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You are on page 1of 14

FORMS OF ENERGY AND ENERGY TRANSFER (Sections 7.1 & 7.2)

Exercise. Brainstorm examples of systems that youve encountered recently that use energy. As an

engineer, why is energy an important consideration? (Note examples pp. 313314).

Energy can neither be _____________________________.

Total Energy of System has 3 components: Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Internal Energy.

These components are always defined relative to something.

Height is analogous: it is usually measured relative to the floor. Consider this example:

6 ft

Rodney Monroe

3 ft

5 ft

Spud Webb

Wolf

Once you define a consistent reference (in this case, the ground), you can calculate the relative changes in

some metric (such as height). For example:

How much taller is Spud Webb than the Wolf?

Approach 1: Use the ground as a reference. __________________________________________

Approach 2: Use the wolf as a reference. ___________________________________________

Approach 3: Use Rodney Monroe as a reference. _____________________________________

5-1

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

In dealing with energy, we choose references that simplify calculations, but you must be consistent in

your selection.

Note Questions 16 on pp. 313314. Answering them requires energy balances on the processes

described.

1. Kinetic energy, Ek (J) or E k (J/s) : energy due to motion of an object or flowing stream relative to the

surface of the earth.

body of mass m (3.00 kg) moving with velocity u (5.00 m/s)

1N

1

2

Ek mu

37.5 N m = 37.5 J

2

s 2 1 kg m/s 2

stream with mass flow rate m (3.00 kg/s) moving with velocity

u (5.00 m/s) [= V (m 3 / s)/Apipe (m 2 ) ]

1 2

E k mu

2

s

1N

1 kg m/s

37.5

Nm

J

= 37.5 37.5 W

s

s

2. Potential energy, E p (J) or E p (J/s) (due to position in a gravitational or electromagnetic potential

fieldin CHE 205, due to height of center of mass of object above a reference height)

m (3.00 kg)

z (= 10.0 m)

E p mgz

3.00 kg

9.81 m

10.0 m

1N

1 kg m/s 2

s2

294 N m 294 J

Reference height: EP = 0

m (3.00 kg/s)

z (= 10.0 m)

E p mgz

3.00 kg

9.81 m

10.0 m

1N

1 kg m/s 2

294

Nm

J

294 294 W

s

s

Reference height: EP = 0

3. Internal energy, U (J) or U (J/s) : sum of rotational, vibrational, and electromagnetic energies of

individual molecules, atoms, & subatomic particles moving around in a body of material or a flowing

stream.

5-2

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

Specific internal energy:

U (J)

J

(batch)

U

=

mol n(mol)

or

U (J/s)

(continuous)

n (mol/s)

State of a species: The temperature, pressure, and phase (solid, liquid, gas) of the species.

State function: A property of a species that depends only on its state, and not how it got to that

state. U is a state function.

U depends strongly on the phase of a species (liquid molecules have more kinetic energy than

solid molecules, and vapor molecules have much more kinetic energy than liquid molecules), and

on temperature (molecules have more kinetic energy at higher temperatures). It depends on

pressure moderately for a real gas, very slightly for a liquid or solid, and not at all for an ideal

gas.

We can never know the value of U for a species at a given state since we cant measure energies

of individual molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles & add them, but we can measure the

change in U from one state to another. For example, if we increase the temperature of a species

by five degrees, we can determine the change in its specific internal energy as a result of the

temperature increase. (Well shortly find out how.)

1. Heat, Q(kJ) or Q (kJ / s) : Energy transferred as a result of a temperature difference between a system

and its surroundings (always from high T to low T). Define Q as positive if heat flows to system from

surroundings. (Universal convention)

+Q (heat added)

2. Work, W (kJ) or W (kJ/s) : Energy transferred any other way, such as by mechanical motion or

electric current. Define W as positive if work is done by system on surroundings. (Opposite

convention often used)

+ W (work done)

Summary:

ETOT = EK + EP + U

Energy can be transferred as heat (Q) or work (W)

5-3

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

ENERGY BALANCES ON CLOSED SYSTEMS (Section 7.3)

Closed systemno mass crosses system boundaries during process operation (batch)

Open systemmass crosses system boundaries (continuous, semibatch)

Consider a nonreactive batch process (reactive processes come in Chapter 9). Starting at one

condition, add Q(kJ) heat to process, & suppose process delivers W(kJ)

Q (kJ)

piston up)

n (kmol)

T1(K)

P1(atm)

V1 (m3)

U1 (kJ)

Ek1 (kJ)

Ep1 (kJ)

n (kmol)

T2(K)

P2(atm)

V2 (m3)

U2 (kJ)

Ek2 (kJ)

Ep2 (kJ)

t=0

t = tf (s)

Process may involve heating or cooling (change in T), compression or decompression (change in P), and

phase change, all of which lead to change in V.

Say denotes (final initial): T = T2 T1 , Ek = Ek2 Ek1 , U = U2 U1 , etc.

Recalling that Etotal = Ek + Ep + U for a system, & Q and W are the only ways energy can be transferred,

write the law of conservation of energy (InputOutput = Accumulation) for the system between the two

given times:

Net energy transferred

to the system (QW)

Q W = E k E p U

No reactions or changes in phase or temperature, pressure changes < a few atm U 0. (For an

ideal gas, U = 0 for pressure changes.)

system)

5-4

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

Exercise. Form pairs, designate one as A and one as B.

(a) A can of coke is taken from a refrigerator and left standing. Write energy balance on the can from the

moment it is left standing to an hour later.

(b) Example 7.31, p. 319. A: Explain Part 1 to B; B questions, gives hints. Then B: Explain Part 2 to

A; A questions, gives hints.

Measuring U for a specified change in state

We can never measure the true value of U at a given state its unknown and unknowable! We can,

however, measure Q (heat) and W (work) associated with the change between two states for a closed

stationary system and calculate U Q W U U (J)/n(mol) . (We assume no changes in

kinetic and potential energy for the system; if there are any, include them in the energy balance.)

Example:

0.100 kg H2O(l)

0.01oC, 0.00611 bar

0.100 L

Q = 268 kJ

0.100 kg H2O(v)

100oC, 1 atm

167.3 L

W = 17 kJ

The system is the water within the cylinder. Neglecting the very slight change in potential energy due to

vertical expansion of the fluid, the first law yields

U Q W = (26817) kJ = 251 kJ

251 kJ

U

2510 kJ/kg (Could convert to kJ/mol if desired)

0.100 kg

We can then say that the specific internal energy of water vapor at 100C and 1 atm relative to liquid

water at the triple point (0.01C and 0.00611bar) is 2510 kJ/kg.

(a) Choose a reference state (phase, T, P) for a species, at which U is set equal to 0. (Example:

Liquid water at the triple point, used in Tables B.5B.7)

(b) Determine U for the change from the reference state to another. Call the result U of the

species at the second state relative to the reference state. Repeat for many states, & tabulate U .

(c) Thereafter, calculate U for a specified change of state (to substitute into the energy balance

U

, substituting values from the table for both internal energies.

equation) as U

final

initial

5-5

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

If you chose a different reference state, the numbers in the table would all be different but the

difference between the values for any two states would always be the same. The two internal energy

tables shown below for carbon dioxide at 1 atm illustrate this point.

Ref: CO2(g, 1 atm, 100oC)

T(oC) U (kJ/mol)

0

3.82

100

0.00

200

4.18

300

8.68

T(oC) U (kJ/mol)

0

0.00

100

3.82

200

8.00

300

12.50

Exercise: A table of specific internal energies of nitrogen at P = 1 atm contains the following entries:

T(oC)

0

25

100

200

U (kJ/mol)

0.73

0.00

2.19

5.13

(a) What reference state was used to generate this table? __________________________________

(b) Q: What is the physical significance of the value 2.19 kJ/mol?

A: It is U for the process N2(__, ____ atm, ____oC) N2(__, ____ atm, ____oC)

(c) What is U for the process N2(g, 1 atm, 200oC) N2(g, 2 atm, 100oC)? ______________________

(d) Calculate the heat required to cool 2.00 mol N2 from 200oC to 100oC.

5-6

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

ENERGY BALANCES ON OPEN SYSTEMS AT STEADY-STATE (Section 7.4)

Q (kJ/s)

Ws (kJ/s)

W s (kJ/s) = rate of shaft work done by the system on its surroundings, which includes energy transmitted

by moving parts (pistons, propellers, turbines,...) or electric currents that cross the system boundary.

Note: There may be one or more inlet (feed) streams and one or more outlet streams, and the same

species may enter in several streams at different states (velocity, elevation, pressure, volume). It can get

complicated fast!

Energy Balance: An energy balance on this system states that input = output (why no generation,

consumption, or accumulation terms?), where input is the total rate at which energy is transferred to the

system from the surroundings (as heat and by being transported in by the input streams) and output is

the total rate of energy transfer out:

or since Etotal U E k E p

Q W U E k E p

where

5-7

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

U =

m jU j

m jU j

outlet

inlet

streams

streams

1

1

2

2

E k

m j u j

m j u j , E p

m j gz j

m j gz j

2

2

outlet

inlet

outlet

inlet

streams

streams

streams

streams

We could use this form of the equation for all energy balance calculations; however, in an open system

there are two forms of workflow work and shaft workwhich it is convenient to separate.

W f = flow work (also known as PV work), work done by exiting fluid streams pushing back the

surroundings minus work done to push entering fluid streams into system

W s = shaft work, all other work transmitted across system boundary by moving parts (pistons,

turbines, rotors, propellors,...), electrical currents, radiation

This notation is can be inserted into the energy balance. (see end of notes for full derivation)

Q W U E p E k

Q W s W f U E p E k

Q W s PV U E p E k

Q W s U PV E p E k

H U PV

(7.4-7)

H is the specific enthalpy of a species at pressure P with internal energy U and specific volume V .

Like U , H is (a) a state property, (b) unmeasurable (since it includes U ), (c) heavily dependent on

phase, moderately dependent on temperature, slightly dependent (real gases, liquids & solids) or

independent (ideal gases) of pressure.

Since the change in U from one state to another ( U ) can be determined, the change in H for the

same state change ( H ) can be determined as

We can therefore prepare a table of specific enthalpies relative to a reference state at which U or H

is defined to be 0. Values of H for water determined in this manner can be found in the steam tables,

B.5B.7. (See Example 7.5-1 on p. 326 and Section 7.5b.)

5-8

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

Q Ws H E k E p

where

H =

m j H j

outlet

streams

m j H j

inlet

streams

m j (U j PVj )

m j (U j PVj )

outlet

inlet

streams

streams

1

1

2

2

E k

m j u j

m j u j , E p

m j gz j

m j gz j

2

2

outlet

inlet

outlet

inlet

streams

streams

streams

streams

[for open (continuous) steady

state systems]

open system at steady state

Applying the open system balance equation (we will discuss reactive systems in Ch. 9)

If there are no phase changes, reactions, or temperature changes and relatively small pressure

changes (no more than a few atm) from inlet to outlet, drop H .

If there are phase changes, reactions or significant temperature changes from inlet to outlet,

usually E k and E p are negligible compared to H drop them.

If there are no significant velocity changes from inlet to outlet, drop E k . If there are no

significant elevation changes from inlet to outlet, drop E .

p

If the system and the surroundings are at the same temperature or the system is very well

insulated (adiabatic), drop Q .

If the system contains no moving parts or electric currents that cross its boundary, drop W s .

If H remains in the equation, use a table of enthalpies (e.g., B.5B.7 for water) to look up the

values of H j to substitute into Eq. (7.4-14a), or wait until Chapter 8 to learn how to estimate those

values.

Substitute all other known values into the equation, and solve for whichever value is unknown

(usually Q in this text).

5-9

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

Example 2. Pump 10 kg H2O(l)/s through a 5-cm ID pipe to a point 125 meters above the pipe inlet.

How much shaft work must the pump deliver to the water? Assume Tin = Tout and neglect any heat

transferred to or from the water in the pipe between inlet & outlet. (Note: the system is defined as the

water in the pipe).

m out (kg H2O(l)/s)

uout (m/s)

125 m

10 kg H2O(l)/s

uin (m/s)

Pump

Solution: First prove that the inlet and outlet fluid velocities (uin and uout) must be the same.

Q Ws H E k E p

________________

Finally, substitute what you know to determine all terms in the equation but W s and solve the equation to

prove that W s 12.3 kW that is, the pump must deliver 12.3 kW of power to the water.

Q: More electrical power than 12.3 kW must be delivered to run the pump. Why?

A:

5-10

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

Use Table B.5 to find the following properties of saturated water (water on the vapor-liquid

equilibrium curve) at 32oC. Include units in your responses.

Vapor pressure = _______________

Specific volume of liquid water _____________ and water vapor _________________________

Reference state used to determine internal energies and enthalpies _________________________

Specific internal energy of liquid water ______________ and water vapor __________________

Specific enthalpy of liquid water ___________________ and water vapor __________________

Heat of vaporization __________________________

Use Table B.6 to find the following properties of saturated water at 4.2 bar

Boiling point = _______________

If a point falls within the stairstep box outlined on p. 650, then water is a liquid. Outside the box,

water is a superheated vapor. Use Table B.7 to find the following properties of water at 20 bar and

350oC.

Phase _______________

Specific internal energy relative to liquid water at the triple point __________________

Specific enthalpy relative to liquid water at the triple point __________________

Specific volume _________________

Dew point temperature _________________

Specific internal energy of liquid water ______________ and water vapor __________________

at the dew point temperature

Specific enthalpy of liquid water ___________________ and water vapor __________________

at the dew point temperature

Specific volume of liquid water ___________________ and water vapor __________________

at the dew point temperature

5-11

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

Derivation of Enthalpy (supplemental reading): An energy balance on this system states that input

= output (why no generation, consumption, or accumulation terms?), where input is the total rate at

which energy is transferred to the system from the surroundings (as heat and by being transported in by

the input streams) and output is the total rate of energy transfer out:

or since Etotal U E k E p

Q W U E k E p

where

1

1

2

2

E k

m j u j

m j u j , E p

m j gz j

m j gz j

2

2

outlet

inlet

outlet

inlet

streams

streams

streams

streams

(we use i here to indicate that each component in each stream may have a different

internal energy and j to represent the total flow rate of each stream)

We could use this form of the equation for all energy balance calculations; however, in an open system

there are two forms of workflow work and shaft workwhich it is convenient to separate.

W Ws W f

W s (

PV

j j

m j PV

j j

outlet

streams

W s (

outlet

streams

PV

j j)

inlet

streams

m j PV

j j)

inlet

streams

W f = flow work (also known as PV work), work done by exiting fluid streams pushing back the

surroundings minus work done to push entering fluid streams into system

5-12

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

W s = shaft work, all other work transmitted across system boundary by moving parts (pistons,

turbines, rotors, propellors,...), electrical currents, radiation

Q W U E p E k

Q W s W f U E p E k

Q W s PV U E p E k

Q W s U PV E p E k

H U PV

(7.4-7)

H is the specific enthalpy of a species at pressure P with internal energy U and specific volume V .

Like U , H is (a) a state property, (b) unmeasurable (since it includes U ), (c) heavily dependent on

phase, moderately dependent on temperature, slightly dependent (real gases, liquids & solids) or

independent (ideal gases) of pressure.

Since the change in U from one state to another ( U ) can be determined, the change in H for the

same state change ( H ) can be determined as

We can therefore prepare a table of specific enthalpies relative to a reference state at which U or H

is defined to be 0. Values of H for water determined in this manner can be found in the steam tables,

B.5B.7. (See Example 7.5-1 on p. 326 and Section 7.5b.)

5-13

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

Section 5: F&R, Ch. 7 (Energy Balances I)

Q Ws H E k E p

where

H =

m j H j

outlet

streams

m j H j

inlet

streams

m j (U j PVj )

m j (U j PVj )

outlet

inlet

streams

streams

1

1

2

2

E k

m j u j

m j u j , E p

m j gz j

m j gz j

2

2

outlet

inlet

outlet

inlet

streams

streams

streams

streams

[for open (continuous) steady

state systems]

open system at steady state

5-14

Richard M. Felder, Lisa G. Bullard, and Michael D. Dickey (2014)

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