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11/12/2012

References:
Ship Design & Construction Vol. I
Ship Design & Construction Vol. II
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
Introduction to Marine Engineering
Marine Auxiliary Machinery
Maritime Engineering Reference Handbook
Ship Construction

SISTEM & PERLENGKAPAN


KAPAL
Firefighting system

Dedi Budi P ST MT

Basics of a Fire
There are three (3) components required for combustion to occur:
Fuel to vaporize and burn
Oxygen to combine with fuel vapor
Heat to raise the temperature of the fuel vapor to its ignition
temperature
There are two important factors to remember in preventing and
extinguishing a fire:
i) If any of the three components are missing, then a fire cannot start.
ii) If any of the three components are removed, then the fire will go out.

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Basics of a Fire
Oxygen
Air normally contains about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen
and1% other gases
Fuel
Solid fuels
Liquid fuels
Gaseous fuels
Heat
conduction,
radiation and
convection

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Classification of Fires

Ordinary

Flammable

Liquids

Combustibles
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Electrical

Equipment

Combustible

D
Metals

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Classification of Fires
Class A fires involve three groups of materials commonly found onboard a
vessel, including:
Wood and wood-based materials
Textiles and fibers
Plastics and rubber
Areas in which Class A materials may be located include the following:
Bridge contains wooden desks, charts, almanacs and other such
combustibles.
Wood in many forms may be found in the carpenter shop.
Various types of cordage are stowed in the boatswains locker & Emergency
locker
Undersides of metal cargo containers are usually constructed of wood or
wood-based materials.
Large numbers of filled laundry bags are sometimes left in passageways,
awaiting movement to and from the laundry room.

Dedi Budi P ST MT

Classification of Fires
Class B fires involve two groups of materials commonly
found onboard a vessel:
Flammable liquids
Flammable gases
Areas in which Class B materials may be located include
the following:
Machinery Spaces
Cargo Tanks
Ro-Ro Spaces.
Paint Lockers.

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Classification of Fires
Class C Fires ; Electrical equipment involved in fire, or in
the vicinity of a fire, may cause electric shock or burns
tofirefighters.
Areas in which Class C materials may be located include
the following;
Engine Room
Emergency Generator Room
Passageways
Other Locations bridge deck

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Classification of Fires
Class D Fires ; Metals are commonly considered to be
non-flammable. However, they can contribute to fires and fire
hazards in a number of ways.
Areas in which Class D materials may be located include
the following;
principally used in the construction of vessels is steel.
containers used for shipping cargo

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Classification of Fires

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Classification of Fires

Prinsip Pemadaman
Udara

Dilution

Smothering

Starving

Bahan bakar

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Cooling

API

Heat

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Typical of vessel Fire Frequency

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Fire 1992 - 2004

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Where does fire start??

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Oil Chemical Property

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Sources of oil leakage

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Fire Fighting

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Fire Main Systems

The fire main is a system consisting of sea inlet(s), suction


piping, fire pumps and a distributed piping system supplying fire
hydrants, hoses and nozzles located throughout the vessel.
Aboard a vessel, water is moved to a fire in two ways:
Via the fire main system, through hose lines that are
manipulated by the vessels personnel
Through piping systems that supply fixed manual or
automatic sprinkler or spray systems

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Fire main System

Supplies sea water (centrifugal pumps) at high pressure


throughout the sip for sprinkle system and hand held hose
Depend on the ship size, type, service
Fire pumps must not be connected to any oil piping
connection to the bilge system is permitted for emergency
dewatering
May be used for other service bilge, ballast, sea water cooling
1 pump is kept immediately available for firemain
At least two fire pumps should be installed, For vessels 1000
gross tons and above, each main fire pump is to be independently
power-driven.

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Fire main System

Capacity fire pumps depends on the ship size and service


Minimum flow rate based on ship size number of fire
hose
Total required capacity pump need not exceed 180 m3/hr
Individual Pump Capacity 25 m3/hr
Required hose nozzle size (1,5 or 2,5 inch)
Pressure fire pumps ( 1psi = 0,069 bar)
Minimum pressure for non-tankers= 50 psi
Minimum pressure for tankers= 75 psi
Superstructure 100~150 psi
Shore connection to the fire main must be provided and
installed both sides of the ship
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Fire main System

Emergency fire pump


Capacity For cargo vessels of 2000 gross tonnage and upward:
25 m3/h
Capacity For cargo vessels less than 2000 gross tonnage: 15
m3/h
emergency fire pump is to be of the self-priming type
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Fire main System

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Fire main System

Fire hoses should not have a length greater than:


15 meters (49 feet) in machinery spaces
20 meters (66 feet) in other spaces and open decks
25 meters (82 feet) on open decks with a maximum breadth
in excess of 30 meter (98 feet)
The minimum number of hoses to be provided on vessels of
1,000 gross tonnage and upwards is at least one for each 30 m
(100 ft) length of the vessel and one spare, but in no case less
than five in all.
standard nozzle sizes are to be 12 mm (0.5 in.), 16 mm
(0.625 in.) and 19 mm (0.75 in.) or as near there to as possible

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Fire main System

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Fire main System

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Fire main System

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Fire main System

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Fire main System

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Fire main System

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Fire main System

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Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems

typically suppress fires by reducing the available oxygen


the most common fixed gas extinguishing systems
encountered are either high/low pressure CO2 systems or
those utilizing Halon alternatives.

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Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems


Advantages

Damage to sensitive
equipment can be avoided,
especially in the case of
electronic equipment.
Clean up time and
equipment down time is
substantially reduced.

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Disadvantages

Some gaseous agents are


hazardous to personnel.
Cooling effect of gas systems
is significantly less than
water-based systems.
Unlike the unlimited supply
of water for fire-fighting
systems, the quantity of gas
available is limited to that
carried in the cylinders
protecting the space.
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Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems

CO2 Fire-extinguishing Systems


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is standard commercial product
CO2 gas is an effective agent for class A (wood, paper,
etc.), class B (flammable liquids and gases) and class C
(electrical equipment) hazards as it displaces the oxygen
necessary for combustion.
Reduction of oxygen content to 15% is sufficient to
extinguish most fires
Carbon dioxide cannot be used on Class D

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Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems

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Reducing the oxygen content from the normal 21% in air to


15%
40% of the total volume of the largest machinery spaces that
is protected by the CO2system
If the CO2 system is installed in the cargo spaces, the
quantity of CO2 available should be sufficient enough to give
at least a minimum of 30% of the total volume of the largest
space that is protected by the CO2 system
requires that the fixed piping systems for machinery spaces
is to be such that 85% of the gas can be discharged into the
space within 2 minutes.
CO2 Distribution Piping The design pressure at the
nozzle is not to be less than 10 bar
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Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems

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Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems

Additional/Alternative Requirements for Special Locations


Oil Carrier Cargo Pump Rooms
Gas Carrier Cargo Pump and Compressor Rooms
Paint Locker and Flammable Liquid Lockers

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Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems


COFlooding system

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Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

General Principles
Cooling of the flame temperature
Reduction of the radiant heat received at the fuel surface
Requires the system to be capable of providing water
application at a rate of at least 3.5 L/min/m2 for spaces with a
deck height not exceeding 2.5 meters
and a capacity of at least 5 L/min/m2 (for spaces with a deck
height of 2.5 meters or more.

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems


water spray
pump(s)
fixed piping system
distributed array of nozzles
water sprinkler
fixed supply piping
overhead nozzles
automatic activation
water mist systems
low pressure, 3-5 bar (43-72 psi)
high pressures, 100-150 bar (1450-2175
psi).
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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems


General System
Component
Requirements

Pumps

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Sprinkler System
Piping Components
and Materials

Nozzles

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

Fixed Water Spray Systems in Machinery Spaces


required fixed pressure water-spraying fire-extinguishing
distribution of water of at least 5 L/min/m2
requires nozzles to be fitted above bilges, tank tops and
other areas over which oil fuel is liable to spread
prime mover of the system pump may be driven by
independent internal combustion machinery

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Dedi Budi P ST MT

Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

Fixed Water Sprinkler Systems in Accommodation Spaces


required automatic sprinkler system is to be capable of
immediate operation at all times
requires sprinklers to be placed in an overhead position
application rate of not less than 5 L/min/m2
requires that an independent power pump

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

Fixed Water Spray Systems in Ro-Ro Spaces


fixed pressure water spray system
requires the system to be capable of providing water
application at a rate of at least 3.5 L/min/m2 for spaces with
a deck height not exceeding 2.5 meters
capacity of at least 5 L/min/m2 for spaces with a deck height
of 2.5 meters or more.

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

Water sprinkle system

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

Fixed Water Mist Systems in Machinery Spaces and Cargo


Pump Rooms
required minimum pressure, droplet size and velocity,
minimum required discharge flow rate,
capable of continuously supplying water for at least 30
minutes in order to prevent re-ignition or fire spread within
that period of time.
system is to also be provided with a pressure tank

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

Fixed Water Mist Systems in Accommodation and Service


Spaces
required minimum pressure, droplet size and velocity,
minimum required discharge flow rate
the system is to be fitted with a fresh water pressure tank
to maintain the pressurized condition of the system

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Fixed Water Fire Extinguishing Systems

Water mist system

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Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems

Foam is produced by the combination of three materials:

Water
Air
Foam making agent

Foam Characteristics
Knockdown Speed and Flow
Heat Resistance
Fuel Resistance.
Vapor Suppression
Alcohol Resistance
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Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems

Types of Foams
Low Expansion Foams
expansion ratio of 12:1 12 volumes of foam.
Pressure in the lines range 12 bar
Mid Low Expansion Foams
expansion ratio of between about 20:1 to 100:1.
High-Expansion Foams
expand in ratios of over 100:1.
Pressure in the lines range 4-5 bar

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Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems

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Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems

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Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems

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Gas Carrier Cargo Area Fire Extinguishing


Systems

The system is used to protect the cargo deck area and all
loading station manifolds on the vessel
The units are self-contained fire-fighting systems that use
a dry chemical extinguishing agent propelled by a highpressure inert gas such as nitrogen.
Dry chemical powders, such as sodium bicarbonate,
potassium bicarbonate and urea potassium bicarbonate
can be very effective in extinguishing small LNG or LPG
fires

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Gas Carrier Cargo Area Fire Extinguishing


Systems

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Gas Carrier Cargo Area Fire Extinguishing


Systems

Extinguishing Effects of Dry Chemical

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Chain Breaking
Cooling
Smothering
Shielding of Radiant Heat

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Gas Carrier Cargo Area Fire Extinguishing


Systems

Requirements for Fire Fighting Systems Onboard Gas Carriers


Dry Chemical Powder Fire Extinguishing Systems
Cargo Area Water Spray Systems
Fire Main System
Cargo Pump/Compressor Room Fixed CO2 Fire
Extinguishing System

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Portable/Semi-portable Fire Extinguishers


extinguishers onboard a vessel include

Mechanical
Foam
Extinguishers

Stored-Pressure
Water
Extinguishers
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POWDER

CartridgeOperated Water
Extinguisher

Dry powder

CO2

Chemical Foam
Portable Fire
Extinguishers

Dry chemical

WATER

Soda-Acid
Extinguishers

Carbon-dioxide

FOAM

Foam

Dry Cemical

Water

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Portable/Semi-portable Fire Extinguishers

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Portable/Semi-portable Fire Extinguishers

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Portable/Semi-portable Fire Extinguishers

Water Extinguishers
9.5 liter and weighs 13.6
kg
It has a typical reach of
10.7 to 12.2 meters and
expends itself in about 55
seconds.

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Portable/Semi-portable Fire Extinguishers

Foam

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Used on class B fires


Insulator and absorber of
radiant heat ; it also
excludes oxygen from fire

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Portable/Semi-portable Fire Extinguishers

CO2

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Class B and C fires


Machinery spaces,
particularly near electrical
equipment
Not permitted in the
accommodation

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Fire Extinguishing System


Advantages CO2

It is a non corrosive gas.


It is available everywhere
It does not conduct
electricity.
It does not leaves any kind
of residue.
It is non-flammable

Disadvantages CO2

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most toxic gas


In case of non-continuous
supply of CO2, chances of
re-ignition increases if air is
re-admitted to the
compartment too soon after
the fire

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Portable/Semi-portable Fire Extinguishers

Dry Powder

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Can be used on all classes of


fire but it has no cooling
effect
Location electrical
equipment

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Portable/Semi-portable Fire Extinguishers

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