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You are on page 1of 3

Theory of Probability

Assignment # 2

Due Friday, October 08

your work

Q. 1)

+n

r

n

Consider a group of

size r are possible?

Hint:

n

men and

+ +

n

Solution:

The left side is the total possibilities of drawing r individuals from the

group of n men and m women. The k-th (0 k r) term on the right

hand side gives the number of possibilities that among the r individuals

drawn, k of them are men. By addition rule, the identity holds.

Q. 2)

(Ross #2.10)

a ring nor a necklace. Twenty percent wear a ring and 30 percent wear a

necklace. If one of the students is chosen randomly, what is the probability

that this student is wearing

(a) a ring or a necklace;

(b) a ring and a necklace?

Solution: Let

be the event the student is wearing a necklace. Then, we know that

P A

) = 0 :6

P (A) = 0:2

P (B ) = 0 : 3

(

P A

)=1

P A

) = 0:4

(

P A

Q. 3)

) = P (A) + P (B )

P A

) = 0:2 + 0:3

0:4 = 0:1:

(a) If she tries the keys at random, discarding those that do not work,

what is the probability that she will open the door on her k-th try?

(b) What if she does not discard previously tried keys?

Solution:

Q. 4)

(a)

(b)

n 1

n

nn

n 1 k 1 1

n

n

(k

(k

1)

2)

n

1

(k

1)

selected, what is the probability that there will be

(a) no complete pair;

(b) exactly one complete pair?

Solution:

possible outcomes. To

(a) If are outcomes are unordered, there are 20

8

have no pairs, our selection of 8 shoes must have 8 dierent colors:

there are 10

choices for the colors, and for each colorthere are 2

8

10

28

shoes of the same color in the closet. Therefore P = 820

8

(b) In this case, we need to choose 1 color for the pair, and in the remaining 6 shoes we must have 6 dierent colors (starting from 18

shoes

6 because we have already chosen the pair). From (a)

there are

9

10

2

ways

of

choosing

the

6

non-matching

shoes,

and

ways of

6

1

6

10 9

2

choosing the pair. Therefore, P = 1 206

8

Q. 5)

space consists of a countably innite number of points. Show that not

all points can be equally likely. Can all points have positive probability of

occurring? Why or why not?

Solution:

We prove by contradiction. Suppose each element has equal positive probability p > 0. Since the total probability of the whole set is 1, we have

contradiction:

1

1

1=

( )=

P ai

i=1

Similarly, if p = 0, then

i=1

1

X

p

i=1

=1

= 0 6= 1:

Yes: all points can have positive probability. For example, let

pi

=2

1

1

X

i=1

1 1 1

1X

=

2 i=0 2 1

1

2

= 1:

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