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BANGLADESH SCHOOL MUSCAT

CLASS: XII
BIOLOGY WORKSHEET
TOPICS: FORENSIC SCIENCE
1. After a person dies, the skeletal muscles will undergo contraction. In an
investigation, the degree of contraction of muscle fibres kept at 37 C and at 25
C was measured. The degree of contraction was recorded as a percentage of the
maximum contraction of the muscle fibre.
The results are shown in the graph below.

(a) Describe the effect of temperature on the degree of contraction of muscle


fibres.
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(b) The degree of contraction in muscles can be used to estimate the time of
death of a body. Using the information in the graph, explain why it is important
to know the temperature of the environment the dead body is in.
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(c) Give two other ways in which time of death can be estimated.
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(Total 7 marks)
2.
DNA analysis is a reliable technique for identifying individuals. However,
complications can sometimes arise. For example, cells from two genetically
different embryos may join can sometimes arise. For example, cells from two
genetically different embryos may join together and develop into one individual.
This type of individual is known as a chimera.
(a) Explain the problems of using DNA fingerprinting to identify a chimera.
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(b) State three ways in which the identity of a dead body could be found without
using DNA analysis.
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(Total 6 marks)
3.
The graph below shows the growth of two species of fly larvae on a dead body.
The temperature was kept at 22 C.

(a) (i) Give one factor, other than temperature, that could affect the growth of
insect larvae on a dead body.
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(1)
(ii) Suggest and explain reasons why the time since death that larvae first
appear on a body is different for each species.
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(b) The growth of the larvae is affected by temperature as shown in Table 1. The
effects of temperature are given as the number of days ahead (+) or behind ()
their development at 22 C.

Two dead bodies were found at the same address and evidence was needed to
decide whether they died at the same time. One was found in a boiler room with
a temperature of 27 C and the other was found in an outside shed where the
temperature was 12 C.
Insect larvae from both bodies were collected, identified and measured. The
results are shown in Table 2.

(i) Use the information in the graph, Table 1 and Table 2 for flesh fly larvae to
estimate the time of death for the body in the boiler room. The estimate using
house fly larvae has been done for you.

(2)
(ii) Use the measurements of larvae from the body in the shed to provide
evidence that the two deaths occurred at approximately the same time.
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(Total 10 marks)

1 answer
(a)
1. contraction {slower / eq} at lower temp /
converse ;
2. peaks later at lower temp / converse ;
3. both reach same peak of contraction / peaks
differ slightly ;
4. relaxation slower at lower temperature ;
5. credit comparative figures ;
max

(3)

Question
Number
Answer Mark
3(b)
1. reference to rigor mortis / eq ;
2. idea of heat loss related to temperature
difference between body and environment ;
3. this (degree of rigor) depends on temperature /
eq ;
4. estimate inaccurate (if environmental
temperature is not known) / eq ;
5. comment on degree of contraction gives a range
of time i.e. depends on pre- or post- rigor / eq ;

max
(2)

Question
Number
Answer Mark
3(c)
1. core temperature ;
2. decomposition / colour / putrefaction / bloating
/ gas blisters / eq ;

3. entomology / eq ;

2 answer
(a)
1. profiling depends on unique DNA / eq ;
2. two different profiles / eq ;
3. might use different tissue each time / eq ;
4. needs unique profile for comparison / eq ;
(3)
Question
Number
Answer Mark
(b)
1. visual ID ;
2. fingerprints ;
3. dental records ;
4. documentation ;
(3)
3 answer
humidity / oxygen concentration / toxins /pH ;
(1)
Question
Number
Answer Mark
4(a)(ii)
1. time for fly to find body is due to chance /eq ;
2. reference to succession ;
3. earlier organisms change conditions ;
4. (changed conditions) more suitable for later organisms
/ eq ;
5. example of condition changes ;
max
(4)
Question
Number
Answer Mark
4(b)(i)
1. (45), 9 / 9-10 days ;
2. (1.5), 7.5-8.5 ;
(2)
Question
Number
Answer Mark
4(b)(ii)
1. (house fly 4-5 days at 22) 8-9 days at 12 ;
2. (flesh fly 4 days at 22) 8 days at 12 ;
3. (all figures suggest) within 8-9 days ;
4. died within a day of each other ;
max

(3)