23 views

Uploaded by DJordje Jovanovic

SMK vežbe br.8 - primeri dimenzionisanja elemenata prema EC 1999.

- Mechanics of Materials Solutions Chapter09 Probs1 10
- 306820930 SN017 NCCI Shear Resistance of a Fin Plate Connection
- Design of Beams (Flexural Members)
- CraneGuide2E5P
- Section 5!! IL for SIS
- SABS 0162-2 Part II-Limit-states Design of Cold Formed
- Curved Beam
- Welding Splice Design.xls
- Pewaja Steel Section
- design of slab
- Strength of Materials- Axial Force Shear Force Bending Moment Diagrams- Hani Aziz Ameen
- Structural Engineering II
- Structural Analysis and Design of Castellated Beam in Fixed Action.pdf
- Flange curling in cold formed profiles.pdf
- Aisc Lrfd-93 Example 001
- NTC-2008 Example 001
- Bridge Engineering Steel Bridge
- Exp-9 Bending Test on Wooden Beam
- 2. Civil - Ijcseierd - Civil Engineering Analysis - Sidramappa Dharane
- Design of Combined Footings

You are on page 1of 15

A beam column with a rectangular hollow section is loaded in major axis (yy axis) bending

according to Figure 6.41(a). The beam column is simply supported at A and xed at B, and

loaded with an axial force NEd 110 kN and a concentrated load FEd 7.5 kN. The

material is EN AW-6063 T6 with proof strength fo 160 MPa.

The span is L 3.8 m, and the load position is dened by a 0.2L. The outer dimensions of

the cross-section are h 120 mm and b 80 mm. The ange thickness is 5 mm, and the web

thickness is 4 mm.

Clause 6.3.1.3

The beam column is assumed to be rigidly xed at end B (not welded), so the theoretical

buckling length lcr 0.7L 2.66 m is used in this example, not the recommended value

according to clause 6.3.1.3.

Calculation of the cross-section properties is not shown in this example. In axial compression,

the cross-section is class 3, so the effective area is the same as the gross cross-section area

A 1680 mm2. The cross-section resistance for an axial load is NRd 1680 160/

1.1 244 kN, where 1.1 is the partial coefcient.

In yy axis bending, the cross-section is class 2, so My,Rd is the plastic moment

resistance 10.2 kN m, and the shape factor is a2 1.182. The second moment of the

area is Iy 3.534 106 mm4.

For a rectangular cross-section, expression 6.62 is valid. As Mz,Ed 0, then the second term in

the expression can be simplied (exponent 1.7 0.6 1), and the interaction formula will be

NEd cc My;Ed

1:00

Nb;Rd

My;Rd

where Nb,Rd xvxNRd.

82

a

FEd

NEd

NEd

x

Ncr

FEd

Ncr

B

x

MB,Ed

lcr = 0.7L

Inflexion

point

(b)

(c)

M1

MB

NEd

(d) Axial force diagram

NEd

M1,Ed

MRd

NRd

NEd

NRd

0.5lcr

(f) K diagram

(g) B diagram

K+B<1

(h) K + B diagram

For the buckling length lcr 0.7L 2.66 m, the elastic buckling load is

Ncr

345 kN

2

lcr

26602

s r

Afo

1680 160

0:883

l

Ncr

345 000

which gives the reduction factor xy 0.733.

The exponent in the rst term of the interaction formula is

cc 1:3xy 0:953

The K and B diagrams can now be sketched: see Figures 6.41(f) and 6.41(g).

As

vx

1

xy 1 xy sinpx=lcr

then:

g

vx

1

;

xy

K0

NEd

NRd

cc

110

244

0:953

0:468

MB,Ed

MRd

for x 0.5lcr,

vx 1;

K0:5

NEd

xy NRd

cc

110

0:733 244

0:953

0:629

As the shape of the K diagram is a sine curve, it can be sketched by hand according to

Figure 6.41(f ). Note that the K curve is mirrored at the inexion point according to

Figure 6.41(b).

For x L,

1

1

1:007

xy 1 xy sinpx=lcr 0:733 1 0:733 sinp 0:3 3800=2660

cc

0:953

EEd

110

KL

0:625

vx xy NRd

1:007 0:733 244

vx

The B curve is a scaled M curve.

For x a

Ba

M1;Ed 4:013

0:393

MRd

10:21

For x L

BL

MB;Ed 2:964

0:290

MRd

10:21

The B diagram can now be drawn, and the two diagrams can be combined, as in

Figure 6.41(h). Note, however, that for x . lcr the B curve is also mirrored around the

abscissa to be able to add the K and B values.

We can see from the diagram that the maximum of K B occurs for x a where

1

1:062

0:733 1 0:733 sinp 760=2660

0:953

110

Ka

0:594

1:062 0:733 244

vx

which is acceptable.

bending and compression

Clause 6.3.3.2

Clause 6.3.3.1

The beam column in Figure 6.42 has an eccentric axial load, main axis eccentricity at one end

and minor axis eccentricity at both ends. At the top, the load is applied via a rigid rectangular

hollow section beam. It is simply supported at the load points A and D. In this example,

lateral torsional buckling is checked according to clause 6.3.3.2 (expression 6.63), and

exural buckling according to clause 6.3.3.1 (expression 6.59).

Beam length

Eccentricity at the top

Eccentricity at the bottom

84

lbeam 2500 mm

ey 400 mm

ey 0 mm

ez 30 mm

ez 30 mm

ey

NEd

ez

D

tf

r

C

h

ht hw bw

y

z

tw

lbeam

t1

b1

D

t2

t2

b2

A (B)

b3

NEd

Section height

h 200 mm

ange width b 100 mm

ange thickness tf 9 mm

Web thickness

tw 6 mm

Fillet radius

r 14 mm

Web height

bw h 2tf 2r 154 mm

EN AW-6082 T6

Partial safety factor

fo 260 MPa

gM1 1.1

Bending moment at end C

Bending moment at A and C

NEd 60 kN

My,Ed NEdey 60 0.4 24.0 kN m

Mz,Ed NEdez 60 0.03 1.8 kN m

1

p p

250=fo 250=260 0:981

b1 31 2:94 , bf

b2 4:51 4:41 . bf

The ange is class 2.

Web internal part in compression (expression 6.1):

b3 221 21:6 , bw

The web is class 4.

In compression, the overall cross-section classication is class 4. The resistance is therefore

based on the effective cross-section for the member in compression.

Clause 6.1.4

Clause 6.1.4

The cross-section class for the compression ange is as for axial compression, so the ange is

class 2.

The web is an internal part with a stress gradient that results in a neutral axis at the centre

(expression 6.2):

b1 111 10:8 . bw

The web is class 1.

In yy axis bending, the overall cross-section classication is class 2. The resistance is therefore based on the plastic section modulus of the member.

Clause 6.1.4

Outstand anges (expressions 6.4 and 6.3):

bf hb tw 2r=2tf 0:7100 6 2 14=2 9 2:57

The limit for class 1 is 2.94 . 2.57, so the ange is class 1.

The web is in the neutral axis, so, in zz axis bending, the overall cross-section classication is

class 1. The resistance is based on the plastic section modulus of the member.

Clause 6.2.5

Although the resistance is based on the plastic section modulus, the elastic section modulus is

needed to calculate the shape factors and the exponents in the interaction formulae. If the

llets are omitted, then

1 3

bh b tw h 2tf 3

12

1

100 2003 100 6200 2 93 1:94 107 mm4

12

Iy

The value, including llets, can also be found in the CAD drawings:

Iy 2:074 107 mm4

The elastic section modulus is

Wel;y Iy =h=2 2:074 107 =200=2 2:074 105 mm3

Usually, the plastic section modulus cannot be obtained from the CAD program. Including

llets and using the notation (see Figure 6.42)

ht h tf 200 9 191 mm

hw h 2tf 200 2 9 182 mm

we have

1

4

1

Wpl;y btf ht tw h2w 2r2 hw r pr2 hw 2r 1

4

3p 2

1

100 9 191 6 1822 2 142 182 14 p

4

4

1

142 182 2 14 1

2:364 105 mm3

3p 2

and the resistance for yy axis bending is

My;Rd ay Wel;y fo =gM1 1:140 2:074 105 260=1:1 55:9 kN m

Design resistance for zz axis bending (clause 6.2.5)

If the llets are omitted, then (including llets Iz 1.510 106 mm4)

Iz

Clause 6.2.5

1

1

2tf b3 hw t2w

2 9 1003 191 63 1:503 106 mm4

12

12

Wel;z Iz =b=2 1:510 106 =100=2 3:020 104 mm3

Although the inuence of the llets can be neglected, it is included here:

1

1

4

1

Wpl;z 2tf b2 hw t2w 2r2 tw r pr2 tw 2r 1

4

4

3p 2

1

1

9 1002 191 62 2 142 6 14 p

2

4

4

1

2

4:767 104 mm3

14 6 2 14 1

3p 2

Mz;Rd fo az Wel;z =gM1 260 1:578 3:020 104 =1:1 11:3 kN m

Axial force resistance for yy axis buckling (clause 6.3.1)

To calculate the effective cross-section area, the gross cross-section area is rst calculated,

and then the reduction due to local buckling is made:

Agr bh b tw h 2tf r2 4 p 100 200 94 182 142 4 p 3060 mm2

Clause 6.3.1

bw =1 25:7=0:981 26:2

The reduction factor (clause 6.1.5) with C1 32 and C2 220 from Table 6.5 (Table 6.3)

class A, no weld, is

rc

C1

C2

32

220

0:901

b=1 b=12 26:2 26:22

6:12

The buckling length is lcr,y 2500 mm, so the buckling load and the slenderness will be

2293 kN

2

lcr;y

25002

s r

Aeff fo

2969 260

ly

0:580

Ncr;y

2 293 000

Ncr;y

6:51

Clause 6.1.5

The reduction factor for exural buckling with a 0.2 and l0 0.1 from Table 6.6 for

buckling class A is xy 0.880 (expression 6.50).

The buckling resistance, according to expression 6.49 for k 1, no welds, is

Ny;b;Rd kxy fo Aeff =gM1 1:0 0:880 260 2969=1:1 618 kN

6:49

NRd fo Aeff =gM1 260 2969=1:1 702 kN

Clause 6.3.1

The buckling length is lcr,y 2520 mm, so the buckling load and the slenderness will be

Ncr;z

167 kN

2

lcr;z

25002

s r

Aeff fo

2969 260

lz

2:150

Ncr;z

167 000

6:51

The reduction factor for exural buckling with a 0.2 and l0 0.1 from Table 6.6 for

Buckling Class A is xz 0.195 (6.50).

Buckling resistance according to (6.49) for k 1 (no longitudinal welds) and vx 1

Nz;b;Rd kxz vx Aeff fo =gM1 1:0 0:195 1:0 2969 260=1:1 137 kN

Clause 6.3.2.1

6:49

The elastic lateral-torsional buckling load is found in Annex I. You need the warping

constant and the torsion constant found in Annex J. The warping constant is found in

Annex J, Figure J.2 case 5.

Iw h tf 2 Iz =4 1912 1:51 106 =4 1:377 1010 mm6

The torsion constant including the llets is

It

bt3 =3 0:105

t 4

aD4

D d 12 d 0:25t1 =t2 t1 =t2 t2 =2d 1

t1 tw 6 mm and t2 tf 9 mm

a 0:10d 0:15t1 =t2 0:10 1:556 0:156=9 0:204

D 1:556 12 1:556 0:25 6=96=9 9=2 1:556 1 16:8 mm

Now It can be calculated for two anges with llets

It 2 100 93 191 63 =3 0:105 2 94 64 2 0:204 16:84

9:402 104 mm4

(If the llets are omitted then It 6.24 104 mm4).

88

J1:a

The elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling is given by the general formula

p

p EIz GIt

I:2

Mcr mcr

L

where the relative non-dimensional critical moment mcr is

q

C

mcr 1

1 k2wt C2 zg C3 zj 2 C2 zg C3 zj

kz

I:3

The standard conditions of restraint at each end are used which means kz 1, kw 1 and

ky 1. (In reality the warping will be restrained at end C by the rectangular hollow

section CD, omitted here for simplicity). The non-dimensional torsion parameter is then

kwt

s

s

p

EIw

p

70000 1:377 1010

0:774

kw L GIt 1:0 2500 27000 9:402 104

As kz 1 the value of C1 for any ratio of end moment loading (as indicated in Table I.1) is

given approximately by

C1 0:310 0:428c 0:262c2 0:5 0:310 0 00:5 1:796

I:6

as c 0. Values of C2 and C3 given in Tables I.1 and I.2, are not needed in this case as zg 0

and zj 0.

The relative non-dimensional coordinate of the point of load application related to shear

centre zg 0 as well as the relative non-dimensional cross-section mono-symmetry parameter zj 0. The formula for mcr is then simplied to

C

mcr 1

kz

q

1:796 p2

1 k2wt

1 0:774 2:272

1

Mcr mcr

p

p

p EIz GIt

p 70000 1:510 106 27000 9:402 104

2:272

2500

L

46:8 kNm

I:2

lLT

s

aWel;y fo

Mcr

6:58

where a is taken from Table 6.8 (Table 6.4) subject to the limitation a Wpl,y/Wel,y. In this

example a ay 1.140.

lLT

s s

ay Wel;y fo

1:140 2:074 105 260

1:146

Mcr

46:8 106

6:58

For class 1 and 2 cross-sections the parameters in the formulae for the reduction factor xLT

for lateral torsional buckling are aLT 0.10 and l0,LT 0.6 according to paragraph

6.3.2.2(1). Then, for xLT 0.675 (6.56) and vxLT 1

Clause 6.3.2.2

My;b;Rd xLT vxLT ay Wel;y fo =gM1 0:675 1:0 1:140 2:074 105 260=1:1

37:7 kNm

6:55

89

Clause 6.3.3.1

Clause 6.3.3.2

Interaction

Both exural buckling according to clause 6.3.3.1 and lateral-torsional buckling according to

clause 6.3.3.2 need to be checked, see paragraph 6.3.3.2(2).

For major axis ( y-axis) bending

NEd

Ny;b;Rd

jyc

My;Ed

1:00

My;Rd

6:59

NEd

Nz;b;Rd

hc

My;Ed

My;b;Rd

gc

Mz;Ed

Mz;Rd

jzc

1:00

6:63

Clause 6.2.9.1(1)

Clause 6.3.1.1(1)

Clause 6.3.3.2(1)

K0

NEd

60

0:0855

NRd 702

B0

My;Ed

24

0:430

My;Rd 55:9

The exponents h0, g0 and j0 in the interaction formulae for cross-section resistance are

given in clause 6.2.9.1(1). For exural buckling, the exponents hc, jyc and jzc are given in

clause 6.3.1.1(1), and for lateral torsional buckling the exponents hc, gc and jzc are given

in clause 6.3.3.2(1).

Conservatively, all exponents may be taken as 0.8. To illustrate the procedure, the

expressions for the exponents are used:

g0 a2z 1:5782

but 1 h0 2 ! h0 2

hc h0 xz 2 0:195 0:390

jzc j0 xz 1:298 0:195

gc g0 1:56

Clause 6.3.3.2

Clause 6.3.3.5(2)

The formula for dening the design section is, according to clause 6.3.3.5(2),

MEd;1 MEd;2 NRd

xs p

1

cos

MRd

lc

NEd p1=x 1

but xs 0

6:71

where lc lcr,z, MEd,1 My,Ed, MEd,2 cyMy,Ed 0 and the ratio between the moments at

the ends is cy 0.

Expression 6.71 can now be evaluated:

xs p

B

10

0:430

1

0:387

0

cos

lcr;z

K0 p1=xz 1 0:085 p1=0:195 1

90

but xs 0

xs p

acos0:387 1:173 rad

lcr;z

xs 1:173 2500=p 934 mm

The interaction expressions v according to clause 6.3.3.5(1) are

vx

Clause 6.3.3.5(1)

1

x 1 x sinpxs =lcr

vxLT

6:69

6:70

The three terms in the interaction formula (expression 6.63) can be evaluated separately:

K 0 hc

K0

p xs h c

Kz

xz 1 xz sin

xz vx

xz

lcr;z

0:085

p 934 0:8

0:195 1 0:195 sin

0:491

0:195

2500

gc

Bx

B0

x

px gc

1 1 cy s

xLT 1 xLT sin s

By

xLT vxLT

xLT

lcr;y

lc

1:56

0:430

934

p 934

1 1 0

0:229

0:675 1 0:675 sin

0:675

2500

2500

Mz;Ed jzc

1:80 0:8

0:231

Bz

Mz;Rd

11:3

Kz By Bz 0:491 0:229 0:231 0:951< 1

The lateral torsional buckling check is acceptable.

For lateral torsional buckling, the design section is close to the centre of the beam due to a

large second-order bending moment. This is illustrated in Figure 6.43. For exural buckling,

the second-order bending moment is small, so the design section will be at the top end.

Figure 6.43. K and B diagram and design sections (dash-dotted line). (a) Lateral torsional buckling.

(b) Flexural buckling

xs

Kz

By

(a)

Bz

Ky

By

(b)

Expression 6.71 for dening the design section according to clause 6.3.3.5(2) is now evaluated

for yy axis buckling:

xp

B

10

0:430

1

11:7 1

0

cos s

lcr;y

K0 p1=xy 1 0:085 p1=0:880 1

Clause 6.3.3.1

Clause 6.3.3.5(2)

91

There is no solution to this equation, which means that the design section is at the top end.

The two terms in the interaction formula (expression 6.59) can be evaluated separately:

1:143

K0

px jyc

0:085

xy 1 xy sin s

0:060

0:880 1 0:880 sin 0

xy

lcr;y

0:880

x

0

By B0 1 1 cy s 0:430 1 1 0

0:430

lcr;y

2500

Ky

The exural buckling check is acceptable.

A simply supported primary beam supports three secondary beams, as shown in Figure 6.35.

Full lateral restraint is assumed at the load application points B, C and D. Check the beam

with ange lips for the loads FEd 35 kN.

The loading, shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Figure 6.35. A lateral

torsional buckling check will be carried out on segment BC. Shear and patch loading checks

are omitted in this example.

Segment length, cross-section

Segment length

Section height

Flange width

Web thickness

Flange thickness

Flange lip

Web height

EN-AW 6082-T6

Partial safety factor

lsegm 2000 mm

he 300 mm

be 160 mm

tw 10 mm

tf 10 mm

ce 35 mm

bw he 2tf 280 mm

fo 260 MPa

gM1 1.1

MC;Ed 1:5FEd 2lsegm FEd lsegm 2 35 2 140 kN m

Bending moment at B and D:

MB;Ed 1:5FEd lsegm 1:5 35 2 105 kN m

Clause 6.1.4

p p

1 250=fo 250=260 0:981

Limits for classes 1 and 2 for outstands:

b1;o 31 2:94

b2;o 4:51 4:41

b3;o 61 5:88

Figure 6.35. General arrangement loading and cross-section

FEd

FEd

FEd

ce

Isegm

Isegm

Isegm

C

tf

Isegm

D

tf

E

bw

VAB,Ed

ht

tw

VBC,Ed

bi

b

MB,Ed

MC,Ed

72

be

he

b2;i 161 15:7

Outstand ange lip (expression 6.1):

Internal ange parts (expression 6.1):

Flange with lip (expressions 6.6 and 6.7a):

b

1

b

1

80 5 10

5:87 ! class 3

b h p p

2

2 t

t

10

1 0:1c=t 1

1 0:135 10=10

Web internal part (expression 6.1):

In yy axis bending, the overall cross-section classication is class 3. As b 5.87 for the

ange with a lip is very close to the limit b3,o 5.88 for class 4, the resistance is based on

the elastic section modulus, and the shape factor is a 1.0.

Design resistance for yy axis bending (clause 6.2.5)

The second moment of the area is

Iy

Clause 6.2.5

1

160 3003 130 2803 20 2303 1:019 108 mm4

12

Wel;y

1:019 108

6:794 105 mm3

150

My;Rd aWel;y fo =gM1 1 6:794 260 105 =1:1 160:6 kN m

Lateral torsional buckling of the segment in bending (clause 6.3.2.1)

The elastic lateral torsional buckling load is found in Annex I. The warping constant and the

torsion constant are found in Annex J, the torsion constant in clause J.1 and the warping

constant in Figure J.2 (case 8) in clause J.3.

Clause 6.3.2.1

Clause J.1

Clause J.3

Iz

1

300 1603 300 2 351603 2 25 1403 1:246 107 mm4

12

Iw

h2f Iz c2 b2 t

2902 1:246 107 302 1502 10

3hf 2c

3 290 2 30

4

4

6

6

The torsion constant:

It

bt3 =3 13 2 150 103 280 103 4 30 103 2:333 105 mm4 J1:a

73

The elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling is given by the general formula

p

p EIz GIt

Mcr mcr

L

I:2

C

mcr 1

kz

q

2

2

1 kwt C2 zg C3 zj C2 zg C3 zj

I:3

The standard conditions of restraint at each end are used, which means kz 1, kw 1 and

ky 1. The non-dimensional torsion parameter is then

s

s

p

EIw

p

70 000 2:934 1011

2:836

kw L GIt

1:0 2000 27 000 2:333 105

kwt

Clause I.1.2

As kz 1, the value of C1 for any ratio of end moment loading, as indicated in Table I.1 in

clause I.1.2, is given approximately by expression I.6, where c MB,Ed/MC,Ed 0.75:

C1 0:310 0:428c 0:262c2 0:5 0:310 0:428 0:75 0:262 0:752 0:5

1:133

I:6

Values of C2 and C3 given in Tables I.1 and I.2 are not needed in this case, as zg 0 and

zj 0.

The relative non-dimensional coordinate of the point of load application is related to the

shear centre zg 0 as well as to the relative non-dimensional cross-section monosymmetry parameter zj 0. Expression I.3 for mcr is then simplied to

mcr

C1

kz

q

1:133 p2

1 k2wt

1 2:836 3:408

1

I:3

Now, the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling can be calculated as

p

p

p EIz GIt

p 70 000 1:246 107 27 000 2:333 105

Mcr mcr

3:673

2000

L

397 kN m

I:2

lLT

Clause 6.3.2.2(1)

s s

aWel;y fo

1 6:794 105 260

0:667

Mcr

397 106

6:58

For class 1 and 2 cross-sections, the parameters in the formulae for the reduction factor xLT

for lateral torsional buckling are aLT 0.20 and l0,LT 0.4 according to clause 6.3.2.2(1):

2

fLT 0:51 aLT lLT l0;LT lLT 0:51 0:20:667 0:4 0:6672 0:749

6:57

xLT

74

1

q

2

fLT f2LT lLT

0:749

1

p 0:917

0:7492 0:6672

but xLT 1

6:56

Mb;Rd

147 kN m

gM1

1:1

MC;Ed 145

0:985 , 1:0

Mb;Rd 147

Segment BC is acceptable.

Simplied assessment of slenderness

In Annex I, clause I.2, a simplied approximate method is provided for calculation of the

slenderness lLT without calculating the lateral torsional critical moment Mcr. For I

sections and channels covered by Table I.5, the value of lLT may be obtained from expression

I.11 with lLT from expression I.12 in which X and Y are coefcients obtained from Table I.5.

For a lipped I-section, case 2, we get (note the notations for h, b and c)

Clause I.2

0:94 0:03 0:07 25=160300=160 0:3 25=160 0:86

Y 0:05 0:06c=h 0:05 0:06 25=300 0:045

The formulae are valid for 1.5 h/b 4.5 and 0 c/b 0.5, which is fullled in this example

(h/b 300/160 1.88 and c/b 25/160 0.156). Note that they are valid for non-lipped

sections as well.

r r

Iz

1:246 107

42:2 mm

iz

A

7000

lLT

lLT

XL=iz

0:86 2000=42:2

39:6

L=iz 1=4

2000=42:2 1=4

1Y

1 0:045

h=t2

300=10

1

lLT

p

r

r

a fo

1 1 260

39:6

0:768

E

p 70 000

I:12

I:11

The reduction factor will be xLT 0.869, and the moment resistance Mb,Rd 139.5 kN m.

MC;Ed

140

1:003 1:0

Mb;Rd 139:5

Segment BC is still acceptable, but the utilisation grade is larger. The obvious reason for this

is the fact that the moment gradient is not taken account of in the simplied method.

6.3.3

Members in bending and axial compression

Members subject to bending and axial compression (beam columns) exhibit complex structural

behaviour. First-order bending moments about the major and/or minor axes (My,Ed and Mz,Ed,

respectively) are induced by lateral loading and/or end moments. The addition of the axial

loading NEd not only results in the axial force in the member but also amplies the bending

moments about both principal axes (second-order bending moments). Since, in general, the

bending moment distributions about both principal axes will be non-uniform, and hence

the most heavily loaded cross-section can occur at any point along the length of the member,

the design treatment is usually complex.

Members subject to bending and axial compression are usually parts of a frame structure.

Second-order sway effects (PD effects) should be allowed for, either by using suitably

enhanced end moments or by using appropriate buckling lengths. The design formulations in

75

- Mechanics of Materials Solutions Chapter09 Probs1 10Uploaded byArishChoy
- 306820930 SN017 NCCI Shear Resistance of a Fin Plate ConnectionUploaded byDJordje Jovanovic
- Design of Beams (Flexural Members)Uploaded byBolarinwa
- CraneGuide2E5PUploaded bysergiooi
- Section 5!! IL for SISUploaded byeph
- SABS 0162-2 Part II-Limit-states Design of Cold FormedUploaded byMustufa F Kanjeta
- Curved BeamUploaded byBathrudeen Ishak
- Welding Splice Design.xlsUploaded byRandallStremmel
- Pewaja Steel SectionUploaded byWok Yoh
- design of slabUploaded bymohammed_fathelbab
- Strength of Materials- Axial Force Shear Force Bending Moment Diagrams- Hani Aziz AmeenUploaded byHani Aziz Ameen
- Structural Engineering IIUploaded byNagar Nitin
- Structural Analysis and Design of Castellated Beam in Fixed Action.pdfUploaded byjory
- Flange curling in cold formed profiles.pdfUploaded byDiogoPintoTarrafa
- Aisc Lrfd-93 Example 001Uploaded byBùi Văn Hợp
- NTC-2008 Example 001Uploaded byRoy Christian Coarita Tintaya
- Bridge Engineering Steel BridgeUploaded by최광민
- Exp-9 Bending Test on Wooden BeamUploaded bysushilkumar
- 2. Civil - Ijcseierd - Civil Engineering Analysis - Sidramappa DharaneUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Design of Combined FootingsUploaded byAnkit Agrawal
- Chapter 4 - Pure BendingUploaded byAqil Afham
- seed_solUploaded byVikrant Rajput
- Bowe (2008) Unsprung Wheel-beam Interactions Using Modal and Finite Element ModelsUploaded bycathalbowe
- grhUploaded byPaari Vallal Thevar
- ref4Uploaded bygowtham.kcivil
- Ce3100 Str Lab July Nov 2014Uploaded byce13m
- SABS 0162-2 Part II-Limit-states design of cold formed.pdfUploaded byJaco Calitz
- Lecture5a_PureBendingUploaded byfoufou2003
- Analysis Sem 2 (09-10) AnswerUploaded byFarhana Jani
- Final Term Project.pdfUploaded byKevin Baxter

- rez-avg-2-grUploaded byDJordje Jovanovic
- UsmeniMUploaded byDJordje Jovanovic
- Rez Ult at Mostov i April 2019Uploaded byDJordje Jovanovic
- Rez Ult at Mostov i Mart 2019Uploaded byDJordje Jovanovic
- VEZBE8.pdfUploaded byDJordje Jovanovic
- rez-avg-3-arhUploaded byDJordje Jovanovic
- Analysis of Cable Structures.Uploaded byminh_ht

- SN003b-secure.pdfUploaded bykd99136182
- Steel seismic design - Butcher - Journal.pdfUploaded byPrapa Karan
- Fyrileiv Collberg (2005) - Influence of Pressure in Pipeline Design - Effective Axial Force (2)Uploaded bykhurram
- IACS Common Structural Rules for Double Hull Oil Tankers Corrigenda1.pdfUploaded byBasong San
- Ch28Uploaded byhemant_durgawale
- Trebuchet Truss Design and Analysis Using FEMUploaded byqeddy
- Hysteresis Model of Steel MaterialUploaded byAlwin Setya
- 1-s2.0-S0143974X14000996-mainUploaded bysandeep_karat
- Purnell - 2012 - Material Nature Versus Structural Nurture the Embodied Carbon of Fundamental Structural ElementsUploaded byGabriel Godoy
- Design and Detailing of High Strength Concrete ColumnsUploaded byjiminy07
- E9.4422Uploaded bypibebart
- INDIA Supra Rule Book 2015Uploaded byAshish Kumar Doharey
- Finite Element Analysis of Composite Cylinder With Centre Cutout Under Axial Load and Internal PressureUploaded bySiti Syazlina Alyssa
- Haunch EquationsUploaded byJacques Ontal
- Strength of Materials Concepts.pdfUploaded byGerald Olvido
- Structural Reliability Handbook 2015 (1)Uploaded byferasalkam
- buckling-summary.pdfUploaded byAnonymous idBsC1
- Ofx Fw Cy 5ndoj Npz 4 5 f0 f b Dx Ra Dgdr Ki w5odq q Csbt4cu Xqf v Dk x7l 5 sUploaded byErico Antonio Teixeira
- SPDG-webUploaded bySanthoshkumar Rayavarapu
- Flexural MemberUploaded byAJ
- buckling pressure.pdfUploaded bymarcospj
- gsa8.5_manualUploaded byTara Boyle
- Designing-Piles-for-Seismic-Events-DFI-2017.pdfUploaded byhapsinte
- Design and construction of large modern yacht rigsUploaded byBetaLaval
- Axis Vm Step by StepUploaded bydoru_enciu
- Structural Design to BS 5950-51998 Section Properties and Load Tables.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Firdaus
- Column Buckling of Structural Bamboo - Yu Et Al 2002Uploaded byprozoam21
- ReportUploaded byVishalKundal
- CMH-17_Vol6_RevGUploaded byOlli1974
- Plate GirderUploaded byEzhil Kumar