1659 159.


Di
ish, p" 94.

". j
%

4lit

"2

as a "sweet-singing

a "parasite"

evaluation

is

is "what the sheikh

does not dispense

Those who follow

the

that

and self-knowledge;

and Devils

as "prayer-monger.

place

and evil

talk

such as imm. whom he defines

however,

great

Imposture

of the future

of beggary".

one has to look

"1

well-known.

of the world",

or the secluded

out,

is

as "Iblis",

Shaikh
postulates

unreliability

that

and in another

is, his "device

he defines

He satirically

and dreams are "delirium",

rank,

Mid

foal".

"what

is

shaikhs

asserting

are "a shaikh

their

of definitions

chapter

(prurience

of the anus).

"5

203

(1)
Shaikh Sharaf
Daragazini
al-Din
asked Mawln 'Adud
"Where has God made mention of s_
in the
al-Din,
Koran? "
"He places them besides
those who know when he
Say, are those who know and those who do not
commands:
know equals? ", replied
2
"Adud al-Din.
A nobleman took a Shaikh as a guest to his house and sat
him on a rug.
The host had hidden a few d%
nrs under the
The host searched
rug, which the shaikh found and stole.
for his money and found nothing.
"If
you suspect
someone,
let us ask him, " said the shaikh
host replied.,
But
the
.
"If
I have any suspicions
I am certain
about the others,
3
about you. "

These
the

Joyous

However,

just

are

a few of the

Treatise,

but

we may look

Counsels,,

which

speeches,

so as not

neighbourhood

are

of

the

at

ood"4;

not play

"In

order

to produce

of jurists,
daughter

1.

2.
3,
4.

Yik

so that

so that

his

to

you

enter

should

can be found

limitations

believe
Hell"

live

of

the

; "Avoid
happily";

children

attain

or a jurist,

the

the position

the sheikh's

who does

to Mecca"; "Commit adultery

favourites";
but should

in

generation

"Do not marry


this

of

sons in order-to

they may become the future

a, and. the kings'

of a shaikh

with

pilgrimage

that

shaikh's

"In

theme times do not seek a devout man zhid

of the great

space.

your anus from the acquaintance

in old age you should

"Copulate

in

One Hundred

treatise

"Do not

and not

do not withhold

the hypocrite";

gain the rewards

a,

from

satirical:

to be misled

the time of childhood


and the stranger,

a few examples

which

due to

must suffice

which

completely

si

many examples

misfortune

the

befall

you

Sharaf al-Din was contemporary to Mustawfi,


the author of Trikh-1.
Guz da. Mustawfi's
record suggests that he was a noble man and a
his book in 730/1329,
great mystic, and also when he was writing
Sharaf al-Din was still
but old.
See Trikh-i
Guzida, p. 676.
alive,
Dilaushi,
p. 116; Koran, 2: 34.
Dil_
h, pp. 140-141.
Sad Band (One Hundred Counsels), PP. 53-54.

204

have only anal intercourse

involuntarily,

and tormentors

hypocrites

doctrines

and "adopted"

compare the secular

of the period

about chastity,

the so-called

noting
"every

man or woman who does not submit

"both

and defeat,

reasoning

a hero ...

thousands

in

livelihood

witnesses
this

disgusted

with

way.

hatred

power.

It

appears

obsessed by their
The OZ.

that

1.
2.

fo-Acdruler,

a
chamberlain
-or
that

is

their

means of
in

of "meekness and loyalty"

and poems in
lyric

authority

these have occurred

many

rascals

be

will

in the future
'IIbaid's

the

life.

"2

t which

Ku

poems, where his

primary

and abuse of religious


for

spontaneously,

he was

behaviour.

" UdM and Muhtasib

Among the other


intelligentsia,

gain

of the sheikhs

their

They have

namely the judges,

cities,

how even the "great

s, even in his

of sh

always-suffer

of affairs

state

followers

and their

indications

was not to satirize

intention

perverse
Islamic

the companionship

There are other


show his

they say,

and abandoned ... "

or a preacher,

On the topics

he. describes

above treatise.,

this

in different

of people

jurists,
,

s_

leaders,

spiritual

to sodomy is unimaginable

or a sheikh.

The reason for

and goes on to

from the time of Adam to the present

that

day everyone who has not submitted

(mn'arrif

the "abrogated"

to sodomy will

and become deprived

proved by categorical

or a minister,

imposters,

of these groups commit inhumane actions";

that

adversity

both

he discusses

noblemen with

your

"1

of parents.

of the Aristocracy,

In Ethics

for

be beggars,

they will

to misfortune,

are destined

offspring

the bride,

with

groups which have always been criticized

learned

Ibid.,
pp. 58-59.
Akhi. q al-Ashrf.

men and oppressed

pp. 19-20.

people

in this

by the

age, were the

205

(gud),

judges
too,

his

in

bantering

their

"On the judges


In this

curses"',

and his

and his

"son as fit

confidence

of troublesome

Paradise. "

a "bowl

aside

chapter

What the people

of this

the

of

Ta'rift

whom everyone

him".

his

of Hell

The court

is

as the most legitimate

is

The judge's
his

noxious;

the "lower

wherein

an honest

never experience

of orphans. "
future

of justice

companion is a
never enjoy

rank regard

the property

by the guardian

"will

and in the next will

world,

is

and his

people",

which is never filled",

for

realistic

is

such judges

Accordingly

acquisition

be awaited

The third

his

a judge as a "person

and evil-natured

of food in this

their

and in

his blood as "sweet and digestible",


as a "mallet",
2
The witness is "a person who never
sodoiy".

the mediator

"money grabber".
bite

'Ubaid,

the person "who has neither


the
3
The judge's relatives
of God nor the people".
are a "pack

the truth",

-tells

for

for

them,

tasibs.

entourage".

he defines

turban

and the

attacks

dishonesty.

and their

chapter,

('ud

witnesses

critiques

discloses

anecdotes

is

dishonest

is

fate

regions

a house of fire,

eye is

its

to

are set
threshold

the abode of Satan. "4


The satirist

suggests

by Hwiva. Jah%,m. Saga


judge bribery
the satirist

is

"the

claims

t,
.
p.
p.
p.

that

this

and Sa'ir

of the affairs

promoter

that

p. 158 of
158.
158.
158.

bribery

Ri

is bounded on all
5
In a court
respectively.
court

is

t:

the "inner

of the poor",

four

sides

of such a
therefore,

side of the judge's


i,. P

'1 :

",

1.
2.
3.
4.

Ta
rtf
Ibid.,
Ibid.,
Ibid.,

5.

Ibid..,
p. 158. These four limits
are stated in the Koran as being
the degrees of Hell.
Jahim is mentioned seventeen times (e. g.,
22: 9), Hwi a once (101-.--67, Sagar once (74: 27) and Sa
it
seven
times (e. g., 4: 58; 17: 99).

", J

206

turban.

"

for

countenance",
"friends

man is

The prosperous

are

a society

association

where

with
in

dishonest

always

he lives,

"justice

who does not

"he

him is
their

see the

dangerous

dealings",

and fairness

judge's
His

and chaotic.

in

and consequently
are

both

as rare

as a

Phoenix. "'
In the following
of their

impf

and neglect
their

ty,

anecdotes

bribery,

'Ubaid

pederasty,

of common humanity,

their

also reveals
their

the various

of. the wealthy

partisanship

unjustifiable

aspects

judgements

and

adultery:
It is said that there was a woman with very pretty eyes.
OnceAie went to the judge complaining
of her husband.
The judge, however, was a whore-monger.
Being attracted
by her eyes and lusting
after the rest of her body, he
the
supported her case. When the husband realised
reason for the bias, he pulled his wife's
veil,
revealing
Seeing her face, the judge
a face that was loathesome.
' Rise and depart, for you
was dismayed and said, "Woman.
have the eyes of one oppressed, and the face of an
oppressor. " 2
They once asked Talkhak, "What is cuckoldry? " "Don't
the witty man. 3
ask me, ask the judges, " replied
A woman once came, to a judge and complained that her
husband denied her her rights,
although she was a young
but I cannot
woman. "I try my best not to be negligent,
"But I
perform the impossible, " pleaded the husband.
cannot be satisfied
with less than five times a night, "
complained the woman. "I am loath to boast, I cannot
the man. "I am
manage more than three times, " replied
in a very awkward position
for no case can be brought to
me without my having to sacrifice
myself and I therefore
undertake the other two times, " pronounced the pious judge.
A Turcoman had a law
fore filled
a vessel
poured some oil,
and
bribe.
Presuming it
Turcoman's side, and

1.
2.
3.
4.4.

He theresuit with another person.


with plaster,
on the top of which he
then presented it to the judge as a
full
the judge took the
of oil,
concluded the law suit to his benefit,

Ibid.,
Mu11 du Piza,
p. 158; Ta'rift
Risla-i
Dilgush,
p. 121.
01
l:;
)iJC1
lb--id.
133:
Lul.,
p.
It
t42,
,
Ibid..,
-T -"
p. 93.

pp.

164-165.
"/

0u
"x"I`.

207

it
to
the
it.
gave
sealed
and
statement,
a
and wrote
After
Turcoman.
about the contents
a week, the truth
The judge summoned the
became clear.
of the vessel
in the sealed
"There is a mistake
Turcoman,
saying,
it back to me so I may correct
letter,
you should bring
in the letter,
it. "
"There is no mistake
any mistake
1
the Turcoman.
is in the vessel, " replied

Again in the Ethics

of Aristocracy,
interpreters

from one of the greatest

text

the day of resurrection


with

ease, except

Hell

forever,

W fig

both religious

Arabic

word which is used only with

a religious

means lecture

literally

necessary
reasoning,

1.
2.

they must accept

that

It

this

that

said
it

although

Ibid.,
p. 131.
Akh1A4 al-Ashr. f,

8ha

justified

for

Sometimes,
a is

the public

Of course,

it

is

should

3.

a1=Shaf',

an orator

to use persuasive

not

a1-Ka

jAba,

argu-

words and

il.! I
al-Mantiig,

of

always bear in mind

jj

"`.; '
'S;
Ibn SInfi,

an Arabic

but logically

pp. 31-32:

1'

an

always be by way of pure logical

however,

orators,

they

also

among people who are not used to logical

that
is

should

w_atgis

convincing

"3

as the truth.

conviction

particularly
is

in

and in Persian

or oratory,

as "words which were used for

defined

dwell

who will

meaning.

the meanings and usages become confused.

it

that

t bridge

purposes.

and political

which

ment.

pass over Ir

entourage,

word as well,

things

saying,

word which means orator,

for

is

"On

of the Koran,

ri

a_

use it

however,

quotes a marvellous

each other. "2

chess with

ib is an Arabic

Fa

will

judges and their

for

playing

The

creatures

all

'Ubaid

pp. 2-3:

208

(tarjrhibivvt)
means

or to render

ignorance,
oratory

purpose,

people,

right

there

would

audience,

he is

and not

to appeal
of

advantage

getting

and lose

or sophistry

between

be no difference

not
to

the

common
in

For,

or vice-versa.

wrong

become fallacy

would

and thus

the

his

persuade

and demagogy,

of the

and prejudices

passions

to

order

blustering

to use lies,

allowed,

case,

in

its

that

real

an orator

and a

sophist.

false

it

reasoning

in Greek had originally

too,

The name sophist,

It

all.

simply

teacher;

meant a paid

to do with

nothing

and whatever,

but
the
teaching,
it
connected
not
with
was
carried
sense
1
The Greeks thought that to make young men wiser
the payment.

deprecatory
with

all,
love,

and as such its


could

total

their

subversion

had to teach

object

of rhetorical

of democratic

overthrow

of wishing

suspected

government,

of justice,

them that

skill

large

who
supreme

sums of money on
no less

than the

to an Athenian

and "this

wrong was right,

taken by

to make themselves

was in reality

of

and family

fortune

at

was possible

the high fees

in spending

so among other

it

ought to be a labour

it

only be paid by youths-of

Thus,

the acquisition

indeed,

Moreover,

own reward.

were not unreasonably


in the state.

if

which many doubted -

a proposition

the sophists

to them --

by talking

and more virtuous

nefarious

secrets

meant the
the sophists

and how to make others

believe

the same. "2


It

is

surprising

that

some people

of being a member of the aophists3,


he revolted

1.
2.
3.

against

sophista,

we know for

although

denying

A. W. Benn, History
of Ancient
Ibid.,
p. 39.
See for example, Aristophanes,

accused Socrates

their

(469-399
certain

very famous dicta

Philosoahv,
The Clouds,

B. C. )
that

that

p. 38.
or The School

for

Sophists.

209

"justice
This

mistake

the

philosopher

in

occurs

'It

orator?

interest

the

is

is

Islamic

and "might

stronger",

--

who was an orator

to

make small

too -big,

things

In Iran,
today.

however,

one can find

During
very

by the fact

or death for

their

like

well-paid,

oratory

' he

or face

honesty

and independence.

the sophists
al-sal

the better

they had a unique

opportunity

was the case in almost


history,

wished,

and

to preach

of exile,

imprisonment

Those preachers

supporting

and even fanatical

own unrealistic

accounted

who were

of whom we spoke above, were the ruler's


3
in).
They were careerists,
and preached

and Traditions,

Furthermore,

to
areas,

This is

had either

the prospect

Koranic

verses

in Islamic

by despots

mostly

wishes,

is used

according

preachers.

and the preachers

and the nobles

every

period

their

to exploit

arguments with

to convey to
beliefs

the people

as the revealed

of Islamic,

1<f

truth.

and in particular

but in the time about which we are speaking,

i'

f/

i. e. the

""i1

"J

'

as

'i1

I s1.:., JI U
! L-; u bBSIut..
na
discussion
For a comprehensive and historical
on this subject,
All Wardi's work under the same name, i. e. Wufraj al-Saltin
(Baghdad, 1955).
"i

'

the masses.

T. D. Weldon, The Vocabulary of Politics,


Gor
p. 36; Plato,
pp. 106-128.
Ab Vayyn al-Tawtldi,
a -Baag'ir wal-Dhakh'ir,
p. 93:
/

3.

the

of

practioners

or- fallacy

of preaching

what the kings

2.

Socrates

task

small,

was the masque, its

these areas were ruled

own preachers(wuu"=ff

1.

the

in the sense it

few honest and realistic

that

to their

according

Iranian.

right".

asked

big

and the

was no oratory

the long history

or caliphs,

rulers

corrupt

This

is

what

They could preach truth

were the preachers.


circumstances.

there

forum for

The only

their

"They

as well:

sources

is

"2

replied.

for

of the

3'

w4

see

210

seventh

the general

corruption

and secular

leaders

of the people

of God, were seeking


expressed

for

and the pulpit,

for

his

spiritual

to exploit

IfiV

classes.

has

who parade their

they act basely.

beloved

with

the

the approval

of seeking

of the ruling

but in private

affection

and the police

instead

part,

because of

that

each other

with

of the preachers

criticism

he has compared his


the king

their

the affection

his sharp

mrb
the
at

to such an extent

were collaborating

The preachers,

people.

had worsened,

the situation

centuries,

and eighth

'

piety
Again,

the preacher's

for

officer:

Just as the city preacher has chosen uhtasib and king, to love
Can I not take nay sweetheart as my true darling,
to love?
2
But 'Ubaid's
his

vigorous

impiety,

in

artistry

satire

rigidity

this

and striking

field

second to none.

he displays

wit

and unrealistic

is

He defines

approach,

as a "person

the orator

reciter

bachelors

who says but does not act",


3
He advises
as the "ass' anus".
daughter,

orator's
'Ubaid
authority,

they

and intolerably
It

is

that

states

not

for

so that
in

display
that

nothing

1.

n%,

p. 135:

2.

Ibid.,

p. 155:

3.
4.

Ta rift,
p. 158.
ad Pand, p. 53:

she should not produce


in

any society
God's
the

souls

in

such

which

such

easy and tolerant


of

clear-sighted

a corrupt

rl

/
,,,

age the

aspects

all

Through
of their

the preacher

as an "ass",
"not

to marry an

an ass'

preachers
religion
people
satirist

the

foal. "4
possess
so rigidly

become annoyed.
should

narrate

211

the following
of Islam? '
replied

'I

wittily

that

grave drunk. '

from his

'"2
a
wine.
such

reaction

against
that

with

could

drunk,

he will

also

in the congregation

rise
was

one hundred d%nars for

a glass

suggest

some other

aspects

the dishonest

preachers,

at the

some fault

and also discovers

ignorance,
dealing

s itting,

anecdotes

the fact

same time would reveal

and clever

A Khursni

people

matters

from the pulpit,

was saying

drunk and is buried

The following

satirist's

and their

"A preacher

'By God, I would give

heard to say:

comments on religious

even the common and credulous

make fun of them:

'Whenever a person dies

of this

Sometimes their

the preacher. "1

the meaning
Islam? '

what have I got to do with

am a preacher,

were so irrational

'What is

"They asked a preacher,

anecdote:

lies

the preachers'

with

of

the people

improvisation

common men:

"What is the name of Iblis'


A person asked a preacher,
him nearer, the preacher whispered,
wife? " Calling
"0 cuckold: how should I know her name?" When the man
they asked him what the
returned to the congregation,
"Everybody who is interested
Mawlne had said.
must ask
Mawlin personally,
" the man replied.
3
"If anybody
A preacher was saying from his pulpit,
writes the names of Adam and Eve and hangs it on the
be prevented from entering
wall of his house, Satan will
his house. " Talk-hak rose from beneath the pulpit
and
said, "Satan came near them and deceived them in God's
presence; how can he be prevented from entering
our
house because of their
names?" 4
A preacher had a stick in his hand when he was in the
"Why did you not take a sword? " they asked him.
pulpit.
"I have no need of a sword to deal with a mob such as
this.
If they make a mistake I would shatter
their
brains with this stick, " replied
the preacher.
5

1.

Risla-i

2.

rr 'C
JI'.
Ibid.,
p.

P'
rt
138.

3.
4.
5.

I_.,
Ibid.,
Ibid.,

124.
144.
131.

Dilzushl,

p.
p.
p.

((Ai't

p. 190:
IJ

Cf>/'

am` ''e

/1. " (S'


"t,

"

212

Even in

his

lyrics,

'IIbaid

with

the

insanity

to

obsessed

he pretends

Thus,

their"double-dealing.

is

and

preachers
got

of

rid

the

preacher:

wise

to attract
men my attention
1
presence to repulse.

The preacher bores and troubles


I therefore
play the insane his
Rind_Sufi
#Ubaid

disapproves

(libertines).

of

the

(mystics)

is

has been defined

Sufism

have no need to be involved

in details.

of the moderate and ethical

definitions

namely that
intellectual

"Sufism

is

arrogance),

acts. "2

in your head (of

morals and throws

the essence and the summary of sufism.


of the corruption
relic,

of the age in which

and what is perhaps

the Mongols'

attacks

on Iran

A. D. in which our moral,

P. 45:

lived,

had become a more

which served as a means

of the thirteenth

and above all

2.

cultural

after
century

and psychological

, "_

as a result

ideal,

This happened particularly

c
it r lj 1
c
,
Muhammad b. Nunawwar, Asrar al-Tawhid,
al_Risal_a,

habits.

p. 39:
j

,i

pp.

,yq,
i

too,

'Ubaid

Kulliyt,

Qushairi,

tries

both were

But this

1.

3.

and

to humanitarianism

at the beginning

economic.

and

harsh words and

indecent

away all

more, an imposture

of the rank and file.

of exploitation

ambition

what you possess,


people's

one
Sufis,

all

a person who constantly

to be and to act in regard

words,

to accept

approved by almost

qg,

rinds

but we however
,

suffices

to be generous with

they called

Again,

to possess praiseworthy
In other

It

the

admires

in many forms,

by what meets you of other

not to be provoked
boring

to abandon all

but

14-15:

"

213

legacy

and to some extent

suffered,,

same time a spirit


doubt

that

who exploited

a following

were honest
to

mysticism

and the noble.

and introspection

of retirement

there

but

mystics,
obtain

to

at the

while

No

prevailed.

there

access

the best,

Thus, eating
murlds)

changed completely,

were

the

the

sultan,

dressing

the

also

ministers

expensively

became the mark of the new Sufism.

and acquiring

Sufis

from manual work which once was the sole means of livelihood
b. Adham of Balkh (d.

such as Ibrhim

mystics

the upper classes

of meeting

Yazld of Bistm

(d.

was abandoned.

This

but could

is

recorded

by contrast,

1fic,

indicates,

had taught
if

that

in performing

cunning.

prayers,

Thus, he wrote,

and others,

and well-educated,

to the circumstances,

of this

(d. 753/1352),

of ShAh Shuj'

the Mujaffarid,

and this

art

without

of mimicry

mentioning

It

who was a
with

whom

title

had a tame cat which he

postures

but by HfiV

period.

who, as his

'Imd,

and theologian,

more than

suffered

of Kirwan

Fagih

the appropraLte

ka mat),

Ab

century.

was persona non grata.


was a jurist

like

was, only worsened at, the

was one of the critics

'Imd al Din

to go through

Shh as miraculous

1.
2.

4&fi4

stood high in the favour

Sufi,

fapih

people.

and avoidance

161/777)

people who were honest

not adopt themselves

the ordinary

as bad as it

Islamic

In such an atmosphere,

(d.

Sufyn al-Thawri

situation,

of the eighth

beginning

166/783)1,

withdrew
of great

which was the motto of mystics

261/875),

dishonest

and genuflexions
was regarded

as a piece
'Imd's

Kutubl,
Fawt al Wafavt,
vol. Is pp. 4-5.
Amin, Ahmad, 1 uutl al-Is 1m, vol. It p. 167.

by the

of hypocritical
name:

as

214

0 gracefully
walking partridge,
where do you go?
Be not deceived because the zealot's
cat performs
In another
fresh

poem, he likens
that

and he wishes
l
food.
unlawful

grass,

eating

however,

Again,
exploits

'Ubaid's

"is

and God is

nonsense. "2

and goes on to postulate


and that

the subject:

'But when a hunter


the sufi. "4

sells

He prefers

be longer,

for he was

the real

that

group,

is

He

matter.
situation

the suf s.

and followers

The

are

What he says about knowledge of self

that

place

suft

as "brigand",

is

"less

than a dog",

suft

s in one place. "3

he discloses

to a suf
his

he defines

ill-humoured

is "two s_

Dilgush,

"They said

who grazes the

is another

satire

whose disciples

In another

compound ignorance

In the Risila-i

should

tail

of this

a parasite

and double-dealers.

impostors

its

of the words to display

the potentiality

he writes,

to an animal

vigorous

of the age, and the dishonesty


sufi,

the sufi

Stop:
his prayers!

his

'You should

innermost
sell

thoughts

on

cloak. '

your sufi

net., by what means can he hunt? ' replied

the bear to the Suff

in

the following

anecdote:

A man went to his garden, wherein he saw a bear and a


He beat the mystic and left
the bear.
"0
mystic.
Believer:
am I less than this bear that you beat me and
not it? " "Yes, because the poor bear eats and defecates
here, but you eat here and defecate somewhere else, "
the man. 5
replied

1.

2.
3.
4.

KhwAndandr, Habib al-Sivar,


III,
History
p. 315; Browne, A
-Literary
Persia,
III,
258.
Some
have
doubted
of
the authenticity
p.
authors
See Saf', A History
of this event.
III,
of Iranian Literature,
See also Hfij,
Diwn, pp. 90-91:
part 2, pp. 986-87.

Ta4rif"it,,
p. 159.
I bid. , pp. 159-160.
Risala-i
Dilaush,
p. 98:

r
-"
W

5.

Ibid.,

p. 140.

[-,

215

there

Again,
their

in his

are indications

and knowledge:

Alas! for these grey-clothed


cuffs
Those who have no intellect
and no knowledge
To hunt, they crouch on their knees
Watching like the cunning and silent
cat ...
If

'Ubaid

disapproves

the honest sufis

praised
(libertine)

with

great

(disengaged)

and

poets

general

and of sufia

al Din

rind

is

Anwarf

in HAfi

maturity

is difficult,

and rind

enthusiastically,

Jall

al-Din

(791/1390)
however,

Although

to give

these great

This

presumably

Rum! (672/1273)

in
in

tradition

(629/1230),

AttAr

in

mu arrad

to the fanatics

and rind

and finally

This

are words that

in particular.

(585/1189),

or rind

(inattentive),

and the like

has

did.

Hfif

contemporary

drawn between sufi

(688/1289),

'Irigi

It

and matasawwifs

(535/1140),

SanA'i

as1

aalandar

(unconcerned)

f (gnostic)

have used as the opposite

normally

which a distinction

as his

words like

ub'

Persian

its

admiration

he on the contrary

sufis,

which are regarded

and to some extent,

word,

with

of the pretentious

criticize

which sharply

of both intellect

and lack

unscrupulousness

lyrics

began
Fakhr

and reached

our author.
definition

a clear-cut

of both

poets have used the word almost

none of them have given us an explicit

account

of

it.

A Western scholar has defined rindi


as "unreason" or "the doctrine
2
He continues to say that "the events teach him [HfiV]
of unreason".

that

it

was impossible

to a pessimistic
estimation

estimation

which for

t,

to believe

that

in a rational

of the individual

universe,

and lead him

purpose in life,

very reason is hedonistic

an

only in appearance. 3

1.

Kuli

2.
3.

A. J. Arberry,
lists
by Uafiz, CLP, p. 352,
of the poets quoted or imitated
Ibid.,
See also A. J. Arberry,
Fifty
Poems of Ufiz,
p. 352.
pp. 31-32.

p. 45:

216

There

are

and less

personal

(libertinism)

in

those

thinkers

fixed

religious

other

words,

of

that

real

the

was that

and poets

some for

is,

his

genuine,

is always

alike,

It

is

almost

regard
however,

to his
it

3.

Dlwan,

p.

148:

as the

freedom

in
of

hypocritical
It

the

view
ideas

himself

appears,
this

of

and views,
from

too,

group
and

them all

is

libertinism

neither

supposes a given'
to

moods are appropriate

of the negativist

or nihilist
Since these

or nihilism.

they are extreme sceptics.


the real

hero of this

and because of this,

may be maintained

time;

of

the libertine

to negativism

that

own poems "the

Hixman, Ma4md, H,
Human, Mahmd, fi,;

here that

noting

the position

accepted

1.
2.

on freed

maintaining

"2

unconditionally,

is gfiV,

reservations

later

of

period

extant

and practical

and confined

two deny everything

in

all

examined

because while

spiritual

in

particular

a libertine

worth

on the contrary,

while

being

of which

characteristic

zealous

a long

rinds

period

and sham theologians.

contemplation.

nor nihilism,

negativism

overly

and in

a while,

nevertheless,

was the

over

ordinary

have

should

of profound

It

belief

of

that

the

be characterized

men, sufis

condition
person

not

are

to some extent,

in

least

at

beliefs

the

be,

should

century),,

who were

should

to

most of which

sources,

One may postulate

eighth

or political

accepted

by virtue

the

religious

"a

having

it;

(i. e.

libertinism

opinions

These

meaning,

strict

no attention

paying

Persian

definition.

its

speaking

we are

objective.

to previous

comparable

in

definitions

few other

leader
that

of all

field

they have called


the libertines".

'Ubaid does not suffer

pp. 264-65.
Chi mim

with

p. 17.

no

him in
3

in

But,
comparison

217

because as A. J. Arberry

Forerunner,

is

of unreason'
his

he has the advantage

furthermore,

46V;

with

to be found already

carne diem, and evidently

has justly

He begins

and libertinism.

'doctrine

in Z1-- ni,

likewise

innuendoes, "'

satirical

Let us now examine what 'tTbaid has said

own

"I&Pi's

said,

developed

fully
his

also

of being 47ifiz's

on the subject

of libertines

simply:

liberal
Give my regards to the light-natured,
sociable,
and easy going people ..., appeal to the noble-minded
libertines,
so that you should be saved, ... help the
deliverance
drunkards,
think
and
release
of
...
..,
from seeking fame and reputation
and follow
yourself
2
an easy life.
too,

In his panegyrics,
imposture

of subtle
along

in

'IIbaid

often

he openly

the mosques, while


and pursuit

side vine-drinking

to the sufi

points

praises

of the beloved.

and antics,
a. andars are we, hypocrisy
3
deceive and cheat.
To trick,

and his

habit

libertinism

Again he writes:

not our wont,

0 God: bestow on us purity,


a pittance
grant us indigents
We are the watch-dogs of the broad-minded libertine's
camp,
in that camp. 4
give us dwelling
it

Finally

that

and libertinism
time critical
great

must be noted that


the entire

anecdotes

men of learning

People like

QuIb al Din

were praised

was so fond of libertines

'Ubaid

of his witty

and at the same

have been presented

as libertines.

He regards

of his age and previous

centuries

Shirazi,

as easy-going

characters

"Adud al Din

libertines

rather

Iji,

as real

Majd Hangar and others

than philosophers,

and poets.

1.
2.

List of the Poets quoted or imitated


Sam,
p. 25 of Kuu liyt.

3.

Kuli't,

4.

Ibid.

by ! fil,

p. 352.

CPI

p. 65:

p.

72:
G
... , J

ej (1-, 1, ;

libertines.

la.
1,
o
o, u L{

-0

I. trr

physicians

218

Part
There is
the widest

it

the most political

is

discreditable:

are necessary,
continuous

since

reform,

have in fact

all

interested

the establishment

of their

Montesquieu,

hib,

Tawhidi,

satire

are tyranny

in

Swift

Sanlol,

the only

Vifij

countries;

and most have been


examples of them have

Menippus,

and 'Ubaid

Erasmus (d.

in the East.

in general

dislike

criticism,

perhaps because they never know where it

provincial

life,

order

free

is

criticism

The enemies of
two factors

will

to be subversive

any form of
lead;

and in

of good

and decency.
Now, an example of this

suffered

from both

tyranny

practiced

by the rulers,

is found in Iran,

attitude

and provincialism

and these, two enemies have lived


is,

felt

1536),

Ibn Qutaiba,

or narrow-mindedness,

For tyrants

of

therefore,

satirists,

the West and J4ij,

and provincialism

which are complementary.

it,

means of achieving

in politics,

Juvenal,

and

But both

the
break
to
down
enough
attitudes

been deeply

including

sense,

systems are in need of

Most of the great

change.

to be

Both are felt

own wicked tongues.

and legal
is

behaviour,

public

has an unfavourable

their

social

is powerful

been given already,


Voltaire,

for

and politics

mind which hinder

against

to influence

genre of literature.

apologize

only satire

while

tries

as it

the word "politician"

usually

satirists

in

and politics

not only the commonest form of political

is

satire

but in so far

literature,

between satire

connection

a substantial

sense:

Political

II.

kings

side

by side.

throughout

which has
its

history,

' Tyranny was, and still

and statesmen

on the one hand, and

219

is

provincialism
it

is

fostered

still

here to trace

impossible

the eighth/fourteenth
Since in this
despotism,

least"3,
at all"4,

period

or H. D. Thoreau's

the basis

guidance,

directly

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

to

ourselves

government is

that

or indirectly

of the forms,
These ideals

of the sovereigns

and

depends on "fear"2,

of despotism

government is

of politics

determination

of the state. "5

control

confine

satire

of government was tyranny

in Persia

have never succeeded in Iran.


strict

we will

"that

"that

never found support

of the people --

activity

of political

and because the durability

We read in the definition

its

the development

But as

century.

such as Thomas Jefferson's

dicta

on the other.

history,

the whole of Persian

through

by the clergy

best which governs

best which governs not

nor indeed anywhere else.


"it

is

the participation

in the affairs

of the state,

aims and the content

and other

People suffered
which in its

democratic

of the

wishes

from the oppression


turn

resulted

and

in "fear".

towards both secular and


is often antagonistic
Persian literature
the
focus
been
in
latter
has
tyranny.
The
particular
spiritual
because
they
Persian
could not
philosophers,
and
of
mystics
point
the rigid and unrealistic
tolerate
approach of Semitic religions.
If an observer looks at any diwn of a celebrated Persian poet or
find'sharp
in the form of
criticism
mystic, he would certainly
derision
irony,
mockery, parody, invective,
and the like,
satire,
here-and there, concerning Semitic rigidity.
The view that the continuity
of despotism rests on "fear"
was first
(1689-1755),
by
Montesquieu
the French writer
Ch.
expressed
whose
(1721)
Persian Letters
contemporary social and political
satirized
In his probably greatest work, The Spirit
in France.
institutions
(1748),
he discusses the above subject at length.
Laws
the
of
"and in a
is necessary in a republic, " he writes,
"As virtue
monarchy honours so fear is necessary in a despotic government ...
Persons capable of setting
a value upon themselves would be likely
depress their
Fear must therefore
to create disturbances.
spirits,
(See
least
"
the
sense of ambition.
even-the
and extinguish
by J. Y. Pritchard,
London, 1878, vol. I,
English translation
pp, 28-29).
Maurice Latey, Tyranny (Penguin Books, London, 1972), p. 131.
Mosse, G. L., The Culture of Western Europe (Murray,. 1963), p. 103.
books,. probably
This definition
can be found in various political
S.,
is quoted from Lipset,
in different
terms; the above definition
Political
Man (Heinemann, 1963), pp. 21-22.

220

Despotism kills
the

obvious

the

the

one of
Chapter

IV.

'Ubaid

exercise

be guilty

of

a just

the

"2

Every -soldier
"pilferer

In

the court
he is

is

carrying

"

"the

Ta'rlft-i

3.

Ibid.,

Ibid.,
Ibid.

"do

age,

is

is

bitter

accomplice.

is

and the clerk


all

of

affairs,

Again the vizier

towards

PP. 52-53:

is a sword-

the nursery

of aggression

Mull!

cJ

du Piaza,

cp

j''

(5)
>L

1(5j,

pp. 163-64.

p. 165.

p.
p.
,

168.
168:

cS.1. ( 40 C

i)

is

The office

all".

The officer

headmanship is

search

on the fence and

word governs

to

a corrupt,

a thief's

"sits

in speech. "4

not

man with

the commander-in-chief
of police

or

world

of endowments

accountant

and hated. "

envied

this

false

"5

addPath

2.

"is

one had "to

or a wealthy

As the king's

the paymaster

and finally

this

the reward next day",

an "informer".

thief,

in

such

or bear
of

pleasures

trustee

state

The chief

and under

was

in

as stated

tambourine,

he

higher

century

a mouthful,

chamberlain

the

to claim

only

while

and violence.

Accordingly,

is "a ravenous vo3l",

is universally

holder

4.
5.

"1

a thief,

the

the
This

history,

the

for

a state,

and

is

courtiers.

obtain

or play

the only man deemed absolute

accursed

1.

such

is

or to

an honest

of supplies.

by night

live

hypocrisy

such a period

religion

ingratitude.

chancellor

'robs

one's

governor,

anu.

pure

to

in

and

and lied,

in Persian

that

claimed

or pander,

and sell

and his

periods

to be able
mockery,

witness

king

the

and frankness,

atmosphere

flattered

more a person
of

esteem

thinking

such a political

most corrupt

government,

for

the

Thus,
in

stood

of

product

flattery.

of free

the spirit

"3

221

'Ubaid,
of

political

and politics,

the writer

once more gives


After

affairs.
which

are

those

us a clear

picture

describing

the

of Aristotle

passes to the accepted

of their

ancient

views

and the

Muslim

mismanagement
on morals
philosophers,

views of the nobles:

When the great and wise men of subtle understanding,


with
whose honoured persons the face of the earth is now
on the perfecting
of the human soul
adorned, reflected
and examined the practices
and its future destiny,
and
the opinions of the famous men of the former time,, they
denial of
a complete and categorical
soon formulated
They say, "It has been revealed to
all these beliefs.
(Rni-i
)
is a thing of
that
the
Soul
Rational
us
nic
that its continuance absolutely
depends
no consideration;
on the continuance of the body. " They further
say.,
"What is asserted by the prophets as to its having
perfections
and as to its subsisting
and defects,
and
in itself
from the body
continuing
after its separation
is impossible,
is
What
as is also the resurrection
...
intended by the joys of Paradise and the torments of
Hell must be in this as the poet says:
He to whom they gave, receives hisgift
And he who has nothing here is put off
for tomorrow. "

even here,
with promises

Consequently our leaders of thought are entirely


unconcerned with such matters as the Resurrection,
Future Punishment, nearness to, or remoteness from
God, the Divine approval or wrath, perfection
and
imperfection
of this
and the like;
and the result
is that they spend every day of their life
conviction
in satisfying
their lust and pursuing their pleasure
Besides,
they
inscribe
this
commonly
on
quatrain
...
their fathers'
tomb-stones:
No mansions lie beyond this earth and sea
No reason dwells outside of me and thee
That nothing which is deemed by some men all,
0 pass it by; 'tis
but vain phantasy.
And it is for this reason that in their eyes attacks on
men's lives,
property and honour seem insignificant
and
of small account:
To such, one draught of wine in hue like fire
Outweighs the blood of brethren or of sire.
In truth our applause is the just need of these our
great and favoured guides to whom matters which,

222

notwithstanding
the cultivation
of the reasoning
powers, remained hidden for several thousand years
1
now have been made plain without trouble.
Now, the

outcome

is

and the like

of

'Ubaid as all

clear.

much concerned with

very

the root
great

of all

scholars

social

such convictions

justice,

reforms,

about

other

God,

political

welfare

Future

Life

is

satirists

which he considers
public

the

and

to be

correctly

"The

and security.

" he writes,,

of the ancients,

have regarded
justice
one of the four. cardinal
virtues
but in the view of our teachers
this
of humanity
...,
is the worst of all,
justice
quality
and hold that
involves
much loss,
a thesis
which they have proven
by the clearest
For, they say, "The
arguments.
foundation
lordship
of sovereignty,
and mastery is
they
obey no one until
punishment,
since men will
fear him (2);
if all feel
themselves
the
equals,
be undermined,
foundations.
of administration
will

He
and the order of public business disorganized.
(God
)
the
forbid!
justice
principles
of
who practices
killing
from beating,
refrains
and fining
alleged
himself or quarrel
criminals,
and does not intoxicate
but none will fear him. Then
with his subordinates,
the people will
not obey their kings, nor sons their
sires,
nor servants their masters, -while the affairs
lapse into chaos.
of the lands and the people will
Hence they say:
"Kings

to

gain

a single

(3),
hundred
a
souls"
bequeaths disaster. "

object

oft

"And they further


(4)

will

slay

say,

"Justice

What proof indeed, can be more convincing


than this,
that so long as the Kings of Persia played the tyrant,
like Dahhk, the Arabian,
"the sinner"
and Yazdigir-d
(who now confer distinction
on the chief seats of Hell
together with other later potentates
who followed them),
their Empire increased and their realm flourished;
but.

1.

Akhl4 al-Ashrf,
Here Browne's
pp. 13-14.
History
reproduced,
see Literary
of Persiat

2,

Cf. what has already been quoted from Montesqueiu


on p. 219 of this chapter.

3.
4"

.00
'. fJI.

;;

', iM

translation
III,
vol.

has been
pp. 247-49.

on the matter

223

by
IQiusraw
Anusharwn
the
came,
who
of
reign
when
of his
reason of his weak judgement and the policy
in
false
of justice,
chose the attribute
ministers,
to
the
fell
his
the
little
of
palace
pinnacles
while
a
the Fire Temples, which were their
of
places
ground,
of them
and all traces
were extinguished
worship,
The "Prince
from the face of the earth.
disappeared
of the laws of religion
of Believers"
and Confirmer
'Umar b. That ab ...,
who was noted for his justices,
his
barley-bread,
bricks
cloak,
while
and
ate
made
(1)
maunds.
as they relate,
weighed seventeen
the
by the blessing
Mu"wiya,
of injustice,
wrested
Nebuchadnezzar,
kingdom from the hands of Imim 'Ali
...,
his authority,
did not establish
nor become eminent in
he slew
both worlds,
until
nor did his empire increase,
in the Holy City and
innocent
twelve thousand
prophets
2
more.
cast into bondage many thousand

From the above quotations


under the name of adopted
of his

classes

ruling

no doubt that

or accepted

almost

case is

the actual

have all
that

to Machiavelli's

two centuries

later:

he should

win a state

is

advice

them by

He satirizes

to Lorenzo,

is not necessary

for

is

quite

Duke of Urbino,
to

a prince

is

to be skilled

to neglect

the art

in the art

aim or thought,

of war;

of war",

nor select

the first

way to

and, "A prince

anything

for

his

ought

study

than

R ghib IVfah1n1, who was 'Ubaid's


main source of satire and witticism,
that, "Once while 'Umar was preaching they saw a shirt
on
relates
"He had a shirt
him which had twelve patches. " Again, he writes:
whose price was only four dirhams. "

cc

d
s-1'j
K

3.

But there

I have enumerated, but it is very necessary


0
He goes on to say, "The first
appear to have them.

to have no other

2.

it.

of the

Here what he said is

indignation.

"It

the policy

endorses

the reverse.

satirical

is

what he states

that

the good qualities

way to lose your state

1.

ethics,

age, and he apprently

way of mockery and a hidden


comparable

one can understand

t'
See Muhdr t, vol. III9 p. 366.
`t
History
Akhlg al-Ashr. f, pp. 22-23; P. G. Browne, A
-Literary
250.
Persia.
vol. III,
p.
The Prince.
p. 18.

. '
of

224

rules. "

war and its


he incurs

reproach

and loyal.

"1

which

have been
trick

those

by honest

like

examples

"show

that

their

their

"2

principles.

words

and who in
Again

united

harm and defects


"Contemporary

achieved

great

things

who have known how

lightly,
the

subjects

words.

who have

if

not worry

his

about

and keeping

princes

cunning,

should

as he keeps
'Ubaid,

generosity

who have given

men with

abiding

so long

cruelty

justice,

" he writes,

examples,

to

for

He gives
from

result

"a prince

He again states,

end overcome

those

he states,

If a prince wants to maintain his rule, he must learn


how not to be virtuous.,
for the fact is that a man
in every way necessarily
who wants to act virtuously
learn
from
the
comes to grief
prince
so
should
a
...,
fox and the lion;
because a lion is .defenceless
against
traps and a fox is defenceless
Thereagainst wolves.
fore one must be a fox in order to recognize
traps, and
3
a lion to frighten
off wolves.
his

To illustrate

aim, Machiavelli

gives

an objective

example for

the

Duke, saying,
A certain
contemporary ruler,
whom it is better not
to name, never preaches anything except peace and
good faith;
and he is an enemy of both one and the
other, and if he had ever honoured either
of them
he would have lost either his standing or his state
4
many times over.
'Ubaid,
historical
enemies,
guide

in the same manner, condemns virtue,


example.

stands

of all

"Changiz

Bhn, " he writes,

supreme in the lower

the Mongols,

1.

I bid.,

2.
3.
4.

p. 21.

I",
I_;.,
Ibid.,

pp. 90-91.
p. 99.
pp. 101-102.

ancient

depths

and gives
"who today,

of Hell

and modern, did

us an
despite

as the exemplar
not attain

to the

his
and

225

of the whole world

sovereignty
millions

of innocent

until

persons. "'

with

sword he had destroyed

ruthless

Again he relates

that

It is recorded
in the histories
of the Mongols that when
Baghdad was conquered by Hulgu Khn, he ordered
the
to
remnants
of the inhabitants
who had escaped the sword,
be brought
before him,
He then enquired
into
the circumof each class,
stances
and when he was acquainted
with
them, he said,
"Artisans
are indispensble";
and gave them
to go about their
business.
To the merchants
permission
he comaanded that some capital
should be given,
so that
they might trade for him.
From the Jews he was content
to take a poll-tar,
declaring
them to be an oppressed
the effeminates
he consigned
to his gynoecia.
people;
while
He then set apart
the judges,
1jj
s_
sfis,
s,
,
beggars,
preachers,
persons
of note,
religious
mendicants,
"These are
wrestlers,
poets and story-tellers,
saying,
superfluous
creatures
and waste God's blessings",
and
thus
ordered
all
of them to be drowned in the Tigris,
the face of the earth from their
purifying
vile
existence.
As a natural
in his
consequence,
sovereignty
continued
family
for nearly
during which time their
ninety
years,
(2)
daily
increased;
Abi
Said
empire
until
poor
conceived
in his mind a sentimental
for justice.,
passion
and branded
himself
with the stigma of his quality,
and his Empire
Thin and
shortly
came to an end, and the house of Huligu
to naught through
the
all his endeavours
were brought
Blessings
those
aspiration
of Ab Said
rest
on
...

great and well-directed


persons who guided mankind out
of the darkness and absurd delusion of justice
into the
light
of right guidance.
Yes, when a man confuse his mind
He does those things which make no point.

tss***s

One of the false


and harmful

1.
2.

3.

fighting

aspects

of the policy

of wars for

no reason

of kings
other

was their

than satisfaction

useless
of

kh 'a
pp. 22-23.
-Ashrf,
Ab Said (d. 736/1335),
the last powerful sovereign of the Ilkhanid
dynasty who was crowned in 1317, being under thirteen
years of age.
He had considerable
successes during his reign and described by
the historians
of the period as "brave and brilliant
prince of
splendid appearance, a poet, a calligrapher,
generous and witty. "
'Ubaid's
He died at Qarlbigh
praise is therefore
not for nothing.
in 736/1335 ('Abbs Igbil,
Trikh-i
Moaol, pp. 345-346).
AkhlAQ al-Ashrf,
p. 23.

226

their
by his

bantering

do you not
I do not

"They

satire.

come out

to fight

know any of

a few anecdotes

in

So 'Ubaid

megalomania.

said, " he writes,

them and none of

occur between me and them? ' replied

place,

he puts the whole responsibility

'I

habit
'Why

a soldier,
swear

by God that

"'

the soldier.

how can

In another

of wars and catastrophes


He states

the shoulders

of the ruling

of this

always causes irrevocable

class

"to

them know me; therefore

enmity

class.

'

infidels?

against

this

criticizes

wisely

that

on

the waywardness

harm to people.

Sudan Mahm3d asked Talkhak, "How does war occur


You should not see and
between people? " "0 Sultan:
to rascal:
What
eat [such dirt; ]" replied Talkhak.
do you mean by talking
such rubbish? " asked the Sultn.
"Yes, it occurs in the very same manner. For a person
that is talks rubbish,
and the other
""" eats dirt,
is fighting,
" replied
the
answers back, and the result
witty man. 2
There is
in

a great

the following

between what is

similarity
piece

of superb satire

quoted from

'Ubaid

and

by Voltaire:

A genealogist
proves to a prince that he is the direct
descendant of a count whose relatives
had made a family
pact three or four hundred years ago with a house whose
very name has left no memory. This house had remote
to a province whose last owner had just died
pretensions
The prince anti his council
of apoplexy.
conclude without
difficulty
that the province belongs to him by divine
This province which is some hundreds of leagues
right.
distant,
in vain that it does not know him, that
protests
it has no wish to be governed by him, that one must at
least have a people's
for it.
consent before legislating
These discourses do not even reach the ears of the prince

1.

Risala-i

Dilzrush,
}

2.

v Li

Ibid.,

p. 134:

p.

90.

See also
Oj d11I51 J

Jhi4,

, vol.

'I''=

"'
='

III,

's

p.

233:

1(_J

227

He'immedtately
finds
whose rights
are incontestable.
to do nor to
a great number of man who have nothing
He dresses
them in heavy blue cloth
lose.
at 110 sous
the ell,
hats,
puts a heavy white cord round their
and left,
and marches to glory.
makes them turn right
The other princes
escapade take part
who hear of this
to his means, and occupy a small
in it,
each according
than Changis
murderers
piece of land with more mercenary
Bajazet
train.
Khan, Tamerlane,
1
every dragged in their

At any rate,

of his age,

events

real

one of them was continually


of some treaty

violation

of houses,

of hundreds

of wives and virgins.


killing

layman rejects
writes,

the enemy will


'Perhaps

shoot it

back.

'In

case, there

that

No doubt 'Ubaid

1.

will

2.
Ris-la-i
.. f:. v
>-'-

Dictionary,

even a
The

and the rape of thousands


point

of view even the


"A Qazwini, " he

a bow without

an arrow in
get it

and

shoot no arrow, ' they asked him.

be no war, ' replied

was not able

of

the destruction

shoot the arrow and he will

they will

because of the political

Philosophical

slave-girl,

people whom he does not know.


with

but

to develop

of the people,

of villages

heretics

the pretext

did the same in turn.

side

Because from 'Ubaid's

"was going to fight

the hope that

people,

the plunder

under

the

in Shiraz,

own kingdoms,

a certain

deprivation

fighting,

Injs

but in reality

side,

gaining

handsome boy and so on; and the other


was a fierce

in Kirwan,

the other

by the other

by observing

conclusion

each had their

attacking

his own domain of sovereignty,

result

this

The Mugaffarids

zarbaijn,
and

in Iraq

Jalayerids

had reached

'Ubaid

the Qazwini. "2

to choose his heroes from


atmosphere.

contemporary

So he goes back to

p. 232.

Di
'u,
j!
sh, p. 107:
"
-,,,
ilk'
c
JJ,
Is!
--/_Cl. _O_' . _1 _._.__/
.
1+(o.
-Jl }; j%-'-r

This is the only anecdote in 'Ubaid's


to Qazwinis.
cleverness is attributed

Ku

t wherein

a certain-

"'

228

previous

times

wayward,

hypocritical

does

so,

perhaps

"the

heroes

of

For,

next".

show the

to

and sheer

his

own critical

contemporary

satirizes

In

was one of
in

his

of

maxim that

celebrated

his

to

charlatans

own time,

the

Talkhak*

way,

the

by the
future

historiographer's

and the

this

He

own age.

favourite

the

jester

personalities.

the

mouth

of Talkhak

when he

and rulers

such

as Mubiriz

al-Din.

satire
kings

their
lies

white

as ruthless,

have been praised

in

flatteries.

Ghazna,

rulers

seem vulgar

personalities

poet's

who were

of the

usually

these

the

Mahmd of

He puts

as the

and historiographers

exaggerations
Sultan

characters

veracity

one generation

discovers

generation

similar

and arrogant

however,

poet-laureates

of

and chooses

Once Talkhak's wife produced a child.


Sul15a Mil
d
"What
asked him whether it was a son or a daughter.
comes from poor people except a son or a daughter? "
10 rascal:
What else comes from
replied Talkhak.
the nobles? " asked Mahmd. "Oh: An evil-doer,
an
oppressor and a
unsociable
person, a ruthless
house-destroyer,
" replied
the wit.
1
to sunnar ze OUbaid standpoint

Finally,

again to his

turn
gives

more descriptions
and their

nation,

"naught",

their

The fool

1.
z?

is

IIbid,

^
cr

is

and their

policy

of the people.

"boasting
is

and immodesty",

generosity.

f1151
0J.
.
o1i,

in which he
in running

the

The source of the

"meaningless",

their

we should

The Definitions,

their

morals are "meannes, greed,

"he who expects

p. 132:

i)'

of statesmen

humility

their

and stupidity",

treatise,

ill-treatment

he writes,

aristocracy,
is

invaluable

on politics,

"

their

existence

words are "bragging


jealousy

and cupidity.

The man who is

r,

their

>,
-i

cJ>

"

229

is

attendant
of

reign
for

habits

are

and fairness

"tricks,

Family

Throughout

history,

those of legal

also

women as they have.


has been chiefly
"

world

miserable

political

energy,

for

as unchivalrous

as well

status

them to have written

One can say too that,

a masculine

and disguised

This reality

about women into

such feelings
and it

is

said that

"On the whole,

men is women.

day in happiness. 3

But if

1.
2.
3.

with

an ambivalence
has been
as Simone de

the first

step in

was apparently

that

taken

century

Zeus has sent to

a woman, never passes a whole

the men, literature

towards women, even the so-called

of woman.

about women is myth,

satire

evil

on

of writing

Semonides of Amorgas (7th

the greatest

For whoever lives

In face,

of myths.

written
almost everything
2
Because, historically,
and myth made by man,

and until

of making the

about women is

deep antagonism.
by a variety

of physical

as auch satire

as the faculty

reminds us,

B. C. ) wrote,

and

seems unnecessary

has been always thrown upon the shoulders

which includes

by the Greeks,

it

endowment, the reproach

of feeling,

formalizing

phoenix",

discord

the advantages

and education,

behind what men have written

Beauvoir

hypocrisy,

power and wealth,

The reality

elaborated

as the

as rare

the

Children
Women.
--

since men enjoy

intellectual

recently

in

Therefore,

"'

promises.

strength,

are

lies,

telling

"

person.

and wretched

"justice

nobles,

such

their

false

an "unfortunate

heavenly

and law were unfair

sources have been the same.

Chapter 5, p. 159.
Ta'rift,
Book One, Facts
The Second Sex, See especially
35-171.
Hodgart, Matthew, Satire
p. 79.

and Myths,

pp.

230

In

these

through

books,

a woman gave birth

more devotion

the

to

of the

sport

one hand

and ironically

a woman, Eve,

became the

on the

we read

Saviour

came into

sin

Therefore,

mankind.

and even Muslim

observe in religious

and One Nights.

locked

everywhere

deceive
easily

him with
found,

pre-Islamic

Islamic

era was better

Arabs buried

1.
2.

that

that
that

is

was evil

we can

he carries

his

manages to

on women may be
the situation

than the pre-Islamic

were

According

extent.

-J

q
.

4*

141

120
M. Hodgart,
Satire,
Tales from The Thousand and
p.
; see also,
in which a woman by virtue
One Nights,
pp. 106-112,
of her beauty
the g1 dj
king and
manages to tempt and imprison
vizier,
governor,
the carpenter,
locks all
the senior
and as the story
reads,

officers
of a kingdom in a cupboard.
/%i
f"-/
Koran 16.60-61:
,
w`iy
(
41
1

O
. "".

f/

"'i

jA3) j)
... u1
0.

5.

In

and they are at present.

they put the guilt


In Persian literature,
normally,
on Adam, but
books that it was
everybody knows that according to the religious
Satan through Eve who tempted Adam.
Ibn Qutaiba, 'Uyn al-Akhbr,
vol. IV, pp. 77-78. -.
`'''

3.

of

one, because

but men still

alive4;

to a great

women are surpassed

side.

the Thousand

the wife

Although

areas.

in Islams,

and stronger
too,

so jealous

daughters

their

The

or unlucky

stories

up in a box; nevertheless
3
men.. The same utterances
in Islamic

more privileged
terms,

other

anti-feminist

frequently

women in early

sexual

from the left

a husband. is

in which

Eve-baiting

Eve from one of Adam's

books whereas God created

One of the famous oriental

wife

reached the extent

must have been a crooked rib,

it

ribs,

later

because

Mother of God, the more execration

was paid to the sinless

Men's unfairness

world

moralists.

was heaped on Eve, who became the symbol of everything


in women.

the

became possible

redemption
of

Christian

that

I_bid_., 4: 38:

rw"!
1

4. J,,

.Wyi'

LJG

"
'"i

I'

)I

/Y1

Ya
,:
y..,
,

yV

A.
11

3\ E

231

to

they

tradition
but

perfect,

the

of

their

of

and because

during

thse

the

in a wider

Now, turning

to 'Ubaid,

the reader

writings,

over women.

indigence,

wealthy.

In other

father

can easily

complains

defect

as their

of

abandonment

in Persia.

Studying

and in his

of men

anecdotes,

the truth;

infidelity,

the
OIIbaid's

the superiority

it

is

of judges,

system of family

of his wife's

intellect

he too has inherited

understand

his

in

extent

predecessors.

and tells

but

appearance,

the accepted view of women in

bears the ruthlessness


words,

their

and 'lyisha.

days, "'

we observe that

dominates

hardship,

their

sense, and to a great

Through his Definitions.

man who complains,

men have become

Khadija

of

defects

reflect

which were adopted by his

opinions

of

menstruation

These documents therefore


society

Fatima,

because

not

They interpreted

and fasting

Islamic

Mary,

women is

qualities,

and religion.
prayer

four:

of women only

The imperfection
because

"Many

are weak intellectually:

it

he who suffers
rulers

and the

is a patriarchy.

and of his

the

is

The

children's

disobedience.
We know little
and had at least

of 'Ubaid's
own life,
except that he was married,
2
But we are sure that he was always in
one child.

debt and usually

was unable

once boasted
but it
attract

1.

seems that

"Kings
it

the favours

Kalbdhi,
aCdJI
C'J40; '

2.
3.

that

and nobles

for

was merely a poetical

53:

rri.

p.

: 1.1;:

9 CJ'"

See Chapter III,


PP, 14.2 - 43.
Kuluvt,
p. 33:
_
L;
cX1.4

his

family;

have respected

of the new patron.

a]-Tai
y

to provide

It

to

probably

recognisable

1;

him"3,

and nourished

exaggeration,
is also

he

although

from

''

232

his

writings

say,

after

pressures
seeking

he was a hot-tempered

that
being
of

involved

the

and the

not happy with


pessimism,

In

family

and its

'Ubaid's

people and for

as this

men of learning

the occupation

man who laughs

The two-horned

is-the

1.
2.
3.
4.

(Dhul-aarnain)

father-in-law,

own son is
4
who has a daughter.

beard,

of the unfortunate

was

by the reader.

with

no security

"marriage

the unfortunate

marked by

can enjoy

himself

people.

pleasure

the world

for

is futile"

A bachelor
is

honest
and

is

the house-

is

a man who has two wives.


2
is he who has more.
The

and the shrew is

the mother-in-law.

the wife

and children
are not intimates,
3
The ill-starred
is a person
a home-born foe.

Thus, in such conditions


and one's

in particular,

and the

he himself

no creature

is

to

against

understood

there

wherein

is

clearly,

view of women is

of the unscrupulous

at the world's

The most unfortunate


cuckold

principle,

he who does not concern

The wise man is


l
inhabitants.

holder.

in

poverty

libertinism,

he was not,

"a place wherein

is

of

into

the causes of which can be easily

In an unhappy world

love is

himself

of children

life.

and twists

even if

short,

rearing

"The world, " he writes


peace.

the kinks

he had thrown

age,

and mockery.

marriage

in

man, that

and nervous

Brother

is

the eneny, and the relative

is

the

Ta'rift,
p. 151.
Ibid.,
pp. 150-151,161.
Ibid.,
p. 161.
/
Ibid.,
p.
(416/1025) was prior
to
It is worthy of mentioning that Firdawsi
'Ubaid in this conviction,
when he said:
l
)!
2'f.
ti
I.
>
J
6JJ)

p. 151. Presumably 'Ubaid has inserted


See Muntakhab-i'Shhnma.
01t;
the "ill-starred"
in his Definitions
from the above couplet.
Many Persian writers
and poets have regarded daughters as "God's
lament" or curse, and disaster,
or one's enemy. Of them the
following
two excerpts would suffice
to support our discussion,
(p.
first
287), which reads:
from galila
"The men of
Dimna
u

233
keen enemy;

the

man who is

male is

A formally

captive.

man who has a young wife


person

is

sorrow

is

has read

whose wife

after

a person

man who has an old

The young

views.

encumbered

the

of his

"is

hand, adultery

is

husbands.

their

the pleasure

with
'IIbafd

continues

deceived

by widows,

in

"Do not make your lawful

' baid

is

and for

old
a

him

joy

with

satire

particular
pleasure

argues that

in his

certain

own time a lady

"one who has few"., the


one lover. "3

and lawful

is a girl

of copulation.,
his coarse

andan

The ram and horned

of a donkey is

The virgin

miserable,

the house-wife

copulation,

the brain

monotonous act;

to women's

according

change so that

she who is satisfied


lawful

definitions,

witty

was "one who has mazy lovers",


wife

is

wife

is

Words have undergone a semantic

virtuous

who acts

family

of This u Rmin,

story

divorce.

absolute

As a support

a cuckold.

by a numerous

copulation

the food

that

On the other
is a

wives

cook for

who has not yet been familiar


is

and virginity
against

a meaningless

women elsewhere:

widows who already


unlawful

for

noun. "4

"Be not.

have children";

the sake of cold

intellect
regard daughters as enemies, while they desire sons for
the permanence of their
names":
es
;i
Ij'
'.
.
.
1,
>
>,
U

'AA*

i,
i
i
ld
cJ
)
"
CS
91
' ... ,
The second is from Kh gn1, who has regarded the death of his
(DIwwn,
divine
blessing
daughter as a real finding
and
p. 835):

1.
2.
3.

4.

A fact behind this disliking


Because a son could
was economic.
Besides, a poor
work in those days, while a daughter could not.
man auch as Firdawsi or 'Ubaid had to provide a dowry as well.
Taerift,
p. 161.
Ibid.,
I bid.

Ibid.,

p:
, p.

161:
161.

p. 162.

. Il 'CIO
-

I: dVJ"":

ilU

234

"Beware

copulation";
the

midwives,

of

to

so as not
to

order

the

gain
by the

streets

in

chastity

degree

the

do not

house

of

Beat

baby's

cry";

head of the

";
of

stature
seek

taking

"Do not

tranquillity,

a man who has

God pity

you. "

"Copulate

with

same place. "

",
...
"Strike

"Do not settle

so they fear

the

in
veil

and
expect

of Wis and Ramm. "'


and the young girl
approaches;

a catamite

so then

the promise

and a harlot

of

in the

and when you do so copulate

you and become obedient,

of the house become possible

consequence the affairs

women in

"Do not

"Do not trust

the women sharply:

them too severely,

old

the women in the agony of death as far

as you can and make the most of it. "


the prostitutes

"Do not

happiness

when her wedding night

her virginity

the

be deceived

two wives";

from a woman who has read theA tory

who has lost

and

the women, and their

a young woman whose husband has travelled,

"Pity

with

the

wet-nurses

women,

the

the martyrs.

of
of

scarf.,
the

the pregnant

be a rascal";

the

of

woman and hearing

tallness

and illuminated
abundance

the

exploitation
of

predominance

responsibility
marry,

the

of

amidst

and in
fear

and

hope. "2
But the striking
writings

can be found in his

be sufficient

1.

2.

satire

to support

his

on women and the family


treatise

Dilush.

in

"Ubaid's

Some examples will

assertion:

W u Rmin is a fine ma hna


by Fakhr
ad Pand pp. 52-54.
-1-s
d. 466 1073), and it has been regarded
Gurgni
al Din As'ad-i
since its being composed as a symbol for the "loose morality",
For there are many non-Islamic
events in it which mostly come
Iranian
tradition
from pre-Islamic
and Zoroastrian
ceremonies,
including
in love affairs
infidelity
See
and family system.
B
the
Oriental
Minors
BSOAS
School
African
etin
of
of
and
)s ,
Studies
XII
1,1947)
XI 4,1947)v
introduction
and XVI 1,1954);
to liis u Rmin by M. Ja'far
Mahjb, pp. 31-44.
ad Pand, pp. 54-55.

235
They asked an Arab
as a snake creeps,
the Arab.
replied

about his wife's


she too is alive
1

behaviour.
and kicking,

"So long
"

An old woman said to her husband, "Are you not ashamed


of committing adultery,
while you have a lawful and
desirable
yes, but not desirable, "
wife? " "Lawful,
said the man. 2
A woman fell
sick, and said to her husband, "Woe is you,
what are you to do if I die? " "What an I to do if you
the husband.
3
do not die? " replied
And old man came to a physician
and
wives and my back.. -bladder and waist
what should I eat to cure this pain?
ma" n of nine divorces, ", replied
even the son denies
for

inferiority

being

his

said, "I have three


continually
ache,
" "An electuary
the physicians.
4

mother her rights

and denotes her

a woman:

A Mongol took a mother and her son, and raped them


both.
"If you see the Mongol, will you recognise
him? " asked the mother of her son.
"At the time when
it happened, he was face to face with you, therefore,
the son.
5
you ought to recognise him better: " replied
E (6) a draft
The ruler of mol gave Serj al-Din Qaam:
to collect
a sum of money from a village
whose name
(back,
Pas
bottom).
Serj al-Din went in search
was
He saw a man and a
of that sum. There was heavy rain.
a baby and a cradle on-their
shoulders,
woman carrying
"Where is the path to Pas?"
moving with difficulty.
"If I knew, I would not be thus
asked Serj al Din.
burdened as I am today, " answered the man. 7

1.

Ris 1a-i

2.
3.

bid.,
,I_.,

4.

Ibid.,
p. 106. Each complete divorce,
according to Islamic
jurisprudence,
needs to be stated three times.
Ibid.,
p. 111.
I was unable to identify
such a personage in the available
mol
historical
books.
It seems, however, that he was a jester.
is a city of Iran's
Mzandarin, which is located
second province,
240 km. to the north of Tehran.
Risla-i
Dilgush,
p. 119.

5.
6.

7.

Dilaushl,

p. 22.
p. 96.

p. 91; haa

rt,

vol.

I,

p. 222.

236
In the following

whether

the

anecdote,

he was on a distant

husband while

husband

quotes a woman who betrays

'IIbaid

journey,,

had committed

the

but it

bar

is not known

same dishonesty

his

during

absence from the house.


He
A merchant had a beautiful
wife named Zuhrah.
dress
He
journey.
to
a
made
white
on
a
go
resolved
for his wife and gave a pot of indigo to his servant
her,
from
improper
"When
action
you see any
and said,
if
that
her
dress,
blue
this
little
on
so
of
pour a
her
behaviour
back,
I
will
come
when
you are absent
be clear to me. " After a while his master wrote to
him:
I hope that Zuhrah does not commit any shameful
And there will be no sign of blue on her dress;
His servant

wrote

back:

be any more delay


If there will
When he comes back, Zuhrah will
In short,

to understand

that

'baid's

of the age on the female gender,

belief

the following

action,

wittily-designed

(la
maxim

it

in my-lord's
return
have become a leopard.

satire
is

expounds the common

sufficient

to quote

fa :

of
A ten year old girl is a shelled almond, a girl
for the players;
fifteen
a
years is a plaything
fat
is
twenty
a woman of
and soft;
of
plump,
girl
daughters
the
is
thirty
of
and sons, a
mother
years
deceased,
the
forty
is
a woman..
old
among
of
woman
knife,
killed
be
fifty
and
a
with
old
should
of
years
the
the
God,
of
old,
curse
years
a woman of sixty
2
her:
the
on
people
whole
angels and

1.
2.

I_.,
Ibid.,

p. 128.
p. 98.

237
III.

Part
In theory

life,

not the same, are inseparable.

and utopian

politics

of the real

world

hopeful

look

as Elliot

Again,

the nineteenth

think

we normally
the actual.

with
linked
ships.

in a complex network
To understand

perhaps his wittiest

Pangloss,

philosopher,

and sharply

Robert

harmony",

E. Elliot,

is

for

the ideal,

satire

utopia

and satire

--

and formal

relation-

declaring

that

The former's

attacks

if

The Shapes of Utopia,

and

the hopelessness

(1646-1716),
reason"

the disasters

p. 24.

Candide

of suffering

philosophy,

"sufficient

are

than

to go any further

the problems

the best"

his

Fourier.,

with

Orwell.

of Leibniz

satirizes

is

vision

may seem odd as well,

historical

Voltaire

the pupil

by the tutor

pre-established

deals with

and in it

of the "all

the utopian

is not necessary

and England's

novel,

of evil,

and callousness

it

Voltaire

to quote France's

the existence

this

as one of the greatest

as associated

of genetic,

is

have always

spoke of Charles

the two modes -

In fact,

the other

are in reality.

Here the connection

of Utopia

satire

The hope feeds the

argument for

complete Utopian,

time. "3'

that

the one is a critique

of Utopia

"Once Engels

writes,

and politics,

assert

better,

Writers

at the way things

century's

of all

for

might be.

the one unanswerable

a hard satirical

satirists

that

the hope.

the criticism

known this:

for

of a. world

ethics

We can equally

indivisible,

are also

each of them separately;

a satirist,

in the name of something

construct

criticism.,

1.

for

at least

Writers,

and politics.

deal with

the philosophers,

but in practical
if

between ethics

we distinguish

and in particular

Ethical

as personified
the German
and the
that

befall

238

the hero occur in

but

an insult

Orwell's
and ideal:

"All

than others. "2


distinguish
But since
and justice
issues

animals

the

worlds

philosophy,

are equal,
it

but some animals

emerges that

--

so far

as it

stated

'Ubaid's

was possible

The second chapter-of

courage.

"Philosophers

saying,

"It

is

hand, is both satirical


are more equal

we are not quite

'between
politics
as mentioned abovve,
we have already

then worse is

we endure. "'

miseries

maxim, on the other

Therefore,

are stated.

deals with

to

added

celebrated

possible

mocks this

He ironically

unthinkable.
nothing

the best of all

satirical
--

and ethics
views

able to
in satire.
on politics

here his views on ethical


'Ubaid's

AkhlAg al-Ashrf

have said, " he states,

faculties
that the human soul has three different
which
first
is
are the sources of the various human actions:
(j)
the faculty
a which brings
or speech
of thinking
the second is the faculty
of
out thought and discernment;
ha abi a) and it is the procedure to take risks
anger
and domination;
and the ambition to obtain superiority
(shahawi:
the third is the faculty
of sensuality
ra) which
)
b
is called animality
mi
as well,
and it is the
food., drink and enjoying the female.
source of requiring
'Ubaid

continues

that

becomes
When in a person the faculty
of thinking
it produces in its holder the
moderate in itself,
sciences such as
enthusiasm towards gaining certain
of anger becomes
and whenever the faculty
philosophy;
the
of thinking,
moderate and obedient to the faculty
be the virtue
of bravery
result will
sha lsat);
and
becomes
whenever the act of the soul of sensuality
the faculty
the
of thinking,
moderate and. follows
Finally,
diffat).
consequence will be chastity

1.
2.

Candide p. 124. See also his


74, under "Bien tout est", AU
George Orwell, Animal Farm, p.
by
from Three Modern Satirists
Yale University
Press, 1965).

68Philosophical
Dictionarc.
pp.
is good.
114; see also "Orwell as Satirist".
(New York,
Stephen J. Greenblatt

239

when all
the soul

have been acquired


these three faculties
be the
the result
and intermixed.,
will

perfection

having

After

discussed

and the Islamic

Aristotle

Ibn Miskawaih
1370),

of virtues,

this

is

justice

called

adopted morality,

peripatetics

(d, 421/1030),

he states

which

in
'ad

al Din

Tnsi

428/1036),

(d.

672/

that

the philosophers
termed the brave man he who has
intrepidity,
high ambition,
tranquillity
of soul,
constancy, forbearance,
moral heroism, humility,
zeal
But at present,
and tenderness.
our lords say that
for a person who steps forth on dangerous causes, and
fights
be nothing but two alternathere will
others,
tives:
the enemy, or
either he overcomes and kills
Now, if he kills
his enemr, he commits
else he fails.
the killing
of an innocent person and will receive
the consequence either
in this world or in the other.
Or else, the enemy will overcome, and he must enter
2
Hell because of his misconduct.
To prove his

point,

"Ubaid goes on to say,

which reason is clearer than that whenever there is


a musical evening, or a gathering
a wedding invitation,
wherein there is food, sweets, robes of honour, or
to such a place the effeminates,
gold, they invite
but wherever there
musicians and buffoons of the city;
is one who has to use arrow and spear, they swell a
foolish
man with pride saying, "You are a giant,
a
hero, a breaker of armies and brave athlete",
and
When they kill
that
send him to meet the enemy swords.
the effeminates
miserable man in battle,
and catamites
taunt him, shaking their bottoms.
When they kill
a
hero in the battle-field,
these people look at him from
a far distance and say, "0 my lord; live infamously,
live long. " The wise man should always bear in mind
the maxim of the Khursnt heroes who say, "Men jump

1.

Akhla al-Ashrf,

Z
C
':
"
,.
2.

Ibid.,

pp. 14-15:

)" T%(''P t. 'I. tom'-c,

pp. 15-16.

J'^t; f U=---..
_
-

.1

which comes from

(d.
Ibn
SInA
such as

and Xhwja Nagir

at

'240

the hay-rick.
"
but we jump into
the battle-field,
into
Igfahni
that in a desert
It is said from a youthful
The youthful
man
a Mongol. saw him and attacked.
him, saying,
because of his perfect
cleverness
entreated
"My lord,
do not kill
me instead. "
me, come and violate
to his
The Mongol had pity
on him and acted according
being killed
by means of his
request,
and he avoided
It is said that he was alive
thirty
years
expedient.
1
that
What a happy youth:
event.
after

Then 'Ubaid
make the
parents
excellent

most

of

allusion

to

humanity

and virility

were

style

in

ignorance

meanings.

This

corruption

instead,

adopted

"2

"0 friends:

satire,
of

living;

and they

could

not

in

which

every

moral

values

chapter,
of the

had died
leads

ironical

and tradition

their

who lived

the

on his

carries

and mockery,

to another

pity

chapter

our

understand

of a society

on chastity.

poor

these

has a sharp

word

cowardliness

you should

in

which

and impudence
"They

supposed, " he writes,

that chastity
in ancient times was one of the cardinal
they have said, "Chastity
and in its definition
virtues,

is continence or freedom from ornament and affecta.


the word chaste for a person who
They were uttering
his eyes from looking at a prohibited
could withhold
speeches about an
woman, and his ear from hearing ill
other people's
absent person; his hands from stealing
the tongue from slandering
and the soul
possessions;
from Wtiau ika, &Qazdohilu, 8. "3
Then he gives
gallj4p"

1.
2.
3.
4.

Ibid.,
Ibid.,
Ibid.,

samples of the ancient

he writes,,

p. 16.
p. 17.
p. 17.

person's

"when hangngedssaid,

'In

chastity.
my childhood

"Mangir-i
I was passing

(the wool-carder),
Abu '1-Mughith
Husain b. "r,
Ai-Hallj
(244Persian
but
Arabic-speaking
theologian
originally
mystic,
309/857-922).
For the details
of his works and life,
see L.
d'
Hall
Massignon,
La Passion
Martyr.
de 111slam
mystique
(Paris,
(London-New
1929); A. J. Arberry,
Revelation
Reason
and
York, 1957),
pp. 29-30 and 107-108.

241
R

by a path,

I heard a woman's voice

looked

now this

of

up,

that

from the roof.

down from

looking

this

To see her l
is

gallows

the

punishment

"1

action.

He then describes

the adopted morality;

of the age, saying:

Our nobles, however, at present believe that the


deceased have made a great mistake on this subject,
both in
and they have spent their precious life
because the aim of life
ignorance and deviation;
and
the factual
end of this world is enjoying oneself
in amusement and debauchery,
cannot be achieved

and this

things",

prohibited

except

"by means of fornication

and on the other

and enjoying

hand,

accumulating
money is impossible except by teasing
calumny and applying
people by means of ruthlessness,
bad language to their wives and families.
Thus, anyone who practices
chastity,
will be deprived of
happiness and accumulating
pleasure,
money; and one
is absurd
because his life
should never call him alive,
be punished for the reason that he acted
and he will
against this Koranic verse, "Did you suppose that we
have created you in vain, and that you would not return
to us. " 2
Again,
What a silly
man is he who has the chance to make
love in private with a beautiful
woman, and he refrains
from enjoying her love by saying, "I am chaste",
so

he becomes deprived,
whereas he can never have such an
his lifetime
The
opportunity
man
again throughout
...
chaste,
called
continent
whom they previously
and selfhim an ass' anus,
our nobles now call
controlled,
They say, "Eyes,
tongue
unfortunate
and impotent.
ears,
to attract
and other limbs have been created
advantages

1.
!

hrAf . D. 17:
ai;

L.

//

(f

/Ji
C3
r'/1
c
bid.,
vi
c3
std
"
2.
p. 18; Koran, 23: 117.
(/

1I

.)^"

A))

ii

,,

l V''T

1
r1,l. cbj:

242

has to see whatever


Everybody
and to repel disadvantages.
to him, to hear whatever
seems pleasing
appears delightful
to him; and to gain one's interests
one must not avoid
language and
teasing,
calumny,
coquetry,
malice,
abusive
false
He must pay no heed that
someone
giving
evidence.
from his acts and speeches and be ruined
may suffer
...
Whatever you fancy do, and say whatever
you wish,
...
to make no hindrance
in this
it is necessary
way because
is blasphemy".
1
"prohibition
finding,
because we observe
He waist think
of it as a real
(or
does
himself
that
not submit
nowadays
anybody who
to copulation,
herself)
always becomes unfortunate,
his whole life
in disappointment
vanquished,
and suffers
Anybody who did not submit himself
and abandonment ...

to copulation

never enjoyed being a ruler,

a hero,
an army-breaker.,
a wealthy
or preacher
above all
a shy
...
that our nobles are saying the truth
it many times,
and they
experienced
because it has been proved now that
(i. e. being honest and chaste)
has
derives
A person must
no blessing.

because the stability


It
of

should

'Ubaid's

this

chapter.

well

versified,

be mentioned

parody is

but because of its


to translation.
and symbolic

famous heroes

of the S!

1.

2.
3.

harsh

have considered

the fourth
justice

on exchange ...

and can be found in


and has been extremely

and coarse satire

describes

battles

way as homosexual intercourse


3
Rustam and Humn.

"Ubaid next discusses


philosophers

style,

ten couplets

'Ubaid,

rests

one of the most comic passages

here that

contains

and
man, a statesman,
I approve of the fact
having
after
right,
are quite
having a pure anus
no good purpose and
give and take;

affairs

in the Firdawsian

This piece

lends itself
most direct

of world

a minister,

virtue,

justice:

among the four

hardly

it

here in the
between the two

"The ancient
cardinal

virtues,

L-man'u
"prohibito.
blasphemy"
The
Ibid.,
18.
nis
saying
p.
a
They mean by it generosity
Kufran
is famous among the mystics.
towards one's brethren and friends
letting
them to use 64v-'4
See Suhrawardi "'Awrif
ossessions and belongings.
(ed.
al-Ma'rif
in the margin of al-Ghazzall's
al-Ih a, vol. IVY pp. 182183.
the saying, using
"baid makes here an excellent
parody"of
it satirically
according to his purpose.
Akhlg al-Ashrf,
pp. 18-19.
in the Encvolopaedia
See Bausani's article
on "Hidj""
of Islam.

..

L,

4".

243
that

believing

or in

world

it

the

of the

earth

reason

they

should

always

justice

which

is

and the

times

as it

virtue.

"they
"

heavens
to

gave advice

examined

in

the

chapter
given
banal

as usual,

about

'Ubaid

us the

second

praising

"recommended
people

him and the

he illustrates

very

that

they

adopted

view

of this

part

definition
but

and well-known,

conduct,

this

poets
the

their

of

he says
anyone

children

used to

praise

eulogized
adopted

chapter.

generosity,

that

in

ancient
this

who possessed
to be so.
him,

him with
morality

the

If

some-

men learning

fervent

of his

panegyrics.

age:

But our nobles,


in view of stable
who are exceptional
from the great masters of
intellect
and sharp thinking
indeed,
the past ages, thought
on this
subject
seriously
to
the defects
of this
conduct appeared
and immediately
the decline
that
them and it became clear
of the old
dynasties
generosity
was due to their
and lavishness.
they say that one must escape under the
Therefore,
in order to be rid
of the people's
protection
of jealousy
troublesomeness
They advise us
and live
a happy life.
that money is second to none and it is like
one's own
He who spends his entire
life
life.
it,
is
gathering
drink,
food and
unwise to waste it in buying clothing,
his body's
tranquillity,
or in
even for preparation
it to a person who praises
him.
It follows,
paying
that
if a person has accumulated
huge wealth,
therefore,
nobody is able to gain a penny from his damned hands

even by means of a thousand

1.
2.
3.

See Suyti,
Jmi al'
ham
as a confirmed
Akhlg al-Ashrf,
pp.
Ibid.,
pp. 24-25.

dentists'

hir,
II
vol.
mawthu un bihj
23-24.

forcepts.

p. 118.
one.

on

(sakhAwat).

speaks of generosity

customary

generosity,

the

this

establishment

and rulers

we have

this

Then,

kings

nobles,

the

and for

Then he states

They always

books

l,

in

either

that

"

favoured

wrote

fact

justice.

is

one practiced

the

on justice

rests

the

affairs

practice

he has not

perhaps

of all

They confirmed

next.

In the fifth
Here

foundation

the

He regards

this

"'

244

Then 'Ubaid

relates

beware

"0 son!

son,

and be sure
reach

filled

the

that

of

always

as long

as you live

the

with

as you say

such

from

'Yes, ' say

saying,

and as long

heights,

with

down a recommendation

He writes

men.

wealthy

about

and proverbs

anecdotes

'no'

and

man to his

a rich

word

'yes',

miserly

continuously,

'no',

you will

heart

your

be

will

"'

displeasure.

It is said that a nobleman who was second only to


his end.
When he no
Korah in wealth was approaching
he summoned his dear children
longer
had hope of life,
of the house of nobility
and said,
who were the progeny
"0 children:
I troubled
myself at home and abroad many
in
by means of starvation
years and squeezed my throat
these few dinrs.
Beward of negligence
order to reserve
if somebody says that he has
it,
in protecting
and
...
seen me in his dreams begging you for a piece of sweet
by his tricks,
because I would
food, do not be deceived
and a dead man eats nothing;
never say such a thing

and even if I show myself to you in your dreams and


the same, pay no attention,
for these sorts of
petition
instead they are confused dreams
dreams are not right,
(adahth-i
It may be that it is the devils that
ate).
to eat in the
send you these, because it is impossible
"
things that I had not eaten in my lifetime.
afterlife
2
He said this and died.
In another

he quotes

place,

who wishes to gain greatness,


order

to become honoured;

from the nobles


has to store

of the age that


whatever

do you not see that

"anybody

he possesses in
the nobles

all

of our

age keep stores? "3

1.

It seems that 'Ubaid has made another parody here having in his
that is sAmr b. 'Ubaid once
mind the opposite of which he states,
him from jealousy and of saying
told Hafq b. Slim inhibiting
III,,
137:
"no".
Qutaiba.,
See*Ibn
'IIvn
al-Akhbr,
p.
vol.
t
it
w
t
rc

2.
3.

to-

Jii

_r

AkhlAg
Ibid.,

al-Ashrfs
p. 27:

pp.

'.c;oI

25-26.

j"

-"--

!.

!"

e"

sirs

',

Li.

"t.

C-J

245
In the sixth
"is

he writes,
to a person

formidable

his

although

forbearance,

whom anger

to him,

occurs

chapter

it

ironies

and the ancient

cannot

does not

provoke

distujtb

on the

sages

in

this

meekness

an indecent

one of

He explains

age.
age like

event

launches

Then 'Ubaid

of his

nobles

"Meekness, "

attributed

and if

easily,

him. "

has been changed

meekness

(Y
lm).
meekness

"Tbaid discusses

other

that

virtues,

however,

meekness entirely.
our nobles, in fact, do not prohibit
They believe that although people are rude to a person
meekness, this temper contains certain
who practices
life.
benefits
The
which are useful in ordinary
reason for this is that if a person has not endured
pederasts and rogues in his childhood and is not both
not be able to
meek and dignified,
at present he will
tolerate
sharp rebukes in the assembly of the nobles:
they cannot handle his anus with their fingers,
cannot
pull his beard off, cannot throw him into the pool and
1
cannot abuse his wife or sister.
Therefore,
submitting

to all

oneself

publicly

sexual

relationships

the ancient

moral values

It

was natural

in which noble ladies

with

and

and cowardliness,

of meanness.

sorts

hand in such circumstances

other

kept

meekness means dastardliness

anyone they fancied"

on the

"proclaimed
2,

those who

became

their
nervous and were going made, or mutiliated
They were sad day and night
servants and associates.
fearing
lest someone would blame a member of their
family,
ironically
or
accusing them of fornication
But people whose honoured ladies were
unchastity.
even if
adorned by means of meekness and dignity,
people were tearing up the anus' of their relatives
3
in front of them, paid no attention
at all.

1.

Ibid.,

p. 29:,

2.

I.,

'. ). f F"(J1
p. 23.

3.

_.,

p. 30.

19; C1J
... f

i. co t L'i. )J I ('cJ- 7

246

The consequence

of

he lived

was alive,

feeling

and they

and relatives,

once an unsociable
it

'If

not

he was satisfied

a charge
a dog barks
it.

about

care

of his

loyalty

and shafaaat).

waf"

from

truthfulness
,

on the

as he
his

with

his

against

long

wife
If

suspicion.

him,

he did

roof

of

not

the

'"1

treatise

"Ubaid speaks about four

Aristocracy,

"as

was evident

and secure

brought

In the seventh chapter

(bay),

free

were

saying,

you should

of meekness
at home:

person

to

pay attention
hay-rick,

lind

this

other

On the Ethics

of the

moral qualities,

(sid

modesty

(rraahmat
and compassion

"Modesty, " he relates,

is the restriction
of the soul in order to avoid
conducting indecent actions which cause blame; loyalty
is the offering
to those from whom he had
of assistance
to recompense his goodness;
formerly
received assistance,
truthfulness
is to be consistent
in
with one's friends
order not to say something opposite to the truth of
that
one's tongue, and lastly
compassion is that quality
if he should observe something harsh or rough from somebody, he would pity him by vay of helping him to remove
it from himself.
2
doctrines

Nov these are the abolished


longer
thesis,

As it

exist.

is

century,
a different

was a chaotic
plunderer,

in which
one.

dared to blind

1.
2.

lb--id..,
Ibid.,

his

p. 30.
p. 32.

were inherited

themselves

dripping

father

lived,

'baid

worry

warriors

in blood.

deceased which no

in, the course

Each day the cities

but later

were people who proclaiming


had swords continually

here and there

stated

the environment

of the

of this

the eighth/fourteenth
were in the hands of
by someone else.
against

the infidels

How could a;. person who

about the poor people and their

These

247

destiny?
four

Thus,

qualities

'Ubaid,
stated

after

above,

explaining

the

goes on to state

ancient

views

adopted

views.

on the
"Our

nobles, " he writes,


that these morals were quite
exhausted
and
maintained
by these malignant
hollow.
Any person who is affected
throughout
his lifetime
morals,
also be a loser,
will
he will
it
not be able to achieve
any aim, whatsoever
that
But we observe on the contrary
may be.
anybody who
is busy with impudence and immodesty
can peel people's
he wants;
he says whatever
he does whatever
he
skin:
leaves behind. him all
fancies,
pays no heed to anybody,
hindrances,
positions;
and gains the highest
people fear
Consequently,
his outrages
the poor
and keep silent.
the virtue
of modesty is
man who is qualified
with

behind door and has been beaten by the doorkeepers


left
the back of his head looking at the
and left
scratching
2
outrageous men disappointedly.
Loyalty

has no better

destiny.

Because the aristocracy


of the age believe strongly
that "loyalty
is the result
of the meanness of the soul
and whenever a person
and the domination of jealousy,
they liken him to a dog.
reaches a climax in loyalty,
Any person should chase his own interest;
and when he
obtains it and nothing remains to be gained, he should
pay no heed even if the oppressed is his own father.
Every morning he should live with another person, and
every ni&it. communicate with another group, and be sure
that "in any pot there is another sort of dish".
What
that a loyal person always
is more evident than this,
becomes sorrowful
to an end
and brings his sweet life
without
gaining any advantage, as happened to Farhd,
who dug the mountain Bisutdn in order to find his beloved
Shir3n, and never achieved his aim but lost his life
instead;
or the poor man Majnn-i Banc 'emir, who was a
in love with a
wise and learned man. He suddenly fell
In order to show his loyalty
to her,
girl named Layl.
he led a bitter
life
and never enjoyed the fruition
of
Our nobles tell-the
the relationship.
truth:
a virtue
3
are so damned is better abandoned.
whose results
1.

This is an indication
to both Mubriz al Din's
ruthlessness
and
his son Shih Shuj''s
his father,
anathematizing
which have been
derived from the following
lines by 4ifij
Diwin, p. 367) :
.., ,

2.

3.

%"

AkhlAg al-Ashrif,

Ibid.,

pp. 34-35.

c)- ' -'j


pp. 32-33.

:J

i
J

248

is also troublesome,
because our nobles
Truthfulness
firmly
believe
that this is the most inferior
of the
For the origin
virtues.
of both enmity and prejudice
is truthfulness.
Anyone who practices
truthfulness
He must flatter
can gain honour from anybody.
as far
by means
of his masters and friends
as he can in front
lying
hypocritically.
He
of deliberate
and speaking
"His Majesty
should always use the sentence,
said the
he should say those things
truth";
that suit the
temperament
If for instance,
the ling
of the people.
"Now it is midday",
he aast jump
says at midnight,
forward
"You are right,
today the
at once saying,
(1),
is
hot"
it,
he should
and to confirm
weather
very
swear by the Koran, -the holy book, and on his own
that such is the case.
If he is the companion
marriage
of an old,
ugly and effeminate
miserly,
man, and this
he has to call him the great
hero of
man is speaking,
the age, the world's
most pure anus, the handsome young,
the Joseph of Egypt,
the g1tam of Tayy in order to
obtain
gifts
and gold from him, and his friendship
therefore
becomes stronger
in his heart.
2

Now, if a person on the contrary does not wish to live


like this,
he will
suddenly
wishes to be truthful,
address a nobleman by means of exhortation
saying, "You
have submitted yourself
to sodomy in your childhood
many times, now you had better abandon it and prevent
from this infamous practice
your wife and sister
as
or if he calls a bare-headed man bald, or a man of
well;
large testicles
by his true attribute,
or a harlot
a whore, because of these truths they will
all be upset
It is, thus, not for nothing that the former
with him.
sages have said, "White lies are better than seditious
truthfulness.
" 3
What is

clearer

than the fact

that

if an honest man gives a hundred true


case, they do not believe him; indeed

1.

2.
3.

ironically
Here 'Ubaid criticizes
obsequiousness and conservatism

Akhlig al-Ashrif,
p. 35.
Again 'Ubaid quotes Sa'di,
Gul_,
p. 29:

witnesses in a
he becomes

Sa"di's famous lines


(G
stn p. 32 of K

and ironically

vindicates
,..

on

him.

See

249

because of his assertion,


despised
and they try to
If,
him with a hundred and one pretexts.
refute
they
however,
man gives a false
witness,
a dishonest
bribe
him and help him in many ways, so that he can
because thousands
do so; as is the case today,
of
Islamic
cities,
among the judges,
people in different
followers
jurispradents,
witnesses
and their
sheikhs,
in this way.
1
means of livelihood
gain their

The nobles

of our author's
that

the compassion and pity

age did not accept

in the same manner

had been adopted by the deceased.

They vehemently rejected it.


They claimed that anybody
a deprived
who had mercy on an oppressed man or pitied
to
person, he rebelled. against God, exposing himself
Because nothing happens in
God's anger and dislike.
this world which God does not know. Thus, everything
the dog should
which occurs to anyone, is deserved:
2
be hungry, the raven blind and the goat thin...
To prove their

point,

example the incident

they refer

to the heavenly

books.

Take for

when

told the
in the time of the Prophet, the believers
'Feed the poor. ' They answered back
unbelievers:
if God wanted,
that the poor were God's own creatures;
He would feed them; but if He did not feed them,, why
in the Koran:
should they feed them, as is recited
"Do we feed those whom God feeds if He wishes? " (3)
It is therefore
necessary to show no compassion for
to the condition
any creature,
and to pay no attention
of the oppressed, criminal,
needy, suffering,
affected,
wounded, orphans, those encumbered by a numerous family,
paupers, servants who have grown old in a house, or
men; but on the contrary as far as they can
paralytic
they should torment them in order to win God's favour,
4
hoping to obtain the high degrees and blessings.

1.

Akhl4

2.

Ibid.

al-Ashrf,

pp. 35-36.

36:
P.
s

f,

v,:
f

3.

Borah,

36: 47:

4.

Akhly

a1-Ashr. f,

:.. ^. -J

r J, l;

-/

p. 37.

(I'd

...

jJ->

(o ', i'

t ;, L c3
,
^ / }' CS/' ``"

250

'Ubaid

a manner which

sense

meaning

has two meanings:

and laughs

Accordingly

of

the

with

one that

and the

deceiver

at

other
the

is
that

expense

deceived
catches
of

the

in
He

and allegorical.

superficial

audience,

words,
the

his irony

to an end by fulfilling

treatise

assumes a double

therefore
surface

his

brings

by the
the

hidden

deceived.

he writes,
I

This is what I had promised to the brethren at the


I hope that if the
beginning of this treatise.
the "adopted morals" of the nobles
beginner practices
their
he
them,
this
enjoy
will
masters
of
age azd
as possible in this world and
consequences as fully
in the next.

CHAPTERVI
THE SOURCE OF 'UBAID'S

In the fourth
treatise,

largest
in

that
There

this,

the

no doubt

is

and indeed,
In

in

order

was given1,

and there

last

chapter,

his-probable

sources

that

a'further

his

terms

is

of

anecdotes

but

in

this

'Ubaid's

sources

to quote it

it

would

be given.

of adab would

would

not

be an easy task,

it

would

not

be fruitful.

as economically

as possible,

not been quoted in full,

from the original,

so as to allow

cases where there

then it

has been deemed

the reader

into

two sections,

anecdote

is'marked

but full

In

to appreciate

and the manner of adaptation.

have been divided

was promised

books

to where they may be found are given.


departure

of 'Ubaid's

the

required

effort

have usually

of the borrowing

nature

the

to present

a significant

necessary

search

sources,

the sources themselves


references

a description

study,

the Dilr-usha,

some more of

reveal

of this

chapter

ANECDOTES

the

The following

the Arabic

and the

Persian.
The text
source
in

1.

by "S"

parentheses

of

'Ubaid's

(source)
at

the

and page references


end of

the

text.

See pp. 176-184.


251

to

by a "T"

(text)

'Ubaid's

text

and the
is

given

252

I.

1.

in his court
to hear
T) Once Anusharwan was sitting
"I am oppressed. "
A short man came crying,
grievances.
to a short
"Nobody is able to do injustice
man, " said
Anusharwin.
"0 prince;
the man who oppressed
me is
The King laughed
than me, " said the crying
shorter
man.
(DiIaush,
done
be
to
him.
justice
to
p. 90).
and ordered

S) Muhdart,
2.

III,

p. 286.

vol.

III,

See also p. 179 of this

thesis.

p. 238.

T) They said to a soldier:


fight
the infidels? " "I
any of them and none of
between me
enmityarise
(Ibid..
P. go).
S) a Ba

4.

vol.

T) They said to a man: "Why is your son not like you? "
"Should our neighbours abandon us so that our children
become like us? " said the man.
Ibid.,
p. 90).
S) ! LAjart,

3.

Arabic

, vol.

III,

"Why do you not come out to


swear by God that I do not know
them know me, therefore
how can
the soldier.
and them?" replied

p. 233.

See also p.

thesis.

of this

They presented to him a


T) Abu "1-'Ayn attended a reception.
jar of palulah.
"This paludah was made before God's
(Ibid.,
"
bee,
to
the
Abu
'1-'Ayn.
came
said
revelation
p. 91).
S) TabaQt al-Shu"ari,
p. 409; Muh errt vol. IV, p. 619.
the bee... "
See also Koran, 16: 71: "Your Lord inspired

5.

T) Once Juh went to market to buy a donkey.


A man came
to him and asked, "Where are you going? "
the market
-"To
to buy a donkey, " replied
Juhl.
"Say: Inahallah, " said
the man. "There is no need to say Inshallah, " replied
Juh, "because the donkey is in the market and the money
is in my pocket. " But when he entered the market, a
thief
stole his money. Then, on his way home, the same
man met him and said, "Whence do you come?" "From the
Inshallah,
market, Inshallah,
my money was stolen,
and
I did not buy any donkey Inshallah,
I am returning
(Ibid.,
Inshallah,
"
despair
Juh.
replied
and shame

S) LUM-ar

6.

vol.

III,

p.

in
p.

91).

193.,

T) A Christian
said to a Magian,,. "For how long have you given
up copulating
with your mothers? " "Since they claimed
that

they

S) Muhdart,

produced

vol.

IV,

gods, " replied

p. 619.

the

Magian.

(Ibid.,

p.

91).

253

7.

T) They asked an Arab about his wife's


long as a snake creeps,
she too is
the Arab.
replied
S) Muhdart,

8.

vol.

I,

behaviour.
"So
alive
and kicking,

"

p.. 222.

T) Mu'awiya
was famous for his meekness, and nobody could
Once a man claimed
that he could make
make him angry.
him angry.
"I have heard
So he came to him and said,
that your mother's
bottom is really
big,
therefore
I
wish to marry her. " "This was the very reason that
(Ibid.,
Father
loved her very much, " said Mu'wiya.
p. 91).
I. p. 222.
Here Mu'wiya's
vol.
answer reads:
the master of Ban! Tamim? "
you mean to irritate
"Yes, " replied
the man.
"Go away:
I
asked Mu'awiya.
do not want to get angry. "

S) 14uhdart,
"Perhaps

9.

T) A man came to a jurist


"I am a Hanbalite;
I
and said,
the ablution
performed
and stood to prayer
according
to Ibn Hanbal's
doctrine.
But while
I was praying
I
wetness
felt
in my trousers,
a
which made it dirty
and
"God forgive
You have
gave out a nasty smell. "
you:
" said the
defecated
to all
the doctrines,
according
jurist.
Ibid.,
p.. 91).
S) Muhdart,

10.

p.

722.

III,
p.
vol.
See p. 68 of

216.
this

Here the
thesis.

is

character

"Are you not ashamed


T) An old woman said to her husband:
of committing
adultery,
whereas you have got a lawful
"Lawful,
yes but not sweet, " said the
and sweet wife? "
(Ibid.,
man.
p. 92).

S) Muhdart.,
12.

IV,

"What did your'daughter


inherit
T) They said to 'Ubda:
from her husband? " "Just four months and ten days, "
(I
bid.,
"Ubda.
replied
p. 92).
"
S) Muftart,
Hutay'a.

11.

vol.

vol.

II,

p. 145.

T). They asked a slave girl:


" replied
God
forgive
me,
.
S) Muhdaxt,

vol.

III,.

"Are you. a virgin? " "I


(Ibid.,
the slave girl.

p. 609; Nuwairi,

Nihyat,

vol.

was,
p. 92).
IV,

p. 18.

254

13.

her husband a cuckold and pauper.


T) A woman called
be to Gold that I have no fault,
because the first
from you, and the second comes from God, " replied
man( (Ibid.., , p'. 92).
S) Muhdart,
p. 180
of

14.

Had3 a, p.

731.

See also

disobedient:
T) They said to a an whose wife was notoriously
"Is it possible
to find somebody to reconcile
you both? "'
"-But the only person who could bring
peace between us

is

dead, " said

S) 'U in,
15.

III,
vol.
p. 227;
the present
thesis.

"Praise
comes
the

III,

vol.

the man.

(Ibid.,

p. 92).

p. 50.

him a handsome boy.


T) A pederast
asked a pander to bring
The man said., "I do not
He brought
him a slave-girl.
favour
her at all. " "Do you want one more beautiful
"No, but I desire
than her? " asked the pander.
one
that you hang
with testicles
and a penis. " "I suggest
and then take
a carrot
and two onions from her waist

her as you would a handsome boy, " said

the pander! (I_.,

S) Muhda
vol. IV, p. 25.
p. 244; Nihiyat,
rt, vol. III,
these two books the story is short,
and the pederast's
answer reads, "I do not board a ship without a mast. "
16.

the boy
T) Jammz took a boy to his home. When, however,
his house, another
left
"Jammiz
asked him what he did.
him, " replied
the
took me to his house that I violate
boy.
Hearing
this Jammiz was shocked and exclaimed,
"What:
Pederasty,
Me violated?
too, is
A slander!
the sworn testimony
of a guardian
not proven without
" Ibid.,
and two witnesses.
p. 92).
S) Muhid

17.

III,

p.

245.

T) A hg
lm
came to Baghdad from I img, and he found the
His mother wanted him to return to
city profitable.
"0 mother: a backside
Hims to repair their watermill.
than a watermill
in Hims, "
in Iraq is more profitable
(Ibid.,
his
to
the
mother.
son
wrote
pp. 92-93).
S) Muhdart,

18.

, vol.

vol.

T) They said to
purposes) in
business. "
the
replied
S) MuhAda rt,

III,

p. 245.

(for
to
be
hired
sexual
a man who used
n: "This month must be quiet for
Ramac.
"
"God bless the Jews and Christians,
hired man. (Ibid.,
p. 93).

vol.

III,

p.

245.

p., 92).
In

255
19.

T) A an gave two dirhams to a hired


man. But when he
him, saying,
him, the man prevented
wanted to violate
"You have to be content
with two thighs
and no more. "
"My penis has hung between my thighs
for fifty
years,
and I am not about to pay two dirhams for what you
(Ibid.,.
"
the
offer,
said
pederast,
p. 93).

S) Muhdart,
20.

vol.

p. 250; Nihvat,

III,

S) Muhdart,

dirty.

, vol.

T) A man said,
"Because it
Moses? "' the
had to say,
what he did

dart,
S) Muhe
23.

vol.

I.

p.

"

(Ibid..,

p. 93).

135.

that her
T) A woman once came to a judge and complained
husband denied her her rights,
although
she was a young
but I cannot
"I try my best not to be negligent,
woman.
" pleaded the husband.
"But I
the impossible,
perform
times a night, "
cannot be satisfied
with less than five
"I am in a very awkward position
the woman.
complained
to me without
for no case can be brought
my having to
the other
undertake
sacrifice
myself,
and I therefore
the pious judge.
Ibid.,.
two times, " pronounced
p. 93).
S) Muhd

22.

30.

was saying,
"0 brethren:
to God, "
T) A narrator
give thanks
But they asked if there was any specific
and they gave.
"Give thanks,
because the angels
reason for doing so.
do not excrete,
for if the did they would shit
on us

and make our clothes

21,

vol. 'IV, 'p.

III,

p.

319.

They asked, "Why? "


"Moses was meddlesome. "
hand,
was said to him, 'What is in your right
"and the answer was that he
man replied,
' but he proceeded with
'This is my stick,
Ibid.,.
not need to speak about. "
p. 93).

vol.

Is p. 1350 aid-Xoran,

20: 18.,

her husband to a judge and complained,


T) A woman brought
"This
and does
man is my husband and, he is. a pederast
" said the man.
not make love to me. " "I an impotent,
"Give me your genital
"He is lying, " claimed
the wife.
The man did soy and
organ to examine, " said the judge.
the judge was playing
with it,
and as the judge was very
did not rise,
thus his genital
ugly,
and became even more
flaccid.
"If
a man with an erection
sees your face he
becomes flaccid.
Give it to your
hulm, " said the woman.
h ul. m. He gave it to him, and
The judge had a handsome
"Give the arrow to the archer, "
it was erected
very soon.
"0 rascal:
the woman.
take your wife and get
exclaimed
towards the judge's
"
hems,
out and give up your desires
Ibid.,
said the judge.
p. 93).

S) Muh art,

vol.

I.

p. 201; Nihyat,

vol.

IV,

p. 20.

256

24.

T) A deaf man was praying


breath was
and a man with foul
When the imAm finished
the prayer,
the
at his side.
former
"I suppose the imAm made a
said to the latter,
don't
mistake. " "Yes, I guess he farted,
you notice
the smell, " replied
the deaf man. (Ibid.,.
p. 94).
S) Muhdart,,

25.

vol.

29.

III0
text is not clear.
'Ubaid's
p. 291.
is better-worded:
contrary
at a woman, "Why are you looking
at
to be erected,
causes your genital
and
takes advantage, " said the woman.

vol.

IV9 p. 706.

On seeing his counters tct


T) A man looked into a well.
he came back to his mother and said:
"0 mam: there is
in the well. " His mother came close to the '
a thief
"I swear by God that
well and looked down, and said:
(Ibid.,
him
bitch.
there is a thief,
"
a
and with
p. 94).
S) riuhj

28.

291.

"How many tricks


T They asked a fox:
do you know to save
you from dogs? " "More than a thousand, and the best one
the
is that neither I see him, nor he sees me, " replied
fox, (mid.,
p. 94).
S) rfuhdart,

27.

p.

T) A man looked into a courtyard and saw a beautiful


woman. The woman said, "Do not look, because although
it is another person who makes love. "
your genital
rises,
(Ibid.,
P. 94).

S) Kuhdart,
vol.
Rghib's
on the
A man looked
(something
which
another
person

26.

III,

art,

vol.

IV,

p.

706;

Nihvat,

vol.

IV,

p.

16.

T) They saw a shaikh who was violating


a she-ass which was
farting
the shaikh
throughout,
to give
continued
while
thanks to God.
They reproached
him for his conduct.
"Why should I not thank God for a penis which can produce
from a she-ass,
such farts
and me a an of ninety
years? "
(Ibid.,
the
replied
shaikh,
p. 94).
III,

257;

S) Muhda,

vol.

T) A man said
understand
not ask my
the woman.

to a woman, "I wish to taste you in order to


"Why do you
which is sweeter:
you, or air wife? "
husband who has tasted
me and your wife? " replied
(Ibid.,,
p. 95).

S) Muhda
rt,

vol.

III,

p.

Nihyat,

p. 271; Nihyat,

vol.

vol.

IV,

IV,

p.

20.

p. 20.

257

30.

"I saw my daughter


T) A man came to a governor
complaining,
her
hg
ulms, while he was violating
under one of your
from behind. " The governor
summoned him and asked what
to Tabaristn
"They brought
me from Turki stin
was that.
Then, the other man who
and violated
me from behind.
Then they brought
bought me did the same.
me to you,
Thus, I could
me in the same manner.
and you violated
hardly
action, " said
suppose that it is an unlawful
Ibid.,
hulam.
the
p. 95).

5) Pludart,
31.

262.

IVY p. 21.

vol.

'Uyn,

vol.

IV9

p.

101.

T) A man protested
saying,
against a dancing slave girl
"Is there any art in your hands? " "No, but the art
(Ibid.,
the dancer'
is in my feet, " replied
p. 96).
S) 'u-vu-n, vol.

35.

p.

T) A woman farted on her wedding night,


and became ashamed
"because
the
husband,
"
"Do
said
not
and wept.
weep,
the bride's
fart is an indication
of abundance. " "Then
"Noy because the
can I fart one more?" asked the bride.
for more than one, " replied
has not capacity
granary
(Ibid.,
the husband
p.
-95).
.
S)

34,

III,

vol.

95).

that the secrets


"How is it
T) They said to a pederast:
of
but yours
the thief
remain hidden,
and the adulterer
" "How should not a man
become disclosed
and. celebrated?
is with the
be celebrated
whose secret
and disgraced
(Ibid..,
"
the
pederast.
p. 95).
youth?
replied

S) Nihyat,

33,

p. 268.

"How
They asked hin,
T) A nobleman bought a slave girl.
did you find her? " "She has two qualities
of Paradise:
Ibid.,
the
"
p.
replied
nobleman.
coolness
and wideness,
S) Muhda rt,

32.

III,

vol.

IV,

p. 111.

but he returned
disappointed.
T) A nomad travelled,
did you make from your
asked him, "What benefit
from our journey
"We did not take any advantage

for

shortening

S) Akhbr al-Zi rf,

our prayer, " replied


p. 71.

See also p.

They
journey?
except

the nomad. (Ibid.,


197 of this

"

p. 96).

thesis.

258

36.

to Abu 'l-'Ayn'
T) A man complained
about his own wife.
"Do you wish her-to
die? " asked Abu '1-'Ayn'.
When
the complainer
that he would not, Abu 'l-'Ayn'
replied
that he was
then asked him why not, in view of the fact
tormented
that if his wife
by her.
The man replied
(Ibid.,
died,
he too would die of sheer happiness.
p. 97).
S) Akhbr

37.

al-Zirif,

p.

82.

See also

"Is it
T) They asked Abu '1-HArith,
*man
of eighty?
could be born to a

p.

67 of

possible
"
"Yes,

this

thesis.

that
a son
as long as

Abu '1-Hrith.
he has a neighbour of twenty years, " replied
Ibid.,
p. 97).
S) 'Uyun, vol. IV, p. 122. See also p. 64 of this thesis.
38.

"I saw a slave girl


T) Abu '1-'Ayn'
with a slave
said,
dealer,
by God that she would never come back
swearing
10 sir:
to her owner.
I asked her about her swearing.
to
he violates
me when I stand to pray or when I sit
(ta'wid
for
he
insults
me
any pronunciation
pray,
and
the Koran wrongly.
Moreover,
recites
while he himself
in
he fasts
Mondays and Thursdays,
and breaks fast
Ramadn. I" (Ibid.,
p. 97)..

S) Muhdar t, vol.
39.

vol.

III9

p. 288.

his visit.
T) A tedious
a sick man and prolonged
an visited
" said the
"I am suffering
very much from my visitors,
"In that
case let me go and close the door, "
sick man.
"Yes, but from the outside, " replied
said the visitor.
the sick man, (Ibid.,
p. 97).
S) Muhdar

41,

p. 212.

T) A man with foul breath came to a physician


complaining
The physician
opened his mouth. His
of his toothache.
"This is not
mouth gave out an extremely foul odour.
my business,
you have to go to the dustmen, " said the
(Ibid.,
physician,
p. 97).
S) Muhdart,

40.

I.

t,

vol.

II,

p.

439.

T) A group of friends
accompanied each other on a journey
and a parasite
was among them. Each of them intended to
One said,
share in the expenses by paying for something.
"I will buy the bread, " and "I will
buy the sweetmeats, "
"What do
was silent.
said another, while the parasite
"Only the curse
you want to provide? " they asked him.
[of God], " replied
the parasite.
They all laughed and
(Ibid.,
him
from
paying,
p. 97).
exempted

s) LLuh5dart,vol.

III,

p. 227.

of ..

259

42.

that
to Mu'tasim
T) They brought
a person who was claiming
"I witness
that you are a foolish
he was a prophet.
"I have not come except to
prophet, " said the caliph.
(Ibid.,
"
the
foolish
like
mangy
you,
replied
people
p. 98).
S) Nihyat,

43,

vol.

Risas

T) A tedious
want

S) M aa%

47.

only

t,

III,

vol.

p. 193.

III,

vol.

p. 323; Nihyat,

man asked a sick


not

vol.

to

man:

see you, " replied

III9

vol.

II,

p.. 665.

"What do you desire? "


the

sick

(Ibid.,
man.

"I
p.

98).

p. 31.

vol.

III,

p.

323.

"What has remained with you from the


T) They asked a man:
"Just
"
the saliva, " replied
the man.
instruments?
marriage
(Ibid.,
p" 98)"

S) Muha art,
49,

219.

T) Once Muzabbid said to his wife, "Let me come on your hip. "
[wife]
to my vulva,
"I am not able to make my hip a rival
(Ibid.,
"
the
replied
wife.
p. 98).
with their close neighbourhood,
S) Muhdaxt,

48.

p.

al-Anbiy',

"Bring
T) A man said to his
me the dish,
and lock
ulm:
I should lock the
"But wisdom is that first
the door. "
h
the
door and then bring you the dish, " replied
ulm.
"Go free,
because you are familiar
with the conditions
(I_.,
"
the
p., 98).
man.
of prudence,
said

S) Muhdargt.

46,

15.

them to the market.


T) A man stole
and brought
some clothes
When he was coming back,
But they stole
it from him.
did you sell
the
somebody asked him, "At what price
the
"Just
for the purchase price, " replied
clothes? "
(Ibid.,
thief.
p. 98).

S) Muhdart,

45,

p.

"Last
I saw you in my dream
T) A person said to Aajjj,
night
" "If
your dream is right,
as if you were in Paradise.
in the world, " replied
ruthlessness
must have increased
Hajjj:
-(Ibid.,
p. 98).
S) Thalilibi,

44.

IV,

vol.

III,

p. 258.

"A certain
T) A woman said:
man violated
in my vulva a treasure
of
was seeking
(Ibid.,
p. 98).

S) Muhdart,

vol.

III,

p. 264.

me as though
the Jahiliyya.

he
"

260

50.

"What is the rumbling


T) A an asked a ph sician:
of the
stomach
which is not yet matured, "
ar ara)? " "A fart
(Ibid.,
the
p.. 98).
replied
physician<
Here "baid has shortened
the
III,
S) Muhdarit,
p. 275.
vol.
Rghib's
A man said to a
own version
reads:
anecdote.
"There is ma'ma$ and Qargara in my stomach. "
physician:
"I have no idea about magma', but the Qaraara is a fart
the physician.
which is not yet matured, " replied

51,

her husband to the judge complaining


T) A woman brought
of
The judge prescribed
ten
his numerous copulations.
her to give me in advance
times every night.
"But tell
of the other night
when I would need its"
of the turns
the court,
the husband,
when he was leaving
petitioned
his request.
But three days
and the wife accepted
'0 judge:
later
she came back to the judge and said:
because he has taken
help'. me, I have lost
my patience,
five
nights'
advance in three nights. " Ibid.,
p. 99).
S) Mub 4aara_t, vol.

52.

T) A bald man
me because
"I am going
(Ibid.,
p.

III,

p.

268.0

said to a scabby man: "What is the matter with


I see you in full
armour without a helmet? "
to borrow it from you, " said the scabby man.
99).

the
has
336.
"Ubaid
III,
S) Ruhdart,
extended
p.
vol.
A bald man told another
tale.
Rghib's
reads:
version
"I suppose you
man in whom he had seen a lot of scab:
have worn a cuirass
a helmet. "
without

53,

in a mirror
T) An ugly-faced
at his ugly
man was looking
be to God who created
"Praise
me
countenance
and said:
" A servant
close
was standing
and made me so beautiful.
Then the servant
to him and he heard his words.
went
"He is at
out, and somebody asked him about his master.

home lying
S) Muhdart,

to God the Almighty,


vol.

III,

p. 283.

" said

(Ibid.,

the servant.

'tTbaid has changed the last

Here is Rghib's
part of the anecdote.
version:
" An
be to God who has created
me so well-shaped.

"...

Praise

"The mother of the


hearing this exclaimed:
effeminate
person who caluminates God is a harlot: "
54.

"I remained
for a while
T) Ab Yazd
without
a woman
said:
Then I found one, and
who should meet my sexual needs.
I said:
having done my purpose gradually,
"relay I
after
to withdraw? "
have your permission
She said,
"A fly
sat
Then it asked the tree if it could fly
on a date-palm.
'I did not feel your sitting,
now how can I underaway,
' said the date-palm.
"
Ibid.,
stand your flight,
p. 100).

S) riuhdart,

vol.

III,

p. 263.

p.. 99).

See also

p. 68 of this

thesis.

261

55.

T) Al-Rashid
went out for a walk in the garden and Ja'far,
the Barmakid,
They saw an old man mounted
was with him.
Al-Rashid
on a donkey whose eyes were moist.
winked at
Ja'far,
that he wanted to mock the old man:
indicating
"To a
"Where are you going,
old man?" asked al-Rashid.
certain
place to do a job which is none of your business, "
"May I suggest a remedy which cures your
he replied.
"I have no need of your remedy, "
eyes? " asked al-Rashid.
"But you urgently
the old man.
need it, " said
replied
"Take the wood of the air and the dust of the
al-Rashid,
in a walnut
and mix them all
water and mashed truffles,
soon cure
shell
and put it on your eyes, then it will
The old man said
this
moistness, " said the caliph.
but leaned forward
on his donkey, and broke a
nothing,
"This is the reward of your skill,
long fart
and
saying,
if we take further
of your remedy, we will
advantage
(Ibid.,
".
increase
p. 100).
your reward!
S) Muhdart,
to 'Ubdat

RAghib
II,
vol.
p. 437.
See also
al-Mukhannath.

the anecdote
attributes
Akhbgr al-Zi rfP

p. 41.
56.

T) A big-nosed
a woman, and said to her, "You
man married
do not Imow how noble I am, and that I an a sociable
and
"
"I have no doubt about
forbearing
man in disasters.
this
with your carrying
your nobility
and forbearance

big nose for


S) M Ajart,

forty

years, " replied

II.
1.

2.

vol.

IV,

p. 100).

Persian

T) They asked an old woman, "Do you prefer


"I cannot cope with the rustics,
a. p..? "
(bim
the oldmomaa.
p. 102).
S) Nihyat,

bid.,

p. 284.

III,

vol.

the woman

p.

a village
" replied

or

20.

T) In Qum they were beating a man whose name was $Umrn.


"Since he is not 'Umar, why are you beating him? " asked
someone. "Not only is he 'Umar, he has got an extra
Ibid.,
and nn from 'Uthmn's name, " they replied.
alif
p. 106).
S) Muhida rt, vol. IV, p. 481.
'Ubaid presumably has changed
QazwIn to Qum, for the beginning of the
"In
story reads:
Qazwin, there is a village
whose inhabitants
are extreme
"
Shi'ites
...

262

3.

T) A mu'adhdhin
to prayer
while he was running.
was calling
"Why are you running? " they asked him.
"Because they
therefore
I
say my voice is nice from a far distance,
am running
so that I may hear my voice from a far
distance.
"
Ibid.,
p. 107).
S) Akhbr

4.

5.

p.

72.

T)

Sultan Mahmd saw a feeble


old man who was carrying
a
knapsack
Having pity
of thistles.
on him, the Sultan
asked him, "Do you want me to give you some items so
that you may be rid of this
hardship:
a few dinirs,
"Give me gold that.
an ass, a few sheep, or a garden? "
I may put it in my pocket,
give me the ass to mount,
in front
give me the sheep to drive
of me, and give me
the garden to rest and pray in the remaining
days of
" The Sultan
my life,
under your protection.
was
by his speech and commanded it to be so.
pleased
Ibid.,
p. 108).

S)

III,
'U 'n, vol.
pp. 57-8;
p. 128; Tabagat al-Shu'arl,
Muhidart,
II,
'Ubaid has changed the
vol.
pp. 547-8.
characters.
In all these sources
the personalities
Mahds the caliph.
are Ab D ulraand

"I feel
T) An Ardabili
sick,
said to a physician:
what
do you suggest as a remedy? " Feeling
his pulse,
the
"Your remedy is to make a broth
physician
said,
of five
fat
hens mixed with a flavoured
in
male lamb boiled
"You are a
saffron
and eat it with honey, and vomit: "
if
another
wise
man,
mawln;
person eats and
-really
it,
I will
immediately
the sick
vomits
eat it, " replied
Ibid.,
man.
p. 109).

S)

6.

f,

al-Zi`

MAdLErt,
tale.

vol.

II,

p. 436.

'Ubaid

has developed

the

T) Once Sultan IMiahmdwas angry.


Talkhak wanted to bring
him out of his mood. "0 Sultan: what was your father's
Being offended with him, the
name?" asked Talkhak.
Sultan turned away, but Talkhak again went in front of
him and repeated his question.
"0 man: what is your
business with that dog? " replied
the Sultan.
"Your
father's
name is understood,
now what is your grandfather's
Hearing this the Sultan laughed.
name?" asked Talkhak.
(Ibid.,
p. 111).
S) -ami,

Fihi

mA fihi,

p.

24.

263
7.

in front
T) A woman was claiming
of Wthiq the
prophethood
"Vas Muhammad a prophet? " asked the caliph.
caliph.
"Yes, he was, " said the woman.
"He has declared
that
there would be no prophet
him, therefore
after
your claim
'no prophet',
"But he said,
is false, " said the caliph.
" said the woman Ibid.,
not prophetess,
p. 112).

S) al-'IQd,
8.

4Uyn" vol.

pp. 14-15.

IV,

p. 122; rluhaart

vol.

Is p. 353.

p. 288;
a4art, vol.
vol. III,
to
egg-plant.
has changed wine

II,

p. 682.

T) A Qazwini had lost his donkey and was wandering


around
"Why are you giving
the city,
thanks to God.
giving
"Because I was not mounted on
thanks? " they asked him.
my donkey,
and if I had been, I would have been lost
he.
Ibid.,
for four days, " replied
pp. 116-117).
S) Akhbr

11.

IV,

for Sultan
Mahmd when
T) They brought
a dish of egg-plant
"Egg-plant
is a
he was hungry.
Being pleased he said,
delicious
food. " A boon companion began a long speech
in praise
But when the Sultan
of the egg-plant.
was full,
thing. " The boon
"Egg-plant
he said,
is really
a harmful
detriment.
speech to its
companion uttered
an exaggerated
it a short
"0 fool:
time ago? " said
were you not praising
the Sultan.
"Yes, but I am your boon companion,
not the
ou,
which pleases
eggs-plant's,
and I must say something
(Ibid.,
"
the
the
man.
p. 113).
not
replied
egg-plant,

S) 'yn,
'tbaid
10,

vol.

three months she


T) A carpenter
a woman. After
married
"Which name do
They asked his father,
produced
a son.
in just
for him? " "Because of his production
you prefer
three months you had better
name him ambassador's
courier,
(Ibid.,
the
father.
replied
p. 113).

s)
9.

p. 163; Nihvat,

VII,

vol.

al- Urf,

p.

53.

T) A man wanted to blow on the fire;


a wind came out of
his backside.
He immediately
turned
his back toward
the fireplace
"If
you are in a hurry,
saying,
will
you
(Ibid.,
do
".
it?
p. 117).
please

S) Rml, Mathnawi, Book III,


action to a flutist.

p. 492.

Mimi attributes

the

"

264
12.

There was a girl


T) A beggar came to the door of a house.
"We
The beggar granted a piece of bread.
in the house.
"
"A piece
the girl.
have no bread, " replied
of fire-wood,
" replied
"We have no fire-wood,
the
asked the beggar.
"We have no water, "
"A glass of water, " he asked.
girl.
"Where is your mother? " asked the
the girl.
replied
"
"She has gone to condole with some relatives,
beggar.
"But from what I see of your house,
the girl.
replied
ten relatives
ought to come to condole with you, "
Ibid.,
the beggar.
p. 120).
replied

S) Jhi;,
13.

al-Bavn,

II,

p. 403; Nihvat,

IV,

vol.

vol.

I4,

p. 707.

See also

p. 182 of this

S)

III,
'Uyun,
vol.
p.
also p. 206 of this

32; Muha. art,


thesis.

vol.

I,

p.

judge
for you
an

201.

See

They
T) Some watchmen passed-a drunk Qazwini at night.
caught him saying, "Stand up, we want to take you to
I would go to my on
prison. " "But if I could walk (Ibid.,
house, " replied
the Qazwini.
p. 122).
S) Rmi,

16.

thesis.

T) It is said that there was a woman with very pretty eyes.


Once she went to the judge complaining of her husband.
Being attracted
The judge, however, was a whore-monger.
by her eyes and lusting
after the rest of her body, he
the reason
supported her case.. When the husband realised
for the bias, he pulled his wife's
veil,
revealing
a
Seeing her face,
the
face that was loathsome-.
"Woman:
Rise and depart,
was dismayed and said,
have the eyes of one oppressed,
and the face of
"
Ibid.,
oppressor.
p. 121).

15.

p. 32.

bang (henbane)
in a mosque.
T) A man of Shiraz was boiling
The servant
of the mosque seeing him began to abuse him.
that he
looked at him, and observing
The man of Shiraz
he yelled
at him, "0 man!
was lame, bald and blind,
that you should
God has not showed you so much kindness
Ibid.,
be so fanatical
p. 120).
about His house. "

S) Muhdarit,
14.

vol.

Mathnawi,

Book II,

p. -107.

T) Mawlini Qutb al Din visited


a nobleman who was sick, and
asked him, "What trouble have you got? " "I have got a
fever, " replied
the nobleman, "and my neck is aching;
but thanks to God since two or three days my fever has
broken, although my neck is still
aching. " "Be hopeful
break in two days, " said Qutb
that the other also will
(Ibid.,
al-Din.
p. 123).
S) MuhdaN
rt,

vol.

II,

p. 414 and vol.

II,

p. 441.

265

17.

He had an Indian
hulm
T) A noble man went on a journey.
When he came back, the lady had produced
in his house.
Putting
boys.
two blackish
one of them on his shoulder,
behind him, the
hulm went out
and the other running
boy? " asked the lord.
"Whose is this
to welcome his lord.
"
"This
is surprising,
the
"The lady's, " replied
ulm.
"But this
boy who is behind me is more
said the lord.
(Ibid.,
)
124.
the
h
"
p.
ulm.
replied
surprising,
S) MuhAdart,

18.

III,

p.

272.

"What is the name of Iblis'


T) A person asked a preacher,
the pracher
him nearer,
whispered,
wife? " Calling
"0 cuckold:
how should I know-her
name? " When the man
they asked him what the
to the congregation,
returned
Mawln said. *"Everybody
must ask
who is interested
(Ibid.,
"
the
Mawln personally,
p. 124).
man replied.
S) adart,
al-Mawardi,
p. 9,11 of

19,

vol.

I, p. 136; Akhbr al-Zig,


p. 26;
vol.
See also
Adab al Duny wa-', 1-Din,
p. 213.
thesis.
this

"Where
T) A man wanted to pray in the house of a Qazwinl.
"I have been here
is the 4ibla? " he asked the Qazwini.
for two years, how can I know the real position
of the.
125).
Ibid.,
"
Qazwini.
the
p.
replied
cgibla?
S) Akhbr al-Zi rf, pp. 43-44.
(the fool) to the Qazxi.ni.

20,

sUbaid has changed mughaffal

(in his prayer)


T) A Bedouin followed
an im im. who recited
"The Arabs are extremists
the verse:
the al Ftita,
after
the naive
": Hearing
this,
in blasphemy and hypocrisy.

man was upset, and struck the imm's neck with a severe
blow.
At the second part of his prayer, the imm recited
after the Ftiha the verse " ... From the Arabs there are
" 2
people who believe in God and the day of Resurrection.
"0 cuckold: the slap improved you: " said the Bedouin.

s) Muh
21.

1.
2.

rt,

vol.

Is p. 140.

T) A poet saw a man in a mosque who was violating


a boy.
the man saying, "Are you not ashamed of
He insulted
The man escaped by some
pederasty in God's house? "
Afterf'a
means or other.
while when he looked at the
he saw that the poet himself
mosque from a loophole,

Koran,
Koran,

9: 97.
9: 99.

266

He returned
a boy.
was violating
that and what is this? " "Haven't
for the poet that
are permissible
)
(Ibid.,
125-26.
pp.

and asked, "What was


'things
you heard that
are not so for others'?

"

669-700.
322;
Ham
III,
San'i,
S) MuhdaM
pp.
p.
rt,
vol.
'Ubaid
has presumably
changed the last
part of the story
in order to parody the famous rule which is long since
for
are permissible
adopted among the poets that "things
the poet which are not so for others",
which includes
disregarding
grammar if necessary
. See Taftzni,
Mu awwal
under tarkhltit
al-shu'ar'
pp. 191-194,
permissions
for the poets).

22.

the physician:
T) The ruler
of Nishibr
said to Shams al-in
"You
food, what should I do? "
"I an unable to digest
the physician.
have to eat di
sted things, " replied
(Ibid.,
p. 126
S)

23.

T) Mawln 'Adud al -Din sent a go-between to a lady to ask


her hand in marriage.
"I hear rumours about his being
I
do
to
thus
be
not
wish
a
pederast,
a fornicator
and
his wife, " said the lady.
They reported this to Mawln.
In. replying
to her, Mawlini sent the following
words to
"Tell her, I can repent from
her through his. go-between:
fornication,
but to avoid pederasty depends on the khtn's
Ibid.,
p. 126).
generosity
and kindness. "
S)

24.

I was unable to identify


II,
i Mart,
p. 436.
vol.
Shams
it seems that he is an imaginary
character.
al-Din,
"A sick man
too reads simply:
Rghib's
version
"
to a physician
complained
...

In these
IV, p. 11.
IV, p. 37; Nihsat,
" "n, vol.
vol.
begins simply with "A man sent a
two books the story
"
go-between
...

"How
T) A deformed glutton was present at Yazid's table.
"I have got
many are in your family? " asked the caliph.
the man. "Who is more beautiful:
nine daughters, " replied
"I swear by God
your daughters or you? " asked Yazid.
that I am more beautiful
and they are more gluttonous, "
(Ibid.,
deformed
the
man.
p. 128).
replied
S) 'Uyn,

25.

vol.

T) A person
caliph.
miracle
it is in
claimant.
S) Nihyat,

III,

p. 128.

and they brought him to the


claimed prophethood,
"What is your miracle? " asked the caliph.
"My
is that what is in your heart is known to me;
your heart, now, that I am lying, " said the
(Ibid.,
p. 128).
vol.

IVY p.

15.

267

26.

T) A merchant had a beautiful


He
wife named Zuhrah.
to go on a journey.
He made a white dress for
resolved
his wife and gave a pot of indigo
to his servant
and
"When you see any improper
from her, pour
said,
action
blue on her dress,
if you are
a little
of this
so that
be clear
absent when I come back, her behaviour
will

to me."

After

a while

his

master wrote

to him:

I hope that Zuhrah does not commit any shameful


action,
And there will
be no sign of blue on her dress;
His servant
wrote back:
If there will
be any more delay in my lord's
return
When he comes back, Zuhrah will
have become a leopard. "
(Ibid.,
p. 128).

'Uvn"
vol.
-S)
27,

III,

p. 110.

'Ubaid has developed

T) Talkhak
"I had a dream, in which the first
said,
part
but the second did not. " Then they asked
came true,
the nature
"I dreamt that I
of his dream, he replied,
was carrying
a sack of treasure
on my back, then
defecated
on my robe, due to the great weight
of my
burden.
When I awoke I discovered
the evidence
of my
incontinence
but no sign of the treasure.
"
Ibid.,
p.

S) al-'Igd,
vol. VIII,
p. 142. Here,
to Talkhak.
See pp. 60-61 of this
.
28.

al-Zirf,

has changed Ash'ab

p. 30.

T) Talkhak wanted to commit adultery


with a woman, and the
"Tonight
is Friday
woman was not satisified,
saying,
the punishment
they write
night
and tonight
of sins in
duplicate
"Then we will
that
suppose
we committed
."
twice on Saturday
Talkhak.
adultery
night, " replied
).
Ibid.,
133
p.

S) Niuhdart, vol. IV, p. 425.


structure
the
of this tale.
30.

'IJbaid
thesis.

132).

T) There was enmity between a headman (of a village)


and a
Suddenly the headman died.
When they buried
preacher.
him, they asked the preacher to say incc nnka c
on his
tomb. "You should ask this from another person, because
he hears my words grudgefully,
" replied
the preacher.
(Ibid.,
p. 132).
S) Akhbr

29.

the tale.

'Ubaid

has slightly

changed

T) A Qazwini was complaining:


"They have stolen my weightstone which was one hundred dirhams. " "Look carefully,
it may be on the scale, " they said.
"But they have stolen
(Ibid.,
the scale too, " replied
the Qazwini.
p. 134).
S) 14ka:

art,

vol.

III,,

p. 193.

268

31.

"Why does war occur


Mahmd asked Talkhak,
T) Sultan
between people? " "0 Sultan:
you should not see and
[such
"0 rascal:
" replied
dirt]!
Talkhak.
what
eat
do you mean by talking
such rubbish? " asked the Sultan.
For a person
"Yes, it occurs in the very same manner.
that is talks
and the other answers
rubbish,
eats dirt,
the witty
is fighting,
" replied
back, and the result
man.
(Ibid.,
p. 134).
III,
'Ubaid has added his
S) TLiuhdart, vol.
p. 178.
for in RghibIs
to the anecdote,
version
characters
"
reads, "A person asked another
...

32.

"It
that you
T) Talkhak's
was your fault
mule was stolen.
did not take care, " said one man. "It
was the groom's
for he left
the door of the stable
fault
open, " said
the thief
"Was therefore
not guilty? " asked
another,
(Ibid.,
Talkhak.
p. 134).

S) Muhda,
33.

vol.

p. 193.

p. 134).

S) Akhbr al-Zi rf,,

p. 91.

The Turk was


T) A tailor
a cloak for a Turk.
was cutting
that the tailor
a
confident
would not be able to steal
broke such
the tailor
Suddenly
piece of his cloth.
fell
help
laughing,
that
the
Turk
on
not
and
could
wind
took what
the tailor
his back.
Taking the opportunity,
the tailor
to
he wanted.
The Turk got up and requested
"That would not be wise,
for
repeat
such an exploit.
" said the tailor.
the cloak would become too tight,
Ibid.,
p. 135).

S) Akhbr al-Zi rf,


pp. 592-593.
35.

III,

T) A person had a guest sleep on the ground floor


of his
he heard the sound of the
house.
However at midnight
"What are you
laughter
coining from upstairs.
guest's
"I have rolled
in icy
doing there? " asked the host.
"But people rolY
dream, " replied
the guest.
downwards, why have you rolled
upwards? " asked the host.
the guest.
"That's
why I was laughing, " replied

Ibid.,

34.

own
it

p. 88.

See also Rm1, Mathnawi,

Book VIA

T) A woman said to a man who was lingering


while copulating,
"Hurry up because I am extremely bored. " "Had your vulva
tighter
I would have finished
been a little
long ago, "
Ibid.,
the man.
p. 135).
replied
S) Muhdart,

vol.

III9

p. 263.

269

36.

T) An effeminate
the hair of his face.
They
was plucking
on
from
doing
him
"Why
I
leave
prevented
so.
should
air
face what you do not leave on your backside? " asked
(Ibid.,
the effeminate.
p. 135).
S) Muhdarat,

37.

T)

T) Once a dog bit al-Muzabbid.


"If
you want the wound to
be cured,
you should feed that dog with broth, " they
"Then, every dog in the world would come
said to him.
(Ibid.,
bite
"
and
me,
replied
al-Muzabbid.
p. 136).

S) Akhbr

a1 t

232;

p.

'

zn,

vol.

III,

277.

p.

vol.

III,

p.

Akhbr

137;

al-Zirf,

p.

89.

p. 137).
al-4irf,

p.

91.

T) A person was claiming


that his
them with Koranic
was treating
"You should add some ointment
(Ibid.,
Talkhak.
p. 137).
S) Muhdart,

42.

VII,

T) They had stolen


Talkhak's
shoes from the mosque and had
thrown them into *a church.
"Praise
be to God!
I am a
Muslim and my shoes are"Christians,
" said Talkhak.

Ibid.,

41.

vol.

T) A man shot an arrow towards a bird, but it went the wrong


"Are you mocking me?"
way. "Well done! " said his friend.
"No. I say well done to the bird not
asked the archer.
(Ibid.,
to you, " replied
the friend.
p. 137).
S) Ma

40.

p. 277.

III,

vol.

S) al-'IQd,

39,

315.

p.

Once they seized al-Muzabbid


him that he was
accusing
drunk.
But they could not notice
any smell of wine
from his mouth.
"Vomit! " they told him.
"Then who
(Ibid.,
dinner?
"
guarantees
asked al-Muzabbid.
my
p. 136).

S) 'Uvn,
38.

III,

vol.

vol.

II,

p.

436;

eyes were aching and he


verses and prayers.
to them, " said
anzarut

Akhbr

al-Zirf,

p.

55.

T) A person was hiring


a hulm for the price
of his food,,
the
that
h
and insisted
ulm ought to give him a discount.
"0 my lord,
I know no other way except to fast
on Monday
hu1m.
Ibid.,
and Thursday every week, " said the
p. 137).
s)

Muhdart,
II,
vol.
w--Din,
p. 201.

p.

469;

al-Mwardi,

Adab al Duny

270

43.

T) A person had rented a house in which the roof timbers


to strengthen
them.
He asked the landlord
were weak.
to God, " replied
the
"The timbers
are merely praying
But I fear that they
"That is very good.
landlord.
us: " answered the tenant.
may proceed to prostrate
Ibid.,
pp. 137-138).
S) Akhbr

44.

S) Nihyat,
to Qutb

vol.
al Din.

p.

26.

'Ubaid

has changed

vol.

IV,

"an

effeminate"

p. 720.

"Where is the shop of


T) A woman asked Talkhak,
" replied
trousers,
" "In ay lady's
fectioner?
(Ibid.,
p. 142).
III,

p.

271.

Rghib

the conTalkhak.

attributes

the

nAdira

T) A woman who had buried her two previous husbands was


crying on the death-bed of her third husband,
saying:
cuckold,
S) Muh.dart,

48.

IV,

"Who is the
T) Hrn asked Buhll,
an you most admire? "
"If
I
"The person who fills
my belly, " he replied.
Buhlal
fill
it,
you admire me?" asked the caliph.
will
but you cannot obtain
"Perhaps,
on
admiration
replied,
(Ibid.,
"
p. 142).
credit.

S) Muhdart,
vol.
to Abu '1-'Ayn'.

47.

pp. 138-139).

Ibid.,

S) riuh art,
46,

89.

T) Mawlin Qutb al Din


someone in his madrasa
was violating
(hujra).
"What
Suddenly a person opened the door.
cell
"Nothing,
I wished a place
do you want? " asked Mawln.
the man. "Are
I can perform
my prayers, " replied
wherein
MawlAn, "do you not see that it is so
you blind? " yelled
narrow in here that we have to sleep on top of each

other? "

45.

p.

al-7Zirf,

"To the
"To whom do you entrust
me?"
(Ibid.,
" replied
the
p. 142).
man.
vol.

III9

p.

fourth

22.

T) They asked Satan, "Which group do you like


most? " "The
"Because
"Why? " they asked.
brokers, " he replied.
lies,
they have
I was satisfied
with their
although
Ibid.,
" replied
Satan.
p. 144).
added perjury,

S) Muhda
rt, vol.
to
al-AgmA'i.

II,

p. 473.

Rghib attributes

the story

271

49,

T) Someone wanted to
have a horse,
but
"Is
the friend..
horse? " asked the
horse,
this
pretext
(Ibid.,
p. 144).

3) al-Jhiz,
50.

al-Bayn,

p. 189.

Muhdart,
Book II,
p.

vol.
174.

II,

T) A grammarian
and he asked the
was on board ship,
"No, " he replied.
"Have you read syntax? "
captain,
" said the
"Then you have wasted half
of your life,
The next day there was a strong wind,
and
grammarian.
"Do you know how
the ship was on the point
of sinking.
"No, "
to swim? " asked the captain
of the grammarian.
"In this
the grammarian.
case
you have wasted
replied
" said the captain.
Ibid.,
life,
p. 145).
your entire

Book II,

pp. 181-182.

T) A pederast
youth for a few dinars.
a beardless
persuaded
But when they began, the boy found out the man's penis
"Either
let me
and did not accept it.
was too big,
the caliph, " said
do my work, or I will
abuse Muliwiya
in the face of injury
the pederast.
"Fortitude
of the
than hearing
abuse of the Amir
penis is simpler
the action
" Then he submitted,
and during
al-Mu"minin.
is little
"0 God! this
in support
he was saying,
of
0 God! I sacrificed
friend.
to
myself
your beloved
so you help me to be patient.
abuse of Mu'wiya,
prevent
)
145-146.
Ibid.,
pp.

S) Mui
53.

II,

(Bulq);
37
XI,
p.
vol.
See also Rumi, Mathnawi,

S) Rmi, Mathnawt
52,

vol.

A poor
T) Once they were carrying
a corpse along a road.
The son asked
son.
with his little
man was standing
"A human being, "
his father,
"'What is in this
coffin? "
"Where are they carrying
him? "
the father.
replied
"To a place where there is no
asked the boy again.
food,
no clothes,
no bread,
no drink,
no
no firewood,
no gold and no carpets. " "So, are they
silver,
(Ibid.,
"
the
house?
boy.
him
to
our
said
carrying
p. 144).
S) al-Aghgni,
p. 506.

51..

borrow a horse from a. friend.


"I do
it is black, " replied
unfortunately
to mount on a black
it not possible
"As I am. not giving
former.
you my
" replied
the latter.
will
suffice,

art,

vol.

III,

p. 247.

T) A person saw in the passage-way of his own house another


He cried and yelled,
a catamite.
man who was violating
saying, "You have no right to sodomise in my house. "

The catamite
shouting
was annoyed at his protracted
"Hey! cry no more, you can come to the
and said,
to your
of my house, and offer
your backside
passage-way
(Ibid.,
"
heart's
p. 146).
content.

"

272

S) Muhdart,
54.

vol.

III,

p. 252.

T) A king had three wives:


a Persian,
an Arab and a Copt.
he had slept
One night
next to the Persian,
and he
asked her, "What time is it? " "The morning, " she
"How do you know? " he asked.
"Because the
replied.
have risen
and sweet basil
and
smell of the flower
" she replied.
birds
he
Another
night,
are singing,
wife,
was in bed with the Arabian
and asked the same
is morning, " she said.
"It
"How do you know? "
question.
he asked her.
"Because the marbles
of my necklace
make
On the third
he
night
my chest cool, " she replied.

was with the Coptic wife, and he asked the very same
"It is morning because I have got to excrete,
question.
(Ibid.,
)
146.
p.
she replied.
S) Nfuhdart,
vol.
largely.
anecdote

55.

p.

717.

vol.

III,

has developed

the

p. 256.

"What is your opinion of a woman


T) They asked Talkhak:
her
husband,
to
the
time
says
of
copulation,
at
who,
'Alas: you have killed
me, alas I an dead'? " "Let
the husband kill
and the wife die, their sins and
blood-money I will
undertake, " replied Talkhak.
(Ibid.,
p. 148).
III,
S) MuhaWgt,
p. 266;
vol.
'Ubaid
has changed al-Sha'bl
mock-hero.

57.

' baid

T) A blind Arab was masturbating,


saying "0 Sukayma: I am
passed by him and
your devoted lover. " A libertine
dipping the tip of a stick he rubbed it in the blind
The latter
noticed its smell and changed
man's face.
his words to "0 Sukayna: why did you break wind? "
(Ibid.,
p. 148).
S) Muchaarat

56.

IV,

Akhbr al-Zirf,.
to alkhak,
his

p. 48.
favourite

He went to her
T) An Iraqi
was in love with a woman.
The woman had a
house with a he-ass and a slave-boy.
He himself
copulated
she-ass
and a slave-girl.
with
the woman; the slave-boy
made love with the slave-girl
Observing
with the she-ass.
and the he-ass copulated
"0 God: save us from the
this
scene the man exclaimed,
(Ibid.,
"
p. 148).
evil
eye.

S) dIIyn, vol.

III,

p. 102; Muhdarat,

vol.

III,

p. 272.

"

273
58.

Putting
two
to his house.
took a catamite
T) A pederast
"Lie down and let me do
dirhams in his hand he said,
"But I had heard that you take the boys to
my work. "
they may violate
you, " replied
your home in order that
is mine, and the claim
"Yes, the action
the catamite.
therefore
is theirs;
you too lie down, and say whatever
the pederast.
'
you like
when xou go out: " replied
(Ibid.,
p. 149).
S) Muhdarat,

59.

vol.

III0

p.

245.

of Hrn al-Rashid's
the following
words
need of two penises
(Ibid.,
"
p. 149).
p.

palace
were written:
than
rather

202.

his
in
to
T) A teacher
a
was
marry
woman
whose
son
wanted
the boy:
"Why did you say
The teacher
struck
school.
to your mother that your teacher's
penis was big? " The
to his mother,
what had
explaining
son complained
his proposal
the woman accepted
happened.
Shortly
after
(Ibid.,
P. 149).
of marriage.

s) Muhdarat,
61.

III,

T) A slave-girl
came out
waving ,a fan on which
"The vulva is more in
a penis to two vulvas.
S) Muhdart,

60,

vol.

vol.

III,

p. 205.

T) At the time when Ibn Sin. escaped from Hamadn for


he saw there a man
Baghdd in fear of 'A1' a1Din,
near the Shalt
who had made a great gathering

of medicine
and
a knowledge
claiming
al-'Arab,
he
the entertainment,
Enjoying
remedies.
prescribing
him a urinal,
A woman brought
and
stood for a while.
"This
looked
the pseudo-physician
at it and said:
sick man is a Jew. " Then he looked again and said,
"Yes, I am, "
ill
"You are the servant
of this
man. "
the woman. He looked at the urinal
again
replied
"This
sick man's house is on the east of
and said,
the woman.
"Yes, it is, " replied
the city. "
"Yesterday
he ate yoghurt, " said the pseudo-physician.
the woman.
The people were
"Yes, he did, " replied
knowledge.
Ibn Sing
amazed at the pseudo-physician's
he had finished
his
until
wondered and remained silent
"How did you
and asked,
work, then Ibn Sing went forward
"The same way that I recognised
make these diagnoses? "
"This
because you are Ibn Sing. "
is another
you as well,
When he insisted,
the pseudoproblem, " said Ibn Sing.
I
"When that woman showed me the urinal,
physician
said,
(a
in
of yellow
strip
cloth
worn by Jews
saw ai
ar
I understood
Persia)
that
on her sleeve.
she was a

Jew; and because her clothes were old I realised


was somebody's servant; and because of the fact
that her lord
no Jew serves a Muslim, I realised

that
that
was

she

274

was spotted
a Jew as well;
and because a drop of yoghurt
that they had eaten yoghurt
in
I realised
on her clothes,
that house and they had given a bit to the sick man, and
in the east side,
I theresince Jews' houses are located
fore realised
that her house is there too. " "I ratify
these all,
but how could you know me?" asked the
"There were today rumours that Ibn SInA
philosopher.
had escaped from 'Ala'
al-Din
and he was coming here,
I recognised
that no one but you can
and finally
" replied
the pseudounderstand
what I displayed,
(Ibid.,
pp. 150-151).
physician.
I. pp. 57-58.
S) Baihagi,
As
vol.
al-Mahsin
wal-Maswi',
to the familiar
has changed the characters
'tbaid
usual
ones.

62,

Majd al-Din-i
hib Diwan patted
T) When Khwja Bahfl' al-Din
immediately
the latter
broke wind.
Hangar's
backside,
"Why did you break wind? " asked Bahl'
Majd
al Din.
"It
is hardly
fitting
to allow
the
al Din
replied,
(Ibid.,
"
to
supplicant
p. 152).
go away empty-handed.
S) Akhllg
thesis.

63,

pp.

al-Wazirain,

T) A woman in an assembly
Gabriel's
was describing

145-6.

See also

p.

was next to her lover.


feather.
Amid this

68 of

this

The preacher
situation,

the woman put the corner of her chdur on his knee and
it had
caught his genital
organ, and when she realised
The preacher was
yelled.
she inadvertantly
risen,
"0 true lover!
Did Gabriel's
feather
pleased and said:
touch you on your heart that you sighed so. amorously? "
"I do not know about the feather
of Gabriel touching
that
or my heart, but I know for certain
my soul
Israphil's __' trumpet touched my hand, and because of that
" replied
I sighed so inadvertantly,
the woman.
Ibid.,
p. 152).
S) Rums, Mathnawi,
64.

vol.

V. p. 522.

had a cow and a she-ass with a foal.


T) A rustic
The she-ass
died.
They were giving the milk of the cow to the foal,
they had no milk.
The rustic was upset
and therefore
foal's
"0 God.' cause this
death,
and said:
so nkr family
food. "
Next
should have the milk of this
cow for their
day when he went to the stable,
he found the cow dead.
The poor man was so astounded
that he cried:
"0 God!
I meant the ass; do you not know a cow from an ass? "
Ibid.,
p. 152).

S) San'i,

Hadiga,

647.
p.

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