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Draft

LECTURE NOTES

AREN4525
STUCTURAL CONCEPTS AND SYSTEMS
FOR ARCHITECTS
VICTOR E. SAOUMA
SPRING 1997

Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural Engineering


University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428
April 30, 1997

Draft
0{2

In order to invent a structure and to give it exact proportions, one must follow both the intuitive and the mathematical paths.
-Pier Luigi Nervi

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft

Contents
1 INTRODUCTION

Science and Technology : : : : : :


Structural Engineering : : : : : : :
Structures and their Surroundings
Architecture & Engineering : : : :
Architectural Design Process : : :
Architectural Design : : : : : : : :
Structural Analysis : : : : : : : : :
Structural Design : : : : : : : : : :
Load Transfer Mechanisms : : : :
Structure Types : : : : : : : : : :
Structural Engineering Courses : :
References : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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: 1{1
: 1{1
: 1{1
: 1{2
: 1{2
: 1{2
: 1{3
: 1{3
: 1{4
: 1{4
: 1{12
: 1{13

2.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.2 Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.2.1 Dead Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.2.2 Live Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 2-1 Live Load Reduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.2.3 Snow : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.3 Lateral Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.3.1 Wind : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 2-2 Wind Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.3.2 Earthquakes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 2-3 Earthquake Load on a Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 2-4 Earthquake Load on a Tall Building, (Schueller 1996)
2.4 Other Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.4.1 Hydrostatic and Earth : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 2-5 Hydrostatic Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.4.2 Thermal : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 2-6 Thermal Expansion/Stress (Schueller 1996) : : : : : :
2.5 Other Important Considerations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.1 Load Combinations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.2 Load Placement : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.3 Load Transfer : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.4 Structural Response : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.5 Tributary Areas : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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: 2{1
: 2{1
: 2{2
: 2{2
: 2{4
: 2{5
: 2{5
: 2{5
: 2{9
: 2{11
: 2{14
: 2{16
: 2{18
: 2{18
: 2{18
: 2{19
: 2{19
: 2{20
: 2{20
: 2{21
: 2{21
: 2{21
: 2{25

2 LOADS

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1{1

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1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12

2{1

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0{2

CONTENTS

3 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
3.1 Steel : : : : : : : : : : :
3.1.1 Structural Steel :
3.1.2 Reinforcing Steel
3.2 Aluminum : : : : : : : :
3.3 Concrete : : : : : : : : :
3.4 Masonry : : : : : : : : :
3.5 Timber : : : : : : : : :
3.6 Steel Section Properties
3.7 Joists : : : : : : : : : :

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3{1

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: 3{1
: 3{1
: 3{5
: 3{6
: 3{6
: 3{7
: 3{7
: 3{8
: 3{17

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: 4{1
: 4{3
: 4{4
: 4{6
: 4{8

5.1 Reactions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.1 Equilibrium : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.2 Equations of Conditions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.3 Static Determinacy : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.4 Geometric Instability : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.5 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-7 Simply Supported Beam : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-8 Three Span Beam : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-9 Three Hinged Gable Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2 Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.1 Assumptions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.2 Basic Relations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.3 Determinacy and Stability : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.4 Method of Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-10 Truss, Method of Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1 Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1.1 Design Sign Conventions : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1.2 Load, Shear, Moment Relations : : : : : : :
5.3.1.3 Moment Envelope : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1.4 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-11 Simple Shear and Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-12 Frame Shear and Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-13 Frame Shear and Moment Diagram; Hydrostatic Load
E 5-14 Shear Moment Diagrams for Frame : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-15 Shear Moment Diagrams for Inclined Frame : : : : : :
5.3.2 Formulaes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.4 Flexure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.4.1 Basic Kinematic Assumption; Curvature : : : : : : : :
5.4.2 Stress-Strain Relations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.4.3 Internal Equilibrium; Section Properties : : : : : : : :
5.4.3.1 Fx = 0; Neutral Axis : : : : : : : : : : : :

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: 5{1
: 5{1
: 5{3
: 5{3
: 5{4
: 5{5
: 5{5
: 5{6
: 5{7
: 5{8
: 5{8
: 5{9
: 5{9
: 5{10
: 5{12
: 5{14
: 5{14
: 5{14
: 5{15
: 5{16
: 5{18
: 5{18
: 5{19
: 5{22
: 5{24
: 5{26
: 5{28
: 5{37
: 5{37
: 5{39
: 5{39
: 5{39

4 Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Materials, & Geometry :


Loads : : : : : : : : : :
Reactions : : : : : : : :
Internal Forces : : : : :
Internal Stresses : : : :

5 REVIEW of STATICS

Victor Saouma

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4{1

5{1

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
CONTENTS

0{3

5.4.3.2 M = 0; Moment of Inertia : : : : : : : : : : :


5.4.4 Beam Formula : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-16 Design Example : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.4.5 Approximate Analysis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 5-17 Approximate Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate beam

6 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE


6.1 Theory : : : : : : : :
6.2 The Case Study : : :
6.2.1 Geometry : :
6.2.2 Loads : : : :
6.2.3 Cable Forces
6.2.4 Reactions : :

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7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE


Before the Greeks : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Greeks : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Romans : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
The Medieval Period (477-1492) : : : : : : : :
The Renaissance : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.5.1 Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 : : : : :
7.5.2 Brunelleschi 1377-1446 : : : : : : : : :
7.5.3 Alberti 1404-1472 : : : : : : : : : : :
7.5.4 Palladio 1508-1580 : : : : : : : : : : :
7.5.5 Stevin : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.5.6 Galileo 1564-1642 : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.6 Pre Modern Period, Seventeenth Century : :
7.6.1 Hooke, 1635-1703 : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.6.2 Newton, 1642-1727 : : : : : : : : : : :
7.6.3 Bernoulli Family 1654-1782 : : : : : :
7.6.4 Euler 1707-1783 : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.7 The pre-Modern Period; Coulomb and Navier
7.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) : : : : : :
7.8.1 Structures/Mechanics : : : : : : : : :
7.8.2 Ei el Tower : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.8.3 Sullivan 1856-1924 : : : : : : : : : : :
7.8.4 Roebling, 1806-1869 : : : : : : : : : :
7.8.5 Maillart : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.8.6 Nervi, 1891-1979 : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.8.7 Khan : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.8.8 et al. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

8 Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

Geometry : : : :
Loads : : : : : :
Reactions : : : :
Forces : : : : : :
Internal Stresses

Victor Saouma

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: 7{1
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: 8{1
: 8{1
: 8{3
: 8{3
: 8{6

8{1

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
0{4

CONTENTS

9 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES


9.1 Safety Provisions : : : : : : : : : : :
9.2 Working Stress Method : : : : : : :
9.3 Ultimate Strength Method : : : : : :
9.3.1 y Probabilistic Preliminaries :
9.3.2 Discussion : : : : : : : : : : :
9.4 Example : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 9-18 LRFD vs ASD : : : : : : : :
9.5 Design Guidelines : : : : : : : : : : :

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10.1 Nominal Strength : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :


10.2 Failure Modes and Classi cation of Steel Beams :
10.3 Compact Sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
10.3.1 Bending Capacity of Beams : : : : : : : :
10.3.2 Design of Compact Sections : : : : : : : :
10.4 Partially Compact Section : : : : : : : : : : : : :
10.5 Slender Section : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
10.6 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 10-19Z for Rectangular Section : : : : : : : : :
E 10-20Beam Design : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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11.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.1.1 Notation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.1.2 Modes of Failure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.1.3 Analysis vs Design : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.1.4 Basic Relations and Assumptions : : : : : : :
11.1.5 ACI Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method :
11.2.1 Equivalent Stress Block : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.2.2 Balanced Steel Ratio : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.2.3 Analysis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.2.4 Design : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 11-21Ultimate Strength Capacity : : : : : : : : : :
E 11-22Beam Design I : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 11-23Beam Design II : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.3 Continuous Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.4 ACI Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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10 BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS

11 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

12 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

12.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
12.1.1 Materials : : : : : : : : : : :
12.1.2 Prestressing Forces : : : : : :
12.1.3 Assumptions : : : : : : : : :
12.1.4 Tendon Con guration : : : :
12.1.5 Equivalent Load : : : : : : :
12.1.6 Load Deformation : : : : : :
12.2 Flexural Stresses : : : : : : : : : : :
E 12-24Prestressed Concrete I Beam
12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge : :

Victor Saouma

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
CONTENTS
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13.1 Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.1.1 Uniform Horizontal Load : : : : : : :
E 13-25Design of a Three Hinged Arch : : : :
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart) :
13.2.1 Geometry : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.2.2 Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.2.3 Reactions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.2.4 Internal Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.2.5 Internal Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.3 Structural Behavior of Deck-Sti ened Arches

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14.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.1.1 Beam Column Connections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.1.2 Behavior of Simple Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.1.3 Eccentricity of Applied Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2 Buildings Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.1 Wall Subsystems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.1.1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.1.2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.2 Shaft Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.2.1 Example: Tube Subsystem : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.3 Rigid Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.3.1 Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.3.2 Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.3.2.1 Portal Method : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 14-26Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads
14.4 Lateral De ections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.1 Short Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.2 Tall Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.3 Walls and Lintel : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.4 Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.5 Trussed Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.6 Example of Transverse De ection : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.7 E ect of Bracing Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
12.3.4

Cross-Section Properties :
Prestressing : : : : : : : :
Loads : : : : : : : : : : :
Flexural Stresses : : : : :

0{5

13 Three-Hinges ARCHES

14 BUILDING STRUCTURES

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: 12{10
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13{1

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft

List of Figures
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

Types of Forces in Structural Elements (1D) :


Basic Aspects of Cable Systems : : : : : : : :
Basic Aspects of Arches : : : : : : : : : : : :
Types of Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Variations in Post and Beams Con gurations
Di erent Beam Types : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Basic Forms of Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Examples of Air Supported Structures : : : :
Basic Forms of Shells : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

2.1
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2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

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2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14

Approximation of a Series of Closely Spaced Loads


Snow Map of the United States, ubc : : : : : : : :
Loads on Projected Dimensions : : : : : : : : : : :
Wind Map of the United States, (UBC 1995) : : :
E ect of Wind Load on Structures(Schueller 1996)
Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{10
Vibrations of a Building : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{12
Seismic Zones of the United States, (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{13
Earth and Hydrostatic Loads on Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{18
Load Placement to Maximize Moments : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{21
Load Transfer in R/C Buildings : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{22
Two Way Actions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{23
Load Life of a Structure, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{24
Concept of Tributary Areas for Structual Member Loading : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{25

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

Stress Strain Curves of Concrete and Steel : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :


Standard Rolled Sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Residual Stresses in Rolled Sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Residual Stresses in Welded Sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
In uence of Residual Stress on Average Stress-Strain Curve of a Rolled Section
Concrete microcracking : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
W and C sections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
prefabricated Steel Joists : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Ei el Tower (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :


Ei el Tower Idealization, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : :
Ei el Tower, Dead Load Idealization; (Billington and Mark 1983) :
Ei el Tower, Wind Load Idealization; (Billington and Mark 1983) :
Ei el Tower, Wind Loads, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : :

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Draft
0{2

LIST OF FIGURES

4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Ei el Tower, Reactions; (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : :


Ei el Tower, Internal Gravity Forces; (Billington and Mark 1983) :
Ei el Tower, Horizontal Reactions; (Billington and Mark 1983) : :
Ei el Tower, Internal Wind Forces; (Billington and Mark 1983) : :

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5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16

Types of Supports : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Inclined Roller Support : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures : : :
Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions : : : : : : :
Bridge Truss : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
A Statically Indeterminate Truss : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
X and Y Components of Truss Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Sign Convention for Truss Element Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design : : : : : : : : : : :
Sign Conventions for 3D Frame Elements : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Free Body Diagram of an In nitesimal Beam Segment : : : : : : :
Shear and Moment Forces at Di erent Sections of a Loaded Beam
Slope Relations Between Load Intensity and Shear, or Between Shear and Moment
Deformation of a Beam un Pure Bending : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Elastic Curve from the Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Approximate Analysis of Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9

Cable Structure Subjected to p(x) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :


Longitudinal and Plan Elevation of the George Washington Bridge
Truck Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Dead and Live Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Location of Cable Reactions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Vertical Reactions in Columns Due to Central Span Load : : : : :
Cable Reactions in Side Span : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Cable Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Deck Idealization, Shear and Moment Diagrams : : : : : : : : : : :

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7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17

Hamurrabi's Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Archimed : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Pantheon : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
From Vitruvius Ten Books on Architecture, (Vitruvius 1960)
Hagia Sophia : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Florence's Cathedral Dome : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Palladio's Villa Rotunda : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Stevin : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Galileo : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, Cover Page : : : :
\Galileo's Beam" : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Isaac Newton : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Cover Page :
Leonhard Euler : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Coulomb : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Nervi's Palazetto Dello Sport : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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8.1 Magazzini Generali; Overall Dimensions, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{2
8.2 Magazzini Generali; Support System, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{2

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
LIST OF FIGURES

0{3

Magazzini Generali; Loads (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{3


Magazzini Generali; Beam Reactions, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{3
Magazzini Generali; Shear and Moment Diagrams (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : 8{4
Magazzini Generali; Internal Moment, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{4
Magazzini Generali; Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram,
(Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{5
8.8 Magazzini Generali; Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support, (Billington and Mark
1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{5
8.9 Magazzini Generali; E ect of Lateral Supports, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : 8{6
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

9.1 Load Life of a Structure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{2


9.2 Frequency Distributions of Load Q and Resistance R : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{4
9.3 De nition of Reliability Index : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{4
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7

Lateral Bracing for Steel Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :


Failure of Steel beam; Plastic Hinges : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Failure of Steel beam; Local Buckling : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Failure of Steel beam; Lateral Torsional Buckling : : : : : : : : :
Stress distribution at di erent stages of loading : : : : : : : : : :
Stress-strain diagram for most structural steels : : : : : : : : : :
Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections :

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11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5

Failure Modes for R/C Beams : : : : : : :


Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam : : :
Cracked Section, Limit State : : : : : : :
Whitney Stress Block : : : : : : : : : : :
Reinforcement in Continuous R/C Beams

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Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{2
7 Wire Prestressing Tendon : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{3
Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978) : : : : 12{5
Determination of Equivalent Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{6
Load-De ection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{6
12.7 Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity; Maximum Moment
Section and Support Section, (Nilson 1978) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{7
12.8 Walnut Lane Bridge, Plan View : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{11
12.9 Walnut Lane Bridge, Cross Section : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12{12

12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6

13.1 Moment Resisting Forces in an Arch or Suspension System as Compared to a Beam, (Lin
and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{2
13.2 Statics of a Three-Hinged Arch, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{2
13.3 Two Hinged Arch, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{3
13.4 Arch Rib Sti ened with Girder or Truss, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{3
13.5 Salginatobel Bridge; Dimensions, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{5
13.6 Salginatobel Bridge; Idealization, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{6
13.7 Salginatobel Bridge; Hinges, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{6
13.8 Salginatobel Bridge; Sections, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{7
13.9 Salginatobel Bridge; Dead Load, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{8
13.10Salginatobel Bridge; Truck Load, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{9
13.11Salginatobel Bridge; Total Vertical Load, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{10

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
0{4

LIST OF FIGURES

13.12Salginatobel Bridge; Reactions, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : :


13.13Salganitobel Bridge; Shear Diagrams, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : :
13.14Salginatobel Bridge; Live Load Moment Diagram, (Billington and Mark 1983) :
13.15Structural Behavior of Sti ened Arches, (Billington 1979) : : : : : : : : : : : :

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14.2 Deformation of Flexible and Rigid Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads,
(Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{2
14.3 Deformation, Shear, Moment, and Axial Diagrams for Various Types of Portal Frames
Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{3
14.4 Axial and Flexural Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{4
14.5 Design of a Shear Wall Subsystem, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{6
14.6 Trussed Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{8
14.7 Design Example of a Tubular Structure, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{9
14.8 A Basic Portal Frame, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{10
14.9 Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Girder Moments : : : : : : 14{12
14.10Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Axial Forces : : : : 14{12
14.11Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Moments : : : : : 14{13
14.12Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Shear : : : : : : : : 14{14
14.13***Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Girder Moment : : : : : 14{15
14.14Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Axial Force : : : : 14{15
14.15Example; Approximate Analysis of a Building : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{16
14.16Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{17
14.17Approximate Analysis of a Building; Shears Due to Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{18
14.18Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Spread-Sheet Format : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{20
14.19Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Equations in Spread-Sheet : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{21
14.20Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Lateral Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{23
14.21Portal Method; Spread-Sheet Format : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{24
14.22Portal Method; Equations in Spread-Sheet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{25
14.23Shear Deformation in a Short Building, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{28
14.24Flexural Deformation in a Tall Building, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{28
14.25De ection in a Building Structure Composed of Two Slender Walls and Lintels, (Lin and
Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{29
14.26Portal Method to Estimate Lateral Deformation in Frames, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : 14{30
14.27Shear and Flexural De ection of a Rigid Frame Subsystem, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : 14{31
14.28Side-Sway De ection from Unsymmetrical Vertical Load, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : 14{31
14.29Axial Elongation and Shortening of a Truss Frame, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : 14{31
14.30Transverse De ection, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{32
14.31Frame Rigidly Connected to Shaft, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{34
14.32E ect of Exterior Column Bracing in Buildings, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : 14{35

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft

List of Tables
1.1 Structural Engineering Coverage for Architects and Engineers : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1{12
1.2 tab:secae : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1{12

2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13

Unit Weight of Materials : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{2


Weights of Building Materials : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{3
Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{3
Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads, (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{4
Wind Velocity Variation above Ground : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{7
Ce Coecients for Wind Load, (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{8
Wind Pressure Coecients Cq , (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{8
Importance Factors for Wind and Earthquake Load, (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{9
Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{10
Z Factors for Di erent Seismic Zones, ubc : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{12
S Site Coecients for Earthquake Loading, (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{13
Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems, (UBC 1995) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{15
Coecients of Thermal Expansion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2{19

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Properties of Major Structural Steels :


Properties of Reinforcing Bars : : : : :
Joist Series Characteristics : : : : : :
Joist Properties : : : : : : : : : : : : :

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

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5.1 Equations of Equilibrium : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5{3


5.2 Static Determinacy and Stability of Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5{10
5.3 Section Properties : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5{41
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

Allowable Stresses for Steel and Concrete : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{3


Selected values for Steel and Concrete Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{5
Strength Reduction Factors,  : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{6
Approximate Structural Span-Depth Ratios for Horizontal Subsystems and Components
(Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9{8

14.1 Columns Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{26


14.2 Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{27

Draft
0{2

LIST OF TABLES

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Science and Technology
\There is a fundamental di erence between science and and technology. Engineering or technology is
the making of things that did not previously exist, whereas science is the discovering of things that have
long existed. Technological results are forms that exist only because people want to make them, whereas
scienti c results are informations of what exists independently of human intentions. Technology deals
with the arti cial, science with the natural." (Billington 1985)

1.2 Structural Engineering


Structural engineers are responsible for the detailed analysis and design of:
Architectural structures: Buildings, houses, factories. They must work in close cooperation with an
architect who will ultimately be responsible for the design.
Civil Infrastructures: Bridges, dams, pipelines, o shore structures. They work with transportation,
hydraulic, nuclear and other engineers. For those structures they play the leading role.
Aerospace, Mechanical, Naval structures: aeroplanes, spacecrafts, cars, ships, submarines to ensure the structural safety of those important structures.
2

1.3 Structures and their Surroundings


3

Structural design is a ected by various environmental constraints:


1. Major movements: For example, elevator shafts are usually shear walls good at resisting lateral
load (wind, earthquake).
2. Sound and structure interact:
 A dome roof will concentrate the sound
 A dish roof will di use the sound
3. Natural light:
 A at roof in a building may not provide adequate light.

Draft
1{2

INTRODUCTION

 A Folded plate will provide adequate lighting (analysis more complex).


 A bearing and shear wall building may not have enough openings for daylight.
 A Frame design will allow more light in (analysis more complex).
4. Conduits for cables (electric, telephone, computer), HVAC ducts, may dictate type of oor system.
5. Net clearance between columns (unobstructed surface) will dictate type of framing.

1.4 Architecture & Engineering


Architecture must be the product of a creative collaboration of architects and engineers.
5 Architect stress the overall, rather than elemental approach to design. In the design process, they
conceptualize a space-form scheme as a total system. They are generalists.
6 The engineer, partly due to his/her education think in reverse, starting with details and without
sucient regards for the overall picture. (S)he is a pragmatist who \knows everything about nothing".
7 Thus there is a conceptual gap between architects and engineers at all levels of design.
8 Engineer's education is more specialized and in depth than the architect's. However, engineer must
be kept aware of overall architectural objective.
9 In the last resort, it is the architect who is the leader of the construction team, and the engineers are
his/her servant.
10 A possible compromise might be an Architectural Engineer.

1.5 Architectural Design Process


Architectural design is hierarchical:
Schematic: conceptual overall space-form feasibility of basic schematic options. Collaboration is mostly
between the owner and the architect.
Preliminary: Establish basic physical properties of major subsystems and key components to prove
design feasibility. Some collaboration with engineers is necessary.
Final design: nal in-depth design re nements of all subsystems and components and preparation of
working documents (\blue-prints"). Engineers play a leading role.

11

1.6 Architectural Design


Architectural design must respect various constraints:
Functionality: In uence of the adopted structure on the purposes for which the structure was erected.
Aesthetics: The architect often imposes his aesthetic concerns on the engineer. This in turn can place
severe limitations on the structural system.
Economy: It should be kept in mind that the two largest components of a structure are labors and
materials. Design cost is comparatively negligible.
12

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1.7 Structural Analysis

1{3

Buildings may have di erent functions:


Residential: housing, which includes low-rise (up tp 2-3 oors), mid-rise (up to 6-8 oors) and high
rise buildings.
Commercial: Oces, retail stores, shopping centers, hotels, restaurants.
Industrial: warehouses, manufacturing.
Institutional: Schools, hospitals, prisons, chruch, government buildings.
Special: Towers, stadium, parking, airport, etc.

13

1.7 Structural Analysis


Given an existing structure subjected to a certain load determine internal forces (axial, shear, exural, torsional; or stresses), de ections, and verify that no unstable failure can occur.
15 Thus the basic structural requirements are:
Strength: stresses should not exceed critical values:  < f
Sti ness: de ections should be controlled:  < max
Stability: buckling or cracking should also be prevented

14

1.8 Structural Design


Given a set of forces, dimension the structural element.
Steel/wood Structures Select appropriate section.
Reinforced Concrete: Determine dimensions of the element and internal reinforcement (number and
sizes of reinforcing bars).

16

17 For new structures, iterative process between analysis and design. A preliminary design is made
using rules of thumbs (best known to Engineers with design experience) and analyzed. Following
design, we check for
Serviceability: de ections, crack widths under the applied load. Compare with acceptable values
speci ed in the design code.
Failure (limit state): and compare the failure load with the applied load times the appropriate factors
of safety.
If the design is found not to be acceptable, then it must be modi ed and reanalyzed.
18 For existing structures rehabilitation, or veri cation of an old infrastructure, analysis is the most
important component.
19 In summary, analysis is always required.

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INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.1: Types of Forces in Structural Elements (1D)

1.9 Load Transfer Mechanisms


From Strength of Materials, loads can be transferred through various mechanisms, Fig. 1.1
Axial: cables, truss elements, arches, membrane, shells
Flexural: Beams, frames, grids, plates
Torsional: Grids, 3D frames
Shear: Frames, grids, shear walls.

20

1.10 Structure Types


21

Structures can be classi ed as follows:

Tension & Compression Structures: only, no shear, exure, or torsion. Those are the most ecient types of structures.
Cable (tension only): The high strength of steel cables, combined with the eciency of simple

tension, makes cables ideal structural elements to span large distances such as bridges, and
dish roofs, Fig. 1.2. A cable structure develops its load carrying capacity by adjusting its
shape so as to provide maximum resistance (form follows function). Care should be exercised
in minimizing large de ections and vibrations.
Arches (mostly compression) is a \reversed cable structure". In an arch, exure/shear is minimized and most of the load is transfered through axial forces only. Arches are used for large
span roofs and bridges, Fig. 1.3

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1.10 Structure Types

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Figure 1.2: Basic Aspects of Cable Systems

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1{6

INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.3: Basic Aspects of Arches

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1.10 Structure Types

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Trusses have pin connected elements which can transmit axial forces only (tension and compression). Elements are connected by either slotted, screwed, or gusset plate connectors.
However, due to construction details, there may be secondary stresses caused by relatively
rigid connections. Trusses are used for joists, roofs, bridges, electric tower, Fig. 1.4

Figure 1.4: Types of Trusses

Post and Beams: Essentially a support column on which a \beam" rests, Fig. 1.5, and 1.6.
Beams: Shear, exure and sometimes axial forces. Recall that  = McI is applicable only for shallow
beams, i.e. span/depth at least equal to ve.

Whereas r/c beams are mostly rectangular or T shaped, steel beams are usually I shaped (if the
top anges are not properly sti ened, they may buckle, thus we must have sti eners).
Frames: Load is co-planar with the structure. Axial, shear, exure (with respect to one axis in 2D
structures and with respect to two axis in 3D structures), torsion (only in 3D). The frame is
composed of at least one horizontal member (beam) rigidly connected to vertical ones1. The vertical
The precursor of the frame structures were the Post and Lintel where the post is vertical member on which the lintel
1

is simply posed.

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1{8

INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.5: Variations in Post and Beams Con gurations

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1.10 Structure Types

1{9

VIERENDEEL TRUSS

OVERLAPPING SINGLE-STRUT
CABLE-SUPPORTED BEAM

TREE-SUPPORTED TRUSS

BRACED BEAM

CABLE-STAYED BEAM

SUSPENDED CABLE
SUPPORTED BEAM

BOWSTRING TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED
STRUTED ARCH OR
CABLE BEAM/TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED
MULTI-STRUT
BEAM OR TRUSS

GABLED TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED ARCHED FRAME

CABLE-SUPPORTED PORTAL FRAME

Figure 1.6: Di erent Beam Types

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1{10

INTRODUCTION

members can have di erent boundary conditions (which are usually governed by soil conditions).
Frames are extensively used for houses and buildings, Fig. 1.7.

Figure 1.7: Basic Forms of Frames

Grids and Plates: Load is orthogonal to the plane of the structure. Flexure, shear, torsion.

In a grid, beams are at right angles resulting in a two-way dispersal of loads. Because of the rigid
connections between the beams, additional sti ness is introduced by the torsional resistance of
members.
Grids can also be skewed to achieve greater eciency if the aspect ratio is not close to one.
Plates are at, rigid, two dimensional structures which transmit vertical load to their supports.
Used mostly for oor slabs.
Folded plates is a combination of transverse and longitudinal beam action. Used for long span
roofs. Note that the plate may be folded circularly rather than longitudinally. Folded plates are
used mostly as long span roofs. However, they can also be used as vertical walls to support both
vertical and horizontal loads.
Membranes: 3D structures composed of a exible 2D surface resisting tension only. They are usually
cable-supported and are used for tents and long span roofs Fig. 1.8.

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1.10 Structure Types

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Figure 1.8: Examples of Air Supported Structures

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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1{12

INTRODUCTION

Shells: 3D structures composed of a curved 2D surface, they are usually shaped to transmit compressive
axial stresses only, Fig. 1.9.

Figure 1.9: Basic Forms of Shells


Shells are classi ed in terms of their curvature.

1.11 Structural Engineering Courses


Structural engineering education can be approached from either one of two points of views, depending
on the audience, ??.

22

Architects
Global
Structure
Approximate, \rules of thumbs"
preliminary
Structures Most
Design
Approximate
Approach
Emphasis
Analysis

Engineers
Elemental
Component
Exact, detailled
Final
Trusses, Frames
Per code

Table 1.1: Structural Engineering Coverage for Architects and Engineers


Table 1.2: tab:secae

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1.12 References

1{13

Architects: Start from overall design, and move toward detailed analysis. Emphasis on good understanding of overall structural behavior. Develop a good understanding of load transfer mechanism
for most types of structures, cables, arches, beams, frames, shells, plates. Approximate analysis
for most of them.
Engineers: Emphasis is on the individual structural elements and not always on the total system.
Focus on beams, frames (mostly 2D) and trusses. Very seldom are arches covered. Plates and
shells are not even mentioned.

1.12 References
Following are some useful references for structural engineering, those marked by y were consulted,
and \borrowed from" in preparing the Lecture Notes or are particularly recommended.

23

Structures for Architect

1. Ambrose, J., Building Structures, second Ed. Wiley, 1993.


2. Billington, D.P. Rober Maillart's Bridges; The Art of Engineering, Princeton University Pres,
1979.
3. yBillington, D.P., The Tower and the Bridge; The new art of structural engineering, Princeton
University Pres,, 1983.
4. yBillington, D.P., Structures and the Urban Environment, Lectures Notes CE 262, Department
of Civil Engineering, Princeton University, 1978
5. French, S., Determinate Structures; Statics, Strength, Analysis, Design, Delmar, 1996.
6. Gordon, J.E., Structures, or Why Things Do'nt Fall Down, Da Capo paperback, New York,
1978.
7. Gordon, J.E., The Science of Structures and Materials, Scienti c American Library, 1988.
8. Hawkes, N., Structures, the way things are built, MacMillan, 1990.
9. Levy, M. and Salvadori, M., Why Buildings Fall Down, W.W.Norton, 1992.
10. yLin, T.Y. and Stotesbury, S.D., Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers, John Wiley, 1981.
11. yMainstone, R., Developments in Structural Form, Allen Lane Publishers, 1975.
12. Petroski, H., To Enginer is Human, Vintage Books, 1992.
13. ySalvadori, M. and Heller, R., Structure in Architecture; The Building of Buildings, Prentice
Hall, Third Edition, 1986.
14. Salvadori, M. and Levy, M., Structural Design in Architecture, Prentice hall, Second Edition,
1981.
15. Salvadori, M., Why Buildings Stand Up; The Strength of Architecture, Norton Paperack, 1990.
16. ySandaker, B.N. and Eggen, A.P., The Structural Basis of Architecture, Whitney Library of
Design, 1992.
17. ySchueller, W., The design of Building Structures, Prentice Hall, 1996.

Structures for Engineers


1. y Arbadi, F. Structural Analysis and Behavior, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991.

2. Biggs, J.M., Introduction to Structural Engineering; Analysis and Design, Prentice Hall, 1986.

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INTRODUCTION

3. Hsieh, Y.Y., Elementary Theory of Structures, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 1988.
4. Ghali, A., and Neville, A.M., Structural Analysis, Third Edition, Chapman and Hall, 1989
5. White, R. Gergely, P. and Sexmith, R., Structural Engineering; Combined Edition, John
Wiley, 1976.
6. y Nilson, A., and Winter, G. Design of Concrete Structures, Eleventh Edition, McGraw Hill,
1991.
7. Galambos, T., Lin, F.J., and Johnston, B.G., Basic Steel Design with LRFD, Prentice Hall,
1996.
8. y Salmon C. and Johnson, J. Steel Structures, Third Edition, Harper Collins Publisher, 1990.
9. y Gaylord, E.H., Gaylord, C.N. and Stallmeyer, J.E., Design of Steel Structures, Third Edition, McGraw Hill, 1992.
10. Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, Dover Publications, 1960.
11. Palladio, A., The Four Books of Architecture, Dover Publication.

Codes

1. ACI-318-89, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, American Concrete Institute
2. Load & Resistance Factor Design, Manual of Steel Construction, American Institute of Steel
Construction.
3. Uniform Building Code, International Conference of Building Ocials, 5360 South Workman
Road; Whittier, CA 90601
4. Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and Other Structures, ANSI A58.1, American National
Standards Institute, Inc., New York, 1972.

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Chapter 2

LOADS
2.1 Introduction
The main purpose of a structure is to transfer load from one point to another: bridge deck to pier;
slab to beam; beam to girder; girder to column; column to foundation; foundation to soil.
2 There can also be secondary loads such as thermal (in restrained structures), di erential settlement
of foundations, P-Delta e ects (additional moment caused by the product of the vertical force and the
lateral displacement caused by lateral load in a high rise building).
3 Loads are generally subdivided into two categories
Vertical Loads or gravity load
1. dead load (DL)
2. live load (LL)
also included are snow loads.
Lateral Loads which act horizontally on the structure
1. Wind load (WL)
2. Earthquake load (EL)
this also includes hydrostatic and earth loads.

4 This distinction is helpful not only to compute a structure's load, but also to assign di erent factor of
safety to each one.
5 For a detailed coverage of loads, refer to the Universal Building Code (UBC), (UBC 1995).

2.2 Vertical Loads


For closely spaced identical loads (such as joist loads), it is customary to treat them as a uniformly
distributed load rather than as discrete loads, Fig. 2.1

Draft
2{2

LOADS
P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

REPETITIVE JOIST LOADS


ACTUAL DISCRETE LOADS ON SUPPORT BEAM

w LB/FT = TOTAL LOAD / SPAN

SUPPORT BEAM
SPAN

ASSUMED EQUIVALENT UNIFORM LOAD


TYPICAL SYSTEM OF JOISTS

Figure 2.1: Approximation of a Series of Closely Spaced Loads

2.2.1 Dead Load


Dead loads (DL) consist of the weight of the structure itself, and other permanent xtures (such as
walls, slabs, machinery).
8 For analysis purposes, dead loads can easily be determined from the structure's dimensions and density,
Table 2.1

Material

lb=ft3
Aluminum
173
Brick
120
Concrete
145
Steel
490
Wood (pine) 40

kN=m3
27.2
18.9
33.8
77.0
6.3

Table 2.1: Unit Weight of Materials


For steel structures, the weight per unit length of rolled sections is given in the AISC Manual of Steel
Construction.
10 For design purposes, dead loads must be estimated and veri ed at the end of the design cycle. This
makes the design process iterative.
11 Weights for building materials is given in Table 2.2
12 For preliminary design purposes the average dead loads of Table 2.3 can be used:

2.2.2 Live Loads


Contrarily to dead loads which are xed and vertical, live loads (LL) are movable or moving and may
be horizontal.
14 Occupancy load may be due to people, furniture, equipment. The loads are essentially variable point
loads which can be placed anywhere.

13

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2.2 Vertical Loads

2{3
Material

Ceilings
Channel suspended system
Acoustical ber tile
Floors
Steel deck
Concrete-plain 1 in.
Linoleum 1/4 in.
Hardwood
Roofs
Copper or tin
5 ply felt and gravel
Shingles asphalt
Clay tiles
Sheathing wood
Insulation 1 in. poured in place
Partitions
Clay tile 3 in.
Clay tile 10 in.
Gypsum Block 5 in.
Wood studs 2x4 (12-16 in. o.c.)
Plaster 1 in. cement
Plaster 1 in. gypsum
Walls
Bricks 4 in.
Bricks 12 in.
Hollow concrete block (heavy aggregate)
4 in.
8 in.
12 in.
Hollow concrete block (light aggregate)
4 in.
8 in.
12 in.

lb=ft2
1
1
2-10
12
1
4
1-5
6
3
9-14
3
2
17
40
14
2
10
5
40
120
30
55
80
21
38
55

Table 2.2: Weights of Building Materials

Material

lb=ft2
Timber
40-50
Steel
50-80
Reinforced concrete 100-150
Table 2.3: Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings

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LOADS

In analysis load placement should be such that their e ect (shear/moment) are maximized.
16 A statistical approach is used to determine a uniformly distributed static load which is equivalent to
the weight of the maximum concentration of occupants. These loads are de ned in codes such as the
Uniform Building Code or the ANSI Code, Table 2.4.
15

Use or Occupancy

lb=ft2
Assembly areas
50
Cornices, marquees, residential balconies
60
Corridors, stairs
100
Garage
50
Oce buildings
50
Residential
40
Storage
125-250
Table 2.4: Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads, (UBC 1995)
For small areas (30 to 50 sq ft) the e ect of concentrated load should be considered separately.
18 Since there is a small probability that the whole oor in a building be fully loaded, the UBC code
speci es that the occupancy load for members supporting an area A larger than 150 ft2 (i.e. a column
with a total tributary area, including oors above it, larger than 150 ft2 ) may be reduced by R where

17

R = r(A ; 150)  23:1 1 + DL


LL

(2.1)

where r = :08 for oors, A is the supported area ( 2 ) DL and LL are the dead and live loads per unit
area supported by the member. R can not exceed 40% for horizontal members and 60% for vertical ones.
ft

Example 2-1: Live Load Reduction


In a 10 story oce building with a column spacing of 16 ft in both directions, the total dead load
is 60 psf, snow load 20 psf and live load 80 psf. what is the total live load and total load for which a
column must be designed on the ground oor

Solution:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The tributary area is 16  16 = 256ft2 > 150


The reduction R for the roof is is R = :08(16  16 ; 150) = 8:48%
;
60  = 40:4% which is less than 60% p
Maximum allowable reduction Rmax = 23:1 1 + 80
The reduced cumulative load for the column of each oor is
Floor
A
A ; 150
R0
R%
LL
(100 ; R)  LL=100

Victor Saouma

Roof 10
256 512
106 362
8.48 28.96
8.48 28.96
20
80
18.3 56.83

9
768
618
49.44
40.4
80
47.68

8
7
1024 1280
874 1130
69.92 90.40
40.4 40.4
80
80
47.68 47.68

6
1536
1386
110.88
40.4
80
47.68

5
1792
1642
131.36
40.4
80
47.68

4
2048
1898
151.84
40.4
80
47.68

3
2304
2154
172.32
40.4
80
47.68

2
2560
2410
192.8
40.4
80
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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2.3 Lateral Loads

2{5

The resulting design live load for the bottom column has been reduced from
LLBefore = (20)
(256) }2 + |(9)(80) {z(256) }2 = 189,440
(2.2)
|
{z
Roof
9 oors
to
LLReduced = (18
:3) {z(256) }2 + |(9)(47:68){z (256) }2 = 114,540
(2.3)
|
Roof
9 oors
5. The total dead load is DL = (10)(60) (256) 2 (1;000) = 153:6 Kips, thus the total reduction
;268  100= 22% .
in load is from 153:6+189:4 = 343 to 153:6+114:5 = 268:1 a reduction of 343343
psf

ft

psf

ft

psf

psf

ft

psf

ft

lbs

ft

lbs

lbs

2.2.3 Snow
19 Roof snow load vary greatly depending on geographic location and elevation. They range from
20 to 45 psf, Fig. 2.2.

Figure 2.2: Snow Map of the United States, ubc


Snow loads are always given on the projected length or area on a slope, Fig. 2.3.
21 The steeper the roof, the lower the snow retention. For snow loads greater than 20 psf and roof pitches
more than 20 the snow load p may be reduced by

20

2.3 Lateral Loads

p

R = ( ; 20) 40
; 0:5

(psf)

(2.4)

2.3.1 Wind

Wind load depend on: velocity of the wind, shape of the building, height, geographical
location, texture of the building surface and sti ness of the structure.

22

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2{6

LOADS
LIVE LOAD
DEAD LOAD

LE
N
G
TH

RISE

WIND
LOAD

RUN

Figure 2.3: Loads on Projected Dimensions


Wind loads are particularly signi cant on tall buildings1.
24 When a steady streamline air ow of velocity V is completely stopped by a rigid body, the stagnation
pressure (or velocity pressure) qs was derived by Bernouilli (1700-1782)
qs = 21 V 2
(2.5)
where the air mass density  is the air weight divided by the accleration of gravity g = 32:2 ft/sec2 . At
sea level and a temperature of 15oC (59oF), the ai weighs 0.0765 lb/ft3 this would yield a pressure of
23

3  (5280)ft/mile 2

qs = 21 (0:0765)lb/ft2
(32:2)ft/sec

or

(3600)sec/hr V

qs = 0:00256V 2

(2.6)
(2.7)

where V is the maximum wind velocity (in miles per hour) and qs is in psf. V can be obtained from
wind maps (in the United States 70  V  110), Fig. 2.4.
25 During storms, wind velocities may reach values up to or greater than 150 miles per hour, which
corresponds to a dynamic pressure qs of about 60 psf (as high as the average vertical occupancy load in
buildings).
The primary design consideration for very high rise buildings is the excessive drift caused by lateral load (wind and
1

possibly earthquakes).

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2.3 Lateral Loads

2{7

Figure 2.4: Wind Map of the United States, (UBC 1995)


26

Wind pressure increases with height, Table 2.5.


Height Zone
(in feet)
<30
30 to 49
50 to 99
100 to 499
500 to 1199
>1,200

20
15
20
25
30
35
40

Wind-Velocity Map Area


25 30 35 40 45 50
20 25 25 30 35 40
25 30 35 40 45 50
30 40 45 50 55 60
40 45 55 60 70 75
45 55 60 70 80 90
50 60 70 80 90 100

Table 2.5: Wind Velocity Variation above Ground


Wind load will cause suction on the leeward sides, Fig. 2.6
28 This magnitude must be modi ed to account for the shape and surroundings of the building. Thus,
the design base pressure (at 33.3 ft from the ground) p (psf) is given by
27

p = Ce Cq Iqs

(2.8)

The pressure is assumed to be normal to all walls and roofs and


Ce Velocity Pressure Coecient accounts for height, exposure and gust factor. It accounts for the
fact that wind velocity increases with height and that dynamic character of the air ow (i.e the
wind pressure is not steady), Table 2.6. l
Cq Pressure Coecient is a shape factor which is given in Table 2.7 for gabled frames.
I Importance Factor as given by Table 2.8. where

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LOADS

Figure 2.5: E ect of Wind Load on Structures(Schueller 1996)

Ce

Exposure
D
Open, at terrain facing large bodies of water
C
Flat open terrain, extending one-half mile or open from the site in
any full quadrant
0.62-1.80
B
Terrain with buildings, forest, or surface irregularities 20 ft or more
in height
1.39-2.34
1.06-2.19

Table 2.6: Ce Coecients for Wind Load, (UBC 1995)


Windward Side Leeward Side
Gabled Frames (V:H)
Roof Slope
<9:12
;0:7
;0:7
9:12 to 12:12
0:4
;0:7
>12:12
0:7
;0:7
Walls
0:8
;0:5
Buildings (height < 200 ft)
Vertical Projections
height < 40 ft
1:3
;1:3
height > 40 ft
1:4
;1:4
Horizontal Projections
;0:7
;0:7
Table 2.7: Wind Pressure Coecients Cq , (UBC 1995)

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2.3 Lateral Loads

2{9
I
II
III
IV

Occupancy Category

Essential facilities
Hazardous facilities
Special occupancy structures
Standard occupancy structures

Imprtance Factor I
Earthquake Wind
1.25
1.25
1.00
1.00

1.15
1.15
1.00
1.00

Table 2.8: Importance Factors for Wind and Earthquake Load, (UBC 1995)

I Essential Facilities: Hospitals; Fire and police stations; Tanks; Emergency vehicle shelters,

standby power-generating equipment; Structures and equipment in government. communication centers.


II Hazardous Facilities: Structures housing, supporting or containing sucient quantities of
toxic or explosive substances to be dangerous to the safety of the general public if released.
III Special occupancy structure: Covered structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly, capacity > 300 persons.
Buildings for schools through secondary or day-care centers, capacity > 250 persons.
Buildings for colleges or adult education schools, capacity > 500 persons.
Medical facilities with 50 or more resident incapacitated patients, but not included above
Jails and detention facilities
All structures with occupancy >5,000 persons.
Structures and equipment in power generating stations and other public utilitiy facilities not
included above, and required for continued operation.
IV Standard occupancy structure: All structures having occupancies or functions not listed
above.

29

For the preliminary design of ordinary buildings Ce = 1:0 and Cq = 1:3 may be assumed, yielding

p = (1:3):020256V 2 = :00333V 2

(2.9)

which corresponds to a pressure of 21 psf for a wind speed of 80 mph, Fig. 2.6, Table 2.9.

Example 2-2: Wind Load


Determine the wind forces on the building shown on below which is built in St Louis and is surrouded
by trees.

Solution:

1. From Fig. 2.4 the maximum wind velocity is St. Louis is 70 mph, since the building is protected
we can take Ce = 0:7, I = 1:. The base wind pressure is qs = 0:00256  (70)2 = 12:54 psf.

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2{10

LOADS

Height
Above
Grade (ft)
0-15
20
25
30
40
60
80
100
120
160
200
300
400

Exposure
B
C
Basic Wind Speed (mph)
70
10
11
12
12
14
17
18
20
21
23
25
29
32

80
13
14
15
16
18
22
24
26
28
30
33
37
41

70
17
18
19
20
21
25
27
28
29
31
33
36
38

80
23
24
25
26
28
33
35
37
38
41
43
47
50

Table 2.9: Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures

400
Exposure B, 70 mph
Exposure B, 80 mph
Exposure C, 70 mph
Exposure C, 80 mph

350

Height Above Grade (ft)

300

250

200

150

100

50

10

15
20
25
30
35
40
Approximate Design Wind Pressure (psf)

45

50

Figure 2.6: Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2.3 Lateral Loads

2{11

2. The slope of the roof is 8:15=6.4:12 which gives Cq = ;0:7 for both the windward and leeward
sides. The vertical walls have Cq = 0:8 for the winward side and Cq = ;0:5 for the leeward one.
3. Thus the applied pressure on the roof is p = 0:7  (;0:7)  12:54 = -6.14 psf that is the roof is
subjected to uplift.
4. The winward wall, the pressure is 0:7  0:8  12:54 = 7.02 psf , and for the leeward wall 0:7 
(;0:5)  12:54 = -4.39 psf (suction) ,
5. The direction of the wind can change and hence each structural component must be designed to
resist all possible load combinations.
6. For large structures which may be subjected to large wind loads, testing in a wind tunnel of the
structure itself and its surroundings is often accomplished.

2.3.2 Earthquakes
Buildings should be able to resist
Minor earthquakes without damage
Moderate earthquakes without structural damage but possibly with some nonstructural damages
Major earthquakes without collapse but possibly with some structural damage as well as nonstructural damage
This is achieved through an appropriate dynamic analysis.
31 For preliminary designs or for small structures an equivalent horizontal static load can be determined.
32 Actual loads depend on the following
1. Intensity of the ground acceleration (including soil/rock properties).
2. Dynamic properties of the building, such as its mode shapes and periods of vibration and its
damping characteristics.
3. Mass of the building.
30

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LOADS

33 A critical factor in the dynamic response of a structure is the fundamental period of the structure's
vibration (or rst mode of vibration). This is the time required for one full cycle of motion, Fig. 2.7. If
the earthquake excitation has a frequency close to the one of the building, then resonance may occur.
This should be avoided.

Figure 2.7: Vibrations of a Building


Earthquake load manifests itself as a horizontal force due to the (primarily) horizontal inertia force
(F = ma).
35 The horizontal force at each level is calculated as a portion of the base shear force V
34

V = ZIC
RW W

(2.10)

where:

Z : Zone Factor: to be determined from Fig. 2.8 and Table 2.10.


Seismic Zone 0
1
2A 2B 3 4
Z
0 0.075 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4
Table 2.10: Z Factors for Di erent Seismic Zones, ubc

I : Importance Factor: which was given by Table 2.8.


C : Design Response Spectrum given by

Victor Saouma

S
C = 1T:25
2=3  2:75

(2.11)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2.3 Lateral Loads

2{13

Figure 2.8: Seismic Zones of the United States, (UBC 1995)

T is the fundamental period of vibration of the building in seconds. This can be determined from

either the free vibration analysis of the building, or estimated from the following empirical formula

T = Ct (hn )3=4

(2.12)

where:
hn is the building height above base in ft.
and

Ct 0.035 steel moment resisting frames


Ct 0.030 reinforced concrete moment resisting frames and eccentrically braced frames
Ct 0.020 all other buildings
S : Site Coecient given by Table 2.11 Note that most of the damages in the 1990? earthquake
Type Description
S Factor
S1 A soil pro le with either rock-like material or sti /dense soil less
1.0
than 200 ft.
S2 Dense or sti soil exceeding 200 ft
1.2
S3 70 ft or more soil containing more than 20 ft of soft to medium sti
1.5
clay but not more than 40 ft. of soft clay.
S4 Soil containing more than 40 ft of soft clay
2.0
Table 2.11: S Site Coecients for Earthquake Loading, (UBC 1995)
in San Francisco occurred in the marina where many houses were built on soft soil.
and

C
RW  0:075

Victor Saouma

(2.13)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2{14

LOADS

RW is given by Table 2.12.


W Load total structure load.
The horizontal force V is distributed over the height of the building in two parts. The rst (applied
only if T  0:7 sec.) is a concentrated force F1 equal to

36

Ft = 0:07TV  0:25V

(2.14)

is applied at the top of the building due to whiplash. The balance of the force V ; Ft is distributed as
a triangular load diminishing to zero at the base.
37 Assuming a oor weight constant for every oor level, then the force acting on each one is given by
(2.15)
Fx = h +(Vh ;+Ft)h +x h = (V;n Fht )hx
1
2
n
i=1 i
where hi and hx are the height in ft above the base to level i, or x respectively. Note that it is assumed
that all oors have also same width.

Example 2-3: Earthquake Load on a Frame


Determine the approximate earthquake forces for the ductile hospital frame structure shown below.
The DL for each oor is 200 lb/ft and the LL is 400 lb/ft. The structure is built on soft soil. Use DL
plus 50%LL as the weight of each oor. The building is in zone 3.

Solution:
1. The fundamental period of vibration is

T = Ct (hn )3=4 = (0:030)(24)3=4 = 0:32


2. The C coecient is

sec.

S (1:25)(2:0)
C = 1T:25
2=3 = (0:32)2=3 = 5:344 > 2:75

(2.16)
(2.17)

use C = 2:75.
3. The other coecients are: Z =0.3; I =1.25; RW =12

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2.3 Lateral Loads

2{15

Structural System

Bearing wall system

Light-framed walls with shear panels


Plywood walls for structures three stories or less
All other light-framed walls
Shear walls
Concrete
Masonry

Building frame system using trussing or shear walls)

Steel eccentrically braced ductile frame


Light-framed walls with shear panels
Plywood walls for structures three stories or less
All other light-framed walls
Shear walls
Concrete
Masonry
Concentrically braced frames
Steel
Concrete (only for zones I and 2)
Heavy timber

Moment-resisting frame system

RW H (ft)
8
6

65
65

8
8

240
160

10

240

9
7

65
65

8
8

240
160

8
8
8

160
65

Special moment-resisting frames (SMRF)


Steel
12
Concrete
12
Concrete intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRF)only for zones 1 and 2 8
Ordinary moment-resisting frames (OMRF)
Steel
6
Concrete (only for zone 1)
5
Dual systems (selected cases are for ductile rigid frames only)
Shear walls
Concrete with SMRF
12
Masonry with SMRF
8
Steel eccentrically braced ductile frame
6-12
Concentrically braced frame
12
Steel with steel SMRF
10
Steel with steel OMRF
6
Concrete with concrete SMRF (only for zones 1 and 2)
9

N.L.
N.L.
160
N.L.
160
160-N.L.
N. L.
N.L.
160
-

Table 2.12: Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems, (UBC 1995)

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LOADS

4. Check

C = 2:75 = 0:23 > 0:075p


RW 12

(2.18)

5. The total vertical load is

W = 2 ((200 + 0:5(400)) (20) = 16000

lbs

(2.19)

6. The total seismic base shear is

(0:3)(1:25)(2:75) = 0:086W
V = ZIC
=
RW
12
= (0:086)(16000) = 1375 lbs

(2.20-a)
(2.20-b)

7. Since T < 0:7 sec. there is no whiplash.


8. The load on each oor is thus given by

F2 = (1375)(24)
12 + 24 = 916.7 lbs

F1 = (1375)(12)
12 + 24 = 458.3 lbs

(2.21-a)
(2.21-b)

Example 2-4: Earthquake Load on a Tall Building, (Schueller 1996)


Determine the approximate critical lateral loading for a 25 storey, ductile, rigid space frame concrete
structure in the short direction. The rigid frames are spaced 25 ft apart in the cross section and 20
ft in the longitudinal direction. The plan dimension of the building is 175x100 ft, and the structure is
25(12)=300 ft high. This oce building is located in an urban environment with a wind velocity of 70
mph and in seismic zone 4. For this investigation, an average building total dead load of 192 psf is used.
Soil conditions are unknown.

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2.3 Lateral Loads

2{17
470 k

25(12)=300

2638 k

2(300)/3=200

300/2=150

1523 k

7(25)=175

84000 k

3108 k

5(20)=100

Solution:
1. The total building weight is

W = (0:1926) (100  175)


ksf

2  25 storeys = 84; 000 k

ft

2. the fundamental period of vibration for a rigid frame is

T = Ct (hn )3=4 = 0:030(300)3=4 = 2:16


3. The C coecient is

sec.

> 0:7

sec.

p
S (1:25)(1:5)
C = 1T:25
2=3 = (2:16)2=3 = 1:12  2:75

(2.25)

6. The total seismic base shear along the critical short direction is
(0:4)(1)(1:12) W = 0:037W
V = ZIC
RW W =
(12)
= (0:037)(84000) = 3108 kip
sec.

, the whiplash e ect must be considered

Ft = 0:07TV = (0:07)(2:16)(3108) = 470


le 0:25V = (0:25)(3108) = 777
k

Victor Saouma

(2.23)
(2.24)

4. The other coecients are Z =0.4; I =1, RW =12


5. We check
p
C 1:12
R = 12 = 0:093  0:075

7. Since T > 0:7

(2.22)

(2.26-a)
(2.26-b)

(2.27-a)
(2.27-b)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2{18

LOADS

Hence the total triangular load is

V ; Ft = 3108 ; 470 = 2638

(2.28)

8. let us check if wind load governs. From Table xx we conservatively assume a uniform wind pressure
of 29 psf resulting in a total lateral force of
PW = (0:029) (175  300) 2 = 1523 < 3108
(2.29)
The magnitude of the total seismic load is clearly larger than the total wind force.
psf

ft

2.4 Other Loads

2.4.1 Hydrostatic and Earth


38

Structures below ground must resist lateral earth pressure.

q = K h

(2.30)

;sin  is the pressure coecient, h is the height.


where is the soil density, K = 11+sin

39
40

For sand and gravel = 120 lb= ft3 , and   30.


If the structure is partially submerged, it must also resist hydrostatic pressure of water, Fig. 2.9.

Figure 2.9: Earth and Hydrostatic Loads on Structures

q = W h
where W = 62:4

lbs

(2.31)

= 3.
ft

Example 2-5: Hydrostatic Load


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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2.4 Other Loads

2{19

The basement of a building is 12 ft below grade. Ground water is located 9 ft below grade, what
thickness concrete slab is required to exactly balance the hydrostatic uplift?

Solution:

The hydrostatic pressure must be countered by the pressure caused by the weight of concrete. Since p =
h we equate the two pressures and solve for h the height of the concrete slab (62
:4) = 3{z (12 ; 9) } =
|
water
3  h ) h = (62:4) = 3 (3) (12)
15.0
inch
=
14
:
976
'
(150)
=
(150) = 3
|
{z
}
concrete
lbs ft

lbs ft

lbs ft

lbs ft

ft

in/ft

ft

in

2.4.2 Thermal
If a member is uniformly heated (or cooled) without restraint, then it will expand (or contract).
This expansion is given by

41

(2.32)

l = lT
where is the coecient of thermal expansion, Table 2.13

(/F )
Steel
6:5  10;6
Concrete 5:5  10;6
Table 2.13: Coecients of Thermal Expansion
42
43

If the member is restrained against expansion, then a compressive stress  = E T is developed.


To avoid excessive stresses due to thermal loading expansion joints are used in bridges and buildings.

Example 2-6: Thermal Expansion/Stress (Schueller 1996)


A low-rise building is enclosed along one side by a 100 ft-long clay masonary ( = 3:6  10;6
in./in./oF, E = 2; 400; 000 psi) bearing wall. The structure was built at a temperature of 60oF and
is located in the northern part of the United States where the temperature range is between -20o and
+120oF.

Solution:

1. Assuming that the wall can move freely with no restraint from cross-walls and foundation, the wall
expansion and contraction (summer and winter) are given by
LSummer = TL = (3:6  10;6) = =oF (120 ; 60)o F (100) (12)
= 0.26 (2.33-a)
LWinter = TL = (3:6  10;6) = =oF (;20 ; 60)oF (100) (12)
= -0.35(2.33-b)

Victor Saouma

in

in

in

in

ft

ft

in/ft

in/ft

in

in

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
2{20

LOADS

2. We now assume (conservatively) that the free movement cannot occur (L = 0) hence the resulting
stress would be equal to  = E" = E LL = E LTL = E T

Summer = E T = (2; 400; 000) 2 (3:6  10;6 ) = =oF (120 ; 60)oF = 518
lbs

in

lbs

in

in

in

Winter = E T = (2; 400; 000) 2 (3:6  10;6 ) = =oF (;20 ; 60)o F = -691
lbs

in

in

Tension(2.34-a)

lbs

in

in

Compression
(2.34-b)
(2.34-c)

Note that the tensile stresses being beyond the masonary capacity, cracking will occur.

2.5 Other Important Considerations


2.5.1 Load Combinations

Live loads speci ed by codes represent the maximum possible loads.


45 The likelihood of all these loads occurring simultaneously is remote. Hence, building codes allow
certain reduction when certain loads are combined together.
46 Furthermore, structures should be designed to resist a combination of loads.
47 Denoting D= dead; L= live; Lr= roof live; W= wind; E= earthquake; S= snow; T= temperature;
H= soil:
48 For the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method of concrete structures, the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building design code (318) (318 n.d.) requires that the following load combinations
be considered:
1. 1.4D+1.7L
2. 0.75(1.4D+1.7L+1.7W)
3. 0.9D+1.3W
4. 1.4D +1.7L+1.7H
5. 0.75(1.4D+1.4T+1.7L)
6. 1.4(D+T)
whereas for steel structures, the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code, (of Steel COnstruction 1986) requires that the following combinations be veri ed
1. 1.4D
2. 1.2D+1.6L+0.5(Lr or S)
3. 1.2D+0.5L (or 0.8W)+1.6(Lr or S)
4. 1.2D+0.5L+0.5(Lr or S)+1.3W
5. 1.2D+0.5L(or 0.2 S)+1.5E
44

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2.5 Other Important Considerations

2{21

6. 0.9D+1.3W(or 1.5 E)
Analysis can be separately performed for each of the basic loads (L, D, W, etc) and then using the
principle of superposition the loads can be linearly combined (unless the elastic limit has been reached).
50 Loads are often characterized as Usual, Unusual and Extreme.
49

2.5.2 Load Placement


Only the dead load is static. The live load on the other hand may or may not be applied on a given
component of a structure. Hence, the load placement arrangement resulting in the highest internal forces
(moment +ve or -ve, shear) at di erent locations must be considered, Fig. 2.10.

51

Figure 2.10: Load Placement to Maximize Moments

2.5.3 Load Transfer


Whereas we will be focusing on the design of a reinforced concrete or steel section, we must keep in
mind the following:
1. The section is part of a beam or girder.
2. The beam or girder is really part of a three dimensional structure in which load is transmitted
from any point in the structure to the foundation through any one of various structural forms.

52

Load transfer in a structure is accomplished through a \hierarchy" of simple exural elements which
are then connected to the columns, Fig. 2.11 or by two way slabs as illustrated in Fig. 2.12.

53

2.5.4 Structural Response


Under the action of the various forces and loadings described above, the structure must be able to
respond with proper behavior, Fig. 9.1.

54

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2{22

LOADS

Figure 2.11: Load Transfer in R/C Buildings

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2.5 Other Important Considerations

2{23

Figure 2.12: Two Way Actions

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2{24

LOADS

Figure 2.13: Load Life of a Structure, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2.5 Other Important Considerations

2{25

2.5.5 Tributary Areas


55 For preliminary analyses, the tributary area of a structural component will determine the total applied
load.

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Figure 2.14: Concept of Tributary Areas for Structual Member Loading

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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2{26

LOADS

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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Chapter 3

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Proper understanding of structural materials is essential to both structural analysis and to structural
design.
2 Characteristics of the most commonly used structural materials will be highlighted.
1

3.1 Steel

3.1.1 Structural Steel


Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. Its properties can be greatly varied by altering the carbon content
(always less than 0.5%) or by adding other elements such as silicon, nickle, manganese and copper.
4 Practically all grades of steel have a Young Modulus equal to 29,000 ksi, density of 490 lb/cu ft, and
a coecient of thermal expansion equal to 0:65  10;5 /deg F.
5 The yield stress of steel can vary from 40 ksi to 250 ksi. Most commonly used structural steel are A36
(yld = 36 ksi) and A572 (yld = 50 ksi), Fig. 3.1
6 Structural steel can be rolled into a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Usually the most desirable
members are those which have a large section moduli (S ) in proportion to their area (A), Fig. 3.2.
7 Steel can be bolted, riveted or welded.
8 Sections are designated by the shape of their cross section, their depth and their weight. For example
W 27 114 is a W section, 27 in. deep weighing 114 lb/ft.
9 Common sections are:
S sections were the rst ones rolled in America and have a slope on their inside ange surfaces of 1 to
6.
W or wide ange sections have a much smaller inner slope which facilitates connections and rivetting.
W sections constitute about 50% of the tonnage of rolled structural steel.
C are channel sections
MC Miscellaneous channel which can not be classi ed as a C shape by dimensions.
HP is a bearing pile section.

Draft
3{2

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

Figure 3.1: Stress Strain Curves of Concrete and Steel

Figure 3.2: Standard Rolled Sections

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3.1 Steel

3{3

M is a miscellaneous section.
L are angle sections which may have equal or unequal sides.
WT is a T section cut from a W section in two.
10

The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula

Sx  wd=10 or Ix  Sx d2  wd2 =20

(3.1)

and the plastic modulus can be approximated by

Zx  wd=9
11

(3.2)

Properties of structural steel are tabulated in Table 3.1.


ASTM
Desig.
A36

A500
A501
A529
A606
A611
A 709

Shapes Available
Shapes and bars

Use

Riveted, bolted, welded;


Buildings and bridges
Cold formed welded and General structural purseamless sections;
pose Riveted, welded or
bolted;
Hot formed welded and seam- Bolted and welded
less sections;
Plates and bars in and less Building frames and
thick;
trusses; Bolted and
welded
Hot and cold rolled sheets;
Atmospheric corrosion
resistant
Cold rolled sheet in cut Cold formed sections
lengths
Structural shapes, plates and Bridges
bars
1
2

y (kksi)

u (kksi)

36 up through 8 in. (32 above


8.)
Grade A: 33; Grade B: 42;
Grade C: 46
36
42
45-50
Grade C 33; Grade D 40;
Grade E 80
Grade 36: 36 (to 4 in.); Grade
50: 50; Grade 100: 100 (to
2.5in.) and 90 (over 2.5 to 4
in.)

Table 3.1: Properties of Major Structural Steels


Rolled sections, Fig. 3.3 and welded ones, Fig3.4 have residual stresses. Those originate during the
rolling or fabrication of a member. The member is hot just after rolling or welding, it cools unevenly
because of varying exposure. The area that cool rst become sti er, resist contraction, and develop
compressive stresses. The remaining regions continue to cool and contract in the plastic condition and
develop tensile stresses.
13 Due to those residual stresses, the stress-strain curve of a rolled section exhibits a non-linear segment
prior to the theoretical yielding, Fig. 3.5. This would have important implications on the exural and
axial strength of beams and columns.

12

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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3{4

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

Maximum compressive
stress, say 12 ksi average

Compression (-)
(-)

Tension (+)
(+)

Figure 3.3: Residual Stresses in Rolled Sections

say 20 ksi
say 12 ksi

+
+

say 40 ksi

20 ksi

say 35 ksi
tension

Welded H
say 20 ksi
compression

Welded box

Figure 3.4: Residual Stresses in Welded Sections

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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3.1 Steel

.3

Fy
Average stress P/A

3{5

Ideal coupon containing


no residual stress

.2
Fp

Maximum
residual
compressive
stress

.1

Members with
residual stress

2
Average copressive strain

Shaded portion indicates area


which has achieved a stress Fy

Figure 3.5: In uence of Residual Stress on Average Stress-Strain Curve of a Rolled Section

3.1.2 Reinforcing Steel


Steel is also used as reinforcing bars in concrete, Table 3.2. Those bars have a deformation on their
surface to increase the bond with concrete, and usually have a yield stress of 60 ksi1 .

14

Bar Designation
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 8
No. 9
No. 10
No. 11
No. 14
No. 18

Diameter Area Perimeter Weight


(in.)
( 2)
in
lb/ft
2/8=0.250 0.05
0.79
0.167
3/8=0.375 0.11
1.18
0.376
4/8=0.500 0.20
1.57
0.668
5/8=0.625 0.31
1.96
1.043
6/8=0.750 0.44
2.36
1.5202
7/8=0.875 0.60
2.75
2.044
8/8=1.000 0.79
3.14
2.670
9/8=1.128 1.00
3.54
3.400
10/8=1.270 1.27
3.99
4.303
11/8=1.410 1.56
4.43
5.313
14/8=1.693 2.25
5.32
7.650
18/8=2.257 4.00
7.09
13.60
in

Table 3.2: Properties of Reinforcing Bars


Steel loses its strength rapidly above 700 deg. F (and thus must be properly protected from re), and
becomes brittle at ;30 deg. F
16 Steel is also used as wire strands and ropes for suspended roofs, cable-stayed bridges, fabric roofs and
other structural applications. A strand is a helical arrangement of wires around a central wire. A rope
consists of multiple strands helically wound around a central plastic core, and a modulus of elasticity of
20,000 ksi, and an ultimate strength of 220 ksi.
17 Prestressing Steel cables have an ultimate strength up to 270 ksi.

15

Stirrups which are used as vertical reinforcement to resist shear usually have a yield stress of only 40 ksi.

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3{6

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

3.2 Aluminum
Aluminum is used whenever light weight combined with strength is an important factor. Those
properties, along with its resistance to corrosion have made it the material of choice for airplane
structures, light roof framing.
19 Aluminum members can be connected by riveting, bolting and to a lesser extent by welding.
20 Aluminum has a modulus of elasticity equal to 10,000 ksi (about three times lower than steel),
a coecient of thermal expansion of 2:4  10;5 and a density of 173 = 3 .
21 The ultimate strength of pure aluminum is low (13,000 psi) but with the addition of alloys it can go
up.
22 When aluminum is in contact with other metals in the presence of an electrolyte, galvanic corrosion
may cause damage. Thus, steel and aluminum in a structure must be carefully separated by means of
painting or a nonconductive material.

18

lbs

ft

3.3 Concrete
Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement2 , water, and aggregates (usually sand and crushed stone).
An ideal mixture is one in which:
1. A minimum amount of cement-water paste is used to ll the interstices between the particles of
aggregates.
2. A minimum amount of water is provided to complete the chemical reaction with cement.
In such a mixture, about 3/4 of the volume is constituted by the aggregates, and the remaining 1/4
being the cement paste.
24 Smaller particles up to 1/4 in. in size are called ne aggregates, and the larger ones being coarse
aggregates.
25 Contrarily to steel to modulus of elasticity of concrete depends on the strength and is given by
23

(3.3)

(3.4)

E = 57; 000 fc0


or

E = 33 1:5 fc0
where both fc0 and E are in psi and is in = 3 .
lbs

26

ft

Typical concrete (compressive) strengths range from 3,000 to 6,000 psi; However high strength

concrete can go up to 14,000 psi.


27
28
29
30

All concrete fail at an ultimate strain of 0.003, Fig. 3.1.


Pre-peak nonlinearity is caused by micro-cracking Fig. 3.6.
The tensile strength of concrete ft0 is about 10% of the compressive strength.
Density of normal weight concrete is 145 = 3 and 100 = 3 for lightweight concrete.
lbs

ft

lbs

ft

Portland cement is a mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials which are calcined in a kiln and then pulverized.
When mixed with water, cement hardens through a process called hydration.
2

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3.4 Masonry

3{7

u
linear
.5fc
non-linear
fc

Figure 3.6: Concrete microcracking


Coecient of thermal expansion is 0:65  10;5 /deg F for normal weight concrete.
32 When concrete is poured (or rather placed), the free water not needed for the hydration process
evaporates over a period of time and the concrete will shrink. This shrinkage is about 0.05% after one
year (strain). Thus if the concrete is restrained, then cracking will occur3.
33 Concrete will also deform with time due to the applied load, this is called creep. This should be taken
into consideration when computing the de ections (which can be up to three times the instantaneous
elastic de ection).
31

3.4 Masonry
Masonry consists of either natural materials, such as stones, or of manufactured products such as
bricks and concrete blocks4, stacked and bonded together with mortar.
35 As for concrete, all modern structural masonry blocks are essentially compression members with low
tensile resistance.
36 The mortar used is a mixture of sand, masonry cement, and either Portland cement or hydrated lime.

34

3.5 Timber
Timber is one of the earliest construction materials, and one of the few natural materials with good
tensile properties.
38 The properties of timber vary greatly, and the strength is time dependent.
39 Timber is a good shock absorber (many wood structures in Japan have resisted repeated earthquakes).
40 The most commonly used species of timber in construction are Douglas r, southern pine, hemlock
and larch.
41 Members can be laminated together under good quality control, and exural strengths as high as
2,500 psi can be achieved.
37

For this reason a minimum amount of reinforcement is always necessary in concrete, and a 2% reinforcement, can
reduce the shrinkage by 75%.
Mud bricks were used by the Babylonians, stones by the Egyptians, and ice blocks by the Eskimos...
3

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3{8

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

3.6 Steel Section Properties


42

Dimensions and properties of rolled sections are tabulated in the following pages, Fig. 3.7.

Figure 3.7: W and C sections


==============

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3.6 Steel Section Properties
Designation
W 36x848
W 36x798
W 36x720
W 36x650
W 36x588
W 36x527
W 36x485
W 36x439
W 36x393
W 36x359
W 36x328
W 36x300
W 36x280
W 36x260
W 36x245
W 36x230
W 36x256
W 36x232
W 36x210
W 36x194
W 36x182
W 36x170
W 36x160
W 36x150
W 36x135
W 33x619
W 33x567
W 33x515
W 33x468
W 33x424
W 33x387
W 33x354
W 33x318
W 33x291
W 33x263
W 33x241
W 33x221
W 33x201
W 33x169
W 33x152
W 33x141
W 33x130
W 33x118
W 30x581
W 30x526
W 30x477
W 30x433
W 30x391
W 30x357
W 30x326
W 30x292
W 30x261
W 30x235
W 30x211
W 30x191
W 30x173
W 30x148
W 30x132
W 30x124
W 30x116
W 30x108
W 30x 99
W 30x 90

Victor Saouma

A
in
249.0
234.0
211.0
190.0
172.0
154.0
142.0
128.0
115.0
105.0
96.4
88.3
82.4
76.5
72.1
67.6
75.4
68.1
61.8
57.0
53.6
50.0
47.0
44.2
39.7
181.0
166.0
151.0
137.0
124.0
113.0
104.0
93.5
85.6
77.4
70.9
65.0
59.1
49.5
44.7
41.6
38.3
34.7
170.0
154.0
140.0
127.0
114.0
104.0
95.7
85.7
76.7
69.0
62.0
56.1
50.8
43.5
38.9
36.5
34.2
31.7
29.1
26.4
2

d
in
42.45
41.97
41.19
40.47
39.84
39.21
38.74
38.26
37.80
37.40
37.09
36.74
36.52
36.26
36.08
35.90
37.43
37.12
36.69
36.49
36.33
36.17
36.01
35.85
35.55
38.47
37.91
37.36
36.81
36.34
35.95
35.55
35.16
34.84
34.53
34.18
33.93
33.68
33.82
33.49
33.30
33.09
32.86
35.39
34.76
34.21
33.66
33.19
32.80
32.40
32.01
31.61
31.30
30.94
30.68
30.44
30.67
30.31
30.17
30.01
29.83
29.65
29.53

3{9
bf

hc
tw

2.0
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
3.0
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.2
4.5
5.0
5.3
5.7
6.1
6.5
3.5
3.9
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.4
7.6
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.3
3.6
3.8
4.2
4.6
5.0
5.7
6.2
6.8
4.7
5.5
6.0
6.7
7.8
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.7
4.1
4.6
5.0
5.7
6.3
7.0
4.4
5.3
5.7
6.2
6.9
7.8
8.5

12.5
13.2
14.5
16.0
17.6
19.6
21.0
23.1
25.8
28.1
30.9
33.3
35.6
37.5
39.4
41.4
33.8
37.3
39.1
42.4
44.8
47.8
50.0
52.0
54.1
15.2
16.6
18.2
19.7
21.7
23.8
25.8
28.8
31.2
34.5
36.1
38.7
41.9
44.7
47.2
49.6
51.7
54.5
13.7
15.1
16.6
18.0
19.9
21.8
23.7
26.5
29.0
32.5
34.9
38.0
41.2
41.5
43.9
46.2
47.8
49.6
51.9
57.5

2t

Ix
in
67400
62600
55300
48900
43500
38300
34700
31000
27500
24800
22500
20300
18900
17300
16100
15000
16800
15000
13200
12100
11300
10500
9750
9040
7800
41800
37700
33700
30100
26900
24300
21900
19500
17700
15800
14200
12800
11500
9290
8160
7450
6710
5900
33000
29300
26100
23200
20700
18600
16800
14900
13100
11700
10300
9170
8200
6680
5770
5360
4930
4470
3990
3620
4

Sx
in
3170
2980
2690
2420
2180
1950
1790
1620
1450
1320
1210
1110
1030
953
895
837
895
809
719
664
623
580
542
504
439
2170
1990
1810
1630
1480
1350
1230
1110
1010
917
829
757
684
549
487
448
406
359
1870
1680
1530
1380
1250
1140
1030
928
827
746
663
598
539
436
380
355
329
299
269
245
3

Iy
in
4550
4200
3680
3230
2850
2490
2250
1990
1750
1570
1420
1300
1200
1090
1010
940
528
468
411
375
347
320
295
270
225
2870
2580
2290
2030
1800
1620
1460
1290
1160
1030
932
840
749
310
273
246
218
187
2530
2230
1970
1750
1550
1390
1240
1100
959
855
757
673
598
227
196
181
164
146
128
115
4

Sy
in
501
467
414
367
328
289
263
235
208
188
171
156
144
132
123
114
86
77
68
62
58
53
49
45
38
340
308
276
247
221
200
181
161
146
131
118
106
95
54
47
43
38
33
312
278
249
222
198
179
162
144
127
114
100
90
80
43
37
34
31
28
24
22
3

Zx
in
3830.0
3570.0
3190.0
2840.0
2550.0
2270.0
2070.0
1860.0
1660.0
1510.0
1380.0
1260.0
1170.0
1080.0
1010.0
943.0
1040.0
936.0
833.0
767.0
718.0
668.0
624.0
581.0
509.0
2560.0
2330.0
2110.0
1890.0
1700.0
1550.0
1420.0
1270.0
1150.0
1040.0
939.0
855.0
772.0
629.0
559.0
514.0
467.0
415.0
2210.0
1990.0
1790.0
1610.0
1430.0
1300.0
1190.0
1060.0
941.0
845.0
749.0
673.0
605.0
500.0
437.0
408.0
378.0
346.0
312.0
283.0
3

Zy
in
799.0
743.0
656.0
580.0
517.0
454.0
412.0
367.0
325.0
292.0
265.0
241.0
223.0
204.0
190.0
176.0
137.0
122.0
107.0
97.7
90.7
83.8
77.3
70.9
59.7
537.0
485.0
433.0
387.0
345.0
312.0
282.0
250.0
226.0
202.0
182.0
164.0
147.0
84.4
73.9
66.9
59.5
51.3
492.0
438.0
390.0
348.0
310.0
279.0
252.0
223.0
196.0
175.0
154.0
138.0
123.0
68.0
58.4
54.0
49.2
43.9
38.6
34.7
3

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3{10
Designation
W 27x539
W 27x494
W 27x448
W 27x407
W 27x368
W 27x336
W 27x307
W 27x281
W 27x258
W 27x235
W 27x217
W 27x194
W 27x178
W 27x161
W 27x146
W 27x129
W 27x114
W 27x102
W 27x 94
W 27x 84
W 24x492
W 24x450
W 24x408
W 24x370
W 24x335
W 24x306
W 24x279
W 24x250
W 24x229
W 24x207
W 24x192
W 24x176
W 24x162
W 24x146
W 24x131
W 24x117
W 24x104
W 24x103
W 24x 94
W 24x 84
W 24x 76
W 24x 68
W 24x 62
W 24x 55
W 21x402
W 21x364
W 21x333
W 21x300
W 21x275
W 21x248
W 21x223
W 21x201
W 21x182
W 21x166
W 21x147
W 21x132
W 21x122
W 21x111
W 21x101
W 21x 93
W 21x 83
W 21x 73

Victor Saouma

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
A
in
158.0
145.0
131.0
119.0
108.0
98.7
90.2
82.6
75.7
69.1
63.8
57.0
52.3
47.4
42.9
37.8
33.5
30.0
27.7
24.8
144.0
132.0
119.0
108.0
98.4
89.8
82.0
73.5
67.2
60.7
56.3
51.7
47.7
43.0
38.5
34.4
30.6
30.3
27.7
24.7
22.4
20.1
18.2
16.2
118.0
107.0
97.9
88.2
80.8
72.8
65.4
59.2
53.6
48.8
43.2
38.8
35.9
32.7
29.8
27.3
24.3
21.5
2

d
in
32.52
31.97
31.42
30.87
30.39
30.00
29.61
29.29
28.98
28.66
28.43
28.11
27.81
27.59
27.38
27.63
27.29
27.09
26.92
26.71
29.65
29.09
28.54
27.99
27.52
27.13
26.73
26.34
26.02
25.71
25.47
25.24
25.00
24.74
24.48
24.26
24.06
24.53
24.31
24.10
23.92
23.73
23.74
23.57
26.02
25.47
25.00
24.53
24.13
23.74
23.35
23.03
22.72
22.48
22.06
21.83
21.68
21.51
21.36
21.62
21.43
21.24

bf

hc
tw

2.2
2.3
2.5
2.7
3.0
3.2
3.5
3.7
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.2
5.9
6.5
7.2
4.5
5.4
6.0
6.7
7.8
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.1
4.4
4.8
5.3
5.9
6.7
7.5
8.5
4.6
5.2
5.9
6.6
7.7
6.0
6.9
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.9
4.2
4.6
5.4
6.0
6.5
7.1
7.7
4.5
5.0
5.6

12.3
13.4
14.7
15.9
17.6
19.2
20.9
22.9
24.7
26.6
29.2
32.3
33.4
36.7
40.0
39.7
42.5
47.0
49.4
52.7
10.9
11.9
13.1
14.2
15.6
17.1
18.6
20.7
22.5
24.8
26.6
28.7
30.6
33.2
35.6
39.2
43.1
39.2
41.9
45.9
49.0
52.0
50.1
54.6
10.8
11.8
12.8
14.2
15.4
17.1
18.8
20.6
22.6
24.9
26.1
28.9
31.3
34.1
37.5
32.3
36.4
41.2

2t

Ix
in
25500
22900
20400
18100
16100
14500
13100
11900
10800
9660
8870
7820
6990
6280
5630
4760
4090
3620
3270
2850
19100
17100
15100
13400
11900
10700
9600
8490
7650
6820
6260
5680
5170
4580
4020
3540
3100
3000
2700
2370
2100
1830
1550
1350
12200
10800
9610
8480
7620
6760
5950
5310
4730
4280
3630
3220
2960
2670
2420
2070
1830
1600
4

Sx
in
1570
1440
1300
1170
1060
970
884
811
742
674
624
556
502
455
411
345
299
267
243
213
1290
1170
1060
957
864
789
718
644
588
531
491
450
414
371
329
291
258
245
222
196
176
154
131
114
937
846
769
692
632
569
510
461
417
380
329
295
273
249
227
192
171
151
3

Iy
in
2110
1890
1670
1480
1310
1170
1050
953
859
768
704
618
555
497
443
184
159
139
124
106
1670
1490
1320
1160
1030
919
823
724
651
578
530
479
443
391
340
297
259
119
109
94
82
70
34
29
1270
1120
994
873
785
694
609
542
483
435
376
333
305
274
248
93
81
71
4

Sy
in
277
250
224
200
179
161
146
133
120
108
100
88
79
71
64
37
32
28
25
21
237
214
191
170
152
137
124
110
99
89
82
74
68
60
53
46
41
26
24
21
18
16
10
8
189
168
151
134
122
109
96
86
77
70
60
54
49
44
40
22
20
17
3

Zx
in
1880.0
1710.0
1530.0
1380.0
1240.0
1130.0
1020.0
933.0
850.0
769.0
708.0
628.0
567.0
512.0
461.0
395.0
343.0
305.0
278.0
244.0
1550.0
1410.0
1250.0
1120.0
1020.0
922.0
835.0
744.0
676.0
606.0
559.0
511.0
468.0
418.0
370.0
327.0
289.0
280.0
254.0
224.0
200.0
177.0
153.0
134.0
1130.0
1010.0
915.0
816.0
741.0
663.0
589.0
530.0
476.0
432.0
373.0
333.0
307.0
279.0
253.0
221.0
196.0
172.0
3

Zy
in
437.0
394.0
351.0
313.0
279.0
252.0
227.0
206.0
187.0
168.0
154.0
136.0
122.0
109.0
97.5
57.6
49.3
43.4
38.8
33.2
375.0
337.0
300.0
267.0
238.0
214.0
193.0
171.0
154.0
137.0
126.0
115.0
105.0
93.2
81.5
71.4
62.4
41.5
37.5
32.6
28.6
24.5
15.7
13.3
296.0
263.0
237.0
210.0
189.0
169.0
149.0
133.0
119.0
108.0
92.6
82.3
75.6
68.2
61.7
34.7
30.5
26.6
3

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3.6 Steel Section Properties
Designation
W 21x 68
W 21x 62
W 21x 57
W 21x 50
W 21x 44
W 18x311
W 18x283
W 18x258
W 18x234
W 18x211
W 18x192
W 18x175
W 18x158
W 18x143
W 18x130
W 18x119
W 18x106
W 18x 97
W 18x 86
W 18x 76
W 18x 71
W 18x 65
W 18x 60
W 18x 55
W 18x 50
W 18x 46
W 18x 40
W 18x 35
W 16x100
W 16x 89
W 16x 77
W 16x 67
W 16x 57
W 16x 50
W 16x 45
W 16x 40
W 16x 36
W 16x 31
W 16x 26
W 14x730
W 14x665
W 14x605
W 14x550
W 14x500
W 14x455
W 14x426
W 14x398
W 14x370
W 14x342
W 14x311
W 14x283
W 14x257
W 14x233
W 14x211
W 14x193
W 14x176
W 14x159
W 14x145
W 14x132
W 14x120
W 14x109
W 14x 99
W 14x 90
W 14x 82

Victor Saouma

A
in
20.0
18.3
16.7
14.7
13.0
91.5
83.2
75.9
68.8
62.1
56.4
51.3
46.3
42.1
38.2
35.1
31.1
28.5
25.3
22.3
20.8
19.1
17.6
16.2
14.7
13.5
11.8
10.3
29.4
26.2
22.6
19.7
16.8
14.7
13.3
11.8
10.6
9.1
7.7
215.0
196.0
178.0
162.0
147.0
134.0
125.0
117.0
109.0
101.0
91.4
83.3
75.6
68.5
62.0
56.8
51.8
46.7
42.7
38.8
35.3
32.0
29.1
26.5
24.1
2

3{11

hc
d btff
Ix
Sx
Iy Sy
Zx
Zy
tw
in
in
in
in in
in
in
21.13 6.0 43.6 1480 140
65 16 160.0 24.4
20.99 6.7 46.9 1330 127
58 14 144.0 21.7
21.06 5.0 46.3 1170 111
31
9 129.0 14.8
20.83 6.1 49.4
984
94
25
8 110.0 12.2
20.66 7.2 53.6
843
82
21
6
95.4 10.2
22.32 2.2 10.6 6960 624 795 132 753.0 207.0
21.85 2.4 11.5 6160 564 704 118 676.0 185.0
21.46 2.6 12.5 5510 514 628 107 611.0 166.0
21.06 2.8 13.8 4900 466 558 96 549.0 149.0
20.67 3.0 15.1 4330 419 493 85 490.0 132.0
20.35 3.3 16.7 3870 380 440 77 442.0 119.0
20.04 3.6 18.0 3450 344 391 69 398.0 106.0
19.72 3.9 19.8 3060 310 347 61 356.0 94.8
19.49 4.2 21.9 2750 282 311 56 322.0 85.4
19.25 4.6 23.9 2460 256 278 50 291.0 76.7
18.97 5.3 24.5 2190 231 253 45 261.0 69.1
18.73 6.0 27.2 1910 204 220 39 230.0 60.5
18.59 6.4 30.0 1750 188 201 36 211.0 55.3
18.39 7.2 33.4 1530 166 175 32 186.0 48.4
18.21 8.1 37.8 1330 146 152 28 163.0 42.2
18.47 4.7 32.4 1170 127
60 16 145.0 24.7
18.35 5.1 35.7 1070 117
55 14 133.0 22.5
18.24 5.4 38.7
984 108
50 13 123.0 20.6
18.11 6.0 41.2
890
98
45 12 112.0 18.5
17.99 6.6 45.2
800
89
40 11 101.0 16.6
18.06 5.0 44.6
712
79
22
7
90.7 11.7
17.90 5.7 51.0
612
68
19
6
78.4
9.9
17.70 7.1 53.5
510
58
15
5
66.5
8.1
16.97 5.3 24.3 1490 175 186 36 198.0 54.9
16.75 5.9 27.0 1300 155 163 31 175.0 48.1
16.52 6.8 31.2 1110 134 138 27 150.0 41.1
16.33 7.7 35.9
954 117 119 23 130.0 35.5
16.43 5.0 33.0
758
92
43 12 105.0 18.9
16.26 5.6 37.4
659
81
37 10
92.0 16.3
16.13 6.2 41.2
586
73
33
9
82.3 14.5
16.01 6.9 46.6
518
65
29
8
72.9 12.7
15.86 8.1 48.1
448
56
24
7
64.0 10.8
15.88 6.3 51.6
375
47
12
4
54.0
7.0
15.69 8.0 56.8
301
38
10
3
44.2
5.5
22.42 1.8 3.7 14300 1280 4720 527 1660.0 816.0
21.64 2.0 4.0 12400 1150 4170 472 1480.0 730.0
20.92 2.1 4.4 10800 1040 3680 423 1320.0 652.0
20.24 2.3 4.8 9430 931 3250 378 1180.0 583.0
19.60 2.4 5.2 8210 838 2880 339 1050.0 522.0
19.02 2.6 5.7 7190 756 2560 304 936.0 468.0
18.67 2.8 6.1 6600 707 2360 283 869.0 434.0
18.29 2.9 6.4 6000 656 2170 262 801.0 402.0
17.92 3.1 6.9 5440 607 1990 241 736.0 370.0
17.54 3.3 7.4 4900 559 1810 221 672.0 338.0
17.12 3.6 8.1 4330 506 1610 199 603.0 304.0
16.74 3.9 8.8 3840 459 1440 179 542.0 274.0
16.38 4.2 9.7 3400 415 1290 161 487.0 246.0
16.04 4.6 10.7 3010 375 1150 145 436.0 221.0
15.72 5.1 11.6 2660 338 1030 130 390.0 198.0
15.48 5.5 12.8 2400 310 931 119 355.0 180.0
15.22 6.0 13.7 2140 281 838 107 320.0 163.0
14.98 6.5 15.3 1900 254 748 96 287.0 146.0
14.78 7.1 16.8 1710 232 677 87 260.0 133.0
14.66 7.1 17.7 1530 209 548 74 234.0 113.0
14.48 7.8 19.3 1380 190 495 68 212.0 102.0
14.32 8.5 21.7 1240 173 447 61 192.0 92.7
14.16 9.3 23.5 1110 157 402 55 173.0 83.6
14.02 10.2 25.9
999 143 362 50 157.0 75.6
14.31 5.9 22.4
882 123 148 29 139.0 44.8
2

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3{12
Designation
W 14x 74
W 14x 68
W 14x 61
W 14x 53
W 14x 48
W 14x 43
W 14x 38
W 14x 34
W 14x 30
W 14x 26
W 14x 22
W 12x336
W 12x305
W 12x279
W 12x252
W 12x230
W 12x210
W 12x190
W 12x170
W 12x152
W 12x136
W 12x120
W 12x106
W 12x 96
W 12x 87
W 12x 79
W 12x 72
W 12x 65
W 12x 58
W 12x 53
W 12x 50
W 12x 45
W 12x 40
W 12x 35
W 12x 30
W 12x 26
W 12x 22
W 12x 19
W 12x 16
W 12x 14
W 10x112
W 10x100
W 10x 88
W 10x 77
W 10x 68
W 10x 60
W 10x 54
W 10x 49
W 10x 45
W 10x 39
W 10x 33
W 10x 30
W 10x 26
W 10x 22
W 10x 19
W 10x 17
W 10x 15
W 10x 12

Victor Saouma

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
A
in
21.8
20.0
17.9
15.6
14.1
12.6
11.2
10.0
8.9
7.7
6.5
98.8
89.6
81.9
74.1
67.7
61.8
55.8
50.0
44.7
39.9
35.3
31.2
28.2
25.6
23.2
21.1
19.1
17.0
15.6
14.7
13.2
11.8
10.3
8.8
7.7
6.5
5.6
4.7
4.2
32.9
29.4
25.9
22.6
20.0
17.6
15.8
14.4
13.3
11.5
9.7
8.8
7.6
6.5
5.6
5.0
4.4
3.5
2

d
in
14.17
14.04
13.89
13.92
13.79
13.66
14.10
13.98
13.84
13.91
13.74
16.82
16.32
15.85
15.41
15.05
14.71
14.38
14.03
13.71
13.41
13.12
12.89
12.71
12.53
12.38
12.25
12.12
12.19
12.06
12.19
12.06
11.94
12.50
12.34
12.22
12.31
12.16
11.99
11.91
11.36
11.10
10.84
10.60
10.40
10.22
10.09
9.98
10.10
9.92
9.73
10.47
10.33
10.17
10.24
10.11
9.99
9.87

bf

hc
tw

6.4
7.0
7.7
6.1
6.7
7.5
6.6
7.4
8.7
6.0
7.5
2.3
2.4
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.4
3.7
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.6
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.2
9.0
9.9
7.8
8.7
6.3
7.0
7.8
6.3
7.4
8.5
4.7
5.7
7.5
8.8
4.2
4.6
5.2
5.9
6.6
7.4
8.2
8.9
6.5
7.5
9.1
5.7
6.6
8.0
5.1
6.1
7.4
9.4

25.3
27.5
30.4
30.8
33.5
37.4
39.6
43.1
45.4
48.1
53.3
5.5
6.0
6.3
7.0
7.6
8.2
9.2
10.1
11.2
12.3
13.7
15.9
17.7
18.9
20.7
22.6
24.9
27.0
28.1
26.2
29.0
32.9
36.2
41.8
47.2
41.8
46.2
49.4
54.3
10.4
11.6
13.0
14.8
16.7
18.7
21.2
23.1
22.5
25.0
27.1
29.5
34.0
36.9
35.4
36.9
38.5
46.6

2t

Ix
in
796
723
640
541
485
428
385
340
291
245
199
4060
3550
3110
2720
2420
2140
1890
1650
1430
1240
1070
933
833
740
662
597
533
475
425
394
350
310
285
238
204
156
130
103
89
716
623
534
455
394
341
303
272
248
209
170
170
144
118
96
82
69
54
4

Sx
Iy Sy
Zx
Zy
in
in in
in
in
112 134 27 126.0 40.6
103 121 24 115.0 36.9
92 107 22 102.0 32.8
78
58 14 87.1 22.0
70
51 13 78.4 19.6
63
45 11 69.6 17.3
55
27
8 61.5 12.1
49
23
7 54.6 10.6
42
20
6 47.3
9.0
35
9
4 40.2
5.5
29
7
3 33.2
4.4
483 1190 177 603.0 274.0
435 1050 159 537.0 244.0
393 937 143 481.0 220.0
353 828 127 428.0 196.0
321 742 115 386.0 177.0
292 664 104 348.0 159.0
263 589 93 311.0 143.0
235 517 82 275.0 126.0
209 454 73 243.0 111.0
186 398 64 214.0 98.0
163 345 56 186.0 85.4
145 301 49 164.0 75.1
131 270 44 147.0 67.5
118 241 40 132.0 60.4
107 216 36 119.0 54.3
97 195 32 108.0 49.2
88 174 29 96.8 44.1
78 107 21 86.4 32.5
71
96 19 77.9 29.1
65
56 14 72.4 21.4
58
50 12 64.7 19.0
52
44 11 57.5 16.8
46
24
7 51.2 11.5
39
20
6 43.1
9.6
33
17
5 37.2
8.2
25
5
2 29.3
3.7
21
4
2 24.7
3.0
17
3
1 20.1
2.3
15
2
1 17.4
1.9
126 236 45 147.0 69.2
112 207 40 130.0 61.0
98 179 35 113.0 53.1
86 154 30 97.6 45.9
76 134 26 85.3 40.1
67 116 23 74.6 35.0
60 103 21 66.6 31.3
55
93 19 60.4 28.3
49
53 13 54.9 20.3
42
45 11 46.8 17.2
35
37
9 38.8 14.0
32
17
6 36.6
8.8
28
14
5 31.3
7.5
23
11
4 26.0
6.1
19
4
2 21.6
3.3
16
4
2 18.7
2.8
14
3
1 16.0
2.3
11
2
1 12.6
1.7
3

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3.6 Steel Section Properties
Designation
W 8x 67
W 8x 58
W 8x 48
W 8x 40
W 8x 35
W 8x 31
W 8x 28
W 8x 24
W 8x 21
W 8x 18
W 8x 15
W 8x 13
W 8x 10
W 6x 25
W 6x 20
W 6x 15
W 6x 16
W 6x 12
W 6x 9
W 5x 19
W 5x 16
W 4x 13
M 14x 18
M 12x 12
M 12x 11
M 12x 10
M 10x 9
M 10x 8
M 10x 8
M 8x 6
M 6x 4
M 5x 19
S 24x121
S 24x106
S 24x100
S 24x 90
S 24x 80
S 20x 96
S 20x 86
S 20x 75
S 20x 66
S 18x 70
S 18x 55
S 15x 50
S 15x 43
S 12x 50
S 12x 41
S 12x 35
S 12x 32
S 10x 35
S 10x 25
S 8x 23
S 8x 18
S 7x 20
S 7x 15
S 6x 17
S 6x 12
S 5x 15
S 5x 10
S 4x 10
S 4x 8
S 3x 8
S 3x 6

Victor Saouma

A
in
19.7
17.1
14.1
11.7
10.3
9.1
8.2
7.1
6.2
5.3
4.4
3.8
3.0
7.3
5.9
4.4
4.7
3.5
2.7
5.5
4.7
3.8
5.1
3.5
3.2
2.9
2.7
2.3
2.2
1.9
1.3
5.6
35.6
31.2
29.3
26.5
23.5
28.2
25.3
22.0
19.4
20.6
16.1
14.7
12.6
14.7
12.0
10.3
9.4
10.3
7.5
6.8
5.4
5.9
4.5
5.1
3.7
4.3
2.9
2.8
2.3
2.2
1.7
2

3{13

hc
d btff
Ix Sx Iy Sy
tw
in
in in in in
9.00 4.4 11.1 272 60 89 21
8.75 5.1 12.4 228 52 75 18
8.50 5.9 15.8 184 43 61 15
8.25 7.2 17.6 146 36 49 12
8.12 8.1 20.4 127 31 43 11
8.00 9.2 22.2 110 28 37
9
8.06 7.0 22.2
98 24 22
7
7.93 8.1 25.8
83 21 18
6
8.28 6.6 27.5
75 18 10
4
8.14 8.0 29.9
62 15
8
3
8.11 6.4 28.1
48 12
3
2
7.99 7.8 29.9
40 10
3
1
7.89 9.6 40.5
31
8
2
1
6.38 6.7 15.5
53 17 17
6
6.20 8.2 19.1
41 13 13
4
5.99 11.5 21.6
29 10
9
3
6.28 5.0 19.1
32 10
4
2
6.03 7.1 21.6
22
7
3
2
5.90 9.2 29.2
16
6
2
1
5.15 5.8 14.0
26 10
9
4
5.01 6.9 15.8
21
9
8
3
4.16 5.9 10.6
11
5
4
2
14.00 7.4 60.3 148 21
3
1
12.00 6.8 62.5
72 12
1
1
11.97 7.3 63.6
65 11
1
1
11.97 9.1 68.0
62 10
1
1
10.00 6.5 58.4
39
8
1
0
9.95 7.4 59.3
34
7
1
0
9.99 7.8 65.0
33
7
0
0
8.00 6.0 53.8
18
5
0
0
6.00 5.4 47.0
7
2
0
0
5.00 6.0 11.2
24 10
8
3
24.50 3.7 26.4 3160 258 83 21
24.50 3.6 34.1 2940 240 77 20
24.00 4.2 28.3 2390 199 48 13
24.00 4.1 33.7 2250 187 45 13
24.00 4.0 42.1 2100 175 42 12
20.30 3.9 21.6 1670 165 50 14
20.30 3.8 26.2 1580 155 47 13
20.00 4.0 27.1 1280 128 30
9
20.00 3.9 34.1 1190 119 28
9
18.00 4.5 21.8 926 103 24
8
18.00 4.3 33.6 804 89 21
7
15.00 4.5 23.2 486 65 16
6
15.00 4.4 31.0 447 60 14
5
12.00 4.2 13.9 305 51 16
6
12.00 4.0 20.7 272 45 14
5
12.00 4.7 23.4 229 38 10
4
12.00 4.6 28.6 218 36
9
4
10.00 5.0 13.8 147 29
8
3
10.00 4.7 26.4 124 25
7
3
8.00 4.9 14.5
65 16
4
2
8.00 4.7 23.7
58 14
4
2
7.00 4.9 12.3
42 12
3
2
7.00 4.7 21.9
37 10
3
1
6.00 5.0 9.9
26
9
2
1
6.00 4.6 19.9
22
7
2
1
5.00 5.0 7.5
15
6
2
1
5.00 4.6 17.4
12
5
1
1
4.00 4.8 8.7
7
3
1
1
4.00 4.5 14.7
6
3
1
1
3.00 4.8 5.6
3
2
1
0
3.00 4.5 11.4
3
2
0
0
2

Zx
in
70.2
59.8
49.0
39.8
34.7
30.4
27.2
23.2
20.4
17.0
13.6
11.4
8.9
18.9
14.9
10.8
11.7
8.3
6.2
11.6
9.6
6.3
24.9
14.3
13.2
12.2
9.2
8.2
7.7
5.4
2.8
11.0
306.0
279.0
240.0
222.0
204.0
198.0
183.0
153.0
140.0
125.0
105.0
77.1
69.3
61.2
53.1
44.8
42.0
35.4
28.4
19.3
16.5
14.5
12.1
10.6
8.5
7.4
5.7
4.0
3.5
2.4
2.0
3

Zy
in
32.7
27.9
22.9
18.5
16.1
14.1
10.1
8.6
5.7
4.7
2.7
2.2
1.7
8.6
6.7
4.8
3.4
2.3
1.7
5.5
4.6
2.9
2.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
5.0
36.2
33.2
23.9
22.3
20.7
24.9
23.0
16.7
15.3
14.4
12.1
10.0
9.0
10.3
8.9
6.8
6.4
6.2
5.0
3.7
3.2
3.0
2.4
2.4
1.9
1.9
1.4
1.1
1.0
0.8
0.7
3

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3{14

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

A
in
C 15.x 50 14.7
C 15.x 40 11.8
C 15.x 34 10.0
C 12.x 30 8.8
C 12.x 25 7.3
C 12.x 21 6.1
C 10.x 30 8.8
C 10.x 25 7.3
C 10.x 20 5.9
C 10.x 15 4.5
C 9.x 20 5.9
C 9.x 15 4.4
C 9.x 13 3.9
C 8.x 19 5.5
C 8.x 14 4.0
C 8.x 12 3.4
C 7.x 15 4.3
C 7.x 12 3.6
C 7.x 10 2.9
C 6.x 13 3.8
C 6.x 11 3.1
C 6.x 8 2.4
C 5.x 9 2.6
C 5.x 7 2.0
C 4.x 7 2.1
C 4.x 5 1.6
C 3.x 6 1.8
C 3.x 5 1.5
C 3.x 4 1.2
Designation

Designation

d
in
15.
15.
15.
12.
12.
12.
10.
10.
10.
10.
9.
9.
9.
8.
8.
8.
7.
7.
7.
6.
6.
6.
5.
5.
4.
4.
3.
3.
3.
A
in
11.00
8.44
6.43
5.75
7.69
6.48
5.25
3.98
11.00
9.73
8.44
7.11
6.43
5.75
5.06
4.36
3.65
7.98
6.94
5.86
5.31
4.75
4.18
3.61
3.03
4.50
3.42
2.87

L 8.0x4.0x1.000
L 8.0x4.0x0.750
L 8.0x4.0x0.563
L 8.0x4.0x0.500
L 7.0x4.0x0.750
L 7.0x4.0x0.625
L 7.0x4.0x0.500
L 7.0x4.0x0.375
L 6.0x6.0x1.000
L 6.0x6.0x0.875
L 6.0x6.0x0.750
L 6.0x6.0x0.625
L 6.0x6.0x0.563
L 6.0x6.0x0.500
L 6.0x6.0x0.438
L 6.0x6.0x0.375
L 6.0x6.0x0.313
L 6.0x4.0x0.875
L 6.0x4.0x0.750
L 6.0x4.0x0.625
L 6.0x4.0x0.563
L 6.0x4.0x0.500
L 6.0x4.0x0.438
L 6.0x4.0x0.375
L 6.0x4.0x0.313
L 6.0x3.5x0.500
L 6.0x3.5x0.375
L 6.0x3.5x0.313

Victor Saouma

bf

2t

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
wgt
k=ft
37.40
28.70
21.90
19.60
26.20
22.10
17.90
13.60
37.40
33.10
28.70
24.20
21.90
19.60
17.20
14.90
12.40
27.20
23.60
20.00
18.10
16.20
14.30
12.30
10.30
15.30
11.70
9.80

hc
tw

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Ix
in
69.6
54.9
42.8
38.5
37.8
32.4
26.7
20.6
35.5
31.9
28.2
24.2
22.1
19.9
17.7
15.4
13.0
27.7
24.5
21.1
19.3
17.4
15.5
13.5
11.4
16.6
12.9
10.9
4

Ix
in
404.0
349.0
315.0
162.0
144.0
129.0
103.0
91.2
78.9
67.4
60.9
51.0
47.9
44.0
36.1
32.6
27.2
24.2
21.3
17.4
15.2
13.1
8.9
7.5
4.6
3.8
2.1
1.9
1.7
Sx
in
14.1
10.9
8.4
7.5
8.4
7.1
5.8
4.4
8.6
7.6
6.7
5.7
5.1
4.6
4.1
3.5
3.0
7.2
6.3
5.3
4.8
4.3
3.8
3.3
2.8
4.2
3.2
2.7
4

Sx
in
53.8
46.5
42.0
27.0
24.1
21.5
20.7
18.2
15.8
13.5
13.5
11.3
10.6
11.0
9.0
8.1
7.8
6.9
6.1
5.8
5.1
4.4
3.6
3.0
2.3
1.9
1.4
1.2
1.1
Iy
in
11.60
9.36
7.43
6.74
9.05
7.84
6.53
5.10
35.50
31.90
28.20
24.20
22.10
19.90
17.70
15.40
13.00
9.75
8.68
7.52
6.91
6.27
5.60
4.90
4.18
4.25
3.34
2.85
3

Iy
in
11.
9.23
8.13
5.14
4.47
3.88
3.94
3.36
2.81
2.28
2.42
1.93
1.76
1.98
1.53
1.32
1.38
1.17
0.97
1.05
0.87
0.69
0.63
0.48
0.43
0.32
0.31
0.25
0.20
Sy
in
3.94
3.07
2.38
2.15
3.03
2.58
2.12
1.63
8.57
7.63
6.66
5.66
5.14
4.61
4.08
3.53
2.97
3.39
2.97
2.54
2.31
2.08
1.85
1.60
1.35
1.59
1.23
1.04
4

Sy
Zx Zy
in
in
in
3.78 8.20 8.17
3.37 57.20 6.87
3.11 50.40 6.23
2.06 33.60 4.33
1.88 29.20 3.84
1.73 25.40 3.49
1.65 26.60 3.78
1.48
23. 3.19
1.32 19.30 2.71
1.16 15.80 2.35
1.17 16.80 2.47
1.01 13.50 2.05
0.96 12.50 1.95
1.01 13.80 2.17
0.85 10.90 1.73
0.78 9.55 1.58
0.78 9.68 1.64
0.70 8.40 1.43
0.63 7.12 1.26
0.64 7.26 1.36
0.56 6.15 1.15
0.49 5.13 0.99
0.45 4.36 0.92
0.38 3.51 0.76
0.34 2.81 0.70
0.28 2.26 0.57
0.27 1.72 0.54
0.23 1.50 0.47
0.20 1.30 0.40
Zx
Zy
in
in
24.30 7.72
18.90 5.81
14.50 4.38
13.00 3.90
14.80 5.65
12.60 4.74
10.30 3.83
7.87 2.90
15.50 15.50
13.80 13.80
12.00 12.00
10.20 10.20
9.26 9.26
8.31 8.31
7.34 7.34
6.35 6.35
5.35 5.35
12.70 6.31
11.20 5.47
9.51 4.62
8.66 4.19
7.78 3.75
6.88 3.30
5.97 2.85
5.03 2.40
7.50 2.91
5.76 2.20
4.85 1.85
3

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3.6 Steel Section Properties
Designation
L 5.0x5.0x0.875
L 5.0x5.0x0.750
L 5.0x5.0x0.625
L 5.0x5.0x0.500
L 5.0x5.0x0.438
L 5.0x5.0x0.375
L 5.0x5.0x0.313
L 5.0x3.5x0.750
L 5.0x3.5x0.625
L 5.0x3.5x0.500
L 5.0x3.5x0.438
L 5.0x3.5x0.375
L 5.0x3.5x0.313
L 5.0x3.5x0.250
L 5.0x3.0x0.625
L 5.0x3.0x0.500
L 5.0x3.0x0.438
L 5.0x3.0x0.375
L 5.0x3.0x0.313
L 5.0x3.0x0.250
L 4.0x4.0x0.750
L 4.0x4.0x0.625
L 4.0x4.0x0.500
L 4.0x4.0x0.438
L 4.0x4.0x0.375
L 4.0x4.0x0.313
L 4.0x4.0x0.250
L 4.0x3.5x0.500
L 4.0x3.5x0.438
L 4.0x3.5x0.375
L 4.0x3.5x0.313
L 4.0x3.5x0.250
L 4.0x3.0x0.500
L 4.0x3.0x0.438

Victor Saouma

A
in
7.98
6.94
5.86
4.75
4.18
3.61
3.03
5.81
4.92
4.00
3.53
3.05
2.56
2.06
4.61
3.75
3.31
2.86
2.40
1.94
5.44
4.61
3.75
3.31
2.86
2.40
1.94
3.50
3.09
2.67
2.25
1.81
3.25
2.87
2

wgt
k=ft
27.20
23.60
20.00
16.20
14.30
12.30
10.30
19.80
16.80
13.60
12.00
10.40
8.70
7.00
15.70
12.80
11.30
9.80
8.20
6.60
18.50
15.70
12.80
11.30
9.80
8.20
6.60
11.90
10.60
9.10
7.70
6.20
11.10
9.80

3{15
Ix Sx
in in
17.8 5.2
15.7 4.5
13.6 3.9
11.3 3.2
10.0 2.8
8.7 2.4
7.4 2.0
13.9 4.3
12.0 3.7
10.0 3.0
8.9 2.6
7.8 2.3
6.6 1.9
5.4 1.6
11.4 3.5
9.4 2.9
8.4 2.6
7.4 2.2
6.3 1.9
5.1 1.5
7.7 2.8
6.7 2.4
5.6 2.0
5.0 1.8
4.4 1.5
3.7 1.3
3.0 1.0
5.3 1.9
4.8 1.7
4.2 1.5
3.6 1.3
2.9 1.0
5.1 1.9
4.5 1.7
4

Iy
in
17.80
15.70
13.60
11.30
10.00
8.74
7.42
5.55
4.83
4.05
3.63
3.18
2.72
2.23
3.06
2.58
2.32
2.04
1.75
1.44
7.67
6.66
5.56
4.97
4.36
3.71
3.04
3.79
3.40
2.95
2.55
2.09
2.42
2.18
4

Sy
in
5.17
4.53
3.86
3.16
2.79
2.42
2.04
2.22
1.90
1.56
1.39
1.21
1.02
0.83
1.39
1.15
1.02
0.89
0.75
0.61
2.81
2.40
1.97
1.75
1.52
1.29
1.05
1.52
1.35
1.16
0.99
0.81
1.12
0.99
3

Zx
in
9.33
8.16
6.95
5.68
5.03
4.36
3.68
7.65
6.55
5.38
4.77
4.14
3.49
2.83
6.27
5.16
4.57
3.97
3.36
2.72
5.07
4.33
3.56
3.16
2.74
2.32
1.88
3.50
3.11
2.71
2.29
1.86
3.41
3.03
3

Zy
in
9.33
8.16
6.95
5.68
5.03
4.36
3.68
4.10
3.47
2.83
2.49
2.16
1.82
1.47
2.61
2.11
1.86
1.60
1.35
1.09
5.07
4.33
3.56
3.16
2.74
2.32
1.88
2.73
2.42
2.11
1.78
1.44
2.03
1.79
3

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3{16
Designation
L 4.0x3.0x0.375
L 4.0x3.0x0.313
L 4.0x3.0x0.250
L 3.5x3.5x0.500
L 3.5x3.5x0.438
L 3.5x3.5x0.375
L 3.5x3.5x0.313
L 3.5x3.5x0.250
L 3.5x3.0x0.500
L 3.5x3.0x0.438
L 3.5x3.0x0.375
L 3.5x3.0x0.313
L 3.5x3.0x0.250
L 3.5x2.5x0.500
L 3.5x2.5x0.438
L 3.5x2.5x0.375
L 3.5x2.5x0.313
L 3.5x2.5x0.250
L 3.0x3.0x0.500
L 3.0x3.0x0.438
L 3.0x3.0x0.375
L 3.0x3.0x0.313
L 3.0x3.0x0.250
L 3.0x3.0x0.188
L 3.0x2.5x0.500
L 3.0x2.5x0.438
L 3.0x2.5x0.375
L 3.0x2.5x0.313
L 3.0x2.5x0.250
L 3.0x2.5x0.188
L 3.0x2.0x0.500
L 3.0x2.0x0.438
L 3.0x2.0x0.375
L 3.0x2.0x0.313
L 3.0x2.0x0.250
L 3.0x2.0x0.188
L 2.5x2.5x0.500
L 2.5x2.5x0.375
L 2.5x2.5x0.313
L 2.5x2.5x0.250
L 2.5x2.5x0.188
L 2.5x2.0x0.375
L 2.5x2.0x0.313
L 2.5x2.0x0.250
L 2.5x2.0x0.188
L 2.0x2.0x0.375
L 2.0x2.0x0.313
L 2.0x2.0x0.250
L 2.0x2.0x0.188
L 2.0x2.0x0.125
L 1.8x1.8x0.250
L 1.8x1.8x0.188
L 1.5x1.5x0.250
L 1.5x1.5x0.188
L 1.3x1.3x0.250
L 1.3x1.3x0.188
L 1.1x1.1x0.125
L 1.0x1.0x0.125

Victor Saouma

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
A wgt Ix Sx
in k=ft in in
2.48 8.50 4.0 1.5
2.09 7.20 3.4 1.2
1.69 5.80 2.8 1.0
3.25 11.10 3.6 1.5
2.87 9.80 3.3 1.3
2.48 8.50 2.9 1.1
2.09 7.20 2.5 1.0
1.69 5.80 2.0 0.8
3.00 10.20 3.5 1.5
2.65 9.10 3.1 1.3
2.30 7.90 2.7 1.1
1.93 6.60 2.3 1.0
1.56 5.40 1.9 0.8
2.75 9.40 3.2 1.4
2.43 8.30 2.9 1.3
2.11 7.20 2.6 1.1
1.78 6.10 2.2 0.9
1.44 4.90 1.8 0.8
2.75 9.40 2.2 1.1
2.43 8.30 2.0 1.0
2.11 7.20 1.8 0.8
1.78 6.10 1.5 0.7
1.44 4.90 1.2 0.6
1.09 3.71 1.0 0.4
2.50 8.50 2.1 1.0
2.21 7.60 1.9 0.9
1.92 6.60 1.7 0.8
1.62 5.60 1.4 0.7
1.31 4.50 1.2 0.6
1.00 3.39 0.9 0.4
2.25 7.70 1.9 1.0
2.00 6.80 1.7 0.9
1.73 5.90 1.5 0.8
1.46 5.00 1.3 0.7
1.19 4.10 1.1 0.5
0.90 3.07 0.8 0.4
2.25 7.70 1.2 0.7
1.73 5.90 1.0 0.6
1.46 5.00 0.8 0.5
1.19 4.10 0.7 0.4
0.90 3.07 0.5 0.3
1.55 5.30 0.9 0.5
1.31 4.50 0.8 0.5
1.06 3.62 0.7 0.4
0.81 2.75 0.5 0.3
1.36 4.70 0.5 0.4
1.15 3.92 0.4 0.3
0.94 3.19 0.3 0.2
0.71 2.44 0.3 0.2
0.48 1.65 0.2 0.1
0.81 2.77 0.2 0.2
0.62 2.12 0.2 0.1
0.69 2.34 0.1 0.1
0.53 1.80 0.1 0.1
0.56 1.92 0.1 0.1
0.43 1.48 0.1 0.1
0.27 0.90 0.0 0.0
0.23 0.80 0.0 0.0
2

Iy
in
1.92
1.65
1.36
3.64
3.26
2.87
2.45
2.01
2.33
2.09
1.85
1.58
1.30
1.36
1.23
1.09
0.94
0.78
2.22
1.99
1.76
1.51
1.24
0.96
1.30
1.18
1.04
0.90
0.74
0.58
0.67
0.61
0.54
0.47
0.39
0.31
1.23
0.98
0.85
0.70
0.55
0.51
0.45
0.37
0.29
0.48
0.42
0.35
0.27
0.19
0.23
0.18
0.14
0.11
0.08
0.06
0.03
0.02
4

Sy
in
0.87
0.73
0.60
1.49
1.32
1.15
0.98
0.79
1.10
0.98
0.85
0.72
0.59
0.76
0.68
0.59
0.50
0.41
1.07
0.95
0.83
0.71
0.58
0.44
0.74
0.66
0.58
0.49
0.40
0.31
0.47
0.42
0.37
0.32
0.26
0.20
0.72
0.57
0.48
0.39
0.30
0.36
0.31
0.25
0.20
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.19
0.13
0.23
0.14
0.13
0.10
0.09
0.07
0.04
0.03
3

Zx
in
2.64
2.23
1.82
2.68
2.38
2.08
1.76
1.43
2.63
2.34
2.04
1.73
1.41
2.53
2.26
1.97
1.67
1.36
1.93
1.72
1.50
1.27
1.04
0.79
1.88
1.68
1.47
1.25
1.02
0.78
1.78
1.59
1.40
1.19
0.97
0.75
1.31
1.02
0.87
0.71
0.55
0.99
0.84
0.69
0.53
0.63
0.54
0.44
0.34
0.23
0.34
0.26
0.24
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.07
0.06
3

Zy
in
1.56
1.31
1.06
2.68
2.38
2.08
1.76
1.43
1.98
1.76
1.53
1.30
1.05
1.40
1.24
1.07
0.91
0.74
1.93
1.72
1.50
1.27
1.04
0.79
1.35
1.20
1.05
0.89
0.72
0.55
0.89
0.79
0.68
0.58
0.47
0.36
1.31
1.02
0.87
0.71
0.55
0.66
0.56
0.46
0.35
0.63
0.54
0.44
0.34
0.23
0.34
0.26
0.24
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.07
0.06
3

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3.7 Joists

3{17

3.7 Joists
43 Steel joists, Fig. 3.8 look like shallow trusses (warren type) and are designed as simply supported uniformly loaded beams assuming that they are laterally supported on the top (to prevent lateral torsional
buckling). The lateral support is often pro ded by the concrete slab it suppors.
44 The standard open-web joist designation consists of the depth, the series designation and the chord
type. Three series are available for oor/roof construction, Table 3.3

Series Depth (in)


K 8-30
LH 18-48
DLH 52-72

Span (ft)
8-60
25-96
89-120

Table 3.3: Joist Series Characteristics


[Design Length = Span 0.33 FT.]
4"

4"

4"

Span
Figure 3.8: prefabricated Steel Joists
Typical joist spacing ranges from 2 to 4 ft, and provides an ecient use of the corrugated steel deck
which itself supports the concrete slab.

45

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3{18
46

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

For preliminary estimates of the joist depth, a depth to span ratio of 24 can be assumed, therefore

d  L=2

(3.5)

where d is in inches, and L in ft.


47 Table 3.4 list the load carrying capacity of open web, K-series steel joists based on a amximum
allowable stress of 30 ksi. For each span, the rst line indicates the total safe uniformly distributed
load-carrying capacity in pounds per linear foot. Note that the dead load (including the one of the joist)
must be substracted in order to determine the safe live load. The second line indicates the live load
(pounds/linear foot) which will produce an approximate delection of L=360.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3.7 Joists
Joint 8K1 10K1 12K1
Desig.
Depth 8
10 12
(in.)
 W 5.1 5
5
(lbs/ft)
Span
(ft.)
8
550
550
9
550
550
10
550 550
480 550
11
532 550
377 542
12
444 550 550
288 455 550
13
377 479 550
225 363 510
14
324 412 500
179 289 425
15
281 358 434
145 234 344
16
246 313 380
119 192 282
17
277 336
159 234
18
246 299
134 197
19
221 268
113 167
20
199 241
97 142
21
218
123
22
199
106
23
181
93
24
166
81
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

3{19
12K3 12K5 14K1 14K3 14K4 14K6 16K2 16K3 16K4 16K5 16K6 16K7 16K9
12

12

14

14

14

14

16

16

16

16

16

5.7 7.1

5.2

6.7 7.7

5.5

6.3

7.5

8.1 8.6 10.0

550
550
511
475
448
390
395
324
352
272
315
230
284
197
257
170
234
147
214
128
196
113
180
100
166
88
154
79
143
70

550
550
550
507
550
467
495
404
441
339
395
287
356
246
322
212
293
184
268
160
245
141
226
124
209
110
193
98
180
88

550
550
550
507
550
467
550
443
530
397
475
336
428
287
388
248
353
215
322
188
295
165
272
145
251
129
233
115
216
103

550
550
512
488
456
409
408
347
368
297
333
255
303
222
277
194
254
170
234
150
216
133
200
119
186
106
173
95
161
86
151
78
142
71

550
550
550
526
508
456
455
386
410
330
371
285
337
247
308
216
283
189
260
167
240
148
223
132
207
118
193
106
180
96
168
87
158
79

550
550
550
526
550
490
547
452
493
386
447
333
406
289
371
252
340
221
313
195
289
173
268
155
249
138
232
124
216
112
203
101
190
92

550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
503
373
458
323
418
282
384
248
353
219
326
194
302
173
281
155
261
139
244
126
228
114
214
103

550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
548
405
498
351
455
307
418
269
384
238
355
211
329
188
306
168
285
151
266
137
249
124
233
112

550
550
550
510
550
463
543
428
476
351
420
291
374
245
335
207
302
177
273
153
249
132
227
116
208
101

550
550
550
510
550
463
550
434
550
396
550
366
507
317
454
269
409
230
370
198
337
172
308
150
282
132

550
550
550
507
550
467
550
443
550
408
550
383
525
347
475
299
432
259
395
226
362
199
334
175
308
56
285
139
265
124

16

550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
550
406
550
385
507
339
465
298
428
263
395
233
366
208
340
186
317
167
296
151
277
137
259
124

16

550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
550
406
550
385
550
363
550
346
514
311
474
276
439
246
408
220
380
198
355
178
332
161
311
147

Table 3.4: Joist Properties

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
3{20

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 4

Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER


Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983)

4.1 Materials, & Geometry


The tower was built out of wrought iron, less expensive than steel,and Ei el had more expereince with
this material, Fig. 4.1
1

Figure 4.1: Ei el Tower (Billington and Mark 1983)

Draft
4{2

Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER


The structure is essentially a tower, subjected to gravity and
wind load. It is a relatively \light" structure, so dead load is small
compared to the wind load.
M gravity
3 To avoid overturning
M wind had to be much higher than 1.
This can be achieved either by:
1. Increase self weight (as in Washington's monument)
2. Increase the width of the base
3. Design support to resist tension.
4. Post-tension the support.

The tower is 984 feet high, and 328 feet wide at the base. The
large base was essential to provide adequate stability in the presence of wind load.
5 We can assume that the shape of the tower is parabolic. If we
take the x axis to be along the vertical axis of symmetry and y the
half width, then we know that at x = 984 the (half) width y = 0
and at x = 0 the half width is 328=2 = 164, thus the equation of
the half width is given by

y = 164 984984; x
|
{z
av(x)2

(4.1)

We recall from calculus that for y = v(x)

Thus for our problem

dy dv
dy
dx = dv dx
d 2
dx ax = 2ax

(4.2-a)
(4.2-b)

dy
984 ; x
1
dx = |2(164){z 984 } | ;{z
984 }
dy
dv

;x
= 984
2; 952

(4.3-a)

dv
dx

Also

dy = tan ) = tan;1 dy
dx
dx
where is the angle measured from the x axis to the tangent to the curve.
3

2

(4.3-b)
(4.4)

We now can tabulate the width and slope at various elevations

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
4.2 Loads

4{3

Width
dy
Location
Height Width/2 Estimated Actual dx

Support
0
164
328
.333 18.4o
First platform
186
108
216 240
.270 15.1o
second platform
380
62
123 110
.205 11.6o
Intermediate platform
644
20
40
.115 6.6o
Top platform
906
1
2
.0264 1.5o
Top
984
0
0
0.000 0o
4 The tower is supported by four inclined supports, each with a cross section of 800
of the tower is shown in Fig. 4.2.

2.

in

ACTUAL
CONTINUOUS
CONNECTION

An idealization

IDEALIZED
CONTINUOUS
CONNECTION

ACTUAL
POINTS OF
CONNECTION

Figure 4.2: Ei el Tower Idealization, (Billington and Mark 1983)

4.2 Loads
5
6

The total weight of the tower is 18; 800 .


The dead load is not uniformly distributed, and is approximated as follows, Fig. 4.3:
k

Location
Height Dead Weight
Ground- second platform
380 ft
15; 500
Second platform-intermediate platform 264 ft
2; 200
intermediate platform - top
340 ft
1; 100
Total
984 ft
18; 800

k
k
k

From the actual width of the lower two platforms we can estimate the live loads (the intermediate and
top platforms would have negligible LL in comparison):

kip
1st platform: (50) (240)2 2 (1;000)
2; 880
2
2
2nd platform: (50) (110) (1;000)
600
Total:
3; 480
Hence the total vertical load is Pvert = DL + LL = 18; 800 + 3; 480 = 22; 280 .
psf

psf

ft

ft

lbs

lbs

k
k

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
4{4

Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER

Figure 4.3: Ei el Tower, Dead Load Idealization; (Billington and Mark 1983)
The wind pressure is known to also have a parabolic distribution (maximum at the top), the cross
sectional area over which the wind is acting is also parabolic (maximum at the base). Hence we will
simplify our analysis by considering an equivalent wind force obtained from a constant wind pressure
(force/length) and constant cross section Fig. 4.4: The pressure is assumed to be 2.6 k/ft, thus the
lateral wind force is, Fig. 4.5
(4.5)
Plat = (2:6) (984) = 2,560 acting at 984
2 = 492

k/ft

ft

ft

4.3 Reactions

Simplifying the three dimensional structure with 4 supports into a two dimensional one with two
supports, the reactions can be easily determined for this statically determinate structure, Fig.4.6.
Gravity Load

Pvert = 22; 280 ?


grav
Rvert
= 22;2280 = 11,140

(4.6-a)
(4.6-b)

Lateral Load
Lateral Moment (we essentially have a cantilivered beam subjected to a uniform load). The

moment at a distance x from the support along the cantilevered beam subjected to a uniform
pressure p is given by
2
(4.7)
Mlat = p| (L{z; x}) L ;2 x = p (L ;2 x)
| {z }
Force Moment arm

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
4.3 Reactions

4{5

Figure 4.4: Ei el Tower, Wind Load Idealization; (Billington and Mark 1983)
TOTAL
LOADS
LOADS
P

P=2560k
Q

Q=22,280k

L/2

1111
0000
0000 H
1111
0000
1111
000 0
111
0000
1111
000
111
000
000
111
V111
0
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111

REACTIONS
M0

Figure 4.5: Ei el Tower, Wind Loads, (Billington and Mark 1983)

WINDWARD
SIDE

VERTICAL
FORCES

WIND
FORCES

LEEWARD
SIDE

TOTAL

Figure 4.6: Ei el Tower, Reactions; (Billington and Mark 1983)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
4{6

Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER

Thus the lateral moment caused by the wind is parabolic. At the base (x = 0), the maximum
moment is equal to
2
2
Mlat = p (L ;2 x) = (2:6) (984 2; 0) 2 = 1,260,000 ;
(4.8)
We observe that the shape of the moment diagram is also parabolic, just like the tower itself.
This is not accidental, as nearly optimum structures have a shape which closely approximate
their moment diagram (such as the varying depth of continuous long span bridges).
To determine the resulting internal forces caused by the lateral (wind) moment, and since we
have two supports (one under tension and the other under compression) we use
1; 260; 000 =  3,850
wind
=
Rvert
= M
(4.9)
6?
d
328
Lateral Forces to be resisted by each of the two pairs. By symmetry, the lateral force will be
equally divided among the two pairs of supports and will be equal to
wind
= 1,280 
Rlat
= (2; 560)
(4.10)
2
k/ft

ft

k.ft

k.ft

ft

4.4 Internal Forces


10

First, a biref reminder


cos  = FFx (4.11-a)
sin  = FFy (4.11-b)

Fy

tan  = FFy (4.11-c)


x

Fx

Internal forces are rst determined at the base.


12 Gravity load are rst considered, remember those are caused by the dead load and the live load,
Fig. 4.7:

11

=18.40
=18.4
INCLINED
INTERNAL
FORCE: N
CONSEQUENT
HORIZONTAL
COMPONENT: H

KNOWN VERTICAL
COMPONENT: V

H
FORCE POLYGON

Figure 4.7: Ei el Tower, Internal Gravity Forces; (Billington and Mark 1983)

Victor Saouma

V )N= V
cos = N
cos

(4.12-a)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
4.4 Internal Forces

4{7
; 140
N = 11
cos 18:4o = 11,730 kip
tan = H
V ) H = V tan
H = 11; 140 (tan 18:4o) = 3,700 kip

(4.12-b)

(4.12-c)
(4.12-d)

The horizontal forces which must be resisted by the foundations, Fig. 4.8.

H
3700 k

3700 k

Figure 4.8: Ei el Tower, Horizontal Reactions; (Billington and Mark 1983)


Because the vertical load decreases with height, the axial force will also decrease with height.
14 At the second platform, the total vertical load is Q = 1; 100 + 2; 200 = 3; 300
and at that height the
angle is 11:6o thus the axial force (per pair of columns) will be

13

3;300 k

2
Nvert = cos 11
:6o = 1; 685
o
Hvert = 3; 300
2 (tan 11:6 ) = 339

(4.13-a)

(4.13-b)

Note that this is about seven times smaller than the axial force at the base, which for a given axial
strength, would lead the designer to reduce (or taper) the cross-section.
The horizontal force will be resisted by the axial forces in the second platform itself.
15 Wind Load: We now have determined at each pair of support the vertical and the horizontal forces
caused by the wind load, the next step is to determine their axial components along the inclined leg,
Fig. 4.9:
wind
wind
Nc = ;Rvert
cos ; Rlat
sin
o
= ;(3; 850) (cos 18:4 ) ; (1; 280) (sin 18:40)
k

=
Nt =
=
=

Victor Saouma

-4,050

Leeward
wind
;R cos + Rlat
sin
o
(3; 850) (cos 18:4 ) + (1; 280) (sin 18:40)
4,050 Winward
k

wind
vert

(4.14-a)
(4.14-b)
(4.14-c)
(4.14-d)
(4.14-e)
(4.14-f)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
4{8

Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER

18.4

3,850 k

3,850 cos 18.4

1,280 sin 18.4

18.4

1,280 k

Figure 4.9: Ei el Tower, Internal Wind Forces; (Billington and Mark 1983)

4.5 Internal Stresses


16

The total forces caused by both lateral and gravity forces can now be determined:
NLTotal = ;(11; 730) ;(4; 050) = -15,780 Leeward side
|

{z

}|

{z

gravity
lateral
Total
;{z050) } = -7,630
NW
= ;
(11;{z730) } +(4
|
|
gravity
lateral
k

Winward side

(4.15-a)
(4.15-b)

We observe that even under wind load, the windward side is still under compression.
2.
17 In the idealization of the tower's geometry, the area of each pair of the simpli ed columns is 1; 600
and thus the maximum stresses will be determined from
T
; 780 = -9.9
comp = NAL = ;1;15600
(4.16)
2
in

ksi

in

18

The strength of wrought iron is 45 ksi, hence the safety factor is


stress 45
Safety Factor = ultimate
actual stress = 9:9 = 4.5
ksi

ksi

Victor Saouma

(4.17)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 5

REVIEW of STATICS
To every action there is an equal
and opposite reaction.
Newton's third law of motion

5.1 Reactions
In the analysis of structures (hand calculations), it is often easier (but not always necessary) to start
by determining the reactions.
2 Once the reactions are determined, internal forces are determined next; nally, internal stresses and/or
deformations (de ections and rotations) are determined last1 .
3 Reactions are necessary to determine foundation load.
4 Depending on the type of structures, there can be di erent types of support conditions, Fig. 5.1.
Roller: provides a restraint in only one direction in a 2D structure, in 3D structures a roller may provide
restraint in one or two directions. A roller will allow rotation.
Hinge: allows rotation but no displacements.
Fixed Support: will prevent rotation and displacements in all directions.

5.1.1 Equilibrium
5
6
7

Reactions are determined from the appropriate equations of static equilibrium.


Summation of forces and moments, in a static system must be equal to zero2.
In a 3D cartesian coordinate system there are a total of 6 independent equations of equilibrium:
This is the sequence of operations in the exibility method which lends itself to hand calculation. In the sti ness
1

method, we determine displacements rsts, then internal forces and reactions. This method is most suitable to computer
implementation.
In a dynamic system F = ma where m is the mass and a is the acceleration.
2

Draft
5{2

REVIEW of STATICS

Figure 5.1: Types of Supports


Fx = Fy = Fz = 0
Mx = My = Mz = 0
8

(5.1)

In a 2D cartesian coordinate system there are a total of 3 independent equations of equilibrium:


Fx = Fy = Mz = 0

(5.2)

For reaction calculations, the externally applied load may be reduced to an equivalent force3 .
10 Summation of the moments can be taken with respect to any arbitrary point.
11 Whereas forces are represented by a vector, moments are also vectorial quantities and are represented
by a curved arrow or a double arrow vector.
12 Not all equations are applicable to all structures, Table 5.1
13 The three conventional equations of equilibrium in 2D: Fx ; Fy and Mz can be replaced by the
independent moment equations MzA, MzB , MzC provided that A, B, and C are not colinear.
14 It is always preferable to check calculations by another equation of equilibrium.
15 Before you write an equation of equilibrium,
1. Arbitrarily decide which is the +ve direction
2. Assume a direction for the unknown quantities
3. The right hand side of the equation should be zero
9

However for internal forces (shear and moment) we must use the actual load distribution.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.1 Reactions

5{3

Structure Type

Beam, no axial forces


2D Truss, Frame, Beam
Grid
3D Truss, Frame

Fx

Fy
Fy

Fx

Fy

Alternate Set

Equations
Fz
Fz

Mz
Mz

Mx My
Mx My Mz

Beams, no axial Force


MzA MzB
2 D Truss, Frame, Beam Fx MzA MzB
MzA MzB MzC
Table 5.1: Equations of Equilibrium
If your reaction is negative, then it will be in a direction opposite from the one assumed.
16 Summation of external forces is equal and opposite to the internal ones. Thus the net force/moment
is equal to zero.
17 The external forces give rise to the (non-zero) shear and moment diagram.

5.1.2 Equations of Conditions


18 If a structure has an internal hinge (which may connect two or more substructures), then this will
provide an additional equation (M = 0 at the hinge) which can be exploited to determine the reactions.
19 Those equations are often exploited in trusses (where each connection is a hinge) to determine reactions.
20 In an inclined roller support with Sx and Sy horizontal and vertical projection, then the reaction
R would have, Fig. 5.2.

Rx = Sy
Ry Sx

(5.3)

Figure 5.2: Inclined Roller Support

5.1.3 Static Determinacy


21 In statically determinate structures, reactions depend only on the geometry, boundary conditions and
loads.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5{4

REVIEW of STATICS

If the reactions can not be determined simply from the equations of static equilibrium (and equations
of conditions if present), then the reactions of the structure are said to be statically indeterminate.
23 The degree of static indeterminacy is equal to the di erence between the number of reactions
and the number of equations of equilibrium (plus the number of equations of conditions if applicable),
Fig. 5.3.
22

Figure 5.3: Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures


Failure of one support in a statically determinate system results in the collapse of the structures.
Thus a statically indeterminate structure is safer than a statically determinate one.
25 For statically indeterminate structures, reactions depend also on the material properties (e.g. Young's
and/or shear modulus) and element cross sections (e.g. length, area, moment of inertia).

24

5.1.4 Geometric Instability


The stability of a structure is determined not only by the number of reactions but also by their
arrangement.
27 Geometric instability will occur if:
1. All reactions are parallel and a non-parallel load is applied to the structure.
2. All reactions are concurrent, Fig. 5.4.

26

Figure 5.4: Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.1 Reactions

5{5

3. The number of reactions is smaller than the number of equations of equilibrium, that is a mechanism is present in the structure.
28 Mathematically, this can be shown if the determinant of the equations of equilibrium is equal to
zero (or the equations are inter-dependent).

5.1.5 Examples
29 Examples of reaction calculation will be shown next. Each example has been carefully selected as it
brings a di erent \twist" from the preceding one. Some of those same problems will be revisited later
for the determination of the internal forces and/or de ections. Many of those problems are taken from
Prof. Gerstle textbok Basic Structural Analysis.

Example 5-7: Simply Supported Beam


Determine the reactions of the simply supported beam shown below.

Solution:

The beam has 3 reactions, we have 3 equations of static equilibrium, hence it is statically determinate.
(+ - ) Fx = 0; ) Rax ; 36 = 0
(+ 6) Fy = 0; ) Ray + Rdy ; 60 ; (4) (12) = 0
(+ ;) Mzc = 0; ) 12Ray ; 6Rdy ; (60)(6) = 0
k

or through matrix inversion (on your calculator)


2
4

1 0 0
0 1 1
0 12 ;6

38
<
5
:

Rax
Ray
Rdy

9
=
;

8
<

=:

36
108
360

9
=
;

8
<

):

k/ft

Rax
Ray
Rdy

9
=
;

ft

8
<

=:

36
56
52

k
k
k

9
=
;

Alternatively we could have used another set of equations:

Check:

(+ ;) Mza = 0; (60)(6) + (48)(12) ; (Rdy )(18) = 0 ) Rdy = 52


(+ ;) Mzd = 0; (Ray )(18) ; (60)(12) ; (48)(6) = 0 ) Ray = 56

Victor Saouma

k
k

6
6

(+ 6) Fy = 0; ; 56 ; 52 ; 60 ; 48 = 0

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5{6

REVIEW of STATICS

Example 5-8: Three Span Beam


Determine the reactions of the following three spans beam

Solution:

We have 4 unknowns (Rax ; Ray ; Rcy and Rdy ), three equations of equilibrium and one equation of
condition (Mb = 0), thus the structure is statically determinate.
1. Isolating ab:
M ;b = 0; (9)(Ray ) ; (40)(5) = 0 ) Ray = 22.2 6
(+ ;) Ma = 0; (40)(4) ; (S )(9) = 0 ) S = 17.7 6
Fx = 0;
) Rax = 30 
k

2. Isolating bd:
(+ ;) Md = 0; ;(17:7)(18) ; (40)(15) ; (4)(8)(8) ; (30)(2) + Rcy (12) = 0
) Rcy = 1;12236 = 103 6
;
(+ ) Mc = 0; ;(17:7)(6) ; (40)(3) + (4)(8)(4) + (30)(10) ; Rdy (12) = 0
) Rdy = 20112:3 = 16.7 6
k

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.1 Reactions

5{7

3. Check

Fy = 0; 6; 22:2 ; 40 ; 40 + 103 ; 32 ; 30 + 16:7 = 0

Example 5-9: Three Hinged Gable Frame


The three-hinged gable frames spaced at 30 ft. on center. Determine the reactions components on the
frame due to: 1) Roof dead load, of 20 of roof area; 2) Snow load, of 30 of horizontal projection;
3) Wind load of 15 of vertical projection. Determine the critical design values for the vertical and
horizontal reactions.
psf

psf

psf

Solution:
1. Due to symmetry, we will consider only the dead load on one side of the frame.
2. Due to symmetry, there is no vertical force transmitted by the hinge for snow and dead load.
3. Roof dead load per frame is

p
1
302 + 152 1; 000
DL = (20) (30)
= 20:2 ?
psf

Victor Saouma

ft

ft

lbs/k

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5{8

REVIEW of STATICS

4. Snow load per frame is

SL = (30)

psf

1
(30) (30) 1; 000
ft

ft

lbs/k

= 27:

5. Wind load per frame (ignoring the suction) is

WL = (15)

psf

1
(30) (35) 1; 000
ft

ft

lbs/k

= 15:75

6. There are 4 reactions, 3 equations of equilibrium and one equation of condition ) statically
determinate.
7. The horizontal reaction H due to a vertical load V at midspan of the roof, is obtained by taking
moment with respect to the hinge
(+ ;) MC = 0; 15(V ) ; 30(V ) + 35(H ) = 0 ) H = 1535V = :429V

Substituting for roof dead and snow load we obtain


A =
VDL
A
HDL =
A =
VSL
A
HSL =

B
VDL
B
HDL
B
VSL
B
HSL

=
20:2 6
= (:429)(20:2) = 8:66 =
27: 6
= (:429)(27:) = 11:58 k

8. The reactions due to wind load are


B
(+ ;) MA = 0; (15:75)( 20+15
2 ) ; VWL (60) = 0
;
B
(+ ) MC = 0; HWL (35) ; (4:6)(30) = 0
A =0
(+ - ) Fx = 0; 15:75 ; 3:95 ; HWL
B
A
(+ 6) Fy = 0; VWL ; VWL = 0

B = 4:60
) VWL
B = 3:95
) HWL
A
) HWL = 11:80
A = ;4:60
) VWL

k
k

6

?

9. Thus supports should be designed for

H = 8:66 + 11:58 + 3:95


V = 20:7 + 27:0 + 4:60
k

= 24.19
= 52.3

5.2 Trusses

5.2.1 Assumptions
Cables and trusses are 2D or 3D structures composed of an assemblage of simple one dimensional
components which transfer only axial forces along their axis.
31 Trusses are extensively used for bridges, long span roofs, electric tower, space structures.
32 For trusses, it is assumed that
1. Bars are pin-connected

30

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.2 Trusses

5{9

2. Joints are frictionless hinges4 .


3. Loads are applied at the joints only.
A truss would typically be composed of triangular elements with the bars on the upper chord under
compression and those along the lower chord under tension. Depending on the orientation of the
diagonals, they can be under either tension or compression.
34 In a truss analysis or design, we seek to determine the internal force along each member, Fig. 5.5

33

Figure 5.5: Bridge Truss

5.2.2 Basic Relations

Sign Convention: Tension positive, compression negative. On a truss the axial forces are indicated as
forces acting on the joints.
Stress-Force:  = PA
Stress-Strain:  = E"
Force-Displacement: " = LL
Equilibrium: F = 0

5.2.3 Determinacy and Stability


Trusses are statically determinate when all the bar forces can be determined from the equations
of statics alone. Otherwise the truss is statically indeterminate.
36 A truss may be statically indeterminate with respect to the reactions or externally indeterminate
and/or statically indeterminate with respect to the internal forces that is internally indeterminate.
37 a 2D truss is externally indeterminate if there are more than 3 reactions.
35

In practice the bars are riveted, bolted, or welded directly to each other or to gusset plates, thus the bars are not free
to rotate and so-called secondary bending moments are developed at the bars. Another source of secondary moments
is the dead weight of the element.
4

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5{10

REVIEW of STATICS

Since each joint is pin-connected, we can apply M = 0 at each one of them. Furthermore, summation
of forces applied on a joint must be equal to zero.
39 For a 2D truss we have 2 equations of equilibrium FX = 0 and FY = 0 which can be applied at
each joint. For 3D trusses we would have three equations: FX = 0, FY = 0 and FZ = 0.
40 If we refer to j as the number of joints, R the number of reactions and m the number of members,
then we would have a total of m + R unknowns and 2j (or 3j ) equations of statics (2D or 3D at each
joint). If we do not have enough equations of statics then the problem is indeterminate, if we have too
many equations then the truss is unstable, Table 5.2.

38

2D

3D

Static Indeterminacy

External
R>3
R>6
Internal m + R > 2j m + R > 3j
Unstable m + R < 2j m + R < 3j
Table 5.2: Static Determinacy and Stability of Trusses
Fig. 5.6 shows a truss with 4 reactions, thus it is externally indeterminate. This truss has 6 joints
(j = 6), 4 reactions (R = 4) and 9 members (m = 9). Thus we have a total of m + R = 9 + 4 = 13
unknowns and 2  j = 2  6 = 12 equations of equilibrium, thus the truss is statically indeterminate.

41

Figure 5.6: A Statically Indeterminate Truss


42

There are two methods of analysis for statically determinate trusses


1. The Method of joints
2. The Method of sections

5.2.4 Method of Joints


43

The method of joints can be summarized as follows


1. Determine if the structure is statically determinate

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5.2 Trusses

5{11

2. Compute all reactions


3. Sketch a free body diagram showing all joint loads (including reactions)
4. For each joint, and starting with the loaded ones, apply the appropriate equations of equilibrium
(Fx and Fy in 2D; Fx , Fy and Fz in 3D).

5. Because truss elements can only carry axial forces, the resultant force (F~ = F~x + F~y ) must be
along the member, Fig. 5.7.

F = Fx = Fy
l lx ly

(5.4)

44 Always keep track of the x and y components of a member force (Fx , Fy ), as those might be needed
later on when considering the force equilibrium at another joint to which the member is connected.

Figure 5.7: X and Y Components of Truss Forces


This method should be used when all member forces should be determined.
46 In truss analysis, there is no sign convention. A member is assumed to be under tension (or
compression). If after analysis, the force is found to be negative, then this would imply that the wrong
assumption was made, and that the member should have been under compression (or tension).
47 On a free body diagram, the internal forces are represented by arrow acting on the joints and
not as end forces on the element itself. That is for tension, the arrow is pointing away from the joint,
and for compression toward the joint, Fig. 5.8.

45

Figure 5.8: Sign Convention for Truss Element Forces

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{12

REVIEW of STATICS

Example 5-10: Truss, Method of Joints


Using the method of joints, analyze the following truss

Solution:
1. R = 3, m = 13, 2j = 16, and m + R = 2j
2. We compute the reactions

(+ ;) ME = 0; ) (20 + 12)(3)(24) + (40 + 8)(2)(24) + (40)(24) ; RAy (4)(24) = 0


) RAy = 58 6
(+ ?) Fy = 0; ) 20 + 12 + 40 + 8 + 40 ; 58 ; REy = 0
) REy = 62 6
k

3. Consider each joint separately:


Node A: Clearly AH is under compression, and AB under tension.

(+ 6) Fy = 0; ) FAHy ; 58 = 0
FAH = lly (FAHy )
p
ly = 32
l = 322 + 242 = 40
Compression
) FAH = 40
32 (58) = 72:5
(+ - ) Fx = 0; ) ;FAHx + FAB = 0
FAB = llxy (FAHy ) = 24
32 (58) = 43:5 Tension

Victor Saouma

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5.2 Trusses

5{13

Node B:

(+ - ) Fx = 0; ) FBC = 43:5 Tension


(+ 6) Fy = 0; ) FBH = 20 Tension

Node H:

(+ - ) Fx = 0; ) FAHx ; FHCx ; FHGx = 0


p 24
43:5 ; p2424
(I)
2 +322 (FHC ) ; 242 +102 (FHG ) = 0
(+ 6) Fy = 0; ) FAHy + FHCy ; 12 ; FHGy ; 20 = 0
p 10
58 + p2432
2 +322 (FHC ) ; 12 ; 242 +102 (FHG ) ; 20 = 0 (II)
Solving for I and II we obtain

FHC = ;7:5 Tension


FHG = 52 Compression

Node E:

Fy = 0; ) FEFy = 62 ) FEF = p2432


= 77:5
2
2 (62)
24 (F+32
Fx = 0; ) FED = FEFx ) FED = 32
(62)
= 46:5
EFy ) = 24
32

k
k

The results of this analysis are summarized below

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{14

REVIEW of STATICS

4. We could check our calculations by verifying equilibrium of forces at a node not previously used,
such as D

5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams


5.3.1 Theory

5.3.1.1 Design Sign Conventions


Before we derive the Shear-Moment relations, let us arbitrarily de ne a sign convention.
5
49 The sign convention adopted here, is the one commonly used for design purposes . With reference to
Fig. 5.9
48

Figure 5.9: Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design


5

Later on, in more advanced analysis courses we will use a di erent one.

Victor Saouma

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{15

2D:
Load Positive along the beam's local y axis (assuming a right hand side convention), that is

positive upward.
Axial: tension positive.
Flexure A positive moment is one which causes tension in the lower bers, and compression in
the upper ones. For frame members, a positive moment is one which causes tension along the
inner side.
Shear A positive shear force is one which is \up" on a negative face, or \down" on a positive one.
Alternatively, a pair of positive shear forces will cause clockwise rotation.
Torsion Counterclockwise
Draftpositive
3D: Use double arrow vectors (and NOT curved arrows). Forces
and moments
(including torsions) are
x
6M
de ned with respect to a right hand side coordinate system,
Fig.
5.10.
*
6

y

* Tx

*

-Mz

6M
y
6
6
>


--

- z

>

Figure 5.10:
for 3D Frame Elements
M
 Sign Conventions

Tx

5.3.1.2 Load, Shear, Moment Relations


50 Let us (re)derive the basic relations between load, shear and moment. Considering an in nitesimal
length dx of a beam subjected to a positive load6 w(x), Fig. 5.11. The in nitesimal section must also

Figure 5.11: Free Body Diagram of an In nitesimal Beam Segment


be in equilibrium.
51 There are no axial forces, thus we only have two equations of equilibrium to satisfy Fy = 0 and
Mz = 0.
52 Since dx is in nitesimally small, the small variation in load along it can be neglected, therefore we
assume w(x) to be constant along dx.
53 To denote that a small change in shear and moment occurs over the length dx of the element, we add
the di erential quantities dVx and dMx to Vx and Mx on the right face.
6

In this derivation, as in all other ones we should assume all quantities to be positive.

Victor Saouma

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5{16
54

or

REVIEW of STATICS

Next considering the rst equation of equilibrium


(+ 6) Fy = 0 ) Vx + wx dx ; (Vx + dVx ) = 0

dV = w(x)
dx

(5.5)

The slope of the shear curve at any point along the axis of a member is given by
the load curve at that point.
55

Similarly

(+ ;) Mo = 0 ) Mx + Vx dx ; wx dx dx
2 ; (Mx + dMx ) = 0
Neglecting the dx2 term, this simpli es to

dM = V (x)
dx

(5.6)

The slope of the moment curve at any point along the axis of a member is given
by the shear at that point.
56

Alternative forms of the preceding equations can be obtained by integration

V =

w(x)dx

V21 = Vx2 ; Vx1 =

x2
x1

(5.7)

w(x)dx (5.8)

The change in shear between 1 and 2, V21 , is equal to the area under the load
between x1 and x2 .
and

M =

V (x)dx

M21 = M2 ; M1 =

x2
x1

(5.9)

V (x)dx (5.10)

The change in moment between 1 and 2, M21, is equal to the area under the
shear curve between x1 and x2 .
Note that we still need to have V1 and M1 in order to obtain V2 and M2 respectively.
58 Fig. 5.12 and 5.13 further illustrates the variation in internal shear and moment under uniform and
concentrated forces/moment.
57

5.3.1.3 Moment Envelope


For design, we often must consider di erent load combinations.
60 For each load combination, we should draw the shear, moment diagrams. and then we should use the
Moment envelope for design purposes.
59

Victor Saouma

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{17

Figure 5.12: Shear and Moment Forces at Di erent Sections of a Loaded Beam

Positive Constant

Negative Constant

Positive Increasing Positive Decreasing Negative Increasing Negative Decreasing

Positive Constant

Negative Constant

Positive Increasing Positive Decreasing Negative Increasing Negative Decreasing

Load

Shear

Shear

Moment

Figure 5.13: Slope Relations Between Load Intensity and Shear, or Between Shear and Moment

Victor Saouma

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5{18

REVIEW of STATICS

5.3.1.4 Examples
Example 5-11: Simple Shear and Moment Diagram
Draw the shear and moment diagram for the beam shown below

Solution:

The free body diagram is drawn below

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{19

Reactions are determined from the equilibrium equations


(+ ) Fx = 0; ) ;RAx + 6 = 0 ) RAx = 6
(+ ;) MA = 0; ) (11)(4) + (8)(10) + (4)(2)(14 + 2) ; RFy (18) = 0 ) RFy = 14
(+ 6) Fy = 0; ) RAy ; 11 ; 8 ; (4)(2) + 14 = 0 ) RAy = 13
k

Shear are determined next.


1.
2.
3.
4.

At A the shear is equal to the reaction and is positive.


At B the shear drops (negative load) by 11 to 2 .
At C it drops again by 8 to ;6 .
It stays constant up to D and then it decreases (constant negative slope since the load is
uniform and negative) by 2 per linear foot up to ;14 .
As a check, ;14 is also the reaction previously determined at F .
is determined last:
The moment at A is zero (hinge support).
The change in moment between A and B is equal to the area under the corresponding shear
diagram, or MB;A = (13)(4) = 52.
etc...
k

5.

Moment
1.
2.
3.

Example 5-12: Frame Shear and Moment Diagram


Draw the shear and moment diagram of the following frame

Solution:
Victor Saouma

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5{20

REVIEW of STATICS

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{21

Reactions are determined rst

(+ ) Fx = 0; ) RAx ; 45 (3)(15) = 0


| {z }

)
(+ ;) MA = 0; )
)
(+ 6) Fy = 0; )
)

load

RAx = 36

(3)(30)( 302 ) + 35 (3)(15) 30 + 29 ; 45 (3)(15) 122 ; 39RDy = 0


RFy = 52:96
RAy ; (3)(30) ; 35 (3)(15) + 52:96 = 0
RAy = 64:06
k

Shear:
1. For A ; B , the shear is constant, equal to the horizontal reaction at A and negative according
to our previously de ned sign convention, VA = ;36
2. For member B ; C at B , the shear must be equal to the vertical force which was transmitted
along A ; B , and which is equal to the vertical reaction at A, VB = 64:06.
3. Since B ; C is subjected to a uniform negative load, the shear along B ; C will have a slope
equal to ;3 and in terms of x (measured from B to C ) is equal to
VB;C (x) = 64:06 ; 3x
k

4. The shear along C ; D is obtained by decomposing the vertical reaction at D into axial and
shear components. Thus at D the shear is equal to 53 52:96 = 31:78 and is negative. Based
on our sign convention for the load, the slope of the shear must be equal to ;3 along C ; D.
Thus the shear at point C is such that Vc ; 53 9(3) = ;31:78 or Vc = 13:22. The equation for
the shear is given by (for x going from C to D)
V = 13:22 ; 3x
k

5. We check our calculations by verifying equilibrium of node C


p
(+ ) Fx = 0 ) 53 (42:37) + 45 (13:22) = 25:42 + 10:58 = 36 p
(+ 6) Fy = 0 ) 54 (42:37) ; 35 (13:22) = 33:90 ; 7:93 = 25:97

Moment:

1. Along A ; B , the moment is zero at A (since we have a hinge), and its slope is equal to the
shear, thus at B the moment is equal to (;36)(12) = ;432
2. Along B ; C , the moment is equal to
k.ft

VB;C (x)dx = ;432 + (64:06 ; 3x)dx


0
0
2
= ;432 + 64:06x ; 3 x2
which
is a parabola. Substituting for x = 30, we obtain at node C : MC = ;432+64:06(30) ;
2
30
3 2 = 139:8
3. If we need to determine the maximum moment along B ; C , we know that dMdxB;C = 0 at the
point where VB;C = 0, that is VB;C (x) = 64:06 ; 3x = 0 ) x = 643:06 = 25:0 . In other
MB;C = MB +

k.ft

words, maximum moment occurs where the shear is zero.


(25:0)2
Thus MBmax
;C = ;432 + 64:06(25:0) ; 3 2 = ;432 + 1; 601:5 ; 937:5 = 232

Victor Saouma

ft

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{22

REVIEW of STATICS

4. Finally along C ; D, the moment varies quadratically (since we had a linear shear), the
moment rst increases (positive shear), and then decreases (negative shear). The moment
along C ; D is given by
R
R
MC ;D = MC + 0x VC ;D (x)dx2 = 139:8 + 0x (13:22 ; 3x)dx
= 139:8 + 13:22x ; 3 x2
which is a parabola.
2
Substituting for xp= 15, we obtain at node C MC = 139:8 + 13:22(15) ; 3 152 = 139:8 +
198:3 ; 337:5 = 0

Example 5-13: Frame Shear and Moment Diagram; Hydrostatic Load


The frame shown below is the structural support of a ume. Assuming that the frames are spaced 2
ft apart along the length of the ume,
1. Determine all internal member end actions
2. Draw the shear and moment diagrams
3. Locate and compute maximum internal bending moments
4. If this is a reinforced concrete frame, show the location of the reinforcement.

Solution:
The hydrostatic pressure causes lateral forces on the vertical members which can be treated as
cantilevers xed at the lower end.
The pressure is linear and is given by p = h. Since each frame supports a 2 ft wide slice of the
ume, the equation for w (pounds/foot) is
w = (2)(62:4)(h)
= 124:8h
At the base w = (124:8)(6) = 749
= :749
Note that this is both the lateral pressure on the
end walls as well as the uniform load on the horizontal members.
lbs/ft

lbs/ft

Victor Saouma

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{23

End Actions

1. Base force at B is FBx = (:749) 26 = 2:246


2. Base moment at B is MB = (2:246) 36 = 4:493
3. End force at B for member B ; E are equal and opposite.
4. Reaction at C is RCy = (:749) 162 = 5:99
Shear forces
1. Base at B the shear force was determined earlier and was equal to 2:246 . Based on the
orientation of the x ; y axis, this is a negative shear.
2. The vertical shear at B is zero (neglecting the weight of A ; B )
3. The shear to the left of C is V = 0 + (;:749)(3) = ;2:246 .
4. The shear to the right of C is V = ;2:246 + 5:99 = 3:744
Moment diagrams
k

k.ft

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{24

REVIEW of STATICS

1. At the base: B M = 4:493 as determined above.


2. At the support C , Mc = ;4:493 + (;:749)(3)( 23 ) = ;7:864
3. The maximum moment is equal to Mmax = ;7:864 + (:749)(5)( 25 ) = 1:50
Design: Reinforcement should be placed along the bers which are under tension, that is on the side
of the negative moment7 . The gure below schematically illustrates the location of the exural8
reinforcement.
k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

Example 5-14: Shear Moment Diagrams for Frame


That is why in most European countries, the sign convention for design moments is the opposite of the one commonly
used in the U.S.A.; Reinforcement should be placed where the moment is \postive".
Shear reinforcement is made of a series of vertical stirrups.
7

Victor Saouma

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{25

12

10

30k

5k/ft

2k/ft

Vba
10k
C

Vbc

bd
M ba H

VA

20k

Vbd

52.5k

M bc
M bd
30k

15
0

0
0

650k
450k

HD

4k/ft

200k
82.5k

VD

CHECK

30k

10k

5k/ft
B

M bc

M ba

Vba

17.5k

2k/ft

Hbc

Hba

C
Vbc

(10)+(2)(10) 30k

17.5k
17.5-5*x=0

-22.5k

3.5

-22.5+(-30)

10k

Vbc
M bc
-200k

17.5-(5)(8)

(10)(10)+(2)(10)(10)/2

Vba

-52.5k
30.6k

(17.5)(3.5)/2

-20k

(17.5)(3.5)/2+(-22.5)(8-3.5)/2

(-52.5)(12)+(-20)

-650k

M ba

Vbd
M bd

50k

Victor Saouma

20k

450k
(50)(15)-[(4)(5)/2][(2)(15)/3)]

(50)-(4)(15)/2

450k

Hbd

20k

4k/ft

50k
82.5k

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{26

REVIEW of STATICS

Example 5-15: Shear Moment Diagrams for Inclined Frame

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{27

26k

26k

10

13

10

13
13

20k
C

13
5

12

15

B
2k/ft

20
Ha

36

20

Ve

48.8k

2k/ft

60k

Fx
F

800k

z
y

Fy

20k

60-(2)(20)

20k

(20)(20)+(60-20)(20)/2

19.2k
800k

(60)(20)-(2)(20)(20)/2

Va

0k

x
F/Fy=z/x
F/Fx=z/y
Fx/Fy=y/x

60k
2

11.1k

26.6k

800k

8k

28.8k

20k

8k
12k

20k

778k

29.3k

48.9k

777k

1130

9 B-C

.1

-16 k

11 C-D

(39.1)(12.5)

488k
12 C-D

14

13

1k

2k

112

777k
48

800k

+60k

+20k

0k
113

-23
.1
k
k k
8
6
.
5
.
6
0
2
-39
.

(20)(12)/(13)=18.46
(19.2)(5)/(13)=7.38
(19.2)(12)/(13)=17.72
(26)(12)/(13)=24
(26.6)(13)/(12)=28.8
(26.6)(5)/(12)=11.1
(28.8)(4)/(5)=23.1
(28.8)(3)/(5)=17.28
(20)(4)/(5)=16
(20)(3)/(5)=12
(39.1)(5)/(4)=48.9
(39.1)(3)/(4)=29.3

1,130-(.58)(13)
k
800+(25.4)(13)
1122

3.1

8 B-C

777

25.42

.1k
-2 39

1,122-(26.6)(13)

k
k -26.6
-0.58 26 -0.6-26

488+(23.1)(12.5)

+25

+25.4

10

-23

8.7
17.7+ .4k

800k

0k

0k
39.1k

19.2k

(20)(15)/13=7.7

17.2

18.46k
7.38k

17.72k

16k

0k

24k

24k

10k

28.8k

778k
10k

26k

48.8k

4
1k

26k

23.

20-10-10

19.2k

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{28

REVIEW of STATICS

5.3.2 Formulaes
Adapted from (of Steel COnstruction 1986)

Victor Saouma

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{29

1) Simple Beam; uniform Load


L

w L
R

R
L / 2

R
Vx

= V

= w L2 ; x
2
at center Mmax = wL
8
Mx = wx
2 (L ;4 x)
5 wL
max = 384
EI 3
2
3
x
= 24wx
EI (L ; 2Lx + x )

L / 2

Shear

M max.

Moment

2) Simple Beam; Unsymmetric Triangular Load


R1 = V1
Max R2 = V2
Vx
at x = :577L Mmax
Mx
at x = :5193L max
x

= W3
= 2W
3
2
W
= 3 ; Wx
2
L
= :1283WL
2
2
= Wx
3L2 (L ; x )
3

= :01304 WL
EI
3

4
2 2
4
= 180Wx
EIL2 (3x ; 10L x + 7L )

3) Simple Beam; Symmetric Triangular Load

R=V
for x < L2 Vx
at center Mmax
for x < L2 Mx
for x < L2 x
max

Victor Saouma

W
2
W
2
2
2WL
L2 (L ; 4x )
6
2
1
2
x
= Wx 2 ; 3 L2
2
22
= 480Wx
2 (5L ; 4x )
EIL
3
WL
= 60
EI

=
=
=

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{30

REVIEW of STATICS

4) Simple Beam; Uniform Load Partially Distributed

Max when a < c


Max when a > c
when a < x < a + b
when x < a
when a < x < a + b
when a + b < x
at x = a + Rw1

R1 = V1
R2 = V2
Vx
Mx
Mx
Mx
Mmax

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

wb
2L (2c + b)
wb
2L (2a + b)
R1 ; w(x ; a)

R1 x
R1 x ; w2 (x ; a)2
R2 (L ; x) 
R1 a + 2Rw1

5) Simple Beam; Concentrated Load at Center

max R1 = V1
R=V
at x = L2 Mmax
when x < L2 Mx
whenx < L2 x
at x = L2 max

wa (2L ; a)
2L
2P
PL
4
Px
2Px
2
2
48EI3 (3L ; 4x )
PL
= 48
EI
=
=
=
=
=

6) Simple Beam; Concentrated Load at Any Point


max when a < b
max when a > b
at x = a
when x < a

at x =

Victor Saouma

R1 = V1
R2 = V2
Mmax
Mx

at x = a a
when x < a x
a(a+2b) & a > b 
max
3

Pb
L
Pa
L
Pab
L
Pbx
L2 2
Pa
b
= 3EIL
2 b2 ; x2 )
= 6Pbx
EIL (L ; p
Pab(a + 2b) 3a(a + 2b)
=
27EIL
=
=
=
=

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{31

7) Simple Beam; Two Equally Concentrated Symmetric Loads

R=V = P
Mmax = Pa
max = 24Pa
(3L2 ; 4a2 )
EI
(3La ; 3a2 ; x2 )
when x < a x
= 6Px
EI
2
2
when a < x < L ; a x
= 6Pa
EI (3Lx ; 3x ; a )

8) Simple Beam; Two Equally Concentrated Unsymmetric Loads

max when a < b


max when b < a
when a < x < L ; b
max when b < a
max when a < b
when x < a
when a < x < L ; b

R1 = V1
R2 = V2
Vx
M1
M2
Mx
Mx

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

P ( L ; a + b)
PL (L ; b + a)
PL (b ; a)
L
R1 a
R2 b
R1 x
R1 x ; P (x ; a)

9) Cantilevered Beam, Uniform Load


R1 = V1
R2 = V2
Vx
Mmax
at x = 38 L M1
Mx
x

at x = :4215L max

Victor Saouma

=
=
=
=
=

3 wL
85
8 wL

R1 ; wx
wL2
98 wL2
128

= R1 x ; wx2
3
+ 3
= 48wx
EI4 (L ; 3Lx 2x )
wL
= 185
EI

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5{32

REVIEW of STATICS

10) Propped Cantilever, Concentrated Load at Center

R1 = V1
R2 = V2
at x = L Mmax
when x < L2 Mx
when L2 < x Mx
at x = :4472L max

=
=
=
=

5P
16P
11
316
PL
16
5Px
16

x
= P L2 ; 11
16
3
= :009317 PL
EI

11) Propped Cantilever; Concentrated Load


R1 = V1
R2 = V2
at x = a M1
at x = L M2
at x = a a
when a < :414L at x = L 3LL22+;aa22 max
when :414L < a at x = L

2L+a

max

Pb2 (a + 2L)
2Pa
L3
2
2
2L3 (3L ; a )
R1 a
Pab (a + L)
2L2 2 3
b
= 12Pa
EIL32(3L +2 a3 )
(L ; a )
= 3Pa
EI2(3rL2 ; a2 )2
a
= Pab
6EI 2L + a2
=
=
=
=

12) Beam Fixed at Both Ends, Uniform Load


R = V = wL
2

L
Vx
= w 2 ;x
2
at x = 0 and x = L Mmax = wL
122
wL
L
at x = 2 M
= 24
wL4
at x = L2 max = 384
EI
2
wx
x
= 24EI (L ; x)2

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{33

13) Beam Fixed at Both Ends; Concentrated Load

R = V = P2
at x = L2 Mmax = PL
8
when x < L2 Mx
= P8 (4x ; L)
PL3
at x = L2 max = 192
EI
2
Px
L
when x < 2 x
= 48EI (3L ; 4x)

14) Cantilever Beam; Triangular Unsymmetric Load

R=V
Vx
at x = L Mmax
Mx
x
at x = 0 max

= 83 W
2
= W Lx 2
= WL
3

2
= Wx
3LW2
= 60EIL2 (x5 ; 5L2x + 4L5 )
WL3
= 15
EI

15) Cantilever Beam; Uniform Load

R=V
Vx
Mx
at x = L Mmax
x

at x = 0 max

Victor Saouma

= wL
= wx
2
= wx2
2
= wL
2
= 24wEI (x4 ; 4L3 x + 3L4 )
4
= wL
8EI

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5{34

REVIEW of STATICS

16) Cantilever Beam; Point Load

R=V
at x = L Mmax
when a < x Mx
at x = 0 max
at x = a a
when x < a x
when a < x x

P
Pb
P (x ; a)
Pb2 (3L ; b)
6EI3
= 3Pb
EI2
= 6Pb
EI (3L ;2 3x ; b)
; x) (3b ; L + x)
= P (L6EI
=
=
=
=

17) Cantilever Beam; Point Load at Free End

R=V = P
at x = L Mmax = PL
Mx
= Px
3
at x = 0 max = PL
3PEI
(2L3 ; 3L2x + x3 )
x
= 6EI

18) Cantilever Beam; Concentrated Force and Moment at Free End

R=V = P

Mx
= P L2 ; x
at x = 0 and x = L Mmax = PL
2
PL3
at x = 0 max = 12
EI 2
P
(
L ; x) ((L + 2x)
x
=
12EI

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams

5{35

19) Beam Overhanging One Support; Uniform Load Between Supports


R = V = wL
2

Vx
= w L2 ; x
Mx
= wx
2 (L4 ; x)
5wL
at x = L2 max = 384
EI 3
x
= 24wx
(L ; 2Lx2 + x3 )
EI
3 x1 x
when L < x < L + a x1
= wL
24EI

20) Beam Overhanging one Support; Concentrated Force

Max when a < b R1 = V1 = Pb


L
Pa
Max when b < a R2 = V2 = L
at x < aL Mx
= Pbx
L
p
q
Pab
(a + 2b) 3a(a + 2b)
a
(
a
+2
b
)
when
a
>
b

=
at x =
max
3
2 b2 27EIL
Pa
at x = a a
= 3EIL
2
2
2
when x < a x
= 6Pbx
EIL (L ; b ; x )
L ; x) (2Lx ; x2 ; a2 )
when a < x x
= Pa6(EIL
1
at L < x < L + a x1
= Pabx
6EIL (L + a)

21) Continuous Beam, Two Equal Spans; Concentrated Force

R1 = V1
R2 = V2 + V3
R3 = V3
V2
Mmax
at x = L M1

Victor Saouma

=
=
=
=
=
=

Pb 4L2 ; a(L + a)


4Pa
L3 
2 + b(L + a)
2
L
3
2L
; Pab
3 (L + a)
Pa4L4L2 + b(L + a)
4L3 
Pab 4L2 ; a(L + a)
4L3
Pab
4L2 (L + a)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{36

REVIEW of STATICS

22) Simple Beam, Uniform Load, End Moments


M2
R1 = V1 = wL
+ M1 ;
2
L
M1 ; M2
R2 = V2 = wL
2 ; L
M2
Vx
= w L2 ; x + M1 ;
L
;M2
at x = L2 + M1wL

wx
M
;
M
1
2
Mx
= 2 (L ; x) +
x ; M1
L
s

b
x

L2 ; M1 + M2 + M1 ; M2 2
4 
wl 
w
wx
3
M
4
M
1
3
= 24EI x ; 2L + wL ; wL2 x2

+ 12wM1 x + L3 ; 8Mw1 L ; 4Mw2L

23) Simple Beam; Concentrated Force, End Moments


R1 = V1
R2 = V2
at x = L2 M3
when x < L2 Mx
when L2 < x Mx
when x < L2 x

Victor Saouma

P + M1 ; M2
LM
P2 ; M1 ;
2
2PL ML+ M
; 1 2 2
4
M2 x ; M
= P2 + M1 ;
1
L
M2 x ; M
= P2 (L ; x) + M1 ;
1
L
 2
Px
= 48EI 3L ; 4x2

8(
L
;
x
)
; PL (M1 (2L ; x) + M2(L + x))
=
=
=

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.4 Flexure

5{37

24) Beam Overhanging one Support; Uniform Load

at 0 < x < L
at L < x< L + a
at x = L2 1 ; La22
at x = L

at 0 < x < L
at L < x < L + a
at 0 < x < L x
at L < x < L + a x1
R1 = V1
R2 = V2 + V3
at 0 < x < L
at L < x< L + a
2
at x = L2 1 ; La 2
at x = L

V2
V3
Vx
Vx1
M1
M2
Mx
Mx1

at 0 < x < L
at L < x < L + a
at 0 < x < L x
at L < x < L + a x1

5.4 Flexure

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

R1 = V1
R2 = V2 + V3
V2
V3
Vx
Vx1
M1
M2
Mx
Mx1

w (L2 ; a2 )
2wL
2
2L (L + a)
wa
w (L2 + a2 )
2L
R1 ; wx
w(a ; x1 )
w
2
2
8L22 (L + a) (L ; a)
= wa2
2
2
= wx
2wL (L ; a2 ; xL)
= (a ; x )
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

wx (L4 ; 2L2x2 + Lx3 ; 2a2 L2 + 2a2 x2 )


24
wxEIL
1 (4a2 L; L3 + 6a2 x ; 4ax2 + x3 )
1
1
1
24
EI
w (L2 ; a2 )
2wL
2
2 L ( L + a)
wa
w (L2 + a2 )
2L
R1 ; wx
w(a ; x1 )
w
2
2
8L22 (L + a) (L ; a)
wa
wx2 (L2 ; a2 ; xL)
w2L(a ; x )2
2 wx 1
(L4 ; 2L2x2 + Lx3 ; 2a2 L2 + 2a2 x2 )
24
EIL
wx1 (4a2 L; L3 + 6a2x ; 4ax2 + x3 )
1
1
1
24EI

5.4.1 Basic Kinematic Assumption; Curvature


Fig.5.14 shows portion of an originally straight beam which has been bent to the radius  by end
couples M . support conditions, Fig. 5.1. It is assumed that plane cross-sections normal to the length of
the unbent beam remain plane after the beam is bent.
62 Except for the neutral surface all other longitudinal bers either lengthen or shorten, thereby creating
a longitudinal strain "x. Considering a segment EF of length dx at a distance y from the neutral axis,
its original length is
EF = dx = d
(5.11)

61

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{38

REVIEW of STATICS
O
+ve Curvature, +ve bending

d
-ve Curvature, -ve Bending

Neutral Axis
F

Y
dA

dx

Figure 5.14: Deformation of a Beam un Pure Bending


and
63

d = dx


(5.12)

To evaluate this strain, we consider the deformed length E 0 F 0

E 0 F 0 = ( ; y)d = d ; yd = dx ; y dx




(5.13)

The strain is now determined from:

or after simpli cation

0 F 0 ; EF dx ; y dx
E
 ; dx
"x = EF
=
dx

(5.14)

"x = ; y

(5.15)

where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis). Thus strains are proportional to the
distance from the neutral axis.
64  (Greek letter rho) is the radius of curvature. In some textbook, the curvature  (Greek letter
kappa) is also used where
 = 1
(5.16)
thus,

"x = ;y

Victor Saouma

(5.17)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5.4 Flexure

5{39

5.4.2 Stress-Strain Relations


65 So far we considered the kinematic of the beam, yet later on we will need to consider equilibrium in
terms of the stresses. Hence we need to relate strain to stress.
66 For linear elastic material Hooke's law states

x = E"x

(5.18)

where E is Young's Modulus.


67 Combining Eq. with equation 5.17 we obtain

x = ;Ey

(5.19)

5.4.3 Internal Equilibrium; Section Properties


Just as external forces acting on a structure must be in equilibrium, the internal forces must also
satisfy the equilibrium equations.
69 The internal forces are determined by slicing the beam. The internal forces on the \cut" section must
be in equilibrium with the external forces.

68

5.4.3.1 Fx = 0; Neutral Axis


The rst equation we consider is the summation of axial forces.
71 Since there are no external axial forces (unlike a column or a beam-column), the internal axial forces
must be in equilibrium.
Z
Fx = 0 ) x dA = 0
(5.20)
70

where x was given by Eq. 5.19, substituting we obtain


Z

x dA = ;

EydA = 0

(5.21-a)

But since the curvature  and the modulus of elasticity E are constants, we conclude that
Z

ydA = 0

(5.22)

or the rst moment of the cross section with respect to the z axis is zero. Hence we conclude that the

neutral axis passes through the centroid of the cross section.


5.4.3.2 M = 0; Moment of Inertia

The second equation of internal equilibrium which must be satis ed is the summation of moments.
However contrarily to the summation of axial forces, we now have an external moment to account for,

72

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{40

REVIEW of STATICS

the one from the moment diagram at that particular location where the beam was sliced, hence
Z

Mz = 0; ;+ve; |{z}


M = ; x ydA
Ext. | A{z }
Int.
where dA is an di erential area a distance y from the neutral axis.
73 Substituting Eq. 5.19
9
Z
Z
M = ; x ydA = M = E y2 dA
A
;
A
x = ;Ey
74

(5.24)

We now pause and de ne the section moment of inertia with respect to the z axis as

I def
=
and section modulus as

75

(5.23)

y2 dA

(5.25)

S def
= Ic

(5.26)

Section properties for selected sections are shown in Table 5.3.

5.4.4 Beam Formula


We now have the ingredients in place to derive one of the most important equations in structures, the
beam formula. This formula will be extensively used for design of structural components.
77 We merely substitute Eq. 5.25 into 5.24,

76

M = E
I =

y2 dA

y2 dA

9
>
=
>
;

M
1
EI =  = 

(5.27)

which shows that the curvature of the longitudinal axis of a beam is proportional to the bending moment
M and inversely proportional to EI which we call exural rigidity.
78 Finally, inserting Eq. 5.19 above, we obtain

x = ;Ey  = ; My
(5.28)
x
M
I
 = EI
Hence, for a positive y (above neutral axis), and a positive moment, we will have compressive stresses
above the neutral axis.
79 Alternatively, the maximum ber stresses can be obtained by combining the preceding equation with
Equation 5.26

x = ; M
S

(5.29)

Example 5-16: Design Example


Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.4 Flexure

5{41

A
x
y
Ix
Iy

X
y

=
=
=
=
=

bh

b
2h
2
bh3
12
hb3

h h

A
x
y
Ix
Iy

X
y

12

b
b

=
=
=
=
=

bh ; b0 h0
b

2h
2

bh3 ;b0 h03


12
hb3 ;h0 b03
12

A = h(a2+b)
y = h3((2aa++bb))
3 a2 +4ab+b2
Ix = h (36(
a+b)

X
y

X
y
b

A
x
y
Ix
Iy

=
=
=
=
=

bh
b2+c
h3
3
bh3
36 2
bh
(b ; bc + c2 )
36

r
X

A = r42 = d4 42
Ix = Iy = r4 = d64

A = 2rt = dt3
Ix = Iy = r3 t = d8 t

b
X
b
a

A = ab3
Ix = ab3 3
Iy = ba4
Table 5.3: Section Properties

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{42

REVIEW of STATICS

A 20 ft long, uniformly loaded, beam is simply supported at one end, and rigidly connected at the
other. The beam is composed of a steel tube with thickness t = 0:25 . Select the radius such that
max  18 , and max  L=360.
in

ksi

1 k/ft
r

0.25

20

Solution:
wL , and I = r3 t.
1. Steel has E = 29; 000 , and from above Mmax = wL8 , max = 185
EI
2. The maximum moment will be
2 (1)
(20)2 2 = 50
Mmax = wL
=
8
8
2

ksi

k/ft

(5.30)

ft

k.ft

3. We next seek a relation between maximum de ection and radius


wL4
max = 185
3EI

I = r t

 =
=
=

wL4

185Er3 t 4 4 3 3 3
(1) k/ft(20) ft (12) in = ft
(185)(29;000) ksi(3:14)r3 (0:25) in
65:365

(5.31)

4. Similarly for the stress

 = MS
S = Ir
I = r3 t

9
=
;

 = rM2 t
(50)

= (3:14)r2(12)
(0:25)
= 764
r2
k.ft

(5.32)

in/ft
in

5. We now set those two values equal to their respective maximum

L = (20) (12)
max = 360
360
ft

max = (18)

ksi

in/ft

= 0:67 = 65r:365 ) r =
in

= 764
r2 ) r =

764 = 6.51
18

in

r
3

65:65 = 4:61
0:67

in

(5.33-a)
(5.33-b)

5.4.5 Approximate Analysis


M =  = 1 ), we recall that that the moment is directly proportional
From Fig. 5.14, and Eq. 5.27 ( EI

to the curvature .
81 Thus,
80

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.4 Flexure

5{43

1. A positive and negative moment would correspond to positive and negative curvature respectively
(adopting the sign convention shown in Fig. 5.14).
2. A zero moment correspnds to an in ection point in the de ected shape.
82

Hence, for

Statically determinate structure, we can determine the de ected shape from the moment diagram,
Fig. 5.15.

Figure 5.15: Elastic Curve from the Moment Diagram

Statically indeterminate structure, we can:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Plot the de ected shape.


Identify in ection points, approximate their location.
Locate those in ection points on the structure, which will then become statically determinate.
Perform an approximate analysis.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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5{44

REVIEW of STATICS

Figure 5.16: Approximate Analysis of Beams

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.4 Flexure

5{45

Example 5-17: Approximate Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate beam


Perform an approximate analysis of the following beam, and compare your results with the exact
solution.

20k
16
12
28

28

Solution:
20k
16
12
28

22

28

28

20k Approximate Location of IP


A

B
22

C
6

D
28

1. We have 3 unknowns RA , RC , and RD , all in the vertical directions, and only two applicable
equations of equilibrium (since we do not have any force in the x direction), thus the problem is
statically indeterminare.
2. We sketch the anticipated de ected shape, and guess the location of the in ection point.
3. At that location, we place a hinge, and we now have an additional equation of condition at that
location (M = 0).

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5{46

REVIEW of STATICS

4. If we consider AB, and take the moments with respect to point B:


(+ ;) MB = 0; (22)(RA ) ; (20)(22 ; 16) = 0 ) RA = 5.45

(5.34-a)

5. If we now consider the entire beam:

(+ ;) MD = 0; (RA )(28 + 28) ; (20)(28 + 12) + (RC )(28) = 0


(5:45)(56) ; (20)(40) + (RC )(28) = 0
) RC = 17.67 6
(+ 6) Fy = 0;
RA ; 20 + Rc + RD = 0
5:45 ; 20 + 17:67 + RD = 0
) RD = ;3:12 3.12 ?
k

6. Check

(+ ;) MA = 0; (20)(16) ; (RC )(28) + (RD )(28 + 28) =


320 ; (17:67)(28) + (3:12)(56) =
p
320 ; 494:76 + 174:72 = 0

(5.36-a)

7. The moments are determined next

Mmax = RA a = (5:45)(16) = 87.2


M1 = RD L = (3:12)(28) = 87.36

(5.37-a)
(5.37-b)

8. We now compare with the exact solution from Section 5.3.2, solution 21 where:L = 28, a = 16,
b = 12, and P = 20
 2

R1 = RA = 4Pb
4
L
;
a
(
L
+
a
)
3
L


2 ; (16)(28 + 16) = 6.64
= (20)(12)
4(28)
3
4(28)


Pa
R2 = RB = 2L3 2L2 + b(L + a)

2 + 12(28 + 16) = 15.28
2(28)
= (20)(16)
3
2(28)
R3 = RD = ; Pab
4L3 (L + a)
= ; (20)(16)(12)
4(28)3 (28 + 16) = ;1.92
Mmax = R1 a = (6:64)(16) = 106.2
M1 = R3 L = (1:92)(28) = 53.8

(5.38-a)
(5.38-b)
(5.38-c)
(5.38-d)
(5.38-e)
(5.38-f)
(5.38-g)

9. If we tabulate the results we have

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.4 Flexure

5{47

Value Approximate Exact % Error


RA
5.45
6.64
18
RC
17.67
15.28
-16
RD
3.12
1.92
63
M1
87.36
53.8
62
Mmax 87.2
106.2
18
10. Whereas the correlation between the approximate and exact results is quite poor, one should not
underestimate the simplicity of this method keeping in mind (an exact analysis of this structure
would have been computationally much more involved). Furthermore, often one only needs a rough
order of magnitude of the moments.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5{48

REVIEW of STATICS

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 6

Case Study II: GEORGE


WASHINGTON BRIDGE
6.1 Theory
Whereas the forces in a cable can be determined from statics alone, its con guration must be derived
from its deformation. Let us consider a cable with distributed load p(x) per unit horizontal projection of the cable length (thus neglecting the weight of the cable). An in nitesimal portion of that
cable can be assumed to be a straight line, Fig. 6.1 and in the absence of any horizontal load we have

T
V

x w(x)

v(x)

dv

ds

dx
L

dx

V+dV

H
T+dT

Figure 6.1: Cable Structure Subjected to p(x)

H =constant. Summation of the vertical forces yields


(+ ?) Fy = 0 ) ;V + wdx + (V + dV ) = 0
(6.1-a)
dV + wdx = 0
(6.1-b)
where V is the vertical component of the cable tension at x (Note that if the cable was subjected to its
own weight then we would have wds instead of wdx). Because the cable must be tangent to T , we have
V
tan  = H
(6.2)

Substituting into Eq. 6.1-b yields

d (H tan ) = w
d(H tan ) + wdx = 0 ) ; dx

(6.3)

Draft
6{2
2

Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE

But H is constant (no horizontal load is applied), thus, this last equation can be rewritten as

d (tan ) = w
;H dx

(6.4)

dv which when substituted in Eq. 6.4 yields


Written in terms of the vertical displacement v, tan  = dx
the governing equation for cables
;Hv00 = w
(6.5)

4 For a cable subjected to a uniform load w , we can determine its shape by double integration of Eq.
6.5

;Hv0 = wx + C1
2
;Hv = wx2 + C1 x + C2

(6.6-a)
(6.6-b)

and the constants of integrations C1 and C2 can be obtained from the boundary conditions: v = 0 at
x = 0 and at x = L ) C2 = 0 and C1 = ; wL
2 . Thus
v = 2wH x(L ; x)
(6.7)
This equation gives the shape v(x) in terms of the horizontal force H ,
L ) we can solve for the horizontal force
5 Since the maximum sag h occurs at midspan (x =
2
2

H = wL
8h

(6.8)

we note the
analogy with the maximum moment in a simply supported uniformly loaded beam M =
Hh = wL8 2 . Furthermore, this relation clearly shows that the horizontal force is inversely proportional
to the sag h, as h & H %. Finally, we can rewrite this equation as

r def
= Lh
wL = 8r
H
6

(6.9-a)
(6.9-b)

Eliminating H from Eq. 6.7 and 6.8 we obtain




2
v = 4h ; Lx 2 + Lx

(6.10)

Thus the cable assumes a parabolic shape (as the moment diagram of the applied load).
7 Whereas the horizontal force H is constant throughout the cable, the tension T is not. The maximum
tension occurs at the support where the vertical component is equal to V = wL
2 and the horizontal one
to H , thus
s
s


2
2
p
wL
2 = H 1 + wL=2
Tmax = V 2 + H 2 =
+
H
(6.11)
2
H

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
6.2 The Case Study

6{3

Combining this with Eq. 6.8 we obtain1 .


p

Tmax = H 1 + 16r2  H (1 + 8r2 )

(6.12)

Had we assumed a uniform load w per length of cable (rather than horizontal projection), the
equation would have been one of a catenary2.

w L
v=H
w cosh H 2 ; x



(6.13)

+h

The cable between transmission towers is a good example of a catenary.

6.2 The Case Study


Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983)

The George Washington bridge, is a suspension bridge spanning the Hudson river from New York City
to New Jersey. It was completed in 1931 with a central span of 3,500 ft (at the time the world's longest
span). The bridge was designed by O.H. Amman, who had emigrated from Switzerland. In 1962 the
deck was sti ened with the addition of a lower deck.

6.2.1 Geometry
A longitudinal and plan elevation of the bridge is shown in For simplicity we will assume in our
analysis that the two approaching spans are equal to 650 ft.
11 There are two cables of three feet diameter on each side of the bridge. The centers of each pair are 9
ft apart, and the pairs themselves are 106 ft apart. We will assume a span width of 100 ft.
12 The cables are idealized as supported by rollers at the top of the towers, hence the horizontal components of the forces in each side of the cable must be equal (their vertical components will add up).
13 The cables support the road deck which is hungby suspenders attached at the cables. The cables are
made of 26,474 steel wires, each 0.196 inch in diameter. They are continuous over the tower supports
and are rmly anchored in both banks by huge blocks of concrete, the anchors.
I
14 Because the cables are much longer than they are thick (large
L ), they can be idealized a perfectly
exible members with no shear/bending resistance but with high axial strength.
15 The towers are 578 ft tall and rest on concrete caissons in the river. Because of our assumption
regarding the roller support for the cables, the towers will be subjected only to axial forces.
10

6.2.2 Loads
The dead load is composed of the weight of the deck and the cables and is estimated at 390 and 400
psf respectively for the central and side spans respectively. Assuming an average width of 100 ft, this
2
3
Recalling that (a + b)n = an + nan; b + n n; an; b +  or (1 + b)n = 1 + nb + n n; b + n n; n; b +  ;
p
1
Thus for b << 1, 1 + b = (1 + b) 2  1 + b

16

1)

2 2

2!

1)

2!

1)(

2)

3!

Derivation of this equation is beyond the scope of this course.

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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6{4

Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE

??
377 ft

610 ft

327 ft

3,500 ft

650 ft

4,760 ft
ELEVATION

N.J.

HUDSON RIVER

N.Y.

PLAN

Figure 6.2: Longitudinal and Plan Elevation of the George Washington Bridge

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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6.2 The Case Study

6{5

would be equivalent to

DL = (390) (100) (1; 000)


k

psf

ft

lbs

= 39

(6.14)

k/ft

for the main span and 40


for the side ones.
17 For highway bridges, design loads are given by the AASHTO (Association of American State Highway
Transportation Ocials). The HS-20 truck is often used for the design of bridges on main highways, Fig.
6.3. Either the design truck with speci ed axle loads and spacing must be used or the equivalent uniform
load and concentrated load. This loading must be placed such that maximum stresses are produced.
k/ft

Figure 6.3: Truck Load


18

With two decks, we estimate that there is a total of 12 lanes or

LL = (12)Lanes(:64) = =Lane = 7:68


k

ft

k/ft

8

k/ft

(6.15)

We do not consider earthquake, or wind loads in this analysis.


19 Final DL and LL are, Fig. 6.4: TL = 39 + 8 = 47
k/ft

6.2.3 Cable Forces


20

The thrust H (which is the horizontal component of the cable force) is determined from Eq. 6.8
2
H = wL8hcs

(3;500)
= (47) (8)(327)
= 220; 000
k/ft

ft

ft

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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6{6

wD,S = 40 k/ft

Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE

wD = 39 k/ft

wD,S = 40 k/ft

DEAD LOADS

wL = 8 k/ft

Figure 6.4: Dead and Live Loads

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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6.2 The Case Study

6{7

From Eq. 6.12 the maximum tension is


r =
Tmax =
=
=

h = 327 = 0:0934
Lcs
p 3;500

H 1 + 16pr2
(2; 200) 1 + (16)(0:0934)2
(2; 200) (1:0675) = 235,000
k

6.2.4 Reactions
21

Cable reactions are shown in Fig. 6.5.


POINTS WITH
REACTIONS TO
CABLES

Figure 6.5: Location of Cable Reactions


22

The vertical force in the columns due to the central span (cs) is simply the support reaction, 6.6
wTOT = 39 + 8 = 47 k/ft
B

REACTIONS AT
TOP OF TOWER

POINT OF NO
MOMENT

L = 3,500 FT

Figure 6.6: Vertical Reactions in Columns Due to Central Span Load

Vcs = 21 wLcs = 12 (47)

(3; 500) = 82; 250

k/ft

ft

Note that we can check this by determining the vector sum of H and V which should be equal to Tmax :
p
p
Vcs + H = (82; 250) + (220; 000) = 235; 000 kp
2

(6.16)
(6.17)

Along the side spans (ss), the total load is TL = 40 + 8 = 48 . We determine the vertical reaction
by taking the summation of moments with respect to the anchor:
(6.18-a)
MD = 0; ;+; hssH + (wss Lss) L2ss ; Vss Lss = 0

23

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k/ft

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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6{8

Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE

= (377) (220; 000) + (48)


k

24

(650) (650)
2 ; 650Vss = 0
Vss = 143; 200
ft

k/ft

ft

Hence the total axial force applied on the column is


V = Vcs + Vss = (82; 250) + (143; 200) = 225,450
k

25

(6.18-b)
(6.18-c)

(6.19)

The vertical reaction at the anchor is given by summation of the forces in the y direction, Fig. 6.7:
(6.20-a)
(+ 6) Fy = 0; (wss Lss) + Vss + Ranchor = 0
;(48) (650) + (143; 200) + Ranchor = 0
(6.20-b)
Ranchor = 112,000 ?
(6.20-c)
(6.20-d)
k/ft

ft

225,450 k
220,000 k

112,000 k

Figure 6.7: Cable Reactions in Side Span


26

The axial force in the side cable is determined the vector sum of the horizontal and vertical reactions.
q
p
ss
2
Tanchor
= Ranchor
+ H 2 = (112; 000)2 + (220; 000)2 = 247; 000
(6.21-a)
q
p
ss
Ttower
= Vss2 + H 2 = (143; 200)2 + (220; 000)2 = 262,500
(6.21-b)
k

27

The cable stresses are determined last, Fig. 6.8:


2 (3:14)(0:196)2
Awire = D
= 0:03017 2
4 =
4
Atotal = (4)cables(26; 474)wires/cable(0:03017)
(220; 000) = 68:75
Central Span  = H
=
A (3; 200) 2
T ss
(262; 500) 2 = 82
ss
= tower
Side Span Tower tower
=
A
(3; 200) 2
T ss
(247; 000) 2 = 77:2
ss
=
Side Span Anchor tower
= anchor
A
(3; 200) 2
in

ksi

in

in

ksi

in

in

ksi

in

Victor Saouma

(6.22-a)
2 =wire = 3; 200 (6.22-b)
2

in

in

(6.22-c)
(6.22-d)
(6.22-e)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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6.2 The Case Study

6{9

73.4 ksi

81.9 ksi

68.75 ksi

77.2 ksi

Figure 6.8: Cable Stresses


If the cables were to be anchored to a concrete block, the volume of the block should be at least equal
(1;000) = = 747; 000 3 or a cube of approximately 91 ft
to V = (112;000)
150 = 3

28

lbs

lbs ft

ft

The deck, for all practical purposes can be treated as a continuous beam supported by elastic springs
with sti ness K = AL=E (where L is the length of the supporting cable). This is often idealized as
a beam on elastic foundations, and the resulting shear and moment diagrams for this idealization are
shown in Fig. 6.9.

29

K=AL/E

Shear

Moment

Figure 6.9: Deck Idealization, Shear and Moment Diagrams

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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Chapter 7

A BRIEF HISTORY OF
STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE
If I have been able to see a little farther than some others,
it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.
Sir Isaac Newton

1 More than any other engineering discipline, Architecture/Mechanics/Structures is the proud outcome
of a of a long and distinguished history. Our profession, second oldest, would be better appreciated if
we were to develop a sense of our evolution.

7.1 Before the Greeks


Throughout antiquity, structural engineering existing as an art rather than a science. No record exists
of any rational consideration, either as to the strength of structural members or as to the behavior of
structural materials. The builders were guided by rules of thumbs and experience, which were passed from
generation to generation, guarded by secrets of the guild, and seldom supplemented by new knowledge.
Despite this, structures erected before Galileo are by modern standards quite phenomenal (pyramids,
Via Appia, aqueducs, Colisseums, Gothic cathedrals to name a few).
3 The rst structural engineer in history seems to have been Imhotep, one of only two commoners to be
dei ed. He was the builder of the step pyramid of Sakkara about 3,000 B.C., and yielded great in uence
over ancient Egypt.
4 Hamurrabi's code in Babylonia (1750 BC) included among its 282 laws penalties for those \architects"
whose houses collapsed, Fig. 7.1.
2

7.2 Greeks
The greek philosopher Pythagoras (born around 582 B.C.) founded his famous school, which was
primarily a secret religious society, at Crotona in southern Italy. At his school he allowed neither
textbooks nor recording of notes in lectures, on pain of death. He taught until the age of 95, and is

Draft
7{2

A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE

228. If a builder build a house for some one and complete it, he shall
give him a fee of two shekels in money for each sar of surface.
229 If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it
properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then
that builder shall be put to death.
230. If it kill the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be put to
death.
231. If it kill a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave to
the owner of the house.
232. If it ruin goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been
ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which
he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the house from his own means.
233. If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has not yet
completed it; if then the walls seem toppling, the builder must make the
walls solid from his own means.

Figure 7.1: Hamurrabi's Code


reported to have coined the term mathematics which means literally the \science of learning" (and also
the word philosopher meaning \one who loves wisdom").
6 Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) was Dean of the Lyceum, a college just outside the city gates of Athens,
and was a man of universal ability. He is credited with having written in more than 25 di erent elds
of knowledge. One of the most in uential men of early civilization.
7 A pupil of Aristotle was Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) who founded the city of Alexandria
in 323. Upon his death, one of his generals Ptolemy I became Pharaoh and established a library.
The library of Alexandria was founded with the private library of Aristotle as a nucleus, and later
became the largest of the ancient world, containing about 700,000 scrolls. Many of these scrolls were
subsequently brought to the attention of the western world through translations by the arabs.
8 Alexandria was also the seat of the rst university (with a reported enrollment of 14,000 students),
and its rst professor of geometry was Euclid (315-250 B.C.).
9 The greatest of the Greeks was Archimedes (287-212) who was one of the greatest physicist of the
ancient world and one of its greatest mathematician, Fig. 7.2. He is considered by many as the founder
of mechanics because of his treatise \On Equilibrium". He introduced the concept of center of gravity.
He refused to write about \practical stu " such as machines, catapults, spiral pumps, and others. It
was one such invention (the lens) which kept the Roman armies at bay outside Syracuse for three years.
When the city fell, he was supposed to have had his life spared. But the circumstances of his subsequent
death are obscure. By some accounts he was killed by an ignorant soldier who disobeyed orders, and by
other he was slain because he was too busy solving a mathematical problem to appear in front of the
Roman consul and conqueror of Syracuse.

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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7.3 Romans

7{3

Figure 7.2: Archimed

7.3 Romans
Science made much less progress under the Romans than under the Greeks. The Romans apparently
were more practical, and were not as interested in abstract thinking though they were excellent ghters
and builders.
11 As the roman empire expanded, the Romans built great roads (some of them still in use) such as the
Via Appia, Cassia, Aurelia; Also they built great bridges (such as the third of a mile bridge over the
Rhine built by Caesars), and stadium (Colliseum).
12 One of the most notable Roman construction was the Pantheon, Fig. 7.3. It is the best-preserved

10

Figure 7.3: Pantheon


major edi ce of ancient Rome and one of the most signi cant buildings in architectural history. In
shape it is an immense cylinder concealing eight piers, topped with a dome and fronted by a rectangular
colonnaded porch. The great vaulted dome is 43 m (142 ft) in diameter, and the entire structure is
lighted through one aperture, called an oculus, in the center of the dome. The Pantheon was erected by
the Roman emperor Hadrian between AD 118 and 128.
13 Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (70?-25 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer. He was an artillery
engineer in the service of the rst Roman emperor, Augustus. His Ten Books on Architecture (Vitruvius

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE

1960) is the oldest surviving work on the subject and consists of dissertations on a wide variety of
subjects relating to architecture, engineering, sanitation, practical hydraulics, acoustic vases, and the
like. Much of the material appears to have been taken from earlier extinct treatises by Greek architects.
Vitruvius's writings have been studied ever since the Renaissance as a thesaurus of the art of classical
Roman architecture, Fig. 7.4.

Figure 7.4: From Vitruvius Ten Books on Architecture, (Vitruvius 1960)

7.4 The Medieval Period (477-1492)


This period, also called the Dark Ages, was marked by a general decline of civilization throughout
Europe following the decline and fall of the western Roman Empire.
15 The eastern Roman Empire on the other hand was to continue, and the center of Greek life had by
then been transferred to Constantinople. This city exerted great in uence throughout Asia Minor.
16 Hagia Sophia, also Church of the Holy Wisdom, Fig. 7.5, was the most famous Byzantine structure
in Constantinople (now Istanbul). Built (532-37) by Emperor Justinian I, its huge size and daring
technical innovations make it one of the world's key monuments. The size of its dome though, 112 ft,
was nevertheless smaller than the one of the Pantheon in Rome.
17 During that period, the Arabs carried the torch of knowledge, gave birth to algebra, translated some
of the great books of the Library of Alexandria.
18 Architecture, was the most important and original art form during the Gothic period, (Anon. xx). The
principal structural characteristics of Gothic architecture arose out of medieval masons' e orts to solve
the problems associated with supporting heavy masonry ceiling vaults over wide spans. The problem was
that the heavy stonework of the traditional arched barrel vault and the groin vault exerted a tremendous
downward and outward pressure that tended to push the walls upon which the vault rested outward,

14

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7.5 The Renaissance

7{5

Figure 7.5: Hagia Sophia


thus collapsing them. A building's vertical supporting walls thus had to be made extremely thick and
heavy in order to contain the barrel vault's outward thrust.
Medieval masons solved this dicult problem about 1120 with a number of brilliant innovations.
First and foremost they developed a ribbed vault, in which arching and intersecting stone ribs support
a vaulted ceiling surface that is composed of mere thin stone panels. This greatly reduced the weight
(and thus the outward thrust) of the ceiling vault, and since the vault's weight was now carried at
discrete points (the ribs) rather than along a continuous wall edge, separate widely spaced vertical piers
to support the ribs could replace the continuous thick walls. The round arches of the barrel vault were
replaced by pointed (Gothic) arches which distributed thrust in more directions downward from the
topmost point of the arch.
Since the combination of ribs and piers relieved the intervening vertical wall spaces of their supportive
function, these walls could be built thinner and could even be opened up with large windows or other
glazing. A crucial point was that the outward thrust of the ribbed ceiling vaults was carried across the
outside walls of the nave, rst to an attached outer buttress and then to a freestanding pier by means
of a half arch known as a ying buttress. The ying buttress leaned against the upper exterior of the
nave (thus counteracting the vault's outward thrust), crossed over the low side aisles of the nave, and
terminated in the freestanding buttress pier, which ultimately absorbed the ceiling vault's thrust.
These elements enabled Gothic masons to build much larger and taller buildings than their Romanesque predecessors and to give their structures more complicated ground plans. The skillful use of
ying buttresses made it possible to build extremely tall, thin-walled buildings whose interior structural
system of columnar piers and ribs reinforced an impression of soaring verticality.
19 Vilet-Le-Duc classical book, (le Duc 1977) provided an in depth study of Gothic architecture.

7.5 The Renaissance


20

During the Renaissance there was a major revival of interest in science and art.

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE

7.5.1 Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519


21 Leonardo da Vinci was the most outstanding personality of that period (and of human civilization
for that matter). He was not only a great artist (Mona Lisa), but also a great scientist and engineer.
22 He did not write books, but much information was found in his notebooks, one the most famous
(Codex Leicester) was recently purchased by Bill Gates whose company Corbis made a CD-ROM from
it.
23 He was greatly interested in mechanics, (Timoshenko 1982), and in one of his notes he states
\Mechanics is the Paradise of mathematical science because here we come to the fruits of
mathematics."

He was the rst to explore concepts of mechanics, since Archimedes, using a scienti c approach.
He applied the principle of virtual displacements to analyze various systems of pulleys and levers. He
appears to have developped a correct idea of the thrust produced by an arch.
25 In one of his manuscripts there is a sketch of two members on which a vertical load Q is acting and
the question is asked: What forces are needed at a and b to have equilibrium? (From the dotted line
parallelogram, in the sketch, it can be concluded that he had the right answer).
26 Leonardo also studied the strength of structural materials experimentally. He tried to determine the
tensile strength of an iron wire of di erent length (size e ect).
27 He also studied the load carrying capacity of a simply supported uniformly loaded beam and concluded
that \the strength of the beam supported at both ends varies inversely as the length and directly as the
width" (is this correct? how about the depth of the beam?).
28 For a cantilevered beam he stated
\If a beam 2 braccia long supports 100 libre, a beam 1 braccia long will support 200"
Finally, Leonardo brie y studied the strength of columns and found that
\it varies inversely as its length, but directly as some ratio of its cross section."
24

Leonardo's was the rst indeed to attempt to apply statics in nding the forces acting in members of
structures, friction and the rst to perform experiments to determine the strength of structural materials.
30 Interestingly, here is Leonardo's de nition of force, (Penvenuto 1991)
\I say that force is a spiritual virtue, an invisible power, which, through accidental exterior
violence, is caused by motion and placed and infused into bodies which are [thus] removed
and deviated from their natural use, giving to such virtue an active life of marvelous power".
29

Unfortunatly, these important ndings, were buried in his notes, and engineers in the fteenth and
sixteenth centuries continued, as in the Roman era, to x dimensions of structural elements by relying
on experience and judgment.

31

7.5.2 Brunelleschi 1377-1446


Brunelleschi was a Florentine architect and one of the initiators of the Italian Renaissance. His
revival of classical forms and his championing of an architecture based on mathematics, proportion, and
perspective make him a key artistic gure in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era.

32

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7.5 The Renaissance

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33 He was born in Florence in 1377 and received his early training as an artisan in silver and gold. In 1401
he entered, and lost, the famous design competition for the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery. He
then turned to architecture and in 1418 received the commission to execute the dome of the un nished
Gothic Cathedral of Florence, also called the Duomo. The dome, Fig. 7.6 a great innovation both

Figure 7.6: Florence's Cathedral Dome


artistically and technically, consists of two octagonal vaults, one inside the other. Its shape was dictated
by its structural needs one of the rst examples of architectural functionalism. Brunelleschi made a
design feature of the necessary eight ribs of the vault, carrying them over to the exterior of the dome,
where they provide the framework for the dome's decorative elements, which also include architectural
reliefs, circular windows, and a beautifully proportioned cupola. This was the rst time that a dome
created the same strong e ect on the exterior as it did on the interior.
34 Completely di erent from the emotional, elaborate Gothic mode that still prevailed in his time,
Brunelleschi's style emphasized mathematical rigor in its use of straight lines, at planes, and cubic
spaces. This set the tone for many of the later buildings of the Florentine Renaissance.
35 His in uence on his contemporaries and immediate followers was very strong and has been felt even
in the 20th century, when modern architects came to revere him as the rst great exponent of rational
architecture.

7.5.3 Alberti 1404-1472


Alberti was an Italian architect and writer, who was the rst important art theorist of the Renaissance and among the rst to design buildings in a pure classical style based on a study of ancient
Roman architecture.

36

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE

He was born in Genoa, the son of a Florentine noble. He received the best education available in
the 15th century. He was pro cient in Greek, mathematics, and the natural sciences. As a poet, a
philosopher, and one of the rst organists of his day, Alberti greatly in uenced his contemporaries.
38 Alberti's architectural training began with the study of antique monuments during his rst stay in
Rome. Subsequently he joined the papal court in Florence, where he became intensely involved with the
cultural life of the city. Probably at this time he became familiar with the mathematical laws of linear
perspective, which Brunelleschi had studied.
39 Alberti took took an active part in the literary life of Florence and championed the literary use of
Italian rather than the use of Latin.
40 In the late 1440s, Alberti began to work as an architect. Although his buildings rank among the best
architecture of the Renaissance, he was a theoretical rather than a practical architect. He furnished
the plans of his buildings but never supervised their construction. His De Re Aedi catoria (1485) was
the rst printed work on architecture of the Renaissance. He also wrote books on sculpture, the family,
government, and literature.

37

7.5.4 Palladio 1508-1580


Andrea Palladio was one of the most in uential architects in European history. He was born in
Padua, and trained as a stonemason, he later joined the poet Trissino who took him to Rome, where
Palladio studied and measured Roman architectural ruins; he also absorbed the treatises of Vitruvius.
One outcome of these studies was Palladio's Antiquities of Rome (1554) (Palladio 19xx), the principal
guidebook to Roman ruins for the next two centuries.
42 In and near Vicenza he designed many residences and public buildings. The best known of these
are the Barbarano, Chieregati, Tiene, Porto, and Valmarana palaces and the Villa Capri, or Villa
Rotunda. Although the historical antecedents of Palladio's style are the classically Roman-in uenced
High Renaissance works of architects such as the Italian Donato Bramante, Palladio's own use of classical
motifs came through his direct, extensive study of Roman architecture. He freely recombined elements
of Roman buildings as suggested by his own building sites and by contemporary needs, Fig. 7.7 At
the same time he shared the Renaissance concern for harmonious proportion, and his facades have a
noteworthy simplicity almost austerity and repose.
43 Palladio was the author of an important scienti c treatise on architecture, I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura,
(Palladio 19xx) which was widely translated and in uenced many later architects. Its precise rules and
formulas were widely utilized, especially in England, and were basic to the Palladian style, adopted
by Inigo Jones, Christopher Wren, and other English architects, which preceded and in uenced the
neoclassical architecture of the Georgian Style.

41

7.5.5 Stevin
Stevin, Fig. 7.8, was a Dutch mathematician and engineer who founded the science of hydrostatics
by showing that the pressure exerted by a liquid upon a given surface depends on the height of the liquid
and the area of the surface.
45 Stevin was a bookkeeper in Antwerp, then a clerk in the tax oce at Brugge. After this he moved to
Leiden where he rst attended the Latin school, then he entered the University of Leiden in 1583 (at the
age of 35). While quartermaster in the Dutch army, Stevin invented a way of ooding the lowlands in
the path of an invading army by opening selected sluices in dikes. He was an outstanding engineer who
44

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7.5 The Renaissance

7{9

Figure 7.7: Palladio's Villa Rotunda

Figure 7.8: Stevin

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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7{10

A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE

built windmills, locks and ports. He advised the Prince Maurice of Nassau on building forti cations for
the war against Spain.
46 The author of 11 books, Stevin made signi cant contributions to trigonometry, geography, forti cation, and navigation. Inspired by Archimedes, Stevin wrote important works on mechanics. In his book
De Beghinselen der Weeghconst in 1586 appears the theorem of the triangle of forces giving impetus to
statics. In 1586 (3 years before Galileo) he reported that di erent weights fell a given distance in the
same time.

7.5.6 Galileo 1564-1642


Galilei Galileo was born in Pisa in 1564. He received his early education in Latin, Greek and logic
near Florence, Fig. 7.9. Just as his father had played an important role in the musical revolution
47

Figure 7.9: Galileo


from medieval polyphony to harmonic modulation, Galileo came to see Aristotelian physical theology as
limiting scienti c inquiry.
48 In 1581 he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine, but he soon turned to philosophy and
mathematics, leaving the university without a degree in 1585. For a time he tutored privately and wrote
on hydrostatics and natural motions, but he did not publish.
49 In 1589 he became professor of mathematics at Pisa, where he is reported to have shown his students
the error of Aristotle's belief that speed of fall is proportional to weight, by dropping two objects of
di erent weight simultaneously from the Leaning Tower, thus modern dynamics was born. His contract
was not renewed in 1592, probably because he contradicted Aristotelian professors. The same year, he
was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua, where he remained until 1610.
50 In Padua he achieved great fame, and lecture halls capable of containing 2,000 students from all
over Europe were used. In 1592 he wrote Della Scienza Meccanica in which various problems of statics
were treated using the principle of virtual displacement. He subsequently became interested in
astronomy and built one of the rst telescope through which he saw Jupiter and became an ardent
proponent of the Copernican theory (which stated that the planets circle the sun as opposed to the
Aristotelian and Ptolemaic assumptions that it was the sun which was circling Earth). This theory
being condemned by the church, he received a semiocial warning to avoid theology and limit himself
to physical reasoning. When he published his books dealing with the two ways of regarding the universe
(which clearly favored the Copernican theory) he was called to Rome by the Inquisition, condemned and
had to read his recantation (At the end of his process he murmured the famous e pur se muove).

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When he was almost seventy years old, his life shattered by the Inquisition, he retired to his villa
near Florence and wrote his nal book, Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, (Galilei 1974), Fig.
7.10. His rst science was the study of the forces that hold objects together -the dialogue taking place

51

Figure 7.10: Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, Cover Page


in a shipyard, triggered by observations of craftsmen building the Venetian eet. His second science
concerned local motions - laws governing the trajectory of projectiles. A portion of the book dealing
with the mechanical properties of structural materials and with the strength of beams. Strength of
Materials as a discipline was born.
52 He observed that if we make structures geometrically similar, then with increase of the dimensions
they become weaker and weaker, One cannot reason from the small to the large, because many mechanical
devices succeed on a small scale that cannot exist in great size.
53 It is interesting to note that when Galileo studied the strength of a cantilevered (wooden) beam with
an applied load at the end, Fig. 7.11, he failed to properly understand the exact internal stress/strain

Figure 7.11: \Galileo's Beam"


distribution. He determined that the stress is constant throughout the cross section (whereas as we
know it varies linearly).
54 Galileo's lifelong struggle to free scienti c inquiry from restriction by philosophical and theological
interference stands beyond science. Since the full publication of Galileo's trial documents in the 1870s,

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entire responsibility for Galileo's condemnation has customarily been placed on the Roman Catholic
church. This conceals the role of the philosophy professors who rst persuaded theologians to link
Galileo's science with heresy. An investigation into the astronomer's condemnation, calling for its reversal, was opened in 1979 by Pope John Paul II. In October 1992 a papal commission acknowledged the
Vatican's error.

7.6 Pre Modern Period, Seventeenth Century


7.6.1 Hooke, 1635-1703

Hooke was best known for his study of elasticity but also original contributions to many other elds
of science.
56 Hooke was born on the Isle of Wight and educated at the University of Oxford. He served as assistant
to the English physicist Robert Boyle and assisted him in the construction of the air pump. In 1662
Hooke was appointed curator of experiments of the Royal Society and served in this position until his
death. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1663 and was appointed Gresham Professor of
Geometry at Oxford in 1665. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, he was appointed surveyor of
London, and he designed many buildings.
57 Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time but failed to carry
many of them through to completion. He formulated the theory of planetary motion as a problem in
mechanics, and grasped, but did not develop mathematically, the fundamental theory on which Newton
formulated the law of gravitation.
58 His most important contribution was published in 1678 in the paper De Potentia Restitutiva. It
contained results of his experiments with elastic bodies, and was the rst paper in which the elastic
properties of material was discused, Fig. 7.12.

55

Figure 7.12: Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke


\Take a wire string of 20, or 30, or 40 ft long, and fasten the upper part thereof to a nail,
and to the other end fasten a Scale to receive the weights: Then with a pair of compasses take
the distance of the bottom of the scale from the ground or oor underneath, and set down the

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said distance,then put inweights into the said scale and measure the several stretchings of the
said string, and set them down. Then compare the several strtchings of the said string, and
you will nd that they will always bear the same proportions one to the other that the weights
do that made them".
This became Hooke's Law  = E".
59 Because he was concerned about patent rights to his invention, he did not publish his law when rst
discovered it in 1660. Instead he published it in the form of an anagram \ceiinosssttuu" in 1676 and
the solution was given in 1678. Ut tensio sic vis (at the time the two symbos u and v were employed
interchangeably to denote either the vowel u or the consonant v), i.e. extension varies directly with force.

7.6.2 Newton, 1642-1727


60

Born on christmas day in the year of Galileo's death, Newton, Fig. 7.13 was Professor of Mathematics

Figure 7.13: Isaac Newton


at Cambridge university.
61 In 1684 Newton's solitude was interrupted by a visit from Edmund Halley, the British astronomer and
mathematician, who discussed with Newton the problem of orbital motion. Newton had also pursued
the science of mechanics as an undergraduate, and at that time he had already entertained basic notions
about universal gravitation. As a result of Halley's visit, Newton returned to these studies.
62 During the following two and a half years, Newton established the modern science of dynamics by
formulating his three laws of motion. Newton applied these laws to Kepler's laws of orbital motion
formulated by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler and derived the law of universal gravitation.
Newton is probably best known for discovering universal gravitation, which explains that all bodies
in space and on earth are a ected by the force called gravity. He published this theory in his book
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica or simply Principia, in 1687, Fig. 7.14. This book
marked a turning point in the history of science.
63 The Principia's appearance also involved Newton in an unpleasant episode with the English philosopher and physicist Robert Hooke. In 1687 Hooke claimed that Newton had stolen from him a central

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Figure 7.14: Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Cover Page


idea of the book: that bodies attract each other with a force that varies inversely as the square of their
distance. However, most historians do not accept Hooke's charge of plagiarism.
64 Newton also engaged in a violent dispute with Leibniz over priority in the invention of calculus.
Newton used his position as president of the Royal Society to have a committee of that body investigate
the question, and he secretly wrote the committee's report, which charged Leibniz with deliberate
plagiarism. Newton also compiled the book of evidence that the society published. The e ects of the
quarrel lingered nearly until his death in 1727.
65 In addition to science, Newton also showed an interest in alchemy, mysticism, and theology. Many
pages of his notes and writings particularly from the later years of his career are devoted to these topics.
However, historians have found little connection between these interests and Newton's scienti c work.

7.6.3 Bernoulli Family 1654-1782


The Bernouilli family originally lived in Antwerp, but because of religious persecution, they left
Holland and settled in Basel. Near the end of the seventeenth century this family produced outstanding
mathematicians for more than a hundred years. Jacob and John were brothers. John was the father of
Daniel, and Euler his pupil.
67 Whereas Galileo (and Mariotte) investigated the strength of beams (Strength), Jacob Bernoulli (16541705) made calculation of their de ection (Sti ness) and did not contribute to our knowledge of physical
properties. Jacob Bernouilli is also credited in being the rst to to have assumed that a bf plane section
of a beam remains plane during bending, but assumed rotation to be with respect to the lower ber
(as Galileo did) and this resulted in an erroneous solution (where is the exact location of the axis of
rotation?). He also showed that the curvature at any point along a beam is proportional to the curvature
of the de ection curve.
68 Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) rst postulated that a force can be decomposed into its equivalent
(\Potentiis quibuscunque possunt substitui earundem aequivalentes". Another hypothesis de ned the
sum of two \conspiring" forces applied to the same point. According to Bernoulli, this \necessary truth"
follows from the metaphysical principle that the whole equalts the sum of its parts, (Penvenuto 1991).
66

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7.6.4 Euler 1707-1783


Leonhard Euler was born in Basel and early on caught the attention of John Bernoulli whose
teaching was attracting young mathematicians from all over Europe, Fig. 7.15. He obtained his Master

69

Figure 7.15: Leonhard Euler


at age 16, and before the age of 20 won a competition from the French Academy of Sciences. At age 20
he moved to the Russian Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg along with the two sons of John Bernoulli
(Nicholas and Daniel). He was appointed professor of physics in 1730 and professor of mathematics in
1733. In 1741 he became professor of mathematics at the Berlin Academy of Sciences at the urging of
the Prussian king Frederick the Great. Euler returned to St. Petersburg in 1766, remaining there until
his death.
70 Although hampered from his late 20s by partial loss of vision and in later life by almost total blindness, Euler produced a number of important mathematical works and hundreds of mathematical and
scienti c memoirs. In his Introduction to the Analysis of In nities, Euler gave the rst full analytical
treatment of algebra, the theory of equations, trigonometry, and analytical geometry. In this work he
treated the series expansion of functions and formulated the rule that only convergent in nite series can
properly be evaluated. He also discussed three-dimensional surfaces and proved that the conic sections
are represented by the general equation of the second degree in two dimensions. Other works dealt with
calculus, including the calculus of variations, number theory, imaginary numbers, and determinate and
indeterminate algebra. Euler, although principally a mathematician, made contributions to astronomy,
mechanics, optics, and acoustics.
71 In Russia he wrote a famous book in mechanics in which instead of applying the geometrical methods
used by Newton, he introduced analytical methods.
72 As a mathematician, Euler was interested principally in the geometrical forms of elastic curves. He
approached problems from the point of view of variational calculus and in the introduction of his book
Methodus inveniendi lineas curva ... he stated
Since the fabric of the universe is most perfect, and is the work of a most wise Creator, nothing
whatsover takes place in the universe in which some relation o maximum an minimum does
not appear. Therefore there is absolutely no doubt that every e ect in the universe can be
explained as satisfactorily from nal causes, by the aid of the method of maxima and minima,
as it can from the e ective causes themselves...
73

Euler obtained a near exact expression for the de ection of a cantilever subjected to a point load, and

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for the buckling load of a column.

7.7 The pre-Modern Period; Coulomb and Navier


74

Coulomb (1736-1806) was a French military engineer, Fig. 7.16, as was the rst to publish the correct

Figure 7.16: Coulomb


analysis of the ber stresses in exed beam with rectangular cross section (Sur une Application des
Regles de maximis et minimis a quelques problemes de statique relatifs a l'architecture in 1773). He used
Hooke's law, placed the neutral axis in its exact position, developed the equilibrium of forces on the
cross section with external forces, and then correcly determined the stresses. He also worked on friction
(\Coulomb friction") and on earth pressure.
75 Coulomb did also research on magnetism, friction, and electricity. In 1777 he invented the torsion
balance for measuring the force of magnetic and electrical attraction. With this invention, Coulomb
was able to formulate the principle, now known as Coulomb's law, governing the interaction between
electric charges. In 1779 Coulomb published the treatise Theorie des machines simples (Theory of
Simple Machines), an analysis of friction in machinery. After the war Coulomb came out of retirement
and assisted the new government in devising a metric system of weights and measures. The unit of
quantity used to measure electrical charges, the coulomb, was named for him.
76 Navier (1785-1836) Navier was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and became a professor there
in 1831. Whereas the famous memoir of Coulomb (1773) contained the correct solution to numerous
important problems in mechanics of materials, it took engineers more than forty years to understand
them correctly and to use them in practical application
77 In 1826 he published his Le
cons (lecture notes) which is considered the rst great textbook in mechanics for engineering. In it he developed the rst general theory of elastic solids as well as the rst
systematic treatment of the theory of structures.
78 It should be noted that no clear division existed between the theory of elasticity and the theory
of structures until about the middle of the nineteenth century (Coulomb and Navier would today be
considered professional structural engineers).
79 Three other structural engineers who pioneered the development of the theory of elasticity from that
point on were Lame, Clapeyron and de Saint-Venant. Lam'e published the rst book on elasticity
in 1852, and credited Clapeyron for the theorem of equality between external and internal work. de
Saint-Venant was perhaps the greatest elasticians who according to Southwell \... combined with high
mathematical ability an essentially practical outlook which gave direction to all his work". In 1855-6 he
published his classical work on torsion, exure, and shear stresses.

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7.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present)


7.8.1 Structures/Mechanics

From 1857 the evolution of a comprehensive theory of structures proceeded at astonishing rate now
that the basic and requisite principles had been determined.
81 Great contributors in that period include: Maxwell ( rst analysis of indeterminate structures), Culmann (graphics statics), Mohr (Mohr's circle, indeterminate analysis), Castigliano (1st and 2nd theorems), Cross (moment distribution), Southwell (relaxation method).

80

7.8.2 Ei el Tower
The Ei el Tower was designed and built by the French civil engineer Alexandre Gustave Ei el for
the Paris World's Fair of 1889. The tower, without its modern broadcasting antennae, is 300 m (984
ft) high. The lower section consists of four immense arched legs set on masonry piers. The legs curve
inward until they unite in a single tapered tower. Platforms, each with an observation deck, are at three
levels; on the rst is also a restaurant.
83 The tower, constructed of about 6300 metric tons (about 7000 tons) of iron, has stairs and elevators.
A meteorological station, a radio communications station, and a television transmission antenna, as well
as a suite of rooms that were used by Ei el, are located near the top of the tower.

82

7.8.3 Sullivan 1856-1924


Sullivan wan an American architect, whose brilliant early designs for steel-frame skyscraper construction led to the emergence of the skyscraper as the distinctive American building type. Through his own
work, especially his commercial structures, and as the founder of what is now known as the Chicago
school of architects, he exerted an enormous in uence on 20th-century American architecture. His most
famous pupil was the architect Frank Lloyd Wright, who acknowledged Sullivan as his master.
85 After studying architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he spent a year in Paris
at the E cole des Beaux-Arts and in the oce of a French architect. Settling in Chicago in 1875, he
was employed as a draftsman, then in 1881 formed a partnership with Dankmar Adler. Together they
produced more than 100 buildings.
86 Adler secured the clients and handled the engineering and acoustical problems, while Sullivan concerned himself with the architectural designs. One of their earliest and most distinguished joint enterprises was the ten-story Auditorium Building (1886-89) in Chicago. This famous showplace incorporated
a hotel, an oce building, and a theater renowned for its superb acoustics. The Wainwright Building,
also ten stories high, with a metal frame, was completed in 1891 in Saint Louis, Missouri. In 1895 the
Sullivan-Adler partnership was dissolved, leading to a decline in Sullivan's practice. The Carson Pirie
Scott (originally Schlesinger and Meyer) Department Store, Chicago, regarded by many as Sullivan's
masterpiece, was completed in 1904.
87 His famous axiom, Form follows function became the touchstone for many in his profession. Sullivan, however, did not apply it literally. He meant that an architect should consider the purpose of the
building as a starting point, not as a rigidly limiting stricture.
88 He also had tremendous respect for the natural world which played an enormous role in forging his
theories about architecture (he spent all of his rst summers on his grandparents' farm in Massachusetts
where he developed this love and respect for nature) expressed in his Autobiography of an Idea), 1924).
84

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7.8.4 Roebling, 1806-1869


John Augustus Roebling was an American civil engineer, who was one of the pioneers in the
construction of suspension bridges. He was born in Germany, educated at the Royal Polytechnic School
of Berlin and immigrated to the States in 1831.
90 In his rst job he was employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad Corp. to survey its route across the
Allegheny Mountains between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. He then demonstrated the practicability of
steel cables in bridge construction and in 1841 established at Saxonburg the rst factory to manufacture
steel-wire rope in the U.S.
91 Roebling utilized steel cables in the construction of numerous suspension bridges and is generally
considered one of the pioneers in the eld of suspension-bridge construction. He built railroad suspension
bridges over the Ohio and Niagara rivers and completed plans for the Brooklyn Bridge shortly before
his death. Roebling was the author of Long and Short Span Railway Bridges (1869).

89

7.8.5 Maillart
From (Billington 1973)

Robert Maillart was born on February 6, 1872, in Bern, Switzerland, where his father, a Belgian
citizen, was a banker. He studied civil engineering at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and
graduated in 1894. Ironically, one of his lowest grades was in bridge design, even though he is regarded
today as one of the half dozen greatest bridge designers of the twentieth century.
93 For eight years following his graduation, he worked with di erent civil engineering organizations. In
1902, he founded his own rm for design and construction; thereafter, his business grew rapidly and
expanded as far as Russia and Spain. In the summer of 1914, he took his wife and three children to
Russia. Since the World War prevented their return to Switzerland, Maillart stayed and worked in
Russia until 1919, when his business was liquidated by the Revolution. Forced to ee, he returned to
Switzerland penniless and lonely, his wife having died in Russia.
94 Because of these misfortunes Maillart felt unable to take up the construction business again and
henceforth concentrated on design alone. He opened an oce in Geneva in 1919 and branches in Bern
and Zurich in 1924.
95 During the twenties he began to develop and modify his ideas of bridge design; and from 1930, when
the Salginatobel and Landquart Bridges were completed, until his death in 1940, he produced over
thirty bridge designs of extraordinary originality. Unfortunately, no Swiss municipality would accept his
designs for prominent urban locations.
96 In 1936, he was elected an honorary member of the Royal institute of British Architects (R.I.B.A.)
although he had never ocially acted as architect on any project. The 1941 rst edition of Space, Time
and Architecture by art historian Siegfried Giedion introduced Maillart to a wide public in the U.S.A.
Finally, Max Bill's 1949 book, Robert Maillart, with its photographs and commentary on nearly all
Maillart's bridges powerfully presented him as an artist of rst rank.

92

7.8.6 Nervi, 1891-1979


97 Pier Luigi Nervi was an Italian architect and engineer, whose technical innovations, particularly
in the use of reinforced concrete, made possible aesthetically pleasing solutions to dicult structural
problems.

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He attended the Civil Engineering School in Bologna and established his own rm in 1920. His rst
major commission (a stadium in Florence, 1932) features cantilevered beams and a daringly exposed
concrete structure. For airplane hangars he used reinforced concrete to cover enormous spans with a
light but strong latticework.
99 Nervi considered himself primarily an engineer and technician, not an architect, and he
strove primarily for strength through form. He maintained that the strong aesthetic appeal of his
buildings was simply a by-product of their structural correctness. His introduction of a versatile new
type of reinforced concrete layers of ne steel mesh sprayed with cement mortar made possible one of his
masterpieces, the Turin Exposition Hall (1949), in which the approximately 76-m (250-ft) corrugated
lattice roof (only about 5 cm thick) creates an immense interior space as dramatic as a cathedral.
100 The best known and most in uential is probably his Palazetto dello Sport (Small Sport Palace, 1960,
Rome), Fig. 7.17. Encircled by Y-shaped supports and topped by a shallow scalloped concrete dome,
98

Figure 7.17: Nervi's Palazetto Dello Sport


this building has become a paradigm of the 20th-century sports arena.

7.8.7 Khan

Fazlur Khan was born in 1929 in Dacca India, (Anon. xx). After obtaining a B.A. in engineering from

the University of Dacca in 1950, Khan worked as assistant engineer for the India Highway Department
and taught at the University of Dacca. Qualifying for a scholarship in 1952, he enrolled at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, where he received master's degrees in both applied mechanics
and structural engineering and a Ph.D. in structural engineering. He returned brie y to Pakistan and
won an important position as executive engineer of the Karachi Development Authority. Frustrated by
administrative demands that kept him from design work, however, he returned to the United States and

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joined the prestigious architectural rm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in Chicago in 1955, eventually
becoming a partner (1966).
Among his many designs for skyscrapers are Chicago's John Hancock Center (1970) and the Sears
Tower (1973), which are among the world's tallest buildings, and One Shell Plaza in Houston, Texas.
The Sears Tower was his rst skyscraper to employ his "bundled tube" structural system, which consists
of a group of narrow steel cylinders that are clustered together to form a thicker column. The system
was innovative because it minimized the amount of steel needed for high towers, eliminated the need
for internal wind bracing (since the perimeter columns carried the wind loadings), and permitted freer
organization of the interior space.
His later projects included the strikingly di erent Haj Terminal of the King Abdul Aziz International
Airport, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia (1976-81), and King Abdul Aziz University, also in Jiddah (1977-78).

7.8.8

et al.

To name just a few of the most in uential Architects/Engineers: Menn, Isler, Candella, Torroja,
Johnson, Pei, Calatrava, ...

101

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NEW ARCHITECTURE
by

Felix Candela

Professor - University of Illinois


Unauthorized reprint from (Billington 1973)
The title of my lecture is New Architecture; but I cannot avoid the feeling that I have not too much
to do with this subject. I don't think I can speak of my work as of any new architecture or even as
architecture at all, and perhaps the same could be said of Maillart's work. But, of course, it all depends
on what you consider architecture and there is not anymore a general consent about the meaning of this
word,
But, anyway, upon discussing this with David Billington, he told me it could be interesting to know
what had been the in uence of Maillart on my development, and all of a sudden I realized that he may
have been one of the strongest in uences at the critical moment in my career in which I was trying to
become a builder of shells.
But let me speak rst about my background, because it may be important to know what impels
people to do things and the circumstances and diculties that they had to deal with in order to achieve
their purposes.
I was trained as an architect with, you may say, quite a backward kind of curriculum, in Madrid
during the thirties. We had only one course in strength of materials, but it was a very good course,
dealing mainly with theory of elasticity and following the classical and rigoristic French tradition. As
you can imagine, most students considered the matter completely useless for their professional practice
and, as it required some knowledge of mathematics, it was very dicult for most of them to pass the
examination. This gave me opportunity to do some private tutoring to my classmates, which was a very
instructive manner to make some money to pay for my studies. As a result, I became more familiar
with the theoretical bases of the current methods of calculation of indeterminate structures. I discovered
later that this modest background made me more knowledgeable on the matter than most practicing
engineers whose training and interest tend to be directed towards mastering the accepted methods of
analysis rather than questioning the basic hypotheses.
Anyway, since I never had a high opinion of myself as an artist, I was more interested in the technical
part of the curriculum and began to read extensively about structures. Among my lectures I found
several French and German papers dealing with shells which were beginning to be in vogue at that time
in Europe. Examples of such structures built in Germany and France could be found in magazines and
Torroja was building the famous roof of the "Fronton Recoletos" in Madrid, with an unusual shape and
a record span.
Shells appeared to be an intriguing challenge for me, and I dreamed about the possibility of building
some in the future. But my lack of experience and my youthful faith in the impressive wisdom displayed in
learned magazines led me to believe that the key to shell design was in complete mathematical calculation,
and I tried, rather unsucessfully, to understand and follow them and to make some sense of their results.
I was not the only one misled and discouraged by the mathematical barrier so cunningly deployed by
German engineers, a clever move which secured them practically an exclusive on the construction of
barrel vaults for more than twenty years, hindering the normal employment of such structures during
the same time.
However, such was my enthusiasm with this mathematical approach that I managed to get a fellowship
to go to Germany, hoping to learn something more from the German professors. But the outbreak of
the Spanish Civil War saved me from such an ordeal. I could not leave the country and ended in Mexico
after three years of military service, with no more baggage than my bare hands and no further addition
to my academic background. After several years of general practice in Mexico, as draftsman, designer
and contractor, I recalled my old fancy with shells and began to collect again papers on the subject.
Whatever I learned from then on was to be the hard way, working alone, with no direct help from any
university or engineering oce. But I am indebted to many people who did help me through their

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writings and Maillart was one of the foremost.


I discovered him in Giedion's Space, Time and Architecture; and then I got Max Bill's book with
its invaluable collection of Maillart's essays. I devoured his articles about "Reinforced Concrete Design
and Calculation" (he was very careful to di erentiate the meaning of such words and to avoid the
more than semantic confusion prevalent nowadays in English-speaking countries)., "The Engineer and
the Authorities" which expresses his position in front of the establishment and "Mass and Quality in
Reinforced Concrete Structures." Very short papers, indeed, but well provided with opinions, something
I could rarely nd in other engineering articles. I learned later that to express personal opinions is
considered bad taste among technical writers. Any discussion should be restricted to insigni cant details,
but never touch fundamental dogmas, in a fashion curiously similar to what could be expected of the
councils of the Church or the meetings of any Politbureau.
But my attitude with respect to calculations of reinforced concrete structures was becoming unorthodox, being tired perhaps of performing long and tedious routines whose results were not always
meaningful. Therefore, I found Maillart's thoughts delightfully sympathetic and encouraging. If a rebel
was able to produce such beautiful and sound structures there could not be anything wrong with becoming also a rebel, which was besides, my only way to break the mystery surrounding shell analysis.
Thus, I started to follow the bibliographic tread and met, through their writings, with Freudenthal,
Johansen, Van der Broek, Kist, Saliger, Kacinczy and so many others who showed me there was more
than a single and infallible manner to approach structural analysis. The discovery of rupture methods,
with their emphasis on simple statics and their bearing on the actual properties of construction materials
and their behavior in the plastic range, allowed me to trust in simpli ed procedures to understand and
analyze the distribution of stresses in shell structures. It also helped me to get out of my naive belief in
the indisputable truth of the printed word and to start reading with a new critical outlook. No longer did
I need to believe whatever was in print, no matter how high-sounding the name of the author. I could
make my own judgements about what methods of stress analysis were better suited for my practice.
Since I was working practically alone, I could not a ord nor had time for complex calculations and
did welcome Maillart's advice that simpler calculations are more reliable than complex ones, especially
for somebody who builds his own structures. This was exactly my case and, since most structures I was
building were of modest scale, I could control what was happening, check the results and con rm the
accuracy of my judgement or correct my mistakes. In a way, I was working with full scale models. I
understand that this was also true of Maillart who in many cases was the actual builder of his designs.
Following the general trend to mess up issues, there has been a lot of speculation about the engineer
as an artist and in some instances, like in the case of Nervi, about the engineer as an architect (as if the
title of architect could confer, per se, artistic ability to its holder); but few people realize that the only
way to be an artist in this dicult specialty of building is to be your own contractor. in countries like
this, where the building industry has been thoroughly and irreversibly fragmented and the responsibility
diluted among so many trades, it may be shocking to think of a contractor as an artist; but it is indeed
the only way to have in your hands the whole set of tools or instruments to perform the forgotten art of
building, to produce "works of art" which, by the way, was the common expression to designate a bridge
in the old French engineering vocabulary.
Implicit in the above statement is the fact that you have to be, besides your own structural designer
and calculator and perhaps your own architect, also your own contractor, a very dicult proposition in
some countries where such mergings of today's disparate professions may even be considered unlawful.
This means, of course, that the price for being the master of your trade is to accept the whole responsibility for the good performance of the structure, and not too many people today would readily endorse
such an awesome commitment. I am not advocating a return to the past; history is an irreversible
process. I am simply stating that the Maillart phenomenom could not happen under today's situation
of the industry.
I like to think, however, that Maillart did not judge himself an artist. As Picasso said of himself "he
was not looking for beauty; he found it". His main concerns must have been eciency and economy of
means, since to be able to build one of his bridges he had to win a bidding competition and prove that

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
7.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present)

7{23

he could do it cheaper than anybody else. But an ecient and economical structure has not necessarily
to be ugly. Beauty has no price tag and there is never one single solution to an engineering problem.
Therefore, it is always possible to modify the whole or the parts until the ugliness disappears. This
aversion to ugliness is quite the opposite of the task of the professional artist who has to produce beauty
as an obligation or of today's star-architect who has to be original at any cost in each new project.
Maillart's works did not need to be beautiful. This word did not even exist in the practical world
of the serious citizens who had to judge his competitive bids. He achieved a beauty without need or
purpose; just for the pure joy of it. The kind of joy that you can feel also in the works of Haydn or
Vivaldi. They were simply enjoying what they were doing, and so was obviously Maillart.
He did also possess that rare quality, source of artistic creation and of all invention, of being able
to challenge the conventional wisdom and come up with the obvious solution, one, nevertheless, which
nobody could think of before. I can imagine the ts of rage and jealousy of some of his contemporary
colleagues at the sight of one of his bridges (Landquart or Schwandbach), in which the curved route
is supported in a straight arched slab. The problem with this unusual combination - which, of course,
looks perfectly logical after the fact - is that it was very dicult, if not impossible, to analyze with the
methods available at that time. But Maillart would not take any unnecessary risk and rst he tried the
soundness of his approximated calculations in a small example (the Halbkern Bridge) with a span of
only fteen meters. This was his testing model which gave him rm ground from which to extrapolate
at the next opportunity.
I would like to insist at this moment c-n something that everybody knows but which is easily forgotten; that all calculations, no matter how sophisticated and complex, can not be more than rough
approximations of the natural phenomenon they try to represent by means of a mathematical model.
The complexity, or even elegance, of such a model bears no relation at all with the degree of approximation. There is not such a thing as an exact method of structural analysis and, notwithstanding the
popular belief in the letter of the codes, the accuracy of any calculation is still a question of personal
judgement. This fortunate circumstance allows engineering to reach sometimes the highest category of
art, to the despair of dull and in exible technicians.
If I nd something lacking in this commendable conference in memory of one of the greatest engineers
of all times it is that the side of Maillart's personality as a rebel, with his tireless and successful struggle
against the establishment of his times, has not been suciently stressed.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
7{24

A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 8

Case Study III: MAGAZINI


GENERALI
Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983)

8.1 Geometry
1 This sotrage house, built by Maillart in Chiasso in 1924, provides a good example of the mariage
between aesthetic and engineering.
2 The most strking feature of the Magazini Generali is not the structure itself, but rather the shape of
its internal supporting frames, Fig. 8.1.
3 The frame can be idealized as a simply supported beam hung from two cantilever column supports.
Whereas the beam itself is a simple structural idealization, the overhang is designed in such a way as to
minimize the net moment to be transmitted to the supports (foundations), Fig. 8.2.

8.2 Loads
The load applied on the frame is from the weights of the roof slab, and the frame itself. Given the
space between adjacent frames is 14.7 ft, and that the roof load is 98 , and that the total frame
weight is 13.6 kips, the total uniform load becomes, Fig. 8.3:

psf

qroof = (98) (14:7) = 1:4


(13:6) = 0:2
qframe = (63
:6)
qtotal = 1:4 + 0:2 = 1.6
psf

ft

k/ft

ft

k/ft

k/ft

(8.1-a)
(8.1-b)
(8.1-c)

Draft
8{2

Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI


HINGE IDEALIZATION
OF THIN SECTIONS

ACTUAL FRAME

ABSTRACTION OF MID SECTIONAS A SIMPLE BEAM

9.2 ft

63.6 ft

Figure 8.1: Magazzini Generali; Overall Dimensions, (Billington and Mark 1983)

B
P

MB =B*d1

MP =P*d 2
d2

d1
B
MR=MB -M P

Figure 8.2: Magazzini Generali; Support System, (Billington and Mark 1983)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
8.3 Reactions

8{3
q ROOF = 1.4 k/ft + q FRAME = 0.2 k/ft
q ROOF = 1.4 k/ft
+ q FRAME = 0.2 k/ft
q TOTAL = 1.6 k/ft

Figure 8.3: Magazzini Generali; Loads (Billington and Mark 1983)

8.3 Reactions
5

Reactions for the beam are determined rst taking advantage of symmetry, Fig. 8.4:

W = (1:6) (63:6) = 102


R = W2 = 102
2 = 51
k/ft

ft

(8.2-a)
(8.2-b)

We note that these reactions are provided by the internal shear forces.
q TOTAL = 1.6 k/ft

63.6 ft

51 k

51 k

Figure 8.4: Magazzini Generali; Beam Reactions, (Billington and Mark 1983)

8.4 Forces
The internal forces are pimarily the shear and moments. Those can be easily determined for a simply
supported uniformly loaded beam. The shear varies linearly from 51 kip to -51 kip with zero at the
center, and the moment diagram is parabolic with the maximum moment at the center, Fig. 8.5, equal
to:
2
2
Mmax = qL8 = (1:6) 8(63:6) = 808
(8.3)

k/ft

ft

k.ft

The externally induced moment at midspan must be resisted by an equal and opposite internal moment.
This can be achieved through a combination of compressive force on the upper bers, and tensile ones
on the lower. Thus the net axial force is zero, however there is a net internal couple, Fig. 8.6.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
8{4

Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI

SHEAR FORCE

51 K
25 K
L

L/2

25 K

MOMENT

51 K

Mmax

L
0

L/2

L/4

3L/4

Figure 8.5: Magazzini Generali; Shear and Moment Diagrams (Billington and Mark 1983)

q TOTAL

C
d

VA
T

Figure 8.6: Magazzini Generali; Internal Moment, (Billington and Mark 1983)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
8.4 Forces

8{5
Mext = Cd ) C = Mdext

T = C = (808)
(9:2)

k.ft
ft

(8.4-a)

=  88

(8.4-b)

8 Because the frame shape (and thus d(x)) is approximately parabolic, and the moment is also parabolic,
then the axial forces are constants along the entire frame, Fig. 8.7.

M
MOMENT DIAGRAM

FRAME

CABLE :

FRAME :

CURVE OF DIAGRAM

SHAPE OF DIAGRAM

Figure 8.7: Magazzini Generali; Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram,
(Billington and Mark 1983)
The axial force at the end of the beam is not balanced, and the 88 kip compression must be transmitted
to the lower chord, Fig. 8.8. Fig. 8.9 This is analogous to the forces transmiited to the support by a

88 k

Tension
88 k

88 k

88 k

Compression
Horizontal Component
Tied Arch

Cable Force
Axial Force
Vertical Reaction

Figure 8.8: Magazzini Generali; Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support, (Billington and Mark 1983)
tied arch.
10 It should be mentioned that when a rigorous computer analysis was performed, it was determined
that the supports are contributing a compression force of about 8 kips which needs to be superimposed
over the central values, Fig. 8.9.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
8{6

Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI

FRAME ACTS AS A
UNIT, UNLIKE THE
ABSTRACTION

-88 k - 8 k = -96 k
16 k
88 k - 8 k = 80 k

16 k

Figure 8.9: Magazzini Generali; E ect of Lateral Supports, (Billington and Mark 1983)

8.5 Internal Stresses


The net compressive stress, for a top chord with a cross sectional area of 75 2 is equal to
(88) = 1.17
 = PA = (75)
(8.5)
2
this is much lower than the allowable compressive stress of concrete which is about 1,350 ksi. It should
be noted that if the frame was cast along with the roof (monolithic construction), than this stress would
be even lower.
12 Since concrete has practically no tensile strength, the tensile force in the lower chord must be resisted
by steel. The lower chord has 4 bars with 0.69 2 and 6 other bars with 0.58 2 , thus we have a total
of
As = 4(0:69) + 6(0:58) = 6:24 2
(8.6)
Thus the steel stresses will be
(8.7)
 = PA = (6(88)
:24) 2 = 14.1
which is lower than the allowable steel stress.
11

in

ksi

in

in

in

in

ksi

in

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 9

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and


GUIDELINES
9.1 Safety Provisions
1 Structures and structural members must always be designed to carry some reserve load above what is
expected under normal use. This is to account for
Variability in Resistance: The actual strengths (resistance) of structural elements will di er from
those assumed by the designer due to:
1. Variability in the strength of the material (greater variability in concrete strength than in
steel strength).
2. Di erences between the actual dimensions and those speci ed (mostly in placement of steel
rebars in R/C).
3. E ect of simplifying assumptions made in the derivation of certain formulas.
Variability in Loadings: All loadings are variable. There is a greater variation in the live loads than
in the dead loads. Some types of loadings are very dicult to quantify (wind, earthquakes).
Consequences of Failure: The consequence of a structural component failure must be carefully assessed. The collapse of a beam is likely to cause a localized failure. Alternatively the failure of a
column is likely to trigger the failure of the whole structure. Alternatively, the failure of certain
components can be preceded by warnings (such as excessive deformation), whereas other are sudden and catastrophic. Finally, if no redistribution of load is possible (as would be the case in a
statically determinate structure), a higher safety factor must be adopted.
2 The purpose of safety provisions is to limit the probability of failure and yet permit economical
structures.
3 The following items must be considered in determining safety provisions:
1. Seriousness of a failure, either to humans or goods.
2. Reliability of workmanship and inspection.
3. Expectation of overload and to what magnitude.

Draft
9{2

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES

4. Importance of the member in the structure.


5. Chance of warning prior to failure.
4

Two major design philosophies have emerged


1. Working Stress Method
2. Ultimate Strength Method

9.2 Working Stress Method


This is the simplest of the two methods, and the one which has been historically used by structural
engineers.
6 Structural elements are designed for their service loads, and are dimensioned such that the stresses
do not exceed some predesignated allowable strength, Fig. 9.1.

Figure 9.1: Load Life of a Structure


In R/C this method was the one adopted by the ACI (American Concrete institute) code up to 1971,
Working Stress Design Method (WSD).
8 The AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) code refers to it as the Allowable Stress
Design (ASD) and was used until 1986.
7

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
9.3 Ultimate Strength Method
9

9{3

In this method:
1. All loads are assumed to have the same average variability.
2. The entire variation of the loads and the strengths is placed on the strength side of the equation.

yld
 < all = F:S:

(9.1)

where F:S: is the factor of safety.


10 Major limitations of this method
1. An elastic analysis can not easily account for creep and shrinkage of concrete.
2. For concrete structures, stresses are not linearly proportional to strain beyond 0:45fc0 .
3. Safety factors are not rigorously determined from a probabilistic approach, but are the result of
experience and judgment.
11

Allowable strengths are given in Table 9.1.


Steel, AISC/ASD
Tension, Gross Area
Ft = 0:6Fy
Tension, E ective Net Area Ft = 0:5Fu
Bending
Fb = 0:66Fy
Shear
Fv = 0:40Fy
Concrete, ACI/WSD
Tension
0
Compression
0:45fc0

 E ective net area will be de ned in section ??.

Table 9.1: Allowable Stresses for Steel and Concrete

9.3 Ultimate Strength Method


9.3.1
12
13
14
15

Probabilistic Preliminaries

In this approach, it is assumed that the load Q and the resistance R are random variables.
Typical frequency distributions of such random variables are shown in Fig. 9.2.
The safety margin is de ned as Y = R ; Q. Failure would occur if Y < 0
Q and R can be combined and the result expressed logarithmically, Fig. 9.3.

R
X = ln Q

(9.2)

Failure would occur for negative values of X


16 The probability of failure Pf is equal to the ratio of the shaded area to the total area under the
curve in Fig. 9.3.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
9{4

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES

Figure 9.2: Frequency Distributions of Load Q and Resistance R

Figure 9.3: De nition of Reliability Index

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
9.3 Ultimate Strength Method

9{5


If X is assumed to follow a Normal Distribution than it has a mean value X = ln QR and a


m
standard deviation .
X
18 We de ne the safety index (or reliability index) as = 
1
19 For standard distributions and for = 3:5, it can be shown that the probability of failure is Pf =
9;091
or 1:1  10;4. That is 1 in every 10,000 structural members designed with = 3:5 will fail because of
either excessive load or understrength sometime in its lifetime.
20 Target values for are shown in Table 9.2.
17

Type of Load/Member

AISC

DL + LL; Members
3.0
DL + LL; Connections
4.5
DL + LL + WL; Members 3.5
DL + LL +EL; Members 1.75

ACI

Ductile Failure
Sudden Failures

3-3.5
3.5-4

Table 9.2: Selected values for Steel and Concrete Structures


Because the strengths and the loads vary independently, it is desirable to have one factor to account
for variability in resistance, and another one for the variability in loads.
22 These factors are referred to as resistance factor  and Load Factor respectively. The resistance
factor is de ned as
 = RRm exp(;0:55 VR )
(9.3)
n
where RM RN and VR are the mean resistance, the nominal resistance (to be de ned later), and the
coecient of variation of the resistance.

21

9.3.2 Discussion
ACI refers to this method as the Strength Design Method, (previously referred to as the Ultimate
Strength Method).
24 AISC refers to it as Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).
25 Terms such as failure load should be avoided; it is preferable to refer to a structure's Limit State
load.
1
26 The general form is (LRFD-A4.1)

23

Rn   i Qi

(9.4)

where
 is a strength reduction factor, less than 1, and must account for the type of structural element,
Table 9.3.
1

Throughout the notes we will refer by this symbol the relevant design speci cation in the AISC code.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
9{6

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES


Type of Member

ACI

Axial Tension
Flexure
Axial Compression, spiral reinforcement
Axial Compression, other
Shear and Torsion
Bearing on concrete

0.9
0.9
0.75
0.70
0.85
0.70

Tension, yielding
Tension, fracture
Compression
Beams
Fasteners, Tension
Fasteners, Shear

0.9
0.75
0.85
0.9
0.75
0.65

AISC

Table 9.3: Strength Reduction Factors, 

Rn is the nominal resistance (or strength).


Rn is the design strength.
i is the load factor corresponding to Qi and is greater than 1.
 i Qi is the required strength based on the factored load:

i is the type of load


27

The various factored load combinations which must be considered are

AISC

ACI

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.4D
1.2D+1.6L+0.5(Lr or S)
1.2D+0.5L (or 0.8W)+1.6(Lr or S)
1.2D+0.5L+0.5(Lr or S)+1.3W
1.2D+0.5L(or 0.2 S)+1.5E
0.9D+1.3W(or 1.5 E)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1.4D+1.7L
0.75(1.4D+1.7L+1.7W)
0.9D+1.3W
1.05D+1.275W
0.9D+1.7H
1.4D +1.7L+1.7H
0.75(1.4D+1.4T+1.7L)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
9.4 Example

9{7

8. 1.4(D+T)
where D= dead; L= live; Lr= roof live; W= wind; E= earthquake; S= snow; T= temperature; H= soil.
We must select the one with the largest limit state load.
28 Thus, in this method, we must perform numerous analysis, one for each load, of a given structure.
For trusses, this is best achieved if we use the matrix method, invert the statics matrix [B ], and multiply
[B ];1 by each one of the load cases, (Refer to Section ??). For the WSD method, we need not perform
more than one analysis in general.
29 Serviceability Limit States must be assessed under service loads (not factored). The most important ones being
1. De ections
2. Crack width (for R/C)
3. Stability

9.4 Example
Example 9-18: LRFD vs ASD
To illustrate the di erences between the two design approaches, let us consider the design of an axial
member, subjected to a dead load of 100 and live load of 80 . Use A36 steel.
k

ASD: We consider the total load P = 100 + 80 = 180 . From Table 9.1, the allowable stress is
0:6yld = 0:6  36 = 21:6 . Thus the required cross sectional area is
k

ksi

180 = 8:33
A = 21
:6

in

USD we consider the largest of the two load combinations


 i Qi : 1:4D
= 1:4(100)
= 140
1:2D + 1:6L = 1:2(100) + 1:6(80) = 248

k
k

From Table 9.3  = 0:9, and Rn = (0:9)Ayld . Hence, applying Eq. 9.4 the cross sectional area
should be
2
A =  i Qi = (0:248
9)(36) = 7:65
in

yld

Note that whereas in this particular case the USD design required a smaller area, this may not be the
case for di erent ratios of dead to live loads.

9.5 Design Guidelines


To assist in the preliminary design/dimensioning of structures, Table 9.4 provides average, maximum
and typical spans for various types of structures.

30

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
9{8

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES and GUIDELINES


Average Max Typical Span
Ft.

TIMBER

Plywood
Planks
Joists
Beams
Girders
Gable bents
Trusses
I Beams
Joists
Plate and I girders
Trusses
Gable bents
Arches span to rise
Arches span to thickness
Simple suspension (span to rise)
Cable stayed

36
28
22
16
12
26
4
18
18
14
12
30
8
40
10
6

40
32
26
20
16
30
8
24
25
20
18
40
16
50
15
10

REINFORCED CONCRETE

3-5
2-6
10-25
15-30
20-35
30-50
30-100
15-60
15-60
40-100
40-80
50-120
80-200
150-300
150-300

Solid slabs
28
32
10-25
Slabs with drops and capitals
30
36
20-35
Two-way slab on beams
30
36
20-35
Wae slabs
20
24
30-40
Joists
22
26
25-45
Beams
16
20
15-40
Girders
12
16
20-60
Gable bents
24
30
40-80
Arches span to rise
8
12
60-150
Arches span to thickness
30
40
Cylindrical thin shell roof (Min. thickness may govern)
Longitudinal span to Structural depth
12
15
50-70
Transverse span to thickness
50
60
12-30

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Solid slabs
40
44
20-35
Slabs with drops
44
48
35-45
Two-way slab on beams
44
48
35-45
Wae slabs
28
32
35-70
Cored slabs
36
40
30-60
Joists
32
36
40-60
Beams
24
28
30-80
Girders
20
24
40-120
Cylindrical thin shell roof (Min. thickness may govern)
Longitudinal span to structural depth
15
20
60-120
Transverse span to thickness
60
70
15-35
Table 9.4: Approximate Structural Span-Depth Ratios for Horizontal Subsystems and Components (Lin
and Stotesbury 1981)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 10

BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS


1 This chapter deals with the behavior and design of laterally supported steel beams according to the
LRFD provisions.
2 A laterally stable beam is one which is braced laterally in the direction perpendicular to the plane
of the web. Thus overall buckling of the compression ange as a column cannot occur prior to its full
participation to develop the moment strength of the section.
3 If a beam is not laterally supported, Fig. 10.1, we will have a failure mode governed by lateral torsional

A) COMPOSITE BEAM

B) OTHER FRAMING

C) CROSS BRACING

Figure 10.1: Lateral Bracing for Steel Beams


buckling.
4 By the end of this lecture you should be able to select the most ecient section (light weight with
adequate strength) for a given bending moment and also be able to determine the exural strength of a
given beam.

Draft
10{2

BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS

10.1 Nominal Strength


5

The strength requirement for beams in load and resistance factor design is stated as

b Mn  Mu

(10.1)

where:

b strength reduction factor; for exure 0:90


Mn nominal moment strength
Mu factored service load moment.

The equations given in this chapter are valid for exural members with the following kinds of cross
section and loading:
1. Doubly symmetric (such as W sections) and loaded in plane of symmetry
2. Singly symmetric (channels and angles) loaded in plane of symmetry or through the shear center
parallel to the web1 .

10.2 Failure Modes and Classi cation of Steel Beams


A beam is classi ed as laterally supported depending on Lb which is the distance between lateral
supports (or unbraced length) and Lp .

Lb < Lp
(10.2)
300
Lp = p
r (10.3)
Fy ; y
r
(10.4)
ry = IAy
where ry is the radius of gyration with respect to the (minor) y axis (as opposed to the major x axis).
ksi

The strength of exural members is limited by:


Plastic Hinge: at a particular cross section, Fig. 10.2.
local buckling: of a cross-sectional element (e.g. the web or the ange), Fig. 10.3.
Lateral-Torsional buckling: of the entire member, Fig. 10.4.
8

Accordingly, the LRFD manual classi es steel sections as


Compact sections: No local buckling can occur. Strength is based on the plastic moment.
Partially compact sections: Where local buckling may occur
Slender sections: where lateral torsional buckling may occur.
We will cover only the rst two cases.
10 Shear should be checked, however with exception of short beams (and no self-respecting architect
will ever conceive such a thing:-), exure generally controls.
9

More about shear centers in Mechanics of Materials II.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
10.2 Failure Modes and Classi cation of Steel Beams

10{3

M=(wL2 )/8

wu
-

11
00
00
11
00
11

Mp
y
M p=(wL2 )/8

Figure 10.2: Failure of Steel beam; Plastic Hinges

tw

bf

hf
hc

COMPACT

FLANGE BUCKLING

WEB BUCKLING

Figure 10.3: Failure of Steel beam; Local Buckling

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
10{4

BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS


LATERAL DEFLECTION
AND TORSION OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE

B
LATERAL DEFLECTION AND
TORSION OF THE COMPRESSION
FLANGE

COMPRESSION
FLANGE

A
B
A

Figure 10.4: Failure of Steel beam; Lateral Torsional Buckling

10.3 Compact Sections


For compact sections, the mode of failure is the formation of a plastic hinge that is the section is
fully plasti ed. Hence we shall rst examine the bending behavior of beams under limit load. Then we
will relate this plastic moment to the design of compact sections.

11

10.3.1 Bending Capacity of Beams


The stress distribution on a typical wide- ange shape subjected to increasing bending moment is
shown in Fig.10.5. In the service range (that is before we multiplied the load by the appropriate factors
in the LRFD method) the section is elastic. This elastic condition prevails as long as the stress at the
extreme ber has not reached the yield stress Fy . Once the strain " reaches its yield value "y , increasing
strain induces no increase in stress beyond Fy .
12

Figure 10.5: Stress distribution at di erent stages of loading

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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10.3 Compact Sections

10{5

Figure 10.6: Stress-strain diagram for most structural steels


When the yield stress is reached at the extreme ber, the nominal moment strength Mn, is referred
to as the yield moment My and is computed as

13

(10.5)

Mn = My = SxFy

(assuming that bending is occurring with respect to the x ; x axis).


14 When across the entire section, the strain is equal or larger than the yield strain ("  "y = Fy =Es )
then the section is fully plasti ed, and the nominal moment strength Mn is therefore referred to as the
plastic moment Mp and is determined from

Mp = Fy

where
def

(10.6)

ydA = Fy Z

(10.7)

Z = ydA

is the Plastic Section Modulus.


15 The plastic section modulus Z should not be confused with the elastic section modulus S de ned,
Eq. 5.25 as

S = d=I 2
Z
I def
=
y2 dA
A

16

(10.8-a)
(10.8-b)

The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula

Sx  wd=10 or Ix  Sx d2  wd2 =20

(10.9)

and the plastic modulus can be approximated by

Zx  wd=9

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10{6

BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS

10.3.2 Design of Compact Sections


17

A section is compact if the following conditions are met:


1. Flanges are continuously connected to the web
2. Width to thickness ratios, known as the slenderness ratios, of the ange and the web must not
exceed the limiting ratios p de ned as follows:
Flange 2btff  p p = p65Fy
Web thwc  p p = p640Fy

(10.11)

Note that 2btff and thwc are tabulated in Sect. 3.6.


18

The nominal strength Mn for laterally stable compact sections according to LRFD is
(10.12)

Mn = Mp
where:

19

Mp plastic moment strength = ZFy


Z plastic section modulus
Fy speci ed minimum yield strength
Note that section properties, including Z values are tabulated in Section 3.6.

10.4 Partially Compact Section


If the width to thickness ratios of the compression elements exceed the p values mentioned in Eq.
10.11 but do not exceed the following r , the section is partially compact and we can have local buckling.

20

where:

Flange: p < 2btff  r p = p65Fy r = pF141


y ;Fr
Web: p < thwc  r p = p640Fy r = p970Fy

(10.13)

Fy
bf
tf
hc

21

speci ed minimum yield stress in kksi


width of the ange
thickness of the ange
unsupported height of the web which is twice the distance from the neutral axis
to the inside face of the compression ange less the llet or corner radius.
tw thickness of the web.
Fr residual stress = 10:0 ksi for rolled sections and 16:5 ksi for welded sections.
The nominal strength of partially compact sections according to LRFD is, Fig. 10.7

Mn = Mp ; (Mp ; Mr )(  ;;p )  Mp
r

Victor Saouma

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10.5 Slender Section

10{7

Draft
Mn

6
Mp

Compact

Partially Compact

-

Slender

Mr

p

r

Flanges

2tf

bf

p65F

pF141;F

Web

hc
tw

p640F

p970F

Figure 10.7: Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections
where:

Mr Residual Moment equal to (Fy ; Fr )S


 bf =2tf for I-shaped member anges and
hc=tw for beam webs.

All other quantities are as de ned earlier. Note that we use the  associated with the one being
violated (or the lower of the two if both are).

22

10.5 Slender Section


If the width to thickness ratio exceeds r values of ange and web, the element is referred to as slender
compression element. Since the slender sections involve a di erent treatment, it will not be dealt here.

23

10.6 Examples
Example 10-19: Z for Rectangular Section
Determine the plastic section modulus for a rectangular section, width b and depth d.

Victor Saouma

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10{8

BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS

Solution:
1. The internal plastic moment is equal to
2
M = Fy b d2 d2 = Fy b d4

(10.15)

| {z }

Force

2. The yield stress, Fy , plastic moment Mp and plastic section modulus Z are related by:

3. Substituting, we get:

Z = MZp

(10.16)

p = Fy bd2 = bd2
Z=M
4
Fy
4Fy

(10.17)

Note that this is to be contrasted with the elastic section modulus S = bd62 .

Example 10-20: Beam Design


Select the lightest W or M section to carry a uniformly distributed dead load of 0:2 kip/ft superimposed (i.e., in addition to the beam weight) and 0:8 kip/ft live load. The simply supported span is 20
ft. The compression ange of the beam is fully supported against lateral movement. Select the sections
for the following steels: A36; A572 Grade 50; and A572 Grade 65.

Solution:

Case 1: A36 Steel


1. Determine the factored load.

wD = 0:2
wL = 0:8
wu = 1:2wD + 1:6wL
= 1:2(0:2) + 1:6(0:8) = 1:52
k/ft
k/ft

Victor Saouma

k/ft

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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10.6 Examples

10{9

2. Compute the factored load moment Mu . For a simply supported beam carrying uniformly
distributed load,
Mu = wu L2 =8 = (1:52)(20)2=8 = 76
Assuming compact section, since a vast majority of rolled sections satisfy   p for both the
ange and the web. The design strength b Mn is
k.ft

b Mn = b Mp = b Zx Fy
The design requirement is

b Mn = Mu

or, combing those two equations we have:

b Zx Fy = Mu
3. Required Zx is

Zx = MFu = 076(12)
:90(36) = 28:1
b y

in

From the notes on Structural Materials, we select a W12X22 section which has a Zx = 29:3
(22)(12)
Note that Zx is approximated by wd
9 = 9 = 29:3.
4. Check compact section limits p for the anges from the table

in

 = 2btff = 4:7
p = p65Fy = p6536 = 10:8 > p
and for the web:

 = thwc = 41:8
p = p640Fy = p64036 = 107p

5. Check the Strength by correcting the factored moment Mu to include the self weight. Self
weight of the beam W12X22 is 22 lb./ft. or 0.022 kip/ft

wD
wu
Mu
Mn
b Mn

=
=
=
=
=

0:2 + 0:022 = 0:222


1:2(0:222) + 1:6(0:8) = 1:55
(1:55)(20)2=8 = 77:3 3
Mp = Zx Fy = (29:3)(12) (36) = 87:9
p
0:90(87:9) = 79:1 > Mu
k/ft

k/ft

k.ft

in

ksi

in/ft

k.ft

k.ft

Therefore use W12X22 section.


6. We nally check for the maximum distance between supports.
r

Iy = 5 = 0:88
A
6:5
300
Lp = p ry
Fy
300
= p 0:88 = 43
ry =

36

Victor Saouma

ft

in

(10.18-a)
(10.18-b)
(10.18-c)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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10{10

BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS

Case 2: A572 Grade 65 Steel:


1. same as in case 1
2. same as in case 1
3. Required Zx = Mb Fuy = 076(12)
:90(65) = 15:6
(14)(12)
approximated by wd
9 = 9 = 18:7.
4. Check compact section limits p :


p

p

=
=
=
=

in

Select W12X14: Zx = 17:4

in

Note that Zx is

hc = 54:3
t640
pwFy = p64065 = 79:4p
bf
2tf = 8:82
p65Fy = p6565 = 8:1 <  Not Good

In this case the controlling limit state is local buckling of the ange.
Since p <  < r , as above, the section is classi ed as non-compact.
5. Check the strength:
Since the section is non-compact, the strength is obtained by interpolation between Mp and
Mr .
For the anges:

r
Mn
Mp
Mr
Mn
b Mn

=
=
=
=
=
=

pF141
= p65141;10 = 19:0
y ;10
Mp ; (Mp ; Mr )( r;;pp )  Mp

ZxFy = (17:4)(12) (65) = 94:2


3
Sx (Fy ; Fr ) = (14:9)(12)(65;10) = 68:3


94:2 ; (94:2 ; 68:3) 198::80;;88::11 = 92:5
p
0:90(92:5) = 83:25 > Mu
3

in

ksi

k.ft

in/ft

in

ksi

in/ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

Therefore provide W12X14 section.

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Chapter 11

REINFORCED CONCRETE
BEAMS
11.1 Introduction
Recalling that concrete has a tensile strength (ft0 ) about one tenth its compressive strength (fc0 ),
concrete by itself is a very poor material for exural members.
2 To provide tensile resistance to concrete beams, a reinforcement must be added. Steel is almost
universally used as reinforcement (longitudinal or as bers), but in poorer countries other indigenous
materials have been used (such as bamboos).
3 The following lectures will focus exclusively on the exural design and analysis of reinforced concrete rectangular sections. Other concerns, such as shear, torsion, cracking, and de ections are left for
subsequent ones.
4 Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed in most cases by the Building Code Requirements
for Reinforced Concrete, of the American Concrete Institute (ACI-318). Some of the most relevant
provisions of this code are enclosed in this set of notes.
5 We will focus on determining the amount of exural (that is longitudinal) reinforcement required at a
given section. For that section, the moment which should be considered for design is the one obtained
from the moment envelope at that particular point.

11.1.1 Notation
6

In R/C design, it is customary to use the following notation

Draft
11{2
As
b
c
d
fc0
fr0
fs0
ft0
fy
h


REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

Area of steel
Width
Distance from top of compressive bers to neutral axis
Distance from the top of the compressive bers to the centroid
of the reinforcement
Concrete compressive strength
Concrete modulus of rupture
Steel stress
Concrete tensile strength
Steel yield stress (equivalent to Fy in AISC)
Height
Steel ratio, Abds

11.1.2 Modes of Failure


A reinforced concrete beam is a composite structure where concrete provides the compression and steel
the tension.
8 Failure is initiated by, Fig. 11.5:

Steel Yielding

Concrete Crushing

Figure 11.1: Failure Modes for R/C Beams


1. Yielding of the steel when the steel stress reaches the yield stress (fs = fy ). This occurs if we
do not have enough reinforcement that is the section is under-reinforced. This will result in
excessive rotation and deformation prior to failure.
2. Crushing of the concrete, when the concrete strain reaches its ultimate value ("c = "u = 0:003),
ACI 318: 10.2.3. This occurs if there is too much reinforcement that is the section is overreinforced. This is a sudden mode of failure.
9 Ideally in an optimal (i.e. most ecient use of materials) design, a section should be dimensioned
such that crushing of concrete should occur simultaneously with steel yielding. This would then be a
balanced design.
10 However since concrete crushing is a sudden mode of failure with no prior warning, whereas steel
yielding is often accompanied by excessive deformation (thus providing ample warning of an imminent
failure), design codes require the section to be moderately under-reinforced.

11.1.3 Analysis vs Design


11

In R/C we always consider one of the following problems:

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11.1 Introduction

11{3

Analysis: Given a certain design, determine what is the maximum moment which can be applied.
Design: Given an external moment to be resisted, determine cross sectional dimensions (b and h) as
well as reinforcement (As ). Note that in many cases the external dimensions of the beam (b and
h) are xed by the architect.

12

We often consider the maximum moment along a member, and design accordingly.

11.1.4 Basic Relations and Assumptions


In developing a design/analysis method for reinforced concrete, the following basic relations will be
used, Fig. ??:
13

Compatibility

Equilibrium

C
d

T=C
M_ext=Cd
Figure 11.2: Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam
1. Equilibrium: of forces and moment at the cross section. 1) Fx = 0 or Tension in the reinforcement
= Compression in concrete; and 2) M = 0 or external moment (that is the one obtained from
the moment envelope) equal and opposite to the internal one (tension in steel and compression of
the concrete).
2. Material Stress Strain: We recall that all normal strength concrete have a failure strain u = :003
in compression irrespective of fc0 .
14

Basic assumptions used:

Compatibility of Displacements: Perfect bond between steel and concrete (no slip). Note that those
two materials do also have very close coecients of thermal expansion under normal temperature.
Plane section remain plane ) strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis.

11.1.5 ACI Code


15 The ACI code is based on limit strength, or Mn  Mu thus a similar design philosophy is used as
the one adopted by the LRFD method of the AISC code, ACI-318: 8.1.1; 9.3.1; 9.3.2
16 The required strength is based on (ACI-318: 9.2)

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11{4

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS


U = 1:4D + 1:7L
(11.1)
= 0:75(1:4D + 1:7L + 1:7W ) (11.2)

11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method

11.2.1 Equivalent Stress Block

17 In determining the limit state moment of a cross section, we consider Fig. 11.3. Whereas the strain
distribution is linear (ACI-318 10.2.2), the stress distribution is non-linear because the stress-strain
curve of concrete is itself non-linear beyond 0:5fc0 .
18 Thus we have two alternatives to investigate the moment carrying capacity of the section, ACI-318:

10.2.6

1. Use the non-linear stress distribution.


2. Use a simpler equivalent stress distribution.
The ACI code follows the second approach. Thus we seek an equivalent stress distribution such
that:
1. The resultant force is equal
2. The location of the resultant is the same.
We note that this is similar to the approach followed in determining reactions in a beam subjected to a
distributed load when the load is replaced by a single force placed at the centroid.

19

Figure 11.3: Cracked Section, Limit State

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11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method
20

11{5

It was shown that the depth of the equivalent stress block is a function of fc0 :

1 = :85
if fc0  4; 000
1
0
= :85 ; (:05)(fc ; 4; 000) 1;000 if 4; 000 < fc0 < 8; 000

(11.3)

Figure 11.4: Whitney Stress Block

11.2.2 Balanced Steel Ratio


Next we seek to determine the balanced steel ratio b such that failure occurs by simultaneous
yielding of the steel fs = fy and crushing of the concrete "c = 0:003, ACI-318: 10.3.2 We will
separately consider the two failure possibilities:
Tension Failure: we stipulate that the steel stress is equal to fy :

21

 = Abds
As fy = :85fc0 ab = :85fc0 b 1 c

) c = 0:85ffy0 d
c 1

(11.4)

Compression Failure: where the concrete strain is equal to the ultimate strain; From the strain
diagram

"c = 0:003

c
:003
d = :003+"s

22

)c=

:003

d
fs
Es + :003

(11.5)

Balanced Design is obtained by equating Eq. 11.4 to Eq. 11.5 and by replacing  by b and fs by fy :
fy

= fs:003
d
Es +:003
fs = fy
 = b

0:85fc0 1 d

When we replace Es by 29; 000

ksi

9
>
=
>
;

:003
b fy
:85fc0 1 d = Efys + :003 d

we obtain
0
; 000
b = :85 1 ffc 87;87000
+f
y

(11.6)

This b corresponds to the only combination of b, d and As which will result in simultaneous yielding of
the steel and crushing of the concrete, that is an optimal design.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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11{6

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

23 Because we need to have ample warning against failure, hence we prefer to have an under-reinforced
section. Thus, the ACI code stipulates:

(11.7)

 < :75b

In practice, depending on the relative cost of steel/concrete and of labour it is common to select lower
values of . If  < 0:5b (thus we will have a deeper section) then we need not check for de ection.
25 A minimum amount of reinforcement must always be used to prevent temperature and shrinkage
cracks:
(11.8)
  200
24

min

26

fy

The ACI code adopts the limit state design method

MD = Mn > Mu

(11.9)

 = b = 0:9

11.2.3 Analysis

Given As , b, d, fc0 , and fy determine the design moment:


1. act = Abds
0

87
2. b = (:85) 1 ffyc 87+
fy

3. If act < b (that is failure is triggered by yielding of the steel, fs = fy )

a = :A85sffc0yb ;From Equilibrium



MD = As fy d ; a2

MD =  As fy d ; 0:59 Afs0fby
c
|
{z
Mn


}

Combining this last equation with  = Abds yields

MD = fy

bd2

1 ; :59 ffy0
c

(11.10)

4. y If act > b is not allowed by the code as this would be an over-reinforced section which would
fail with no prior warning. However, if such a section exists, and we need to determine its moment
carrying capacity, then we have two unknowns:
(a) Steel strain "s (which was equal to "y in the previous case)
(b) Location of the neutral axis c.
We have two equations to solve this problem
Equilibrium: of forces
s
(11.11)
c = :85Afs0fb
c 1

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11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method

11{7

Strain compatibility: since we know that at failure the maximum compressive strain "c is equal
to 0.003. Thus from similar triangles we have

c = :003
d :003 + "s

(11.12)

Those two equations can be solved by either one of two methods:


(a) Substitute into one single equation
(b) By iteration
Once c and fs = E"s are determined then


MD = As fs d ; 21 c

(11.13)

11.2.4 Design
We distinguish between two cases. The rst one has dimensions as well as steel area unknown, the
second has the dimensions known (usually speci ed by the architect or by other constraints), and we
seek As .

27

b, d and As unknowns and MD known:

1. We start by assuming , at most  = :75b, and if de ection is of a concern (or steel too
expensive), then we can select  = 0:5b with b determined from Eq. 11.6


0
; 000
 = 0:75 :85 1 ffc 87;87000
+f
y

2. From Eq. 11.10



MD =  fy 1 ; :59 ffy0 bd2
|

or

{z


f
y
R = fy 1 ; :59 f 0
c


(11.14)

which does not depend on unknown quantities1 . Then solve for bd2 :
D
bd2 = M
R

(11.15)

3. solve for b and d (this will require either an assumption on one of the two, or on their ratio).
4. As = bd
1

Note analogy with Eq. 10.6 Mp = Fy Z for stell beams.

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Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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11{8

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

y b, d and Md known, As unknown: In this case there is no assurance that we can have a design

with b . If the section is too small, then it will require too much steel resulting in an over-reinforced
section.
We will again have an iterative approach
1. Since we do not know if the steel will be yielding or not, use fs .
2. Assume an initial value for a (a good start is a = d5 )
3. Assume initially that fs = fy
4. Check equilibrium of moments (M = 0)

M
D 
;
fs d ; a2
5. Check equilibrium of forces in the x direction (Fx = 0)
a = :A85sff0sb
c
6. Check assumption of fs from the strain diagram
"s
:003
d;c
d ; c = c ) fs = Es c :003 < fy
where c = a1 .
As =

(11.16)
(11.17)
(11.18)

7. Iterate until convergence is reached.

Example 11-21: Ultimate Strength Capacity


Determine the ultimate Strength of a beam with the following properties: b = 10 , d = 23 ,
2 , f 0 = 4; 000
and fy = 60 .
c

As = 2:35

Solution:

in

in

psi

2:35 = :0102
= Abds = (10)(23)
0
87 = :02885 > act p
= :85 1 ffyc 87+87fy = (:85)(:85) 604 87+60
:35)(60) = 4:147
= :A85sffc0yb = (:(285)(4)(10)
= (2:35)(60)(23 ; 4:147
2 ) = 2; 950
= Mn = (:9)(2; 950) = 2; 660
Note that from the strain diagram
c = 0:a85 = 40::414
85 = 4:87
Alternative solution


2 1 ; :59act fy0
Mn = act fy bd
f

c
= As fy d 1 ; :59act ffyc0

= 245
= (2:35)(60)(23) 1 ; (:59) 604 (:01021) = 2; 950
MD = Mn = (:9)(2; 950) = 2; 660

act
b
a
Mn
MD

in

ksi

in

k.in

k.in

in

k.in

k.ft

k.in

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method

11{9

Example 11-22: Beam Design I


Design a 15 ft beam to support a dead load of 1.27 k/ft, a live load of 2.44 k/ft using a 3,000 psi
concrete and 40 ksi steel. Neglect beam weight

Solution:

wu = 1:4(1:27) + 1:7(22 :44) = 5:92


2
MD = (5:92) 0 8 (15) (12)
= 2; 000
b = :85 1 ffyc 87+87fy
87 = 0:040
= (:85)(:85) 403 87+40
 = :75b = :75(0:04) = 0:030
R = fy 1 ; :59
 fy0
 fc

= (0:03)(40) 1: ; (0:59)(02:03) 403 = 0:917
2;000
d
bd2 = M
= 2; 423 3
R = (0:9)(0:917)
k/ft

k/ft

ft

in/ft

k.in

k.in in

ksi

in

Assume b = 10 , this will give d = 2;10423 = 15:57 . We thus adopt b = 10


Finally,
As = bd = (0:030)(10)(16) = 4:80 2
we select 3 bars No. 11
in

in

and d = 16

in

in

in

Example 11-23: Beam Design II


Select the reinforcement for a cross section with b = 11:5 ; d = 20
using fc0 = 3 ; and fy = 40

Md = 1; 600

Solution:

in

k.in

ksi

in

to support a design moment

ksi

1. Assume a = d5 = 205 = 4 and fs = fy


2. Equilibrium of moments:
in

D
As = f M
(d ; a ) ==
y

1; 600
(:9)(40) (20 ; 42 )
k.in

ksi

in

= 2:47

in

3. Check equilibrium of forces:

:47) 2 (40)
a = :A85sff0yb = (:(2
85)(3) (11:5)
c
in

ksi

ksi
in

= 3:38

in

4. We originally assumed a = 4, at the end of this rst iteration a = 3:38, let us iterate again with
a = 3:30

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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11{10

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

5. Equilibrium of moments:

D
As =  f M
(d ; a ) ==
y

1; 600
(:9)(40) (20 ; 32:3 )
k.in

ksi

in

= 2:42

6. Check equilibrium of forces:

:42) 2 (40)
a = :A85sff0yb = (:(2
85)(3) (11:5)
c
in

ksi

ksi
in

= 3:3

in

in

7. we have converged on a.
:42 = :011
8. Actual  is act = (112:5)(20)
9. b is equal to
0
3 87 = :037
=
(
:
85)(
:
85)
b = :85 1 ffc 87 87
+f
40 87 + 40
y

10. max = :75 = (0:75)(0:037) = :0278 > 0:011 thus fs = fy and we use As = 2:42

in

11.3 Continuous Beams


Whereas coverage of continuous reinforced concrete beams is beyond the scope of this course, Fig. ??
illustrates a typical reinforcement in such a beam.

28

11.4 ACI Code


Attached is an unauthorized copy of some of the most relevant ACI-318-89 design code provisions.
8.1.1 - In design of reinforced concrete structures, members shall be proportioned for adequate
strength in accordance with provisions of this code, using load factors and strength reduction factors 
speci ed in Chapter 9.
8.3.1 - All members of frames or continuous construction shall be designed for the maximum e ects
of factored loads as determined by the theory of elastic analysis, except as modi ed according to Section
8.4. Simplifying assumptions of Section 8.6 through 8.9 may be used.
p
8.5.1 - Modulus of elasticity Ec for concrete may be taken as Wc1:533 fc0 ( psi) forpvalues of Wc
between 90 and 155 lb per cu ft. For normal weight concrete, Ec may be taken as 57; 000 fc0 .
8.5.2 - Modulus of elasticity Es for non-prestressed reinforcement may be taken as 29,000 psi.
9.1.1 - Structures and structural members shall be designed to have design strengths at all sections
at least equal to the required strengths calculated for the factored loads and forces in such combinations
as are stipulated in this code.
9.2 - Required Strength
9.2.1 - Required strength U to resist dead load D and live load L shall be at least equal to
U = 1:4D + 1:7L
9.2.2 - If resistance to structural e ects of a speci ed wind load W are included in design, the
following combinations of D, L, and W shall be investigated to determine the greatest required strength
U
U = 0:75(1:4D + 1:7L + 1:7W )

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Victor Saouma
Stirrups

Straight top bar

(d) Straight and bent bar reinforcement

Exterior span

Bent bar at noncontinuous end

Straight bottom bar

No.3 stirrup support if necessary

(c) Straight bar reinforcement

Exterior span

Straight bottom bar

Stirrups

(b) Moment diagram under typical loading

(a) Deflected shape

Interior span

Interior column

Interior span

Interior column

Points of deflection

Straight bar

Bent bars

Cracks

Cracks

Interior span

Interior span

Reinforcement

Bottom bars

Bottom bars

Bent bar

Section through beam

Stirrups

Top bars

Section through beam

Stirrups

Top bars

Draft
11.4 ACI Code
11{11

Figure 11.5: Reinforcement in Continuous R/C Beams

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
11{12

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

where load combinations shall include both full value and zero value of L to determine the more severe
condition, and
U = 0:9D + 1:3W
but for any combination of D, L, and W, required strength U shall not be less than Eq. (9-1).
9.3.1 - Design strength provided by a member, its connections to other members, and its cross
sections, in terms of exure, axial load, shear, and torsion, shall be taken as the nominal strength
calculated in accordance with requirements and assumptions of this code, multiplied by a strength
reduction factor .
9.3.2 - Strength reduction factor  shall be as follows:
9.3.2.1 - Flexure, without axial load 0.90
9.4 - Design strength for reinforcement Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of reinforcement
fy in excess of 80,000 psi, except for prestressing tendons.
10.2.2 - Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance
from the neutral axis, except, for deep exural members with overall depth to clear span ratios greater
than 2/5 for continuous spans and 4/5 for simple spans, a non-linear distribution of strain shall be
considered. See Section 10.7.
10.2.3 - Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression ber shall be assumed equal to
0.003.
10.2.4 - Stress in reinforcement below speci ed yield strength fy for grade of reinforcement used
shall be taken as Es times steel strain. For strains greater than that corresponding to fy , stress in
reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to fy .
10.2.5 - Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in exural calculations of reinforced concrete,
except when meeting requirements of Section 18.4.
10.2.6 - Relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain may be
assumed to be rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any other shape that results in prediction of
strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests.
10.2.7 - Requirements of Section 10.2.5 may be considered satis ed by an equivalent rectangular
concrete stress distribution de ned by the following:
10.2.7.1 - Concrete stress of 0:85fc0 shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral
axis at a distance (a = 1 c) from the ber of maximum compressive strain.
10.2.7.2 - Distance c from ber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in a
direction perpendicular to that axis.
10.2.7.3 - Factor 1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths fc0 up to and including 4,000 psi.
For strengths above 4,000 psi, 1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.05 for each 1000 psi of
strength in excess of 4,000 psi, but 1 shall not be taken less than 0.65.
10.3.2 - Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when tension reinforcement reaches the
strain corresponding to its speci ed yield strength fy just as concrete in compression reaches its assumed
ultimate strain of 0.003.
10.3.3 - For exural members, and for members subject to combined exure and compressive axial
load when the design axial load strength (Pn ) is less than the smaller of (0:10fc0 Ag ) or (Pb ), the ratio
of reinforcement p provided shall not exceed 0.75 of the ratio b that would produce balanced strain
conditions for the section under exure without axial load. For members with compression reinforcement,
the portion of b equalized by compression reinforcement need not be reduced by the 0.75 factor.
10.3.4 - Compression reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement may be
used to increase the strength of exural members.
10.5.1 - At any section of a exural member, except as provided in Sections 10.5.2 and 10.5.3, where
positive reinforcement is required by analysis, the ratio  provided shall not be less than that given by
 = 200
min

Victor Saouma

fy

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 12

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
12.1 Introduction
Beams with longer spans are architecturally more appealing than those with short ones. However, for
a reinforced concrete beam to span long distances, it would have to have to be relatively deep (and at
some point the self weight may become too large relative to the live load), or higher grade steel and
concrete must be used.
2 However, if we were to use a steel with fy much higher than  60 ksi in reinforced concrete (R/C),
then to take full advantage of this higher yield stress while maintaining full bond between concrete and
steel, will result in unacceptably wide crack widths. Large crack widths will in turn result in corrosion
of the rebars and poor protection against re.
3 One way to control the concrete cracking and reduce the tensile stresses in a beam is to prestress the
beam by applying an initial state of stress which is opposite to the one which will be induced by the
load.
4 For a simply supported beam, we would then seek to apply an initial tensile stress at the top and
compressive stress at the bottom. In prestressed concrete (P/C) this can be achieved through prestressing
of a tendon placed below the elastic neutral axis.
5 Main advantages of P/C: Economy, de ection & crack control, durability, fatigue strength, longer
spans.
6 There two type of Prestressed Concrete beams:
Pretensioning: Steel is rst stressed, concrete is then poured around the stressed bars. When enough
concrete strength has been reached the steel restraints are released, Fig. 12.1.
Postensioning: Concrete is rst poured, then when enough strength has been reached a steel cable is
passed thru a hollow core inside and stressed, Fig. 12.2.

12.1.1 Materials
P/C beams usually have higher compressive strength than R/C. Prestressed beams can have fc0 as
high as 8,000 psi.
8 The importance of high yield stress for the steel is illustrated by the following simple example.
If we consider the following:

Draft
12{2

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Vertical
bulkhead

Harping
hold-up
point

Harping
hold-down
point
Jacks

Anchorage

Prestressing
bed slab

Continuous
tendon

Precast Concrete
element
Tendon
anchorage

Jacks

Support
force

Casting bed

Jacks

Casting bed

Hold-down
force

Tendon

Figure 12.1: Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

Anchorage

Anchorage

Intermediate
diaphragms

Jack

Beam

Jack

Tendon in conduct

Anchorage
Jack

Slab

Wrapped tendon

Figure 12.2: Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12.1 Introduction

12{3

1. An unstressed steel cable of length ls


2. A concrete beam of length lc
3. Prestress the beam with the cable, resulting in a stressed length of concrete and steel equal to
ls0 = lc0 .
4. Due to shrinkage and creep, there will be a change in length
lc = ("sh + "cr )lc

(12.1)

we want to make sure that this amout of deformation is substantially smaller than the stretch of
the steel (for prestressing to be e ective).
;3 =
5. Assuming ordinary steel: fs = 30 , Es = 29; 000 , "s = 2930
;000 = 1:03  10
ksi

in

ksi

in

6. The total steel elongation is "s ls = 1:03  10;3ls


7. The creep and shrinkage strains are about "cr + "sh ' :9  10;3
8. The residual stres which is left in the steel after creep and shrinkage took place is thus
(1:03 ; :90)  10;3(29  103) = 4

(12.2)

ksi

Thus the total loss is 3030;4 = 87% which is unacceptably too high.
9. Alternatively if initial stress was 150 after losses we would be left with 124
10. Note that the actual loss is (:90  10;3)(29  103 ) = 26 in each case
ksi

ksi

or a 17% loss.

ksi

Having shown that losses would be too high for low strength steel, we will use
Strands usually composed of 7 wires. Grade 250 or 270 ksi, Fig. 12.3.

0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
111111
000000
0000000
1111111

Figure 12.3: 7 Wire Prestressing Tendon

Tendon have diameters ranging from 1/2 to 1 3/8 of an inch. Grade 145 or 160 ksi.
Wires come in bundles of 8 to 52.
Note that yield stress is not well de ned for steel used in prestressed concrete, usually we take 1% strain
as e ective yield.
10 Steel relaxation is the reduction in stress at constant strain (as opposed to creep which is reduction
of strain at constant stress) occrs. Relaxation occurs inde nitely and produces signi cant prestress loss.
If we denote by fp the nal stress after t hours, fpi the initial stress, and fpy the yield stress, then


fp = 1 ; log t fpi ; :55


fpi
10 fpy

Victor Saouma

(12.3)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12{4

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

12.1.2 Prestressing Forces


11

Prestress force \varies" with time, so we must recognize 3 stages:


1. Pj Jacking force. But then due to
(a) friction and anchorage slip in post-tension
(b) elastic shortening in pretension
is reduced to:
2. Pi Initial prestress force; But then due to time dependent losses caused by
(a) relaxation of steel
(b) shrinkage of concrete
(c) creep of concrete
is reduced to:
3. Pe E ective force

12.1.3 Assumptions
12

The following assumptions are made;


1. Materials are both in the elastic range
2. section is uncracked
3. sign convention: +ve tension, ;ve compression
4. Subscript 1 refers to the top and 2 to the bottom
5. I; S1 = cI1 ; S2 = cI2
6. e + ve if downward from concrete neutral axis

12.1.4 Tendon Con guration


Through proper arrangement of the tendon (eccentricity at both support and midspan) various internal
exural stress distribution can be obtained, Fig. 12.4.

13

12.1.5 Equivalent Load


An equivalent load for prestressing can be usually determined from the tendon con guration and the
prestressing force, Fig. 12.5.
14

12.1.6 Load Deformation


15

The load-deformation curve for a prestressed concrete beam is illustrated in Fig. 12.6.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12.2 Flexural Stresses

12{5
W
000
111
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111

fy

Q
P

h/2

fc
00
11
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11

fc

fc
000
111
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111

2f c
00
11
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11

fc =f t

2Q

2h/3

2Q
P

h/2
h/3

2f c
0
11
00
0000000
1111111
00
11
0000000
00 +1111111
11
0000000 =
1111111
00
11
0000000
1111111
00 1111111
11
0000000
2f c
2f =2f
t
c

2f c
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
0

0
2f c
11
00
0000000
1111111
00
11
0000000
00 +1111111
11
0000000 =
1111111
00
11
0000000
1111111
00 1111111
11
0000000
2f c
2f t =2f c
fc
Midspan
000
111
000 +
111
=
0
000
111
000
111
000
111
Ends
fc

2f c
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
0
fc
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
fc

0
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
2f c

Q
P

h/2
h/3

fc
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
fc

f
c
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111

ft =f c

fc

Midspan
+

fc
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11

Ends

fc
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
fc

Figure 12.4: Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

12.2 Flexural Stresses


We now identify the following 4 stages:
Initial Stage when the beam is being prestressed (recalling that r2 = AIc 1. the prestressing force, Pi
only
16



f1 = ; APi + PiIec1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21 (12.4)
c
c


P
P
ec
P
i
i
2
i
f2 = ; A ; I = ; A 1 + ecr22 (12.5)
c
c

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam
cambers due to prestressing)


0 (12.6)
f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S1
c

 M
P
ec
i
2
f2 = ; A 1 + r2 + S 0 (12.7)

Service Load when the prestressing force was reduced from Pi to Pe beacause of the losses, and the
actual service (not factored) load is apllied
3. Pe and M0

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12{6

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Member

Equivalent load on concrete from tendon Moment from prestressing

(a)
P

P sin

P sin

P cos

P cos
2 P sin

(b)

P sin

P sin

P cos

P cos

(c)
Pe
P

Pe
P

(d) P

P sin

P sin

e
P cos

P cos

(e)
P
P

P sin

P sin

P cos

None

P cos
2 P sin

(f)
P
P

None

(g)
P

Figure 12.5: Determination of Equivalent Loads


Load

Ultimate
Steel yielding
Service load limit
including
tolerable overload

Ru

ptu

re

Overload

Tn

Service
load
range

First cracking load


fcr

Decompression

or higher
cgs (f=0)

Balanced
Full dead load

o D

pe
pi

Deformation
(deflection of camber)
pi= Initial prestress camber
pe= Effective prestress camber
O= Self-weight deflection
D= Dead load deflection
L= Live load deflection

Figure 12.6: Load-De ection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12.2 Flexural Stresses

12{7


0
f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S1 (12.8)
c


0
f2 = ; APe 1 + ecr22 + M
S (12.9)

4. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL




f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M0 + MSDL + MLL (12.10)
c
1

 M +M
P
ec
+ MLL (12.11)
e
2
0
DL
f2 = ; A 1 + r 2 +
S

The internal stress distribution at each one of those four stages is illustrated by Fig. 12.7.
Pi
Ac

c1
e

Pi e c 1
Ic

11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11

c2

11111
00000
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111

Pi
(1Ac

e c1
)
r2

111111111
000000000
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111

Pi
(1+
Ac

Stage 2

Pe
(1Ac

Stage 4

e c2
)
r2

e c1
Mo
)r2
S1

000000
111111
111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111

Pe
(1+
Ac

Mo
S1

111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111

Pi
(1Ac

Md + Ml
S1

Md + Ml
S2

e c2
)
r2

e c1
Mo
)r2
S1

111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111

Pi
(1+
Ac

00000000000
11111111111
11111111111
00000000000
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111

e c2
Mo
)+
r2
S2

Pi
(1+
Ac

Mo
S2

e c1
)
r2

111111111
000000000
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111

Pi e c 2
Ic

Pi
Ac

Stage 1

Pi
(1Ac

Pe
(1Ac

e c2
Mo
)+
r2
S2

e c1
Mt
)r2
S1

111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111

Pe
(1+
Ac

e c2
Mt
)+
r2
S2

Figure 12.7: Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity; Maximum Moment
Section and Support Section, (Nilson 1978)
17

Those (service) exural stresses must be below those speci ed by the ACI code (where the subscripts

c, t, i and s refer to compression, tension, initial and service respectively):

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12{8

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

0
permitted concrete compression stress at initial stage :60fp
ci
permitted concrete tensile stress at initial stage
< 3 fci0
0
permitted concrete compressive stress at service stage :45
p
pfc
permitted concrete p
tensile stress at initial stage
6 fc0 or 12 fc0
Note that fts can reach 12 fc0 only if appropriate de ection analysis is done, because section would
be cracked.
18 Based on the above, we identify two types of prestressing:
Full prestressing (pioneered by Freysinet), no tensile stresses, no crack, but there are some problems
with excessive camber when unloaded.
Partial prestressing (pioneered by Leonhardt, Abeles, Thurliman), cracks are allowed to occur (just
as in R/C), and they are easier to control in P/C than in R/C.

fci
fti
fcs
fts

The ACi code imposes the following limits on the steel stresses in terms of fpu which is the ultimate
strength of the cable: Pj < :80fpuAs and Pi < :70fpuAs . No limits are speci ed for Pe .

19

Example 12-24: Prestressed Concrete I Beam


Adapted from (Nilson 1978)

The following I Beam has fc0 = 4; 000 , L = 40 ft, DL+LL =0.55 k/ft, concrete density = 150
lb/ft3 and multiple 7 wire strands with constant eccentricity e = 5:19 . Pi = 169 , and the total losses
due to creep, shinkage, relaxation are 15%.
psi

in

12"
4"
5"

2"

7"

6"

4"

24"
6"

7"

2"
5"

r2

4"

The section properties for this beam are Ic = 12; 000 4 , Ac = 176 2 , S1 = S2 = 1; 000 3 ,
= AI = 68:2 2 .
Determine exural stresses at midspan and at support at initial and nal conditions. Solution:
in

in

in

in

1. Prestressing force, Pi only



f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21
c


169
; 000 1 ; (5:19)(12) = ;83
= ; 176
68:2


P
ec
f2 = ; Ai 1 + r22
c


169
;
000
(5
:
19)(12)
= ; 176 1 + 68:21
= 1; 837

(12.12-a)

psi

Victor Saouma

(12.12-b)
(12.12-c)

psi

(12.12-d)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12.2 Flexural Stresses

12{9

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers
due to prestressing)
(176) 2 (:150) = 3 = :183
(12.13-a)
w0 = (144)
2= 2
2
M0 = (:183)(40)
= 36:6
(12.13-b)
8
The exural stresses will thus be equal to:
; 000) = 439
f1w;20 =  SM0 =  (36:6)(12
(12.14)
1
;
000
1;2
in

in

ft

k/ft

ft

k.ft

psi



0
f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S
c
1

(12.15-a)

= ;83 ; 439 = ;522


p
fti = 3 fc0 = +190p


0
f2 = ; APi 1 + ecr22 + M
S

(12.15-b)
(12.15-c)
(12.15-d)

psi

= ;1; 837 + 439 = ;1; 398


fci = :6fc0 = ;2; 400p

psi

(12.15-e)
(12.15-f)

3. Pe and M0. If we have 15% losses, then the e ective force Pe is equal to (1 ; 0:15)169 = 144


0
f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S
c
1


; 000 1 ; (5:19)(12) ; 439
= ; 144176
68:2

= ;71 ; 439 = ;510

psi

0
f2 = ; APe 1 + ecr22 + M
S
c
2


144
;
000
(5
:
19)(12)
= ; 176 1 + 68:2
+ 439
= ;1; 561 + 439 = ;1; 122


psi

(12.16-a)
(12.16-b)
(12.16-c)
(12.16-d)
(12.16-e)
(12.16-f)

note that ;71 and ;1; 561 are respectively equal to (0:85)(;83) and (0:85)(;1; 837) respectively.
4. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL
2
MDL + MLL = (0:55)(40)
= 110
(12.17)
8
and corresponding stresses
; 000) = 1; 320
f1;2 =  (110)(12
(12.18)
1; 000
Thus,


(12.19-a)
f = ; Pe 1 ; ec1 ; M0 + MDL + MLL
k.ft

psi

Victor Saouma

Ac

r2

S1

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12{10

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
= ;510 ; 1; 320 = ;1; 830
fcs = :45fc0 = ;2; 700p


f2 = ; APe 1 + ecr22 + M0 + MSDL + MLL
c
2
= ;1; 122 + 1; 320 = +198
p
fts = 6 fc0 = +380p

(12.19-b)
(12.19-c)
(12.19-d)

psi

(12.19-e)
(12.19-f)

psi

2
-1122

+198

1
-1398

-1837

-83
-510
-522

-1830

5. The stress distribution at each one of the four stages is shown below.

12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge


Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983)

The historical Walnut Lane Bridge ( rst major prestressed concrete bridge in the USA) is made of
three spans, two side ones with lengths of 74 ft and a middle one of length 160 feet. Thirteen prestressed
cocnrete beams are placed side by side to make up a total width of 44 fet of roadway and two 9.25 feet of
sidewalk. In between the beams, and cast with them, are transverse sti eners which connect the beams
laterally, Fig. 12.8
20

12.3.1 Cross-Section Properties


21

The beam cross section is shown in Fig. 12.9 and is simpli ed

Ac = 2(8" :9)(52) + (7)(61:2) = 1; 354 2


2 #

3
3
(52)(8
:
9)
79
8
:
9
I = 2
+ (7)(61:2)
+ (52)(8:9)
;
in

12
= = 1; 277  103
= h2 = 79
2 = 39:5

in

c1 = c2

Victor Saouma

in

12

(12.20-a)
(12.20-b)
(12.20-c)
(12.20-d)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge

12{11

80 ft
CENTER
LINE

ELEVATION OF BEAM HALF

9.25

44

ROAD

9.25

SIDEWALK

BEAM CROSS SECTIONS

TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGMS

CROSS - SECTION OF BRIDGE

52"
10"
3"
7"

TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGM
10"

7"

3-3"

6-7"
SLOTS FOR CABLES

6 1/2"
3 1/2"
7"
30"

CROSS - SECTION OF BEAM

Figure 12.8: Walnut Lane Bridge, Plan View

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12{12

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
52"

8.9"

22.5"

7"

22.5"
6-7"
= 79"

61.2"

8.9"

SIMPLIFIED CROSS - SECTION OF BEAM

Figure 12.9: Walnut Lane Bridge, Cross Section

 103 = 32; 329


S1 = S2 = Ic = 1; 277
39:5
1
;
277
 103 = 943: 2
I
r2 = A = 1; 354

(12.20-e)

in

(12.20-f)

in

12.3.2 Prestressing
Each beam is prestressed by two middle parabolic cables, and two outer horizontal ones along the
anges. All four have approximately the same eccentricity at midspan of 2.65 ft. or 31.8 inch.
23 Each prestressing cable is made up 64 wires each with a diameter of 0.27 inches. Thus the total area
of prestressing steel is given by:
2
2
Awire = (d=2)2 = 3:14( 0:276
(12.21-a)
2 ) = 0:0598
Acable = 64(0:0598) 2 = 3:83 2
(12.21-b)
2
2
Atotal = 4(3:83) = 15:32
(12.21-c)

22

in

in

in

in

in

in

Whereas the ultimate tensile strength of the steel used is 247 ksi, the cables have been stressed only
to 131 ksi, thus the initial prestressing force Pi is equal to
Pi = (131) (15:32) 2 = 2; 000
(12.22)

24

ksi

25

in

The losses are reported ot be 13%, thus the e ective force is


Pe = (1 ; 0:13)(2; 000) = 1; 740
k

Victor Saouma

(12.23)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge

12{13

12.3.3 Loads
The self weight of the beam is q0 = 1:72 .
27 The concrete (density=.15
= 3 ) road has a thickness of 0.45 feet. Thus for a 44 foot width, the
total load over one single beam is
1 (44) (0:45) (0:15) = 3 = 0:23
(12.24)
qr;tot = 13

26

k/ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

k/ft

Similarly for the sidewalks which are 9.25 feet wide and 0.6 feet thick:
1 (2)(9:25) (0:60) (0:15) = 3 = 0:13
qs;tot = 13
(12.25)
We note that the weight can be evenly spread over the 13 beams beacause of the lateral diaphragms.
29 The total dead load is
qDL = 0:23 + 0:13 = 0:36
(12.26)
28

ft

ft

ft

k/ft

k/ft

The live load is created by the trac, and is estimated to be 94 psf, thus over a width of 62.5 feet
this gives a uniform live load of
1 (0:094) =ft2 (62:5) = 0:45
wLL = 13
(12.27)

30

31

ft

k/ft

Finally, the combined dead and live load per beam is

wDL+LL = 0:36 + 0:45 = 0:81

(12.28)

k/ft

12.3.4 Flexural Stresses


1. Prestressing force, Pi only



f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21
c


(12.29-a)

106) 1 ; (31:8)(39:5) = 490:


= ; (21; 354
943:


ec
P
2
i
= ; A 1 + r2
c


(2
106) 1 + (31:8)(39:5) = ;3; 445:
= ; 1; 354
943:

(12.29-b)

psi

f2

(12.29-c)
psi

(12.29-d)

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers
due to prestressing)
2
M0 = (1:72)(160)
= 5; 504
(12.30)
8
k.ft

The exural stresses will thus be equal to:

; 000) = 2; 043


f1w;20 =  SM0 =  (5; 50:4)(12
943:
1;2

Victor Saouma

psi

(12.31)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
12{14

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE


0
f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S
c
1
= 490 ; 2; 043 = ;1; 553
p
fti = 3 fc0 = +190p


0
f2 = APi 1 + ecr22 + M
S

(12.32-a)
(12.32-b)
(12.32-c)
(12.32-d)

psi

= ;3; 445 + 2; 043 = ;1; 402:


fci = :6fc0 = ;2; 400p

(12.32-e)
(12.32-f)

psi

3. Pe and M0 . If we have 13% losses, then the e ective force Pe is equal to (1 ; 0:13)(2  106 ) =
1:74  106
lbs



0
f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S
c
1

6
(31
:5) ; 2; 043: = ;1; 616
1
:
74

10
= ; 1; 354 1 ; :8)(39
943:

 M
ec
P
f2 = Ae 1 + r22 + S 0
c
2

6
1
:
74

10
(31
:
8)(39
:
5)
= ; 1; 354 1 + 943:
+ 2; 043: = ;954:

(12.33-a)
psi

psi

(12.33-b)
(12.33-c)
(12.33-d)

4. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL


2

and corresponding stresses

MDL + MLL = (0:81)(160)


= 2; 592
8
; 000) = 962:
f1;2 =  (2; 592)(12
32; 329

k.ft

psi

(12.34)
(12.35)

Thus,


f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M0 + MSDL + MLL
c
1
= ;1; 616 ; 962: = ;2; 578:
fcs = :45fc0 = ;2; 700p


f2 = APe 1 + ecr22 + M0 + MSDL + MLL
psi

= ;954 + 962: = +8:


p
fts = 6 fc0 = +380p

Victor Saouma

psi

(12.36-a)
(12.36-b)
(12.36-c)
(12.36-d)
(12.36-e)
(12.36-f)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 13

Three-Hinges ARCHES
13.1 Theory

13.1.1 Uniform Horizontal Load


In order to optimize dead-load eciency, long span structures should have their shapes approximate the
coresponding moment diagram, hence an arch, suspended cable, or tendon con guration in a prestressed
concrete beam all are nearly parabolic, Fig. 13.1.
2 Long span structures can be built using at construction such as girders or trusses. However, for spans
in excess of 100 ft, it is often more economical to build a curved structure such as an arch, suspended
cable or thin shells.
3 Since the dawn of history, mankind has tried to span distances using arch construction. Essentially
this was because an arch required materials to resist compression only (such as stone, masonary, bricks),
and labour was not an issue.
4 The basic issues of static in arch design are illustrated in Fig. 13.2 where the vertical load is per unit
horizontal projection (such as an external load but not a self-weight). Due to symmetry, the vertical
reaction is simply V = wL
2 , and there is no shear across the midspan of the arch (nor a moment). Taking
moment about the crown,


L;L =0
(13.1)
M = Hh ; wL
2 2 4

Solving for H

H = wL
8h

(13.2)

We recall that a similar equation was derived for arches., and H is analogous to the C ; T forces in a
beam, and h is the overall height of the arch, Since h is much larger than d, H will be much smaller
than C ; T in a beam.
5 Since equilibrium requires H to remain constant across thee arch, a parabolic curve would theoretically
result in no moment on the arch section.
6 Three-hinged arches are statically determinate structures which shape can acomodate support settlements and thermal expansion without secondary internal stresses. They are also easy to analyse through
statics.

Draft
13{2

Three-Hinges ARCHES

M = w L /8

L
w=W/L

IDEALISTIC ARCH
SHAPE GIVEN BY
MOMENT DIAGRAM

C
RISE = h
-C
BEAM
+T
W/2

M-ARM small
C C-T large
BEAM
T

-C
+T
SAG = h

W/2

IDEALISTIC SUSPENSION
SHAPE GIVEN BY
MOMENT DIAGRAM

NOTE THAT THE "IDEAL" SHAPE FOR AN ARCH OR SUSPENSION


SYSTEM IS EQUIVILENT TO THE DESIGN LOAD MOMENT DIAGRAM

Figure 13.1: Moment Resisting Forces in an Arch or Suspension System as Compared to a Beam, (Lin
and Stotesbury 1981)

wL/2

H
h

H = wL2 /8h

L/2
R

R
V = wL/2

R = V 2+ H

V = wL/2
2

MCROWN = VL/2 - wL /8 - H h = 0
M BASE

= wL /8 - H h = 0

Figure 13.2: Statics of a Three-Hinged Arch, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13.1 Theory

13{3

An arch carries the vertical load across the span through a combination of axial forces and exural ones.
A well dimensioned arch will have a small to negligible moment, and relatively high normal compressive
stresses.
8 An arch is far more ecient than a beam, and possibly more economical and aesthetic than a truss in
carrying loads over long spans.
9 If the arch has only two hinges, Fig. 13.3, or if it has no hinges, then bending moments may exist
either at the crown or at the supports or at both places.

h
M base

H=wl /8h<
2
wl /8h

APPARENT LINE OF
PRESSURE WITH
ARCH BENDING
INCLUDING BASE

APPARENT LINE
OF PRESSURE WITH
ARCH BENDING
EXCEPT AT THE BASE

H<H H<H

M crown

M base

h
H

L
V

Figure 13.3: Two Hinged Arch, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)


Since H varies inversely to the rise h, it is obvious that one should use as high a rise as possible. For
a combination of aesthetic and practical considerations, a span/rise ratio ranging from 5 to 8 or perhaps
as much as 12, is frequently used. However, as the ratio goes higher, we may have buckling problems,
and the section would then have a higher section depth, and the arch advantage diminishes.
11 In a parabolic arch subjected to a uniform horizontal load there is no moment. However, in practice
an arch is not subjected to uniform horizontal load. First, the depth (and thus the weight) of an arch
is not usually constant, then due to the inclination of the arch the actual self weight is not constant.
Finally, live loads may act on portion of the arch, thus the line of action will not necessarily follow the
arch centroid. This last e ect can be neglected if the live load is small in comparison with the dead load.
p 2 2
V + H ), whereas at the crown
12 Since the greatest total force in the arch is at the support, (R =
we simply have H , the crown will require a smaller section than the support.

10

h
M base

H=wl /8h<
2
wl /8h

APPARENT LINE OF
PRESSURE WITH
ARCH BENDING
INCLUDING BASE

APPARENT LINE
OF PRESSURE WITH
ARCH BENDING
EXCEPT AT THE BASE

H<H H<H
V

M crown

M base

L
V

Figure 13.4: Arch Rib Sti ened with Girder or Truss, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13{4

Three-Hinges ARCHES

Example 13-25: Design of a Three Hinged Arch


adapted from (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) A long arch 100 ft high and spanning 510 ft is to be
designed for a garage and hotel building, using air rights over roads and highways.

100
Garage and hotel Building

510
It is necessary to determine preliminary dimensions for the size of the arch section. The arches are
spaced 60 ft on centers and carry four-story loading totaling 27 k/ft along each arch.

Solution:

1. To the initial DL and LL of 27 k/ft we add the arch own weight estimated to be  25% of the
load, thus the total load is
w = (1 + :25)27 = 33:7  33
(13.3)
2. We next determine the various forces:
2 (33)(510)2
H = wL
(13.4-a)
8h = 8(100) = 10; 700
(33)(510) = 8; 400
V = wL
(13.4-b)
2 =
2
k/ft

R =

3.

H 2 + V 2 = (10; 700)2 + (8; 400)2 = 13; 600

(13.4-c)
If we use concrete- lled steel pipe for arch section, and selecting a pipe diameter of 6 ft with a
thickness of 1/2 inch, then the steel cross sectional area is
As = 2rt = Dt = (3:14)(6) (12) = (0:5) = 113 2
(13.5)
The concrete area is
2
2
(13.6)
Ac =  D4 = (3:14) (6)4 2 (144) 2 =ftsq = 4; 070 2
Assuming that the steel has an allowable stress of 20 ksi and the concrete 2.5 ksi (noting that the
strength of con ned concrete can be as high as three times the one of fc0 ), then the load carrySteel Ac (113)(20)ksi = 2,260 k
ing capacity of each component is Concrete As (4; 070)(2:5)ksi = 10,180 k
Total
12,440 kip
which is o.k. for the crown section (H =10,700 k) but not quite for the abutments at R=13,600 k.
This process of trial and error can be repeated until a satisfactory preliminary design is achieved.
Furthermore, a new estimate for the arch self weight should be undertaken.
ft

4.

ft

5.

6.

Victor Saouma

in

in

ft

in

in

in

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)

13{5

13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)


Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983)

13.2.1 Geometry
The Salginatobel bridge, perhaps the most famous and in uential structure of Maillart is located in
high up in the Swiss Alps close to Shuders.
14 It is a three hinged pedestrian bridge which crosses a deep valley with a most beautiful shape which
blends perfectly with its surrounding, Fig. 13.5

13

20 ft

20 ft

20 ft

87.5 ft

87.5 ft

20 ft

20 ft

42.6 ft

20 ft

295 ft

Figure 13.5: Salginatobel Bridge; Dimensions, (Billington and Mark 1983)


The load supporting structure is the arch itself, whereas the bridge deck and the piers are transfering
the vertical load into the arch.
16 The arch cross section is not constant, and can be idealized as in Fig. 13.6
17 The basic shape of the supporting structure is a three hinged arch as shown in Fig. 13.7
18 The arch is parabolic (which as we saw an the optimal shape which minimizes exure), and the cross
section at the quarter point has an area of

15

At = 2[(0:62)(12:46) + (0:59)(12:17)] = 29:8


19

ft

in

(13.7)

Each ange has an area of

AF = (0:62)(12:46) = 7:73 2 = 1; 113


and the e ective depth of the section is d = 12:79 ft, Fig. 13.8.

(13.8)

2 = 1; 735 in2

(13.9)

ft

20

= 4; 291

in

At the crown/hinge the section is rectangular with

Acr = (1:05)(11:48) = 12:05

Victor Saouma

ft

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13{6

Three-Hinges ARCHES

42.6 ft

ACTUAL ARCH WITH


CENTROID (DOTTED LINE)

IDEALIZATION
(ONE DEMENSIONAL)
295 ft

Figure 13.6: Salginatobel Bridge; Idealization, (Billington and Mark 1983)

CONCRETE
CORK PADS

HINGE

ACTUAL SPRINGING HINGE

IDEALIZATION

CORK PAD
CONCRETE

HINGE
HARD WOOD

ACTUAL CROWN HINGE

IDEALIZATION

Figure 13.7: Salginatobel Bridge; Hinges, (Billington and Mark 1983)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)

42.6 ft

13{7

ACTUAL ARCH

295 ft

SECTIONS

12.46 ft

0.59 ft

12.17 ft
d=12.79 ft
13.41 ft

0.62 ft

0.62 ft

Figure 13.8: Salginatobel Bridge; Sections, (Billington and Mark 1983)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13{8

Three-Hinges ARCHES

13.2.2 Loads
The dead load WD is assumed to be linearly distributed (even though it is greater where the arch is
deeper, and the vertical members longer) and is equal to 1,680 kips, Fig. 13.9.

21

; 680) = 5:7
wD = WLD = (1(295)

(13.10)

k/ft

ft

wD = 5.7 k/ft
WD = 1680 k

L = 295 ft

Figure 13.9: Salginatobel Bridge; Dead Load, (Billington and Mark 1983)
For the sake of simplicity we will neglect the snow load (which is actually negligible compared to the
dead load).
23 The live load is caused by trac, and we consider the case in which two trucks, each weighing 55 kips,
are placed at the quarter-point, Fig. 13.10. This placement of the load actually corresponds to one of
the most critical loading arrangement. The total vertical load is shown in Fig. 13.11
22

13.2.3 Reactions
24

Reactions are easily determined from equilibrium, Fig. 13.15


VD = 1; 680
2
110
VL = 2
(+ ;) Mc
(840)(147:5) ; (840)(73:75) ; HD (42:6)

= 840

=
=
=
) HD =
(55)(147:5) ; (55)(73:75) ; HL (42:6) =
) HL =
p
2
RD = (840) + (1; 455)2 =
p
RL = (55)2 + (95)2 =

Victor Saouma

(13.11-a)

55
0
0
1; 455
0
95
1; 680
110
k

(13.11-b)
(13.11-c)
(13.11-d)
(13.11-e)
(13.11-f)
(13.11-g)
(13.11-h)
(13.11-i)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)

13{9

PLAN

P = 55 k

ROADWAY

295 ft

P = 55 k

ARCH ABUTMENT

42.5 ft

Figure 13.10: Salginatobel Bridge; Truck Load, (Billington and Mark 1983)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13{10

Three-Hinges ARCHES

P = 55 k

B
VB,D = 840 k

VA,D = 840 k

P = 55 k

DEAD LOAD

VA,L = 55 k

LIVE LOAD

42.6 ft

Q D = 1680 k

VB,L = 55 k

295 ft

Figure 13.11: Salginatobel Bridge; Total Vertical Load, (Billington and Mark 1983)

d=42.6 ft

A
l/4=73.75 ft

V
l/2=147.5 ft
Figure 13.12: Salginatobel Bridge; Reactions, (Billington and Mark 1983)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)

13{11

13.2.4 Internal Forces


25

The shear diagrams for the dead, live and combined load is shown in Fig. 13.13.
840 k

3L/4
L/4

295 ft

55 k

SHEAR FORCE

SHEAR FORCE

420 k

L/2
420 k
840 k

295 ft

SHEAR FORCE

+ 895 k

L/2

L
-55 k

295 ft

=
+ 475 k
+ 420 k
L

- 420 k
- 475 k
- 895 k
295 ft

Figure 13.13: Salganitobel Bridge; Shear Diagrams, (Billington and Mark 1983)
At the quarter point the axial force can be expressed as:
N = H cos + V sin
(13.12)
where
tan = 2Ld
(13.13)
and = 16:1o at this location. The horizontal force for the dead and live loads was determined previously
as 1; 455 and 95 kips respectively, and the vertical forces are obtained from the shear diagram, thus
NDqr = (;1; 455) cos16:1o + (;420) sin 16:1o = ;1; 514
(13.14-a)
qr
(13.14-b)
NL = (;95) cos 16:1o + (;55) sin 16:1o = ;106
and at the crown where there is no vertical force (and = 0)

26

NDcr = (;1; 455) cos0o + (;420) sin 0o = ;1; 455


NLcr = (;95) cos 0o + (;55) sin 0o = ;95

27
28

The uniform dead load will not produce a moment on the parabolic arch.
The (point) live load will create a moment which can be decomposed into two parts,
1. Vertical load will cause a trapezoidal moment diagram, and the max moment is
MLV = P2 L4 = 112o 295
4 = 4; 050
k.ft

(13.15-a)
(13.15-b)

(13.16)

2. The second is caused by the horizontal reaction, and the resulting moment is MLH = Hd(x), since
d varies parabolically, and H is constant, that second moment is parabolic with a peak value equal
to
MLV = Hdmax = (95)(32:6) = ;4; 050
(13.17)
k.ft

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13{12

Three-Hinges ARCHES

at the quarter point

MLV = Hd1=4 = (95) 3(324 :6) = ;3; 040

(13.18)

k.ft

The overall bending moment diagram from the live loads is determined by simply adding those two
components, Fig. 13.14.

29

L/4

-4,050 k-ft

BENDING
MOMENT

BENDING

L/4

-3,040 k-ft

MOMENT

L/4

L/2

x
3L/4

295 ft

+ PL/4 = 4,050 k-ft

4,050 ft.k-3,040 ft.k = 1,010 ft.k

MOMENT

BENDING

295 ft

Figure 13.14: Salginatobel Bridge; Live Load Moment Diagram, (Billington and Mark 1983)
We observe that the actual shape of the arch follows this bending moment diagram for one of the
most critical live load case.
31 The maximum moment at midspan is

30

MLmax = 4; 050 ; 3; 040 = 1; 010

(13.19)

k.ft

which would produce internal forces in the upper and lower anges equal to:
max
; 010) = 79
Fint =  MLd = (1(12
:8)
k.ft

ft

(13.20)

13.2.5 Internal Stresses


The axial stresses at the springlines were determined to be ;1; 680 and ;110 kips for the dead and
live loads respectively.
2 , thus the axial stresses are
33 At the support the area of concrete is Ac = 2; 240
D = ;(1; 680) 1; 000 = ;750
sp
(13.21-a)
(2; 240) 2
L = ;(110) 1; 000 = ;49
(13.21-b)
sp
(2; 240) 2
s spTotal = ;750 ; 49 = ;799
(13.21-c)

32

in

psi

in
k

psi

in

psi

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13.3 Structural Behavior of Deck-Sti ened Arches

13{13

At the crown, we repeat the same calculations, where the axial force is equal to the horizontal
component of the reactions
(1; 455) 1; 000 = ;839
crD = ;
(13.22-a)
(1; 735) 2
(95) 1; 000 = ;55
crL = (1;; 735)
(13.22-b)
2
s crTotal = ;839 ; 55 = ;894
(13.22-c)

34

psi

in
k

psi

in

psi

The stresses at the quarter point are determined next. Note that we must include the e ect of both
axial and exural stresses
(1; 514) 1; 000 + ;(106) 1; 000 ; (79)
qrtop = ;
(13.23-a)
2
2
2
(4
;
291)
(4
;
291)
(1
;
113)
|
{z
} |
{z
} |
{z
}
35

DeadLoad

in

in

LiveLoad

{z

AxialStresses

in

Flexural

= ;353 ; 25 ; 71 ;449
(1; 514) 1; 000 + ;(106) 1; 000 (79)
qrbot = ;
(4
; 291){z 2 } |(4; 291){z 2 } |(1; 113)
|
{z

(13.23-b)

psi

DeadLoad

in

in

{z

LiveLoad

AxialStresses

= ;353 ; 25 + 71 ;307

in

Flexural

(13.23-c)

psi

(13.23-d)

13.3 Structural Behavior of Deck-Sti ened Arches


From (Billington 1979)

INCOMPLETE

The issue of unsymmetrical live load on a sti ened or unsti ened arch was also addressed by Maillart.
As discussed in (Billington 1979) and illustrated by Fig. 13.15

36

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
13{14

Three-Hinges ARCHES

wL

/10

wL

wL a
wL
Unstiffened Arch

wL

wL

wL a
2

wL a
2

Stiffened Arch

Figure 13.15: Structural Behavior of Sti ened Arches, (Billington 1979)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 14

BUILDING STRUCTURES
14.1 Introduction

14.1.1 Beam Column Connections


1

The connection between the beam and the column can be, Fig. 14.1:
b

Flexible

Rigid

)
M=K(

s s b- c
b = c
Semi-Flexible

Figure 14.1: Flexible, Rigid, and Semi-Flexible Joints

Flexible that is a hinge which can transfer forces only. In this case we really have cantiliver action
only. In a exible connection the column and beam end moments are both equal to zero, Mcol =
Mbeam = 0. The end rotation are not equal, col =
6 beam.
Rigid: The connection is such that beam = col and moment can be transmitted through the connection.
In a rigid connection, the end moments and rotations are equal (unless there is an externally applied
moment at the node), Mcol = Mbeam =
6 0, col = beam.
Semi-Rigid: The end moments are equal and not equal to zero, but the rotation are di erent. beam =6
col, Mcol = Mbeam =
6 0. Furthermore, the di erence in rotation is resisted by the spring Mspring =
Kspring (col ; beam).

14.1.2 Behavior of Simple Frames


For vertical load across the beam rigid connection will reduce the maximum moment in the beam (at
the expense of a negative moment at the ends which will in turn be transferred to the columns).

Draft
14{2

BUILDING STRUCTURES

The advantages of a rigid connection are greater when the frame is subjected to a lateral load. Under
those conditions, the connection will sti en the structure and reduce the amount of lateral de ection,
Fig. 14.2.
3

PI

PI

PI

PI

PI

PI

PI

PI

Figure 14.2: Deformation of Flexible and Rigid Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads, (Lin
and Stotesbury 1981)
4 Fig. 14.3 illustrates the deformation, shear, moment and axial forces in frames with di erent boundary
conditions under both vertical and horizontal loads.

14.1.3 Eccentricity of Applied Loads


A concentric axial force P and moment M , applied on a support sytem (foundation, columns, prestressing) can be replaced by a static equivalent one in which the moment M is eliminated and the force
P applied with an eccentricity
5

e= M
P

(14.1)

The induced stresses can be decomposed into uniform (;P=L) (assuming a unit width) and linearly
varying one ( = M=S ) and the end stresses are

min = ; PL ; 
max = ; PL + 

(14.2-a)
(14.2-b)

We note that the linearly varying stress distribution must satisfy two equilibrium requirements: F = 0,
thus the neutral axis (where the stress is equal to zero) passes through the centroid of the section, and
M = 0, i.e. Mint = Mext .
max equals zero, then  = P
7 If we seek the eccentricity ecr for which 
L

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.1 Introduction

14{3
2

Frame Type
L

W=wL, M=wL/8, M=Ph

Moment

Shear

Deformation
w/2

Axial

M
-w/2
w/2

w/2

a
h

P
p

POST AND BEAM STRUCTURE


M

w/2

M
-w/2
w/2

w/2

c
-M/L
p

SIMPLE BENT FRAME

M/L

-M/L

w/2

M
-w/2
w/2

w/2

e
-M/L

M/L

-M/L

f
p
THREE-HINGE PORTAL

w/2

-w/2

M
M/h

-M/h

M/h
M/2

-M/L

-M/L

p/2

THREE-HINGE PORTAL

w/2

0.4M

0.4M

-0.36M/h

w/2

M/2

-M/L

0.4M/h

0.64M

0.36M/h

-w/2

M/2

w/2

0.45M

0.45M

w/2
M/4

-0.5M/L

0.68M/h

0.55M

0.68M/h

-0.68M/h

-w/2

M/L

-M/L

p/2

TWO-HINGE FRAME

w/2

M/4
p/2

p/2

p/2

RIGID FRAME
M/4

M/4

M/2L

w/2

p/2
p/2

M/L

p/2
p/2

w/2

M/2

-M/2L

w/2

Figure 14.3: Deformation, Shear, Moment, and Axial Diagrams for Various Types of Portal Frames
Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{4

BUILDING STRUCTURES

The net tensile force due to the eccentric load is

T = 12  L2

(14.3)

If we want this net tensile force to be equal and opposite to the compressive force, then

T = PL
T = L4
P
 = A
applied at 32 L2 from the centroid
Thus the net internal moment is
Mint = 2T 23 L2 = 2 P4 23 L2 = PL
6

(14.4)
(14.5)

9 To satisfy the equilibrium equation, this internal moment must be equal and opposite to the external
moment Mext = Pecr hence
PL = Pe
(14.6)
6 | {zcr}

|{z}

Mint

or

Mext

ecr = L6

(14.7)

in other words to avoid tensile stresses on either side, the resultant force P must be placed within the
midle third kernel, Fig. 14.4
L/2

L/2

L/3

L/3

L/3

L/3

L/6

L/2

L/2

L/3

P
L/3

L/3

L/3

L/3

L/3

L/3

L/3

L/6
L/3

L/3

L/6

P/A
+

M/S

Figure 14.4: Axial and Flexural Stresses


10

This equation is fundamental in preventing tensile forces in

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.2 Buildings Structures

14{5

1. Prestressed concrete beams: If the prestressing cable is within the kernel (i.e middle third), then
there will not be any tensile stresses caused by prestressing alone.
2. Foundations: If the eccentricity is within the middle kernel, then we have compressive stresses only
under the foundation and no undesirable uplift.
3. Buildings: If the eccentricity of the vertical load is within the middle third, all columns will be
loaded under compression only.

14.2 Buildings Structures


There are three primary types of building systems:
Wall Subsytem: in which very rigid walls made up of solid masonry, paneled or braced timber, or steel
trusses constitute a rigid subsystem. This is only adequate for small rise buildings.
Vertical Shafts: made up of four solid or trussed walls forming a tubular space structure. The tubular
structure may be interior (housing elevators, staircases) and/or exterior. Most ecient for very
high rise buildings.
Rigid Frame: which consists of linear vertical components (columns) rigidly connected to sti horizontal ones (beams and girders). This is not a very ecient structural form to resist lateral
(wind/earthquake) loads.
11

14.2.1 Wall Subsystems


Whereas exterior wall provide enclosure and interior ones separation, both of them can also have a
structural role in trnsfering vertical and horizontal loads.
13 Walls are constructed out of masonry, timber concrete or steel.
14 If the wall is braced by oors, then it can provide an excellent resitance to horizontal load in the plane
of the wall (but not orthogonal to it).
15 When shear-walls subsytems are used, it is best if the center of orthogonal shear resistance is close
to the centroid of lateral loads as applied. If this is not the case, then there will be torsional design
problems.

12

14.2.1.1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall


From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

We consider a reinforced concrete wall 20 ft wide, 1 ft thick, and 120 ft high with a vertical load of
400 k acting on it at the base. As a result of wind, we assume a uniform horizontal force of 0.8 kip/ft
of vertical height acting on the wall. It is required to compute the exural stresses and the shearing
stresses in the wall to resist the wind load, Fig. 14.5.
1. Maximum shear force and bending moment at the base
16

Vmax = wL = (0:8) (120) = 96


2 (0:8)
(120)2 2 = 5; 760
Mmax = wL
=
2
2
k.ft

k.ft

Victor Saouma

ft

(14.8-a)

ft

k.ft

(14.8-b)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{6

BUILDING STRUCTURES
w=0.8 k/ft

20
11111
00000
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
W11111
00000
00000
40011111
k
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111

H=96 k;
M =5760 k

60

120

V
-f
HORIZONTAL
+f

2/(3d)
+F

-F

VERTICAL
+ FDL

11111
00000
11111
00000

+140
+ 740 PSI
+ 600

7.7 IN TENSION

Figure 14.5: Design of a Shear Wall Subsystem, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
2. The resulting eccentricity is

3. The critical eccentricity is

(5; 760)
=
eActual = M
P
(400)

k.ft
k

= 14:4

(14.9)

ft

ecr = L6 = (20)6 = 3:3 < eActual N.G.

(14.10)

ft

ft

thus there will be tension at the base.


4. The moment of inertia of the wall is

3 (1) (20)
I = bh
12 =
12
ft

ft

= 667

5. The maximum exural stresses will be


(5; 760) (10) = (86:5)
max =  Mc
I =
(667) 4
k.ft

(14.11)

ft

ft

ksf

ft

= (600)

psi

(14.12)

6. The average shearing stress is

(96)
 = VA = (1)(20)

k
ft

= 4:8

ksf

= 33:3

psi

(14.13)

A concrete with nominal shear reinforcement can carry at least 100 psi in shear, those computed
shear streses are permissible.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.2 Buildings Structures

14{7

7. At the base of the wall, the axial stresses will be


;(400) = (20)
 = (1)(20)
2
k

ksf

ft

= ;140

(14.14-a)

psi

8. The maximum stresses will thus be:

1 = ;140 + 600 = 460


2 = ;140 ; 600 = ;740

psi
psi

(Tension)
(Compression)

(14.15-a)
(14.15-b)

9. The compressive stress of 740 psi can easily be sustained by concrete, as to the tensile stress of
460 psi, it would have to be resisted by some steel reinforcement.
10. Given that those stresses are service stresses and not factored ones, we adopt the WSD approach,
and use an allowable stress of 20 ksi, which in turn will be increased by 4=3 for seismic and wind
load,
all = 34 (20) = 26:7
(14.16)
ksi

11. The stress distribution is linear, compression at one end, and tension at the other. The length of
the tension area is given by (similar triangles)
x = 20 ) x = 460 (20) = 7:7
(14.17)
460 460 + 740
460 + 740
ft

12. The total tensile force inside this triangular stress block is
= 250
T = 12 (460) (7:7  12) (12)
| {z }
ksi

in

in

(14.18)

width

13. The total amount of steel reinforcement needed is


(250) = 9:4 2
(14.19)
As = (26
:7)
This amount of reinforcement should be provided at both ends of the wall since the wind or
eartquake can act in any direction. In addition, the foundations should be designed to resist
tensile uplift forces (possibly using piles).
k

in

ksi

14.2.1.2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall


From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
17 We consider the same problem previously analysed, but use a trussed shear wall instead of a concrete
one, Fig. 14.6.
1. Using the maximum moment of 5; 760 kip-ft (Eq. 14.8-b), we can compute the compression and
tension in the columns for a lever arm of 20 ft.
760) = 288
F =  (5;(20)
(14.20)
k.ft

ft

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{8

BUILDING STRUCTURES

120

20

W
400 k

60

H=96 k

24

1
1.2

~1.6

V
+FM

-F

Figure 14.6: Trussed Shear Wall


2. If we now add the e ect of the 400 kip vertical load, the forces would be
C = ; (400)
2 ; 288 = ;488
T = ; (400)
2 + 288 = 88

(14.21-a)

(14.21-b)

3. The force in the diagonal which must resist a base shear of 96 kip is (similar triangles)
p

F = (20)2 + (24)2 ) F = (20)2 + (24)2 (96) = 154


96
20
20

(14.22)

4. The design could be modi ed to have no tensile forces in the columns by increasing the width of
the base (currently at 20 ft).

14.2.2 Shaft Systems


18 Vertical shear-resisting shafts in buildings act as a tubular section and generally have a rectangular
cross section. If there is only one shaft, it is generally located in the center and houses the elevators. If
there are many shafts, then they should be symmetrically arranged.
19 If the shaft is relatively short and wide, with an aspect ratio under 1 or 2, then the dominant strcutral
action is that of a sti shear resisting tube. If the aspect ratio is between 3 and 5, then the shear forces
may not be the controlling criterion, and exure dominates.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.2 Buildings Structures

14{9

14.2.2.1 Example: Tube Subsystem


From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
20

With reference to Fig. 14.7, the reinforced concrete shaft is 20 ft square, 120 ft high, and with 1 ft
~ 20

20

w = 0.8 k/ft

H = 96 k
60

20

~ 20

111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111

120

N.A.

Figure 14.7: Design Example of a Tubular Structure, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
thick walls. It is subjected to a lateral force of 0.8 k/ft.
1. Comparing this structure with the one analysed in Sect. 14.2.1.1 the total vertical load acting on
the base is now increased to
V = 4(400) = 1; 600
(14.23)
2. As previously, the maximum moment and shear are 5; 760 and 96 respectively.
3. The moment of inertia for a tubular section is
3 (20)(20)3 (18)(18)3
4
I =  bd
(14.24)
12 = 12 ; 12 = 4; 600
4. The maximum exural stresses:
(5; 760) (20=2) = 12:5 = 87
=

fl =  MC
(14.25)
I
(4; 600) 4
k

k.ft

ft

k.ft

ft

ksf

psi

ft

5. The average shear stress is

(96)
 = VA = 2(20)(1)

k
ft

= 2:4

ksf

6. The vertical load of 1,600 k produces an axial stress of


;(1; 600) = ;20
ax = PA = (4(20)(1)
2

= 17

ft

Victor Saouma

ksf

(14.26)

psi

= ;140

psi

(14.27)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{10

BUILDING STRUCTURES

7. The total stresses are thus

 = ax + fl
1 = ;140 + 87 = ;53
2 = ;140 ; 87 = ;227

(14.28-a)
(14.28-b)
(14.28-c)

psi
psi

thus we do not have any tensile stresses, and those stresses are much better than those obtained
from a single shear wall.

14.2.3 Rigid Frames


Rigid frames can carry both vertical and horizontal loads, however their analysis is more complex
than for tubes.
22 The rigorous and exact analysis of a rigid frame can only be accomplished through a computer analysis.
However, for preliminary design it is often sucient to perform approximate analyses.
23 There are two approximate methods for the analysis of rigid frames subjected to lateral loads: 1)
Portal and 2) Cantilever method.
24 The portal frame method is based on the following major assumptions, Fig. 14.8:
21

L
P

P
L/2

P
h/2

PI

H 1=P/2

H 2=P/2

h/2
V1 =P/(2L)

V2 =P/(2L)

Figure 14.8: A Basic Portal Frame, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)


1. Each bay of a bent acts as a separate \portal" frame consisting of two adjacent columns and the
connecting girder.
2. The point of in ection (zero moment) for all columns is at midheight
3. The point of in ection for all girders is at midspan.
4. For a multibay frame, the shears on the interior columns are equal and the shear in each exterior
column is half the shear of an interior column.
This method will be discussed in more details in the following section.

14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings


25

Despite the widespread availability of computers, approximate methods of analysis are justi ed by
1. Inherent assumption made regarding the validity of a linear elastic analysis vis a vis of an ultimate
failure design.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings

14{11

2. Ability of structures to redistribute internal forces.


3. Uncertainties in load and material properties
26
27
28
29

Vertical loads are treated separately from the horizontal ones.


We use the design sign convention for moments (+ve tension below), and for shear (ccw +ve).
Assume girders to be numbered from left to right.
In all free body diagrams assume positivee forces/moments, and take algeebraic sums.

14.3.1 Vertical Loads


The girders at each oor are assumed to be continuous beams, and columns are assumed to resist the
resulting unbalanced moments from the girders.
31 Basic assumptions
1. Girders at each oor act as continous beams supporting a uniform load.
2. In ection points are assumed to be at
(a) One tenth the span from both ends of each girder.
(b) Mid-height of the columns
3. Axial forces and deformation in the girder are negligibly small.
4. Unbalanced end moments from the girders at each joint is distributed to the columns above and
below the oor.
30

Based on the rst assumption, all beams are statically determinate and have a span, Ls equal to 0.8
the original length of the girder, L. (Note that for a rigidly connected member, the in ection point is
at 0.211 L, and at the support for a simply supported beam; hence, depending on the nature of the
connection one could consider those values as upper and lower bounds for the approximate location of
the hinge).
33 End forces are given by
Maximum positive moment at the center of each beam is, Fig. 14.9

32

M + = 18 wL2s = w 81 (0:8)2 L2 = 0:08wL2

(14.29)

Maximum negative moment at each end of the girder is given by, Fig. 14.9
M left = M rgt = ; w2 (0:1L)2 ; w2 (0:8L)(0:1L) = ;0:045wL2

(14.30)

Girder Shear are obtained from the free body diagram, Fig. 14.10
V lft = wL
2

Victor Saouma

V rgt = ; wL
2

(14.31)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{12

BUILDING STRUCTURES

Mrgt

lft

Vrgt
Vlft
0.1L

0.1L

0.8L
L

Figure 14.9: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Girder Moments

Pabove

Vrgti-1

Vlfti

Pbelow

Figure 14.10: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Axial Forces

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings

14{13

Column axial force is obtained by summing all the girder shears to the axial force transmitted by the
column above it. Fig. 14.10

lft
P dwn = P up + Virgt
;1 ; Vi

(14.32)

Column Moment are obtained by considering the free body diagram of columns Fig. 14.11
h/2

h/2
Mcolabove

Mi-1lft

Mi-1rgt
Vi-1rgt

Vi-1lft

Li-1

Mirgt

Milft

Virgt

Vilft

Mcolbelow

Li
h/2

h/2

Figure 14.11: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Moments
bot ; M rgt + M lft
M top = Mabove
i
i;1

M bot = ;top

(14.33)

Column Shear Points of in ection are at mid-height, with possible exception when the columns on
the rst oor are hinged at the base, Fig. 14.11

top
V = Mh
2

(14.34)

Girder axial forces are assumed to be negligible eventhough the unbalanced column shears above and
below a oor will be resisted by girders at the oor.

14.3.2 Horizontal Loads


We must di erentiate between low and high rise buildings.
Low rise buidlings, where the height is at least samller than the hrizontal dimension, the de ected
shape is characterized by shear deformations.
High rise buildings, where the height is several times greater than its least horizontal dimension, the
de ected shape is dominated by overall exural deformation.
34

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{14

BUILDING STRUCTURES

14.3.2.1 Portal Method


Low rise buildings under lateral loads, have predominantly shear deformations. Thus, the approximate
analysis of this type of structure is based on
1. Distribution of horizontal shear forces.
2. Location of in ection points.

35

36

The portal method is based on the following assumptions


1. In ection points are located at
(a) Mid-height of all columns above the second oor.
(b) Mid-height of oor columns if rigid support, or at the base if hinged.
(c) At the center of each girder.
2. Total horizontal shear at the mid-height of all columns at any oor level will be distributed among
these columns so that each of the two exterior columns carry half as much horizontal shear as each
interior columns of the frame.

Forces are obtained from


Column Shear is obtained by passing a horizontal section through the mid-height of the columns at
each oor and summing the lateral forces above it, then Fig. 14.12
37

H/2

H/2

Figure 14.12: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Shear
P

lateral
V ext = 2No.F of bays

V int = 2V ext

(14.35)

Column Moments at the end of each column is equal to the shear at the column times half the height
of the corresponding column, Fig. 14.12

M top = V h2

Victor Saouma

M bot = ;M top

(14.36)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings

14{15
h/2

h/2
Mcol

Mi-1lft

above

Mi-1rgt
Vi-1rgt

Vi-1lft

Li-1/2

Li-1/2

Mirgt

Milft

Virgt

Vilft

Mcolbelow

Li/2

Li/2

h/2

h/2

Figure 14.13: ***Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Girder Moment

Girder Moments is obtained from the columns connected to the girder, Fig. 14.13
above ; M below + M rgt
Milft = Mcol
col
i;1

Mirgt = ;Milft

(14.37)

Girder Shears Since there is an in ection point at the center of the girder, the girder shear is obtained
by considering the sum of moments about that point, Fig. 14.13

V lft = ; 2LM

V rgt = V lft

(14.38)

Column Axial Forces are obtained by summing girder shears and the axial force from the column
above, Fig. ??
Pabove

Vrgti-1

Vlfti

Pbelow

Figure 14.14: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Axial Force

P = P above + P rgt + P lft

(14.39)

Example 14-26: Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads
Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{16

BUILDING STRUCTURES
0.25K/ft

15

30

12

13

0.50K/ft

14

14

9
1

10

20

11
3

30

16

24

Figure 14.15: Example; Approximate Analysis of a Building


Draw the shear, and moment diagram for the following frame. Solution:

Vertical Loads
1. Top Girder Moments

= ;0:045w12L212 = ;(0:045)(0:25)(20)2
= 0:08w12L212 = (0:08)(0:25)(20)2
= M12lft
= ;0:045w13L213 = ;(0:045)(0:25)(30)2
= 0:08w13L213 = (0:08)(0:25)(30)2
= M13lft
= ;0:045w14L214 = ;(0:045)(0:25)(24)2
= 0:08w14L214 = (0:08)(0:25)(24)2
= M14lft
2. Bottom Girder Moments
M9lft = ;0:045w9L29 = ;(0:045)(0:5)(20)2
M9cnt = 0:08w9 L29 = (0:08)(0:5)(20)2
M9rgt = M9lft
M10lft = ;0:045w10L210 = ;(0:045)(0:5)(30)2
M10cnt = 0:08w10 L210 = (0:08)(0:5)(30)2
M10rgt = M11lft
M11lft = ;0:045w12L212 = ;(0:045)(0:5)(24)2
M11cnt = 0:08w12 L212 = (0:08)(0:5)(24)2
M11rgt = M12lft
3. Top Column Moments
M5top = +M12lft
M5bot = ;M5top
M6top = ;M12rgt + M13lft = ;(;4:5) + (;10:1)
M6bot = ;M6top
M7top = ;M13rgt + M14lft = ;(;10:1) + (;6:5)
M7bot = ;M7top
M8top = ;M14rgt = ;(;6:5)
M8bot = ;M8top

M12lft
M12cnt
M12rgt
M13lft
M13cnt
M13rgt
M14lft
M14cnt
M14rgt

Victor Saouma

=;
=
=;
=;
=
=;
=;
=
=;

4:5
8:0
4:5
10:1
18:0
10:1
6:5
11:5
6:5

=;
=
=;
=;
=
=;
=;
=
=;

9:0
16:0
9:0
20:3
36:0
20:3
13:0
23:0
13:0

=;
=
=;
=
=;
=
=
=;

4:5
4:5
5:6
5:6
3:6
3:6
6:5
6:5

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

k.ft
k.ft

k.ft

k.ft
k.ft

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings

14{17

4. Bottom Column Moments


M1top = +M5bot + M9lft = 4:5 ; 9:0
M1bot = ;M1top
M2top = +M6bot ; M9rgt + M10lft = 5:6 ; (;9:0) + (;20:3)
M2bot = ;M2top
M3top = +M7bot ; M10rgt + M11lft = ;3:6 ; (;20:3) + (;13:0)
M3bot = ;M3top
M4top = +M8bot ; M11rgt = ;6:5 ; (;13:0)
M4bot = ;M4top

=;
=
=;
=
=
=;
=
=;

4:5
4:5
5:6
5:6
3:6
3:6
6:5
6:5

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

0.25K/ft

12

13

10

-4.5

20

30

+8.0k

+18.0k

-4.5k
+16.0k

-9.0k

-9.0k

-4.5k

+4.5k

+5.6k
-4.5k

+4.5k

+5.6k

-5.6

16

24
+11.5k
-6.5k

+23.0k

k
k -13.0
-20.2k -20.2

-5.6k

14

-10.1k -10.1k -6.5


+32.0

11
3

14

0.50K/ft

+3.6k

-13.0k

+6.5k

-3.6k
-6.5k
k
+3.6
+6.5
k

-3.6k

-6.5k

Figure 14.16: Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Vertical Loads


5. Top Girder Shear

Victor Saouma

V12lft
V12rgt
V13lft
V13rgt
V14lft
V14rgt

=
=
=
=
=
=

w12 L12 = (0:25)(20) =


2
2
lft

;V12

w13 L13 = (0:25)(30)


2
2
lft

;V13

w14 L14 = (0:25)(24)


2
2
lft

;V14

=;
=
=;
=
=;

2:5
2:5
3:75
3:75
3:0
3:0

k
k
k
k

k
k

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{18

BUILDING STRUCTURES

6. Bottom Girder Shear

V9lft
V9rgt
V10lft
V10rgt
V11lft
V11rgt
7. Column Shears

=
=
=
=
=
=

V5
V6
V7
V8
V1
V2
V3
V4

+2.5K

+3.75

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

w9 L9 = (0:5)(20)
2
2
lft

;V9

w10 L10 = (0:5)(30)


2
2
lft

;V10

w11 L11 = (0:5)(24)


2
2
lft

;V11

7
2

2
2

4
2

=
=

k
k
k

0:46
0:81

+3.0

-3.75K
K

-3.0K

+6.0

-5.0K

-0.56K

k
k

M3top = 3:6
16
H3
2
2
M4top = 6:5
16
H

+7.5

-0.64K

M8top = 6:5 =
0:93 k
14
H8
2
2
M1top = ;4:5 = ; 0:56 k
16
H1
2
2
M2top = ;5:6 = ; 0:70 k
16
H

-2.5K
+5.0

5:00
5:00
7:50
7:50
6:00
6:00

M5top = ;4:5 = ; 0:64 k


14
H5
2
2top
M6 = ;5:6 = ; 0:80 k
14
H6
2
2
M7top = 3:6 =
0:52 k
14
H

=
=;
=
=;
=
=;

-6.0K

-7.5K

-0.80K

+0.51K

-0.70K

+0.45K

+0.93K

+0.81K

Figure 14.17: Approximate Analysis of a Building; Shears Due to Vertical Loads

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings

14{19

8. Top Column Axial Forces

P5
P6
P7
P8

=
=
=
=

V12lft
;V12rgt + V13lft = ;(;2:50) + 3:75
;V13rgt
+ V14lft = ;(;3:75) + 3:00
rgt
;V14

2:50
6:25
6:75
3:00

=
=
=
=

9. Bottom Column Axial Forces


P1 = P5 + V9lft = 2:50 + 5:0
P2 = P6 ; V10rgt + V9lft = 6:25 ; (;5:00) + 7:50
P3 = P7 ; V11rgt + V10lft = 6:75 ; (;7:50) + 6:0
P4 = P8 ; V11rgt = 3:00 ; (;6:00)

=
=
=
=

k
k
k
k

7:5
18:75
20:25
9:00
k

k
k

Horizontal Loads, Portal Method


1. Column Shears

V5
V6
V7
V8
V1
V2
V3
V4

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

15
(2)(3)
2(V5 ) = (2)(2:5)
2(V5 ) = (2)(2:5)
V5
15+30
(2)(3)
2(V1 ) = (2)(7:5)
2(V1 ) = (2)(2:5)
V1

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2:5
5
5
2:5
7:5
15
15
7:5

k
k
k
k
k
k
k

2. Top Column Moments

M5top
M5bot
M6top
M6bot
M7top
M7bot
M8top
M8bot

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

V1 H5 = (2:5)(14)
2 top
2

;M5

V6 H6 = (5)(14)
2
2

;upM6top

V7 H7 = (5)(14)
2
2

;upM7top

V8 H8 = (2:5)(14)
2 top
2

;M8

=
=;
=
=;
=
=;
=
=;

17:5
17:5
35:0
35:0
35:0
35:0
17:5
17:5

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

3. Bottom Column Moments

M1top
M1bot
M2top
M2bot
M3top
M3bot
M4top
M4bot

Victor Saouma

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

V1dwn H1 = (7:5)(16) =
2 top
2

;dwn
M1

V2 H2 = (15)(16)
2
2

;dwn
M2top
V3 H3
2
;dwn
M3top
V4 H4
2
;M4top

= (15)(16)
2
=

(7:5)(16)
2

=;
=
=;
=
=;
=
=;

60
60
120
120
120
120
60
60

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

k.ft
k.ft

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{20

BUILDING STRUCTURES

Approximate Analysis Vertical Loads

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Height
14
16

Span
Load
Load

APROXVER.XLS

Victor E. Saouma

L1
20
0.25
0.5

L2
L3
30
24
0.25
0.25
0.5
0.5
MOMENTS
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft Cnt Rgt
Lft Cnr Rgt
Lft Cnt Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
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AAAA
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AAAAAAAA
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SHEAR
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
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Rgt
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AXIAL FORCE
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
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AAAAAAAA
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7.50 AAAA
18.75
20.25
9.00
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
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AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Figure 14.18: Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Spread-Sheet Format

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Victor Saouma
L1
20
0.25
0.5

H
L2
30
0.25
0.5

APROXVER.XLS

M
L3
24
0.25
0.5

Victor E. Saouma

=-0.045*D5*D3^2 =0.08*D5*D3*D3 =+D13

=-F13+I13+G12
=-G14

=-0.045*I5*I3^2 =0.08*I5*I3*I3 =+I13

=-K13+N13+L12
=-L14

=-0.045*N5*N3^2 =0.08*N5*N3*N3 =+N13

=-P13+Q12
=-Q14

=+C28+D22

Bay 2
Beam
0

=+I3*I5/2

=-I22

Column

=2*L14/A5

Bay 3
Beam
0

=+N3*N5/2

=-N22

Col

=2*Q14/A5

=+G28-F22+I22

=-F20+I20

=+L28-K22+N22

=-K20+N20

=+Q28-P22

=-P20

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=+D20

Column

AXIAL FORCE
Bay 1
Col

Beam
0

=2*G14/A5

=-D22

=2*C14/A5

=+D3*D5/2

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Bay 2
Bay 3
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft
Rgt
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Rgt
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Rgt
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AAAA =2*G11/A4
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=2*C11/A4
A =2*L11/A4
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A

SHEAR
Bay 1
Col

=+D13+C12
=-C14

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Bay 2
Bay 3
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft
Cnt
Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAALft
Cnr
Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft
Cnt
Rgt
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
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=-0.045*D4*D3^2
=0.08*D4*D3*D3
=+D10
=-0.045*I4*I3^2
=0.08*I4*I3*I3
=+I10
=-0.045*N4*N3^2
=0.08*N4*N3*N3
=N10
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A
=+D10
=-F10+I10
=-K10+N10
=-P10
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
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MOMENTS
Bay 1
Col

29
30

Span
Load
Load

24
25
26
27
28

22
23

16
17
18
19
20
21

13
14
15

A
1
2
3 Height
4 14
5 16
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Approximate Analysis Vertical Loads

Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
14{21

Figure 14.19: Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Equations in Spread-Sheet

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{22

BUILDING STRUCTURES

4. Top Girder Moments

M12lft
M12rgt
M13lft
M13rgt
M14lft
M14rgt

=
=
=
=
=
=

M5top
;M12lft
M12rgt + M6top = ;17:5 + 35
;M13lft
M13rgt + M7top = ;17:5 + 35
;M14lft

=
=;
=
=;
=
=;

17:5
17:5
17:5
17:5
17:5
17:5

5. Bottom Girder Moments


M9lft = M1top ; M5bot = 60 ; (;17:5)
M9rgt = ;M9lft
M10lft = M9rgt + M2top ; M6bot = ;77:5 + 120 ; (;35)
M10rgt = ;M10lft
M11lft = M10rgt + M3top ; M7bot = ;77:5 + 120 ; (;35)
M11rgt = ;M11lft
6. Top Girder Shear

7. Bottom Girder Shear

V12lft
V12rgt
V13lft
V13rgt
V14lft
V14rgt

=
=
=
=
=
=

:5) = ;1:75
; 2LM1212 = ; (2)(17
20
lft
+V12
= ;1:75
lft
2
M
(2)(17
:
5)
13
; L13 = ; 30 = ;1:17
+V13lft
= ;1:17
lft
2
M
(2)(17
:
5)
; L1414 = ; 24 = ;1:46
+V14lft
= ;1:46

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

=
=;
=
=;
=
=;

77:5
77:5
77:5
77:5
77:5
77:5

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

lft

k
k
k
k
k
k

:5) = ;7:75
= ; 2ML912 = ; (2)(77
20
= +V9lft
= ;7:75
lft
:5) = ;5:17
= ; 2LM1010 = ; (2)(77
30
= +V10lft
= ;5:17
lft
2
M
(2)(77
:
5)
11
= ; L11 = ; 24
= ;6:46
= +V11lft
= ;6:46
8. Top Column Axial Forces (+ve tension, -ve compression)
P5 = ;V12lft
= ;(;1:75)
P6 = +V12rgt ; V13lft = ;1:75 ; (;1:17) = ;0:58
P7 = +V13rgt ; V14lft = ;1:17 ; (;1:46) = 0:29
P8 = V14rgt = ;1:46
9. Bottom Column Axial Forces (+ve tension, -ve compression)
P1 = P5 + V9lft = 1:75 ; (;7:75)
= 9:5
P2 = P6 + V10rgt + V9lft = ;0:58 ; 7:75 ; (;5:17) = ;3:16
P3 = P7 + V11rgt + V10lft = 0:29 ; 5:17 ; (;6:46) = 1:58
P4 = P8 + V11rgt = ;1:46 ; 6:46
= ;7:66

V9lft
V9rgt
V10lft
V10rgt
V11lft
V11rgt

k.ft

lft

k
k
k
k
k
k

Design Parameters On the basis of the two approximate analyses, vertical and lateral load, we now
seek the design parameters for the frame, Table 14.2.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings

15K

12

30K

14{23

13

10

20

-35K
+60K

-120K

-17.5K

-60K

+17.5K

-17.5K
+77.5K

+17.5K

-120K
+17.5K

16

24

-35K
+120K

-60K

+17.5K

+35K

+35K

14

11

30

-17.5K
+120K

+60K

+17.5K

14

+77.5K

-17.5K

-17.5K

-77.5K

-77.5K

+77.5K

-77.5K

Figure 14.20: Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Lateral Loads

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{24

BUILDING STRUCTURES

Portal Method

PORTAL.XLS

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Victor E. Saouma

PORTAL METHOD
# of Bays

# of Storeys
2
Force Shear
H Lat. Tot Ext Int
H1

14 15 15 2.5

H2

16 30 45 7.5 15

L1
20

L2
L3
30
24
MOMENTS
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
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A
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A 17.5 -17.5 AAAA
A
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Figure 14.21: Portal Method; Spread-Sheet Format

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings

14{25

Portal Method

PORTAL.XLS

A
1

PORTAL METHOD

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Victor E. Saouma

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A
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A
A
A
A
26
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAA0
AAAAAAAA
AAA0
AAAAAAAA
AAA 0
AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
27
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=+J18-M18
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA =+N18-Q18
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA=+R18
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
28 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
=-I18
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA0
AAAAAAAA
AAA0
AAAAAAAA
AAA 0
AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAA
A
A
A
A
29
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
30
=+H28-I21
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K28+J21-M21
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O28+N21-Q21
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S28+R21
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

5 # of Storeys

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

Figure 14.22: Portal Method; Equations in Spread-Sheet

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{26

BUILDING STRUCTURES

Mem.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Vert.

Hor.

Moment 4.50 60.00


Axial
7.50
9.50
Shear
0.56
7.50
Moment 5.60 120.00
Axial
18.75 15.83
Shear
0.70 15.00
Moment 3.60 120.00
Axial
20.25 14.25
Shear
0.45 15.00
Moment 6.50 60.00
Axial
9.00
7.92
Shear
0.81
7.50
Moment 4.50 17.50
Axial
2.50
1.75
Shear
0.64
2.50
Moment 5.60 35.00
Axial
6.25
2.92
Shear
0.80
5.00
Moment 3.60 35.00
Axial
6.75
2.63
Shear
0.51
5.00
Moment 6.50 17.50
Axial
3.00
1.46
Shear
0.93
2.50

Design
Values
64.50
17.00
8.06
125.60
34.58
15.70
123.60
34.50
15.45
66.50
16.92
8.31
22.00
4.25
3.14
40.60
9.17
5.80
38.60
9.38
5.51
24.00
4.46
3.43

Table 14.1: Columns Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.4 Lateral De ections

14{27
Mem.
9
10
11
12
13
14

-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear

Vert.

Hor. Design

9.00
16.00
5.00
20.20
36.00
7.50
13.0
23.00
6.00
4.50
8.00
2.50
10.10
18.00
3.75
6.50
11.50
3.00

77.50
0.00
7.75
77.50
0.00
5.17
77.50
0.00
6.46
17.50
0.00
1.75
17.50
0.00
1.17
17.50
0.00
1.46

Values
86.50
16.00
12.75
97.70
36.00
12.67
90.50
23.00
12.46
22.00
8.00
4.25
27.60
18.00
4.92
24.00
11.50
4.46

Table 14.2: Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads

14.4 Lateral De ections


Even at schematic or preliminary stages of design, it is important to estimate the lateral de ections
of tall buildings for the following reasons
1. Lateral de ections are often limited by code requirements, for example  < h=500 where h is the
height of the story or of the building. This is important because occupants should not experience
uncomfortable horizontal movements.
2. A building that de ects severly under lateral forces may have damage problems associated with
vibration (as with vertical defelctions of beams).
3. Through the evaluation of de ection, one may also get some idea of the relative horizontal load
carried by the various vertical subsystems in a building (i.e. how much is carried by the shaft
compared to the frames). Since all systems are connected, they must move together and through
their sti ness (deformation per unit load) we can determine the contribution of each subsystem.
38

14.4.1 Short Wall


In short structures (as with short beams), shear de ections, Fig. 14.23 dominates. For a concentrated
load
(14.40)
  1:2V h

39

GA

where for concrete and steel G  25 E .

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{28

BUILDING STRUCTURES

000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111

WALL ELEVATION

Figure 14.23: Shear Deformation in a Short Building, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

14.4.2 Tall Wall


40

Alternatively, in a tall building exural deformations, Fig. 14.24 are predominant. dominates.

111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111

WALL (OR TUBE) ELEVATION

Figure 14.24: Flexural Deformation in a Tall Building, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
4

  8wh
EI

(14.41)

and the moment of inertia I = bh12 for rectangular sections.


3

14.4.3 Walls and Lintel


When two slender walls are connected by (heavy) lintels, the entire subsystem can be made to act
as one cantilever supported by the foundations and de ections will be small. However if we have light
lintels, their deformation is larger than those of the walls, Fig. 14.25.

41

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.4 Lateral De ections

14{29

LINTELS

0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111

111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111

LINTEL BENDING

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

WALL AND LINTEL

2 WALLS CONNECTED
BY LINTELS

DEFORMATION

Figure 14.25: De ection in a Building Structure Composed of Two Slender Walls and Lintels, (Lin and
Stotesbury 1981)
42

In this case de ections can be estimated from:


2
Mmax = wh2
T = C = Ma
V=Lintel  # of TLintels
V L2
wall = lintel  12
EI

(14.42-a)
(14.42-b)
(14.42-c)
(14.42-d)
(14.42-e)

and

  h

(14.43)

14.4.4 Frames
De ection of a rigid frame is essentially caused by shear between stories which produces vertical shears
in the girders. From the portal method we can estimate those deformations, Fig. 14.26.
44 The deformation for the rst story at the exterior joint can be approximated from

43

VcolE h
col = 12
EIcolE
2

(14.44-a)

L h 2VcolE Lh
gdr = V12gdr
EIgdr = 12EIgdr

Eh
totE = colE + gdr = Vcol
12E

Victor Saouma

(14.44-b)
2

h
2L
IcolE + Ig dr

(14.44-c)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{30

BUILDING STRUCTURES
DUE TO GI

h STORIES

DUE TO CO

OVERALL FRAME ELEVATION

DEFORMATION OF ONE BE

Vcol

Vcol
h/2

V gdr

L/2

h/2

L/2

L/2
Vgd

h/2

Vgdr

h/2
Vcol

MOMENT EQUILIBRIUM

INTERIOR JOINT

EXTERIOR JOINT

Vgdr (L)=Vcol (h)

Vgdr (L/2)=Vcol (h)

Figure 14.26: Portal Method to Estimate Lateral Deformation in Frames, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
45

For the interior joint:

VcolI h
col = 12
EIcolI

(14.45-a)

L2 h = 2VcolI Lh2
(14.45-b)
gdr = V12gdr
EIgdr 12EIgdr

2 h
V
h
L
col
I
totI = colI + gdr = 12E I + I dr
(14.45-c)
colI
g
and the total displacement will be
(14.46)
tot = n 2tot
where n is the number of stories, and tot is for either the interior or exterior joints.
46 The two major sources of lateral de ection are the bending of column in resisting horizontal shear
and girders in resisting vertical shear, Fig. 14.27.
47 A vertical unsymmetric load will cause lateral de ection in frames, Fig. 14.28.

14.4.5 Trussed Frame


The cantilever de ection due to column shortening and lengthening (produced by overturning moment) is usually of secondary importance until the building is some 40 stories or higher,Fig. ??.
49 The total de ection  at C is given by

48

 =  PPL
AE

Victor Saouma

(14.47)

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.4 Lateral De ections

14{31
M

S + M

SHEAR EFFECT
(RACKING)

SHORTENING

ELONGATION

OVERALL EFFECT

MOMENT EFFECT
(OVERALL BENDING)

(RACKING + BENDING)

Figure 14.27: Shear and Flexural De ection of a Rigid Frame Subsystem, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

SIDE SWAY

Figure 14.28: Side-Sway De ection from Unsymmetrical Vertical Load, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

H1

H2

H3
H4

a
P1

a
T

Figure 14.29: Axial Elongation and Shortening of a Truss Frame, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{32

BUILDING STRUCTURES

where: P is the force in any member due to loading on the whole system, L is the length of the member,
A and E the corresponding cross sectional area and modulus of elasticity, P the force in the same member
due to a unit (1) force applied in the direction of the de ection sought, and at the point in question.
50 Alternatively, we can neglect the web deformation and consider only the axial deformations in the
colums:
  t + c h (14.48)

a
Th
t + c = 2 AE

(14.49)

14.4.6 Example of Transverse De ection


Typical plan, elevation and oor section of a building are shown in Fig. 14.30. The lateral resiting
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111

13@12=156

CORE SHAFT

1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111

W=4.8 K/FT

CORE

MOMENT
DIAGRAM

TOTAL M
58500 K-FT
12
TYP.

20

LOAD

156

51

20
TRANSVERSE ELEVATION OF CORE

60
TRANSVERSE ELEVATION OF BUILDING

1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
1111
0000
1111
0000

20" TYP.
40

COLUMN SECTION

20"

60

20"

20

20

1111111111111111
0000000000000000
0000000000000000
1111111111111111
0000000000000000
1111111111111111
FLOOR PLAN

2.5

5"

12"
GIRDER SECTION

Figure 14.30: Transverse De ection, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)


elements are the center concrete shaft (20ft40ft in section and made up of four 12-in walls) and the
reinforced-prestressed concrete frames (made up of 12in30in T beams, Igdr = 3:64 4 , and 20 inch
square reinforced concrete columns).
52 We consider a wind load of 4.8 k/ft in the transverse direction and make the following assumptions:
1. Colums are of uniform sectional properties and height for all stories.
2. Shaft walls are of uniform thickness for all stories. We neglect wall openings.
3. The wind load is uniform over the height of the building.
ft

53

The solution proceeds as follows:

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.4 Lateral De ections

14{33

1. Determine the exural deformation of the top of the shaft (we may neglect shear deformations
since the shaft is slender):
4

 = 8wh
EI
3 ; b2 d3
b
2
I = 1 d1 12
3 ; (39)(19)3
= (41)(21) 12
= 9; 400 4
E = 3  106 = 432; 000
(4:8) (156)4 4 = 0:087
 =
8(432; 000) (9; 400) 4
 = 0:087 = 1 p
h
156 1; 800

(14.50-a)
(14.50-b)
(14.50-c)
(14.50-d)

ft

psi

ksf

k.ft

(14.50-e)

ft

ksf

ft

ft

(14.50-f)

The h ratio is much less than 1/500 as permitted in most building codes, and s within the usual
index for concrete buildings, which ranges between 1/1,000 and 1/2,500.
If the wall thickness is reduced, and if door openings are considered, the de ection will be correspondingly smaller.
The de ection due to moment increases rapidly at the top, the value of 1/1,800 indicates only the
average drift index for the entire building, whereas the story drift index may be higher, especially
for the top oor.
2. We next consider the de ection of the top of the frame. Assuming that each frame takes 1/9 of
the total wind load and shear, and neglecting column shortening, then:


2
h
2L
Eh
 = Vcol
12E IcolE + Ig dr
3 (20=12)(20=12)3
Icol = bh
= 0:64 4
12 =
12
Igdr = 3:64 4
(156) = 41:7 =col
ground = (4:8)
Vcol
I
(2)(9)
2  (12)
(41
:
7)
(12)
 = 12(432; 000)
+ 2(60)
(0:64) 4 (3:46)
= 0:00116(18:8 + 34:7) = 0:062

(14.51-a)
(14.51-b)
(14.51-c)

ft

ft

k.ft

(14.51-d)

ft

ft

ksf

ft

ft

ft

ft

(14.51-e)
(14.51-f)

3. Since the story drift varies with the shear in the story, which decreases linearly to the top, the
average drift will be 0:062=2 = 0:31 per story and the de ection at top of the building is
approximately
(14.52)
 = (13)(0:031) = 0:40
which indicates a drift ratio of
(0:4) = 1
(14.53-a)
Drift Ratio for Building = (156)
400
:062) = 1
Drift Ratio for Ground Floor = (0(12)
(14.53-b)
194
ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

ft

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{34

BUILDING STRUCTURES

4. Comparing the frame de ection of 0:40 with the shaft de ection of 0:087 , it is seen that the
frame is about ve times more exible than the shaft. Furthermore, the frame would not be
sti enough to carry all the lateral load by itlself. Proportioning the lateral load to the relative
sti nesses, the frame would carry about 1/6 of the load, and the remaining 5/6 will be carried by
the shaft.
Increasing the column size will sti en the frame, but in order to be really e ective, the girder
sti ness will also need to be increased, since thegirders contribute about 2/3 of the de ection.
Then the frames can be made o carry a larger proportion of the load. Note that the de ected
shapes of the shaft and the frames are quite di erent, so that the above simple comparison of top
de ections is not an accurate assessment.
Finally, we have not studied the e ect of the shaft sti ened by the exterior columns, which are
rigidly connected to the shaft walls and will avt with the shaft as a unit, Fig. 14.31. This would
ft

ft

60
20

20

20

156

1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
CORE
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111

COLUMNS PARTICIPATE

+
+

Figure 14.31: Frame Rigidly Connected to Shaft, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
be quite e ective as the horizontal oor diaphragms will hold and force them to de ect together.
5. In summary, this appears to be quite an ecient layout, further analysis would re ne and optimize
it.

14.4.7 E ect of Bracing Trusses


Through strategically located havy trusses at the top and possibly at the middle of a building we can
brace the exterior columns against the core shaft. This will result in a frame-like action in the shaft,

54

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14.4 Lateral De ections

14{35

equalize temperature shortening of vertical components, and reduce lateral de ections, Fig. 14.32.
TUBE
HAT
FULL
CANTILEVER
DEFLECTION
WIND
HAT - TRUSS
TRUSS

T
TENSION

COMPRESSION

CORE

BRACING REDUCE
OVERALL DEFLEC
OF BUILDING

WITH
BRACING
EFFECT

HEIGHT

MID - HEIGHT
BRACE

WITH CANTILEVER
CORE BENDING

TIEDOWN

TOTAL RESISTANCE ARM IS


INCREASED BY COL. ACTION

DEFLECTION

RESISTANCE ARM OF
CORE SHAFT ONLY

Figure 14.32: E ect of Exterior Column Bracing in Buildings, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
14{36

BUILDING STRUCTURES

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft

Bibliography
318, A. C.: n.d., Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, (ACI 318-83), American Concrete
Institute.
Anon.: xx, Envyclopaedia Brittanica, University of Chicago.
Billington, D.: 1973, in D. Billington, R. Mark and J. Abel (eds), The Maillart Papers; Second National
Conference on Civil Engineering: History, Heritage and the Humanities, Department of Civil Engineering, Princeton University.
Billington, D.: 1979, Robert Maillart's Bridges; The art of Engineering, Princeton University Press.
Billington, D.: 1985, The Tower and the Bridge, xx.
Billington, D. and Mark, R.: 1983, Structural studies, Technical report, Department of Civil Engineering,
Princeton University.
Galilei, G.: 1974, Two New Sciences, Including Centers of Gravity and Forces of Percussion, University
of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisc. S. Drake translation.
le Duc, V.: 1977, Entretiens sur L'Architecture, Pierre Mardaga, Bruxelles, Belgique.
Lin, T. and Stotesbury, S.: 1981, Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers, John
Wiley.
Nilson, A.: 1978, Design of Prestressed Concrete, John Wiley and Sons.
of Steel COnstruction, A. I.: 1986, Manual of Steel Construction; Load and Resistance Factor Design,
American Institute of Steel Construction.
Palladio, A.: 19xx, The Four Books of Architecture, Dover Publications.
Penvenuto, E.: 1991, An Introduction to the History of Structural Mechanics, Springer-Verlag.
Schueller, W.: 1996, The design of Building Structures, Prentice Hall.
Timoshenko, S.: 1982, History of Strength of Materials, Dover Publications.
UBC: 1995, Uniform building code, Technical report, International COnference of Building Ocials.
Vitruvius: 1960, The Ten Books on Architecture, Dover.