LECTURE NOTES
AREN4525
STUCTURAL CONCEPTS AND SYSTEMS
FOR ARCHITECTS
VICTOR E. SAOUMA
SPRING 1997
Draft
0{2
In order to invent a structure and to give it exact proportions, one must follow both the intuitive and the mathematical paths.
Pier Luigi Nervi
Victor Saouma
Draft
Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
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: 1{1
: 1{1
: 1{1
: 1{2
: 1{2
: 1{2
: 1{3
: 1{3
: 1{4
: 1{4
: 1{12
: 1{13
2.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.2 Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.2.1 Dead Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.2.2 Live Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 21 Live Load Reduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.2.3 Snow : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.3 Lateral Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.3.1 Wind : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 22 Wind Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.3.2 Earthquakes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 23 Earthquake Load on a Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 24 Earthquake Load on a Tall Building, (Schueller 1996)
2.4 Other Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.4.1 Hydrostatic and Earth : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 25 Hydrostatic Load : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.4.2 Thermal : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 26 Thermal Expansion/Stress (Schueller 1996) : : : : : :
2.5 Other Important Considerations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.1 Load Combinations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.2 Load Placement : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.3 Load Transfer : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.4 Structural Response : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.5 Tributary Areas : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
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: 2{1
: 2{1
: 2{2
: 2{2
: 2{4
: 2{5
: 2{5
: 2{5
: 2{9
: 2{11
: 2{14
: 2{16
: 2{18
: 2{18
: 2{18
: 2{19
: 2{19
: 2{20
: 2{20
: 2{21
: 2{21
: 2{21
: 2{25
2 LOADS
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1{1
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1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
2{1
Draft
0{2
CONTENTS
3 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
3.1 Steel : : : : : : : : : : :
3.1.1 Structural Steel :
3.1.2 Reinforcing Steel
3.2 Aluminum : : : : : : : :
3.3 Concrete : : : : : : : : :
3.4 Masonry : : : : : : : : :
3.5 Timber : : : : : : : : :
3.6 Steel Section Properties
3.7 Joists : : : : : : : : : :
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3{1
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: 3{1
: 3{1
: 3{5
: 3{6
: 3{6
: 3{7
: 3{7
: 3{8
: 3{17
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: 4{1
: 4{3
: 4{4
: 4{6
: 4{8
5.1 Reactions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.1 Equilibrium : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.2 Equations of Conditions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.3 Static Determinacy : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.4 Geometric Instability : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.1.5 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 57 Simply Supported Beam : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 58 Three Span Beam : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 59 Three Hinged Gable Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2 Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.1 Assumptions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.2 Basic Relations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.3 Determinacy and Stability : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.4 Method of Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 510 Truss, Method of Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1 Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1.1 Design Sign Conventions : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1.2 Load, Shear, Moment Relations : : : : : : :
5.3.1.3 Moment Envelope : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1.4 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 511 Simple Shear and Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : :
E 512 Frame Shear and Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : : :
E 513 Frame Shear and Moment Diagram; Hydrostatic Load
E 514 Shear Moment Diagrams for Frame : : : : : : : : : : :
E 515 Shear Moment Diagrams for Inclined Frame : : : : : :
5.3.2 Formulaes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.4 Flexure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.4.1 Basic Kinematic Assumption; Curvature : : : : : : : :
5.4.2 StressStrain Relations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.4.3 Internal Equilibrium; Section Properties : : : : : : : :
5.4.3.1 Fx = 0; Neutral Axis : : : : : : : : : : : :
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: 5{1
: 5{1
: 5{3
: 5{3
: 5{4
: 5{5
: 5{5
: 5{6
: 5{7
: 5{8
: 5{8
: 5{9
: 5{9
: 5{10
: 5{12
: 5{14
: 5{14
: 5{14
: 5{15
: 5{16
: 5{18
: 5{18
: 5{19
: 5{22
: 5{24
: 5{26
: 5{28
: 5{37
: 5{37
: 5{39
: 5{39
: 5{39
5 REVIEW of STATICS
Victor Saouma
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4{1
5{1
Draft
CONTENTS
0{3
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7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
Geometry : : : :
Loads : : : : : :
Reactions : : : :
Forces : : : : : :
Internal Stresses
Victor Saouma
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: 7{1
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8{1
Draft
0{4
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11.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.1.1 Notation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.1.2 Modes of Failure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.1.3 Analysis vs Design : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.1.4 Basic Relations and Assumptions : : : : : : :
11.1.5 ACI Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method :
11.2.1 Equivalent Stress Block : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.2.2 Balanced Steel Ratio : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.2.3 Analysis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.2.4 Design : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 1121Ultimate Strength Capacity : : : : : : : : : :
E 1122Beam Design I : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 1123Beam Design II : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.3 Continuous Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
11.4 ACI Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
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12 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
12.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
12.1.1 Materials : : : : : : : : : : :
12.1.2 Prestressing Forces : : : : : :
12.1.3 Assumptions : : : : : : : : :
12.1.4 Tendon Conguration : : : :
12.1.5 Equivalent Load : : : : : : :
12.1.6 Load Deformation : : : : : :
12.2 Flexural Stresses : : : : : : : : : : :
E 1224Prestressed Concrete I Beam
12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge : :
Victor Saouma
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9{1
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10{1
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11{1
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12{1
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: 12{1
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: 12{5
: 12{8
: 12{10
Draft
CONTENTS
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13.1 Theory : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.1.1 Uniform Horizontal Load : : : : : : :
E 1325Design of a Three Hinged Arch : : : :
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart) :
13.2.1 Geometry : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.2.2 Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.2.3 Reactions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.2.4 Internal Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.2.5 Internal Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : :
13.3 Structural Behavior of DeckStiened Arches
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14.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.1.1 Beam Column Connections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.1.2 Behavior of Simple Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.1.3 Eccentricity of Applied Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2 Buildings Structures : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.1 Wall Subsystems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.1.1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.1.2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.2 Shaft Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.2.1 Example: Tube Subsystem : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.2.3 Rigid Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.3.1 Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.3.2 Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.3.2.1 Portal Method : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
E 1426Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads
14.4 Lateral De
ections : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.1 Short Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.2 Tall Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.3 Walls and Lintel : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.4 Frames : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.5 Trussed Frame : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.6 Example of Transverse De
ection : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
14.4.7 Eect of Bracing Trusses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
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12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
12.3.4
CrossSection Properties :
Prestressing : : : : : : : :
Loads : : : : : : : : : : :
Flexural Stresses : : : : :
0{5
13 ThreeHinges ARCHES
14 BUILDING STRUCTURES
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: 12{10
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13{1
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: 13{5
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: 13{8
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: 13{11
: 13{12
: 13{13
14{1
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: 14{2
: 14{5
: 14{5
: 14{5
: 14{7
: 14{8
: 14{9
: 14{10
: 14{10
: 14{11
: 14{13
: 14{14
: 14{15
: 14{27
: 14{27
: 14{28
: 14{28
: 14{29
: 14{30
: 14{32
: 14{34
Draft
List of Figures
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
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: 1{4
: 1{5
: 1{6
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: 1{8
: 1{9
: 1{10
: 1{11
: 1{12
: 2{2
: 2{5
: 2{6
: 2{7
: 2{8
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
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: 3{2
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: 3{4
: 3{4
: 3{5
: 3{7
: 3{8
: 3{17
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
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: 4{1
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Draft
0{2
LIST OF FIGURES
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
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5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
Types of Supports : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Inclined Roller Support : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Examples of Static Determinate and Indeterminate Structures : : :
Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions : : : : : : :
Bridge Truss : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
A Statically Indeterminate Truss : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
X and Y Components of Truss Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Sign Convention for Truss Element Forces : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design : : : : : : : : : : :
Sign Conventions for 3D Frame Elements : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Free Body Diagram of an Innitesimal Beam Segment : : : : : : :
Shear and Moment Forces at Dierent Sections of a Loaded Beam
Slope Relations Between Load Intensity and Shear, or Between Shear and Moment
Deformation of a Beam un Pure Bending : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Elastic Curve from the Moment Diagram : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Approximate Analysis of Beams : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
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7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
Hamurrabi's Code : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Archimed : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Pantheon : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
From Vitruvius Ten Books on Architecture, (Vitruvius 1960)
Hagia Sophia : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Florence's Cathedral Dome : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Palladio's Villa Rotunda : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Stevin : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Galileo : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, Cover Page : : : :
\Galileo's Beam" : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Isaac Newton : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Cover Page :
Leonhard Euler : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Coulomb : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Nervi's Palazetto Dello Sport : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
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: 5{9
: 5{10
: 5{11
: 5{11
: 5{14
: 5{15
: 5{15
: 5{17
: 5{17
: 5{38
: 5{43
: 5{44
: 6{1
: 6{4
: 6{5
: 6{6
: 6{7
: 6{7
: 6{8
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: 6{9
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: 7{9
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: 7{12
: 7{13
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: 7{15
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: 7{19
8.1 Magazzini Generali; Overall Dimensions, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{2
8.2 Magazzini Generali; Support System, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8{2
Victor Saouma
Draft
LIST OF FIGURES
0{3
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11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
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12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
13.1 Moment Resisting Forces in an Arch or Suspension System as Compared to a Beam, (Lin
and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{2
13.2 Statics of a ThreeHinged Arch, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{2
13.3 Two Hinged Arch, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{3
13.4 Arch Rib Stiened with Girder or Truss, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{3
13.5 Salginatobel Bridge; Dimensions, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{5
13.6 Salginatobel Bridge; Idealization, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{6
13.7 Salginatobel Bridge; Hinges, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{6
13.8 Salginatobel Bridge; Sections, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{7
13.9 Salginatobel Bridge; Dead Load, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{8
13.10Salginatobel Bridge; Truck Load, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{9
13.11Salginatobel Bridge; Total Vertical Load, (Billington and Mark 1983) : : : : : : : : : : : : 13{10
Victor Saouma
Draft
0{4
LIST OF FIGURES
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14.1 Flexible, Rigid, and SemiFlexible Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
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: 14{1
14.2 Deformation of Flexible and Rigid Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads,
(Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{2
14.3 Deformation, Shear, Moment, and Axial Diagrams for Various Types of Portal Frames
Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{3
14.4 Axial and Flexural Stresses : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{4
14.5 Design of a Shear Wall Subsystem, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{6
14.6 Trussed Shear Wall : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{8
14.7 Design Example of a Tubular Structure, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{9
14.8 A Basic Portal Frame, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{10
14.9 Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Girder Moments : : : : : : 14{12
14.10Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Axial Forces : : : : 14{12
14.11Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Moments : : : : : 14{13
14.12Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Shear : : : : : : : : 14{14
14.13***Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Girder Moment : : : : : 14{15
14.14Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Axial Force : : : : 14{15
14.15Example; Approximate Analysis of a Building : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{16
14.16Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{17
14.17Approximate Analysis of a Building; Shears Due to Vertical Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{18
14.18Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; SpreadSheet Format : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{20
14.19Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Equations in SpreadSheet : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{21
14.20Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Lateral Loads : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{23
14.21Portal Method; SpreadSheet Format : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{24
14.22Portal Method; Equations in SpreadSheet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{25
14.23Shear Deformation in a Short Building, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{28
14.24Flexural Deformation in a Tall Building, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{28
14.25De
ection in a Building Structure Composed of Two Slender Walls and Lintels, (Lin and
Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{29
14.26Portal Method to Estimate Lateral Deformation in Frames, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : 14{30
14.27Shear and Flexural De
ection of a Rigid Frame Subsystem, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : 14{31
14.28SideSway De
ection from Unsymmetrical Vertical Load, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : 14{31
14.29Axial Elongation and Shortening of a Truss Frame, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : 14{31
14.30Transverse De
ection, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{32
14.31Frame Rigidly Connected to Shaft, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14{34
14.32Eect of Exterior Column Bracing in Buildings, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) : : : : : : : : 14{35
Victor Saouma
Draft
List of Tables
1.1 Structural Engineering Coverage for Architects and Engineers : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1{12
1.2 tab:secae : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1{12
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
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0{2
LIST OF TABLES
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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Science and Technology
\There is a fundamental dierence between science and and technology. Engineering or technology is
the making of things that did not previously exist, whereas science is the discovering of things that have
long existed. Technological results are forms that exist only because people want to make them, whereas
scientic results are informations of what exists independently of human intentions. Technology deals
with the articial, science with the natural." (Billington 1985)
Draft
1{2
INTRODUCTION
11
Victor Saouma
Draft
1.7 Structural Analysis
1{3
13
14
16
17 For new structures, iterative process between analysis and design. A preliminary design is made
using rules of thumbs (best known to Engineers with design experience) and analyzed. Following
design, we check for
Serviceability: de
ections, crack widths under the applied load. Compare with acceptable values
specied in the design code.
Failure (limit state): and compare the failure load with the applied load times the appropriate factors
of safety.
If the design is found not to be acceptable, then it must be modied and reanalyzed.
18 For existing structures rehabilitation, or verication of an old infrastructure, analysis is the most
important component.
19 In summary, analysis is always required.
Victor Saouma
Draft
1{4
INTRODUCTION
20
Tension & Compression Structures: only, no shear,
exure, or torsion. Those are the most ecient types of structures.
Cable (tension only): The high strength of steel cables, combined with the eciency of simple
tension, makes cables ideal structural elements to span large distances such as bridges, and
dish roofs, Fig. 1.2. A cable structure develops its load carrying capacity by adjusting its
shape so as to provide maximum resistance (form follows function). Care should be exercised
in minimizing large de
ections and vibrations.
Arches (mostly compression) is a \reversed cable structure". In an arch,
exure/shear is minimized and most of the load is transfered through axial forces only. Arches are used for large
span roofs and bridges, Fig. 1.3
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Draft
1.10 Structure Types
1{5
Victor Saouma
Draft
1{6
INTRODUCTION
Victor Saouma
Draft
1.10 Structure Types
1{7
Trusses have pin connected elements which can transmit axial forces only (tension and compression). Elements are connected by either slotted, screwed, or gusset plate connectors.
However, due to construction details, there may be secondary stresses caused by relatively
rigid connections. Trusses are used for joists, roofs, bridges, electric tower, Fig. 1.4
Post and Beams: Essentially a support column on which a \beam" rests, Fig. 1.5, and 1.6.
Beams: Shear,
exure and sometimes axial forces. Recall that = McI is applicable only for shallow
beams, i.e. span/depth at least equal to ve.
Whereas r/c beams are mostly rectangular or T shaped, steel beams are usually I shaped (if the
top
anges are not properly stiened, they may buckle, thus we must have stieners).
Frames: Load is coplanar with the structure. Axial, shear,
exure (with respect to one axis in 2D
structures and with respect to two axis in 3D structures), torsion (only in 3D). The frame is
composed of at least one horizontal member (beam) rigidly connected to vertical ones1. The vertical
The precursor of the frame structures were the Post and Lintel where the post is vertical member on which the lintel
1
is simply posed.
Victor Saouma
Draft
1{8
INTRODUCTION
Victor Saouma
Draft
1.10 Structure Types
1{9
VIERENDEEL TRUSS
OVERLAPPING SINGLESTRUT
CABLESUPPORTED BEAM
TREESUPPORTED TRUSS
BRACED BEAM
CABLESTAYED BEAM
SUSPENDED CABLE
SUPPORTED BEAM
BOWSTRING TRUSS
CABLESUPPORTED
STRUTED ARCH OR
CABLE BEAM/TRUSS
CABLESUPPORTED
MULTISTRUT
BEAM OR TRUSS
GABLED TRUSS
Victor Saouma
Draft
1{10
INTRODUCTION
members can have dierent boundary conditions (which are usually governed by soil conditions).
Frames are extensively used for houses and buildings, Fig. 1.7.
Grids and Plates: Load is orthogonal to the plane of the structure. Flexure, shear, torsion.
In a grid, beams are at right angles resulting in a twoway dispersal of loads. Because of the rigid
connections between the beams, additional stiness is introduced by the torsional resistance of
members.
Grids can also be skewed to achieve greater eciency if the aspect ratio is not close to one.
Plates are
at, rigid, two dimensional structures which transmit vertical load to their supports.
Used mostly for
oor slabs.
Folded plates is a combination of transverse and longitudinal beam action. Used for long span
roofs. Note that the plate may be folded circularly rather than longitudinally. Folded plates are
used mostly as long span roofs. However, they can also be used as vertical walls to support both
vertical and horizontal loads.
Membranes: 3D structures composed of a
exible 2D surface resisting tension only. They are usually
cablesupported and are used for tents and long span roofs Fig. 1.8.
Victor Saouma
Draft
1.10 Structure Types
1{11
Victor Saouma
Draft
1{12
INTRODUCTION
Shells: 3D structures composed of a curved 2D surface, they are usually shaped to transmit compressive
axial stresses only, Fig. 1.9.
22
Architects
Global
Structure
Approximate, \rules of thumbs"
preliminary
Structures Most
Design
Approximate
Approach
Emphasis
Analysis
Engineers
Elemental
Component
Exact, detailled
Final
Trusses, Frames
Per code
Victor Saouma
Draft
1.12 References
1{13
Architects: Start from overall design, and move toward detailed analysis. Emphasis on good understanding of overall structural behavior. Develop a good understanding of load transfer mechanism
for most types of structures, cables, arches, beams, frames, shells, plates. Approximate analysis
for most of them.
Engineers: Emphasis is on the individual structural elements and not always on the total system.
Focus on beams, frames (mostly 2D) and trusses. Very seldom are arches covered. Plates and
shells are not even mentioned.
1.12 References
Following are some useful references for structural engineering, those marked by y were consulted,
and \borrowed from" in preparing the Lecture Notes or are particularly recommended.
23
2. Biggs, J.M., Introduction to Structural Engineering; Analysis and Design, Prentice Hall, 1986.
Victor Saouma
Draft
1{14
INTRODUCTION
3. Hsieh, Y.Y., Elementary Theory of Structures, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 1988.
4. Ghali, A., and Neville, A.M., Structural Analysis, Third Edition, Chapman and Hall, 1989
5. White, R. Gergely, P. and Sexmith, R., Structural Engineering; Combined Edition, John
Wiley, 1976.
6. y Nilson, A., and Winter, G. Design of Concrete Structures, Eleventh Edition, McGraw Hill,
1991.
7. Galambos, T., Lin, F.J., and Johnston, B.G., Basic Steel Design with LRFD, Prentice Hall,
1996.
8. y Salmon C. and Johnson, J. Steel Structures, Third Edition, Harper Collins Publisher, 1990.
9. y Gaylord, E.H., Gaylord, C.N. and Stallmeyer, J.E., Design of Steel Structures, Third Edition, McGraw Hill, 1992.
10. Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, Dover Publications, 1960.
11. Palladio, A., The Four Books of Architecture, Dover Publication.
Codes
1. ACI31889, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, American Concrete Institute
2. Load & Resistance Factor Design, Manual of Steel Construction, American Institute of Steel
Construction.
3. Uniform Building Code, International Conference of Building Ocials, 5360 South Workman
Road; Whittier, CA 90601
4. Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and Other Structures, ANSI A58.1, American National
Standards Institute, Inc., New York, 1972.
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 2
LOADS
2.1 Introduction
The main purpose of a structure is to transfer load from one point to another: bridge deck to pier;
slab to beam; beam to girder; girder to column; column to foundation; foundation to soil.
2 There can also be secondary loads such as thermal (in restrained structures), dierential settlement
of foundations, PDelta eects (additional moment caused by the product of the vertical force and the
lateral displacement caused by lateral load in a high rise building).
3 Loads are generally subdivided into two categories
Vertical Loads or gravity load
1. dead load (DL)
2. live load (LL)
also included are snow loads.
Lateral Loads which act horizontally on the structure
1. Wind load (WL)
2. Earthquake load (EL)
this also includes hydrostatic and earth loads.
4 This distinction is helpful not only to compute a structure's load, but also to assign dierent factor of
safety to each one.
5 For a detailed coverage of loads, refer to the Universal Building Code (UBC), (UBC 1995).
Draft
2{2
LOADS
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
SUPPORT BEAM
SPAN
Material
lb=ft3
Aluminum
173
Brick
120
Concrete
145
Steel
490
Wood (pine) 40
kN=m3
27.2
18.9
33.8
77.0
6.3
13
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.2 Vertical Loads
2{3
Material
Ceilings
Channel suspended system
Acoustical ber tile
Floors
Steel deck
Concreteplain 1 in.
Linoleum 1/4 in.
Hardwood
Roofs
Copper or tin
5 ply felt and gravel
Shingles asphalt
Clay tiles
Sheathing wood
Insulation 1 in. poured in place
Partitions
Clay tile 3 in.
Clay tile 10 in.
Gypsum Block 5 in.
Wood studs 2x4 (1216 in. o.c.)
Plaster 1 in. cement
Plaster 1 in. gypsum
Walls
Bricks 4 in.
Bricks 12 in.
Hollow concrete block (heavy aggregate)
4 in.
8 in.
12 in.
Hollow concrete block (light aggregate)
4 in.
8 in.
12 in.
lb=ft2
1
1
210
12
1
4
15
6
3
914
3
2
17
40
14
2
10
5
40
120
30
55
80
21
38
55
Material
lb=ft2
Timber
4050
Steel
5080
Reinforced concrete 100150
Table 2.3: Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{4
LOADS
In analysis load placement should be such that their eect (shear/moment) are maximized.
16 A statistical approach is used to determine a uniformly distributed static load which is equivalent to
the weight of the maximum concentration of occupants. These loads are dened in codes such as the
Uniform Building Code or the ANSI Code, Table 2.4.
15
Use or Occupancy
lb=ft2
Assembly areas
50
Cornices, marquees, residential balconies
60
Corridors, stairs
100
Garage
50
Oce buildings
50
Residential
40
Storage
125250
Table 2.4: Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads, (UBC 1995)
For small areas (30 to 50 sq ft) the eect of concentrated load should be considered separately.
18 Since there is a small probability that the whole
oor in a building be fully loaded, the UBC code
species that the occupancy load for members supporting an area A larger than 150 ft2 (i.e. a column
with a total tributary area, including
oors above it, larger than 150 ft2 ) may be reduced by R where
17
(2.1)
where r = :08 for
oors, A is the supported area ( 2 ) DL and LL are the dead and live loads per unit
area supported by the member. R can not exceed 40% for horizontal members and 60% for vertical ones.
ft
Solution:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Victor Saouma
Roof 10
256 512
106 362
8.48 28.96
8.48 28.96
20
80
18.3 56.83
9
768
618
49.44
40.4
80
47.68
8
7
1024 1280
874 1130
69.92 90.40
40.4 40.4
80
80
47.68 47.68
6
1536
1386
110.88
40.4
80
47.68
5
1792
1642
131.36
40.4
80
47.68
4
2048
1898
151.84
40.4
80
47.68
3
2304
2154
172.32
40.4
80
47.68
2
2560
2410
192.8
40.4
80
47.68
Draft
2.3 Lateral Loads
2{5
The resulting design live load for the bottom column has been reduced from
LLBefore = (20)
(256) }2 + (9)(80) {z(256) }2 = 189,440
(2.2)

{z
Roof
9
oors
to
LLReduced = (18
:3) {z(256) }2 + (9)(47:68){z (256) }2 = 114,540
(2.3)

Roof
9
oors
5. The total dead load is DL = (10)(60) (256) 2 (1;000) = 153:6 Kips, thus the total reduction
;268 100= 22% .
in load is from 153:6+189:4 = 343 to 153:6+114:5 = 268:1 a reduction of 343343
psf
ft
psf
ft
psf
psf
ft
psf
ft
lbs
ft
lbs
lbs
2.2.3 Snow
19 Roof snow load vary greatly depending on geographic location and elevation. They range from
20 to 45 psf, Fig. 2.2.
20
p
R = ( ; 20) 40
; 0:5
(psf)
(2.4)
2.3.1 Wind
Wind load depend on: velocity of the wind, shape of the building, height, geographical
location, texture of the building surface and stiness of the structure.
22
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{6
LOADS
LIVE LOAD
DEAD LOAD
LE
N
G
TH
RISE
WIND
LOAD
RUN
3 (5280)ft/mile 2
qs = 21 (0:0765)lb/ft2
(32:2)ft/sec
or
(3600)sec/hr V
qs = 0:00256V 2
(2.6)
(2.7)
where V is the maximum wind velocity (in miles per hour) and qs is in psf. V can be obtained from
wind maps (in the United States 70 V 110), Fig. 2.4.
25 During storms, wind velocities may reach values up to or greater than 150 miles per hour, which
corresponds to a dynamic pressure qs of about 60 psf (as high as the average vertical occupancy load in
buildings).
The primary design consideration for very high rise buildings is the excessive drift caused by lateral load (wind and
1
possibly earthquakes).
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.3 Lateral Loads
2{7
20
15
20
25
30
35
40
p = Ce Cq Iqs
(2.8)
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{8
LOADS
Ce
Exposure
D
Open,
at terrain facing large bodies of water
C
Flat open terrain, extending onehalf mile or open from the site in
any full quadrant
0.621.80
B
Terrain with buildings, forest, or surface irregularities 20 ft or more
in height
1.392.34
1.062.19
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.3 Lateral Loads
2{9
I
II
III
IV
Occupancy Category
Essential facilities
Hazardous facilities
Special occupancy structures
Standard occupancy structures
Imprtance Factor I
Earthquake Wind
1.25
1.25
1.00
1.00
1.15
1.15
1.00
1.00
Table 2.8: Importance Factors for Wind and Earthquake Load, (UBC 1995)
I Essential Facilities: Hospitals; Fire and police stations; Tanks; Emergency vehicle shelters,
29
For the preliminary design of ordinary buildings Ce = 1:0 and Cq = 1:3 may be assumed, yielding
p = (1:3):020256V 2 = :00333V 2
(2.9)
which corresponds to a pressure of 21 psf for a wind speed of 80 mph, Fig. 2.6, Table 2.9.
Solution:
1. From Fig. 2.4 the maximum wind velocity is St. Louis is 70 mph, since the building is protected
we can take Ce = 0:7, I = 1:. The base wind pressure is qs = 0:00256 (70)2 = 12:54 psf.
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{10
LOADS
Height
Above
Grade (ft)
015
20
25
30
40
60
80
100
120
160
200
300
400
Exposure
B
C
Basic Wind Speed (mph)
70
10
11
12
12
14
17
18
20
21
23
25
29
32
80
13
14
15
16
18
22
24
26
28
30
33
37
41
70
17
18
19
20
21
25
27
28
29
31
33
36
38
80
23
24
25
26
28
33
35
37
38
41
43
47
50
Table 2.9: Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures
400
Exposure B, 70 mph
Exposure B, 80 mph
Exposure C, 70 mph
Exposure C, 80 mph
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Approximate Design Wind Pressure (psf)
45
50
Figure 2.6: Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.3 Lateral Loads
2{11
2. The slope of the roof is 8:15=6.4:12 which gives Cq = ;0:7 for both the windward and leeward
sides. The vertical walls have Cq = 0:8 for the winward side and Cq = ;0:5 for the leeward one.
3. Thus the applied pressure on the roof is p = 0:7 (;0:7) 12:54 = 6.14 psf that is the roof is
subjected to uplift.
4. The winward wall, the pressure is 0:7 0:8 12:54 = 7.02 psf , and for the leeward wall 0:7
(;0:5) 12:54 = 4.39 psf (suction) ,
5. The direction of the wind can change and hence each structural component must be designed to
resist all possible load combinations.
6. For large structures which may be subjected to large wind loads, testing in a wind tunnel of the
structure itself and its surroundings is often accomplished.
2.3.2 Earthquakes
Buildings should be able to resist
Minor earthquakes without damage
Moderate earthquakes without structural damage but possibly with some nonstructural damages
Major earthquakes without collapse but possibly with some structural damage as well as nonstructural damage
This is achieved through an appropriate dynamic analysis.
31 For preliminary designs or for small structures an equivalent horizontal static load can be determined.
32 Actual loads depend on the following
1. Intensity of the ground acceleration (including soil/rock properties).
2. Dynamic properties of the building, such as its mode shapes and periods of vibration and its
damping characteristics.
3. Mass of the building.
30
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{12
LOADS
33 A critical factor in the dynamic response of a structure is the fundamental period of the structure's
vibration (or rst mode of vibration). This is the time required for one full cycle of motion, Fig. 2.7. If
the earthquake excitation has a frequency close to the one of the building, then resonance may occur.
This should be avoided.
V = ZIC
RW W
(2.10)
where:
Victor Saouma
S
C = 1T:25
2=3 2:75
(2.11)
Draft
2.3 Lateral Loads
2{13
T is the fundamental period of vibration of the building in seconds. This can be determined from
either the free vibration analysis of the building, or estimated from the following empirical formula
T = Ct (hn )3=4
(2.12)
where:
hn is the building height above base in ft.
and
C
RW 0:075
Victor Saouma
(2.13)
Draft
2{14
LOADS
36
Ft = 0:07TV 0:25V
(2.14)
is applied at the top of the building due to whiplash. The balance of the force V ; Ft is distributed as
a triangular load diminishing to zero at the base.
37 Assuming a
oor weight constant for every
oor level, then the force acting on each one is given by
(2.15)
Fx = h +(Vh ;+Ft)h +x h = (V;n Fht )hx
1
2
n
i=1 i
where hi and hx are the height in ft above the base to level i, or x respectively. Note that it is assumed
that all
oors have also same width.
Solution:
1. The fundamental period of vibration is
sec.
S (1:25)(2:0)
C = 1T:25
2=3 = (0:32)2=3 = 5:344 > 2:75
(2.16)
(2.17)
use C = 2:75.
3. The other coecients are: Z =0.3; I =1.25; RW =12
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.3 Lateral Loads
2{15
Structural System
RW H (ft)
8
6
65
65
8
8
240
160
10
240
9
7
65
65
8
8
240
160
8
8
8
160
65
N.L.
N.L.
160
N.L.
160
160N.L.
N. L.
N.L.
160

Table 2.12: Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems, (UBC 1995)
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{16
LOADS
4. Check
(2.18)
lbs
(2.19)
(0:3)(1:25)(2:75) = 0:086W
V = ZIC
=
RW
12
= (0:086)(16000) = 1375 lbs
(2.20a)
(2.20b)
F2 = (1375)(24)
12 + 24 = 916.7 lbs
F1 = (1375)(12)
12 + 24 = 458.3 lbs
(2.21a)
(2.21b)
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.3 Lateral Loads
2{17
470 k
25(12)=300
2638 k
2(300)/3=200
300/2=150
1523 k
7(25)=175
84000 k
3108 k
5(20)=100
Solution:
1. The total building weight is
ft
sec.
> 0:7
sec.
p
S (1:25)(1:5)
C = 1T:25
2=3 = (2:16)2=3 = 1:12 2:75
(2.25)
6. The total seismic base shear along the critical short direction is
(0:4)(1)(1:12) W = 0:037W
V = ZIC
RW W =
(12)
= (0:037)(84000) = 3108 kip
sec.
Victor Saouma
(2.23)
(2.24)
(2.22)
(2.26a)
(2.26b)
(2.27a)
(2.27b)
Draft
2{18
LOADS
(2.28)
8. let us check if wind load governs. From Table xx we conservatively assume a uniform wind pressure
of 29 psf resulting in a total lateral force of
PW = (0:029) (175 300) 2 = 1523 < 3108
(2.29)
The magnitude of the total seismic load is clearly larger than the total wind force.
psf
ft
q = K h
(2.30)
q =
W h
where
W = 62:4
lbs
(2.31)
= 3.
ft
Draft
2.4 Other Loads
2{19
The basement of a building is 12 ft below grade. Ground water is located 9 ft below grade, what
thickness concrete slab is required to exactly balance the hydrostatic uplift?
Solution:
The hydrostatic pressure must be countered by the pressure caused by the weight of concrete. Since p =
h we equate the two pressures and solve for h the height of the concrete slab (62
:4) = 3{z (12 ; 9) } =

water
3 h ) h = (62:4) = 3 (3) (12)
15.0
inch
=
14
:
976
'
(150)
=
(150) = 3

{z
}
concrete
lbs ft
lbs ft
lbs ft
lbs ft
ft
in/ft
ft
in
2.4.2 Thermal
If a member is uniformly heated (or cooled) without restraint, then it will expand (or contract).
This expansion is given by
41
(2.32)
l = lT
where is the coecient of thermal expansion, Table 2.13
(/F )
Steel
6:5 10;6
Concrete 5:5 10;6
Table 2.13: Coecients of Thermal Expansion
42
43
Solution:
1. Assuming that the wall can move freely with no restraint from crosswalls and foundation, the wall
expansion and contraction (summer and winter) are given by
LSummer = TL = (3:6 10;6) = =oF (120 ; 60)o F (100) (12)
= 0.26 (2.33a)
LWinter = TL = (3:6 10;6) = =oF (;20 ; 60)oF (100) (12)
= 0.35(2.33b)
Victor Saouma
in
in
in
in
ft
ft
in/ft
in/ft
in
in
Draft
2{20
LOADS
2. We now assume (conservatively) that the free movement cannot occur (L = 0) hence the resulting
stress would be equal to = E" = E LL = E LTL = ET
Summer = ET = (2; 400; 000) 2 (3:6 10;6 ) = =oF (120 ; 60)oF = 518
lbs
in
lbs
in
in
in
Winter = ET = (2; 400; 000) 2 (3:6 10;6 ) = =oF (;20 ; 60)o F = 691
lbs
in
in
Tension(2.34a)
lbs
in
in
Compression
(2.34b)
(2.34c)
Note that the tensile stresses being beyond the masonary capacity, cracking will occur.
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.5 Other Important Considerations
2{21
6. 0.9D+1.3W(or 1.5 E)
Analysis can be separately performed for each of the basic loads (L, D, W, etc) and then using the
principle of superposition the loads can be linearly combined (unless the elastic limit has been reached).
50 Loads are often characterized as Usual, Unusual and Extreme.
49
51
52
Load transfer in a structure is accomplished through a \hierarchy" of simple
exural elements which
are then connected to the columns, Fig. 2.11 or by two way slabs as illustrated in Fig. 2.12.
53
54
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{22
LOADS
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.5 Other Important Considerations
2{23
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{24
LOADS
Victor Saouma
Draft
2.5 Other Important Considerations
2{25
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001111
11
000011
1111
00
11
11
00
0000
00
00
11
0000
1111
00
11
00
11
0000
1111
00
11
00
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0000
1111
00
11
00
11
0000
1111
00
11
00
11
0000
1111
00
11
00
11
0000
1111
00
001111
11
000011
1111
00
11
11
11
00
0000
00
Victor Saouma
Draft
2{26
LOADS
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 3
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Proper understanding of structural materials is essential to both structural analysis and to structural
design.
2 Characteristics of the most commonly used structural materials will be highlighted.
1
3.1 Steel
Draft
3{2
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Victor Saouma
Draft
3.1 Steel
3{3
M is a miscellaneous section.
L are angle sections which may have equal or unequal sides.
WT is a T section cut from a W section in two.
10
The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula
(3.1)
Zx wd=9
11
(3.2)
A500
A501
A529
A606
A611
A 709
Shapes Available
Shapes and bars
Use
y (kksi)
u (kksi)
12
Victor Saouma
Draft
3{4
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Maximum compressive
stress, say 12 ksi average
Compression ()
()
Tension (+)
(+)
say 20 ksi
say 12 ksi
+
+
say 40 ksi
20 ksi
say 35 ksi
tension
Welded H
say 20 ksi
compression
Welded box
Victor Saouma
Draft
3.1 Steel
.3
Fy
Average stress P/A
3{5
.2
Fp
Maximum
residual
compressive
stress
.1
Members with
residual stress
2
Average copressive strain
Figure 3.5: In uence of Residual Stress on Average StressStrain Curve of a Rolled Section
14
Bar Designation
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 8
No. 9
No. 10
No. 11
No. 14
No. 18
15
Stirrups which are used as vertical reinforcement to resist shear usually have a yield stress of only 40 ksi.
Victor Saouma
Draft
3{6
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
3.2 Aluminum
Aluminum is used whenever light weight combined with strength is an important factor. Those
properties, along with its resistance to corrosion have made it the material of choice for airplane
structures, light roof framing.
19 Aluminum members can be connected by riveting, bolting and to a lesser extent by welding.
20 Aluminum has a modulus of elasticity equal to 10,000 ksi (about three times lower than steel),
a coecient of thermal expansion of 2:4 10;5 and a density of 173 = 3 .
21 The ultimate strength of pure aluminum is low (13,000 psi) but with the addition of alloys it can go
up.
22 When aluminum is in contact with other metals in the presence of an electrolyte, galvanic corrosion
may cause damage. Thus, steel and aluminum in a structure must be carefully separated by means of
painting or a nonconductive material.
18
lbs
ft
3.3 Concrete
Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement2 , water, and aggregates (usually sand and crushed stone).
An ideal mixture is one in which:
1. A minimum amount of cementwater paste is used to ll the interstices between the particles of
aggregates.
2. A minimum amount of water is provided to complete the chemical reaction with cement.
In such a mixture, about 3/4 of the volume is constituted by the aggregates, and the remaining 1/4
being the cement paste.
24 Smaller particles up to 1/4 in. in size are called ne aggregates, and the larger ones being coarse
aggregates.
25 Contrarily to steel to modulus of elasticity of concrete depends on the strength and is given by
23
(3.3)
(3.4)
E = 33
1:5 fc0
where both fc0 and E are in psi and
is in = 3 .
lbs
26
ft
Typical concrete (compressive) strengths range from 3,000 to 6,000 psi; However high strength
ft
lbs
ft
Portland cement is a mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials which are calcined in a kiln and then pulverized.
When mixed with water, cement hardens through a process called hydration.
2
Victor Saouma
Draft
3.4 Masonry
3{7
u
linear
.5fc
nonlinear
fc
3.4 Masonry
Masonry consists of either natural materials, such as stones, or of manufactured products such as
bricks and concrete blocks4, stacked and bonded together with mortar.
35 As for concrete, all modern structural masonry blocks are essentially compression members with low
tensile resistance.
36 The mortar used is a mixture of sand, masonry cement, and either Portland cement or hydrated lime.
34
3.5 Timber
Timber is one of the earliest construction materials, and one of the few natural materials with good
tensile properties.
38 The properties of timber vary greatly, and the strength is time dependent.
39 Timber is a good shock absorber (many wood structures in Japan have resisted repeated earthquakes).
40 The most commonly used species of timber in construction are Douglas r, southern pine, hemlock
and larch.
41 Members can be laminated together under good quality control, and
exural strengths as high as
2,500 psi can be achieved.
37
For this reason a minimum amount of reinforcement is always necessary in concrete, and a 2% reinforcement, can
reduce the shrinkage by 75%.
Mud bricks were used by the Babylonians, stones by the Egyptians, and ice blocks by the Eskimos...
3
Victor Saouma
Draft
3{8
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Dimensions and properties of rolled sections are tabulated in the following pages, Fig. 3.7.
Victor Saouma
Draft
3.6 Steel Section Properties
Designation
W 36x848
W 36x798
W 36x720
W 36x650
W 36x588
W 36x527
W 36x485
W 36x439
W 36x393
W 36x359
W 36x328
W 36x300
W 36x280
W 36x260
W 36x245
W 36x230
W 36x256
W 36x232
W 36x210
W 36x194
W 36x182
W 36x170
W 36x160
W 36x150
W 36x135
W 33x619
W 33x567
W 33x515
W 33x468
W 33x424
W 33x387
W 33x354
W 33x318
W 33x291
W 33x263
W 33x241
W 33x221
W 33x201
W 33x169
W 33x152
W 33x141
W 33x130
W 33x118
W 30x581
W 30x526
W 30x477
W 30x433
W 30x391
W 30x357
W 30x326
W 30x292
W 30x261
W 30x235
W 30x211
W 30x191
W 30x173
W 30x148
W 30x132
W 30x124
W 30x116
W 30x108
W 30x 99
W 30x 90
Victor Saouma
A
in
249.0
234.0
211.0
190.0
172.0
154.0
142.0
128.0
115.0
105.0
96.4
88.3
82.4
76.5
72.1
67.6
75.4
68.1
61.8
57.0
53.6
50.0
47.0
44.2
39.7
181.0
166.0
151.0
137.0
124.0
113.0
104.0
93.5
85.6
77.4
70.9
65.0
59.1
49.5
44.7
41.6
38.3
34.7
170.0
154.0
140.0
127.0
114.0
104.0
95.7
85.7
76.7
69.0
62.0
56.1
50.8
43.5
38.9
36.5
34.2
31.7
29.1
26.4
2
d
in
42.45
41.97
41.19
40.47
39.84
39.21
38.74
38.26
37.80
37.40
37.09
36.74
36.52
36.26
36.08
35.90
37.43
37.12
36.69
36.49
36.33
36.17
36.01
35.85
35.55
38.47
37.91
37.36
36.81
36.34
35.95
35.55
35.16
34.84
34.53
34.18
33.93
33.68
33.82
33.49
33.30
33.09
32.86
35.39
34.76
34.21
33.66
33.19
32.80
32.40
32.01
31.61
31.30
30.94
30.68
30.44
30.67
30.31
30.17
30.01
29.83
29.65
29.53
3{9
bf
hc
tw
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
3.0
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.2
4.5
5.0
5.3
5.7
6.1
6.5
3.5
3.9
4.5
4.8
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.4
7.6
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.3
3.6
3.8
4.2
4.6
5.0
5.7
6.2
6.8
4.7
5.5
6.0
6.7
7.8
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.7
4.1
4.6
5.0
5.7
6.3
7.0
4.4
5.3
5.7
6.2
6.9
7.8
8.5
12.5
13.2
14.5
16.0
17.6
19.6
21.0
23.1
25.8
28.1
30.9
33.3
35.6
37.5
39.4
41.4
33.8
37.3
39.1
42.4
44.8
47.8
50.0
52.0
54.1
15.2
16.6
18.2
19.7
21.7
23.8
25.8
28.8
31.2
34.5
36.1
38.7
41.9
44.7
47.2
49.6
51.7
54.5
13.7
15.1
16.6
18.0
19.9
21.8
23.7
26.5
29.0
32.5
34.9
38.0
41.2
41.5
43.9
46.2
47.8
49.6
51.9
57.5
2t
Ix
in
67400
62600
55300
48900
43500
38300
34700
31000
27500
24800
22500
20300
18900
17300
16100
15000
16800
15000
13200
12100
11300
10500
9750
9040
7800
41800
37700
33700
30100
26900
24300
21900
19500
17700
15800
14200
12800
11500
9290
8160
7450
6710
5900
33000
29300
26100
23200
20700
18600
16800
14900
13100
11700
10300
9170
8200
6680
5770
5360
4930
4470
3990
3620
4
Sx
in
3170
2980
2690
2420
2180
1950
1790
1620
1450
1320
1210
1110
1030
953
895
837
895
809
719
664
623
580
542
504
439
2170
1990
1810
1630
1480
1350
1230
1110
1010
917
829
757
684
549
487
448
406
359
1870
1680
1530
1380
1250
1140
1030
928
827
746
663
598
539
436
380
355
329
299
269
245
3
Iy
in
4550
4200
3680
3230
2850
2490
2250
1990
1750
1570
1420
1300
1200
1090
1010
940
528
468
411
375
347
320
295
270
225
2870
2580
2290
2030
1800
1620
1460
1290
1160
1030
932
840
749
310
273
246
218
187
2530
2230
1970
1750
1550
1390
1240
1100
959
855
757
673
598
227
196
181
164
146
128
115
4
Sy
in
501
467
414
367
328
289
263
235
208
188
171
156
144
132
123
114
86
77
68
62
58
53
49
45
38
340
308
276
247
221
200
181
161
146
131
118
106
95
54
47
43
38
33
312
278
249
222
198
179
162
144
127
114
100
90
80
43
37
34
31
28
24
22
3
Zx
in
3830.0
3570.0
3190.0
2840.0
2550.0
2270.0
2070.0
1860.0
1660.0
1510.0
1380.0
1260.0
1170.0
1080.0
1010.0
943.0
1040.0
936.0
833.0
767.0
718.0
668.0
624.0
581.0
509.0
2560.0
2330.0
2110.0
1890.0
1700.0
1550.0
1420.0
1270.0
1150.0
1040.0
939.0
855.0
772.0
629.0
559.0
514.0
467.0
415.0
2210.0
1990.0
1790.0
1610.0
1430.0
1300.0
1190.0
1060.0
941.0
845.0
749.0
673.0
605.0
500.0
437.0
408.0
378.0
346.0
312.0
283.0
3
Zy
in
799.0
743.0
656.0
580.0
517.0
454.0
412.0
367.0
325.0
292.0
265.0
241.0
223.0
204.0
190.0
176.0
137.0
122.0
107.0
97.7
90.7
83.8
77.3
70.9
59.7
537.0
485.0
433.0
387.0
345.0
312.0
282.0
250.0
226.0
202.0
182.0
164.0
147.0
84.4
73.9
66.9
59.5
51.3
492.0
438.0
390.0
348.0
310.0
279.0
252.0
223.0
196.0
175.0
154.0
138.0
123.0
68.0
58.4
54.0
49.2
43.9
38.6
34.7
3
Draft
3{10
Designation
W 27x539
W 27x494
W 27x448
W 27x407
W 27x368
W 27x336
W 27x307
W 27x281
W 27x258
W 27x235
W 27x217
W 27x194
W 27x178
W 27x161
W 27x146
W 27x129
W 27x114
W 27x102
W 27x 94
W 27x 84
W 24x492
W 24x450
W 24x408
W 24x370
W 24x335
W 24x306
W 24x279
W 24x250
W 24x229
W 24x207
W 24x192
W 24x176
W 24x162
W 24x146
W 24x131
W 24x117
W 24x104
W 24x103
W 24x 94
W 24x 84
W 24x 76
W 24x 68
W 24x 62
W 24x 55
W 21x402
W 21x364
W 21x333
W 21x300
W 21x275
W 21x248
W 21x223
W 21x201
W 21x182
W 21x166
W 21x147
W 21x132
W 21x122
W 21x111
W 21x101
W 21x 93
W 21x 83
W 21x 73
Victor Saouma
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
A
in
158.0
145.0
131.0
119.0
108.0
98.7
90.2
82.6
75.7
69.1
63.8
57.0
52.3
47.4
42.9
37.8
33.5
30.0
27.7
24.8
144.0
132.0
119.0
108.0
98.4
89.8
82.0
73.5
67.2
60.7
56.3
51.7
47.7
43.0
38.5
34.4
30.6
30.3
27.7
24.7
22.4
20.1
18.2
16.2
118.0
107.0
97.9
88.2
80.8
72.8
65.4
59.2
53.6
48.8
43.2
38.8
35.9
32.7
29.8
27.3
24.3
21.5
2
d
in
32.52
31.97
31.42
30.87
30.39
30.00
29.61
29.29
28.98
28.66
28.43
28.11
27.81
27.59
27.38
27.63
27.29
27.09
26.92
26.71
29.65
29.09
28.54
27.99
27.52
27.13
26.73
26.34
26.02
25.71
25.47
25.24
25.00
24.74
24.48
24.26
24.06
24.53
24.31
24.10
23.92
23.73
23.74
23.57
26.02
25.47
25.00
24.53
24.13
23.74
23.35
23.03
22.72
22.48
22.06
21.83
21.68
21.51
21.36
21.62
21.43
21.24
bf
hc
tw
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.7
3.0
3.2
3.5
3.7
4.0
4.4
4.7
5.2
5.9
6.5
7.2
4.5
5.4
6.0
6.7
7.8
2.0
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.8
4.1
4.4
4.8
5.3
5.9
6.7
7.5
8.5
4.6
5.2
5.9
6.6
7.7
6.0
6.9
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.9
4.2
4.6
5.4
6.0
6.5
7.1
7.7
4.5
5.0
5.6
12.3
13.4
14.7
15.9
17.6
19.2
20.9
22.9
24.7
26.6
29.2
32.3
33.4
36.7
40.0
39.7
42.5
47.0
49.4
52.7
10.9
11.9
13.1
14.2
15.6
17.1
18.6
20.7
22.5
24.8
26.6
28.7
30.6
33.2
35.6
39.2
43.1
39.2
41.9
45.9
49.0
52.0
50.1
54.6
10.8
11.8
12.8
14.2
15.4
17.1
18.8
20.6
22.6
24.9
26.1
28.9
31.3
34.1
37.5
32.3
36.4
41.2
2t
Ix
in
25500
22900
20400
18100
16100
14500
13100
11900
10800
9660
8870
7820
6990
6280
5630
4760
4090
3620
3270
2850
19100
17100
15100
13400
11900
10700
9600
8490
7650
6820
6260
5680
5170
4580
4020
3540
3100
3000
2700
2370
2100
1830
1550
1350
12200
10800
9610
8480
7620
6760
5950
5310
4730
4280
3630
3220
2960
2670
2420
2070
1830
1600
4
Sx
in
1570
1440
1300
1170
1060
970
884
811
742
674
624
556
502
455
411
345
299
267
243
213
1290
1170
1060
957
864
789
718
644
588
531
491
450
414
371
329
291
258
245
222
196
176
154
131
114
937
846
769
692
632
569
510
461
417
380
329
295
273
249
227
192
171
151
3
Iy
in
2110
1890
1670
1480
1310
1170
1050
953
859
768
704
618
555
497
443
184
159
139
124
106
1670
1490
1320
1160
1030
919
823
724
651
578
530
479
443
391
340
297
259
119
109
94
82
70
34
29
1270
1120
994
873
785
694
609
542
483
435
376
333
305
274
248
93
81
71
4
Sy
in
277
250
224
200
179
161
146
133
120
108
100
88
79
71
64
37
32
28
25
21
237
214
191
170
152
137
124
110
99
89
82
74
68
60
53
46
41
26
24
21
18
16
10
8
189
168
151
134
122
109
96
86
77
70
60
54
49
44
40
22
20
17
3
Zx
in
1880.0
1710.0
1530.0
1380.0
1240.0
1130.0
1020.0
933.0
850.0
769.0
708.0
628.0
567.0
512.0
461.0
395.0
343.0
305.0
278.0
244.0
1550.0
1410.0
1250.0
1120.0
1020.0
922.0
835.0
744.0
676.0
606.0
559.0
511.0
468.0
418.0
370.0
327.0
289.0
280.0
254.0
224.0
200.0
177.0
153.0
134.0
1130.0
1010.0
915.0
816.0
741.0
663.0
589.0
530.0
476.0
432.0
373.0
333.0
307.0
279.0
253.0
221.0
196.0
172.0
3
Zy
in
437.0
394.0
351.0
313.0
279.0
252.0
227.0
206.0
187.0
168.0
154.0
136.0
122.0
109.0
97.5
57.6
49.3
43.4
38.8
33.2
375.0
337.0
300.0
267.0
238.0
214.0
193.0
171.0
154.0
137.0
126.0
115.0
105.0
93.2
81.5
71.4
62.4
41.5
37.5
32.6
28.6
24.5
15.7
13.3
296.0
263.0
237.0
210.0
189.0
169.0
149.0
133.0
119.0
108.0
92.6
82.3
75.6
68.2
61.7
34.7
30.5
26.6
3
Draft
3.6 Steel Section Properties
Designation
W 21x 68
W 21x 62
W 21x 57
W 21x 50
W 21x 44
W 18x311
W 18x283
W 18x258
W 18x234
W 18x211
W 18x192
W 18x175
W 18x158
W 18x143
W 18x130
W 18x119
W 18x106
W 18x 97
W 18x 86
W 18x 76
W 18x 71
W 18x 65
W 18x 60
W 18x 55
W 18x 50
W 18x 46
W 18x 40
W 18x 35
W 16x100
W 16x 89
W 16x 77
W 16x 67
W 16x 57
W 16x 50
W 16x 45
W 16x 40
W 16x 36
W 16x 31
W 16x 26
W 14x730
W 14x665
W 14x605
W 14x550
W 14x500
W 14x455
W 14x426
W 14x398
W 14x370
W 14x342
W 14x311
W 14x283
W 14x257
W 14x233
W 14x211
W 14x193
W 14x176
W 14x159
W 14x145
W 14x132
W 14x120
W 14x109
W 14x 99
W 14x 90
W 14x 82
Victor Saouma
A
in
20.0
18.3
16.7
14.7
13.0
91.5
83.2
75.9
68.8
62.1
56.4
51.3
46.3
42.1
38.2
35.1
31.1
28.5
25.3
22.3
20.8
19.1
17.6
16.2
14.7
13.5
11.8
10.3
29.4
26.2
22.6
19.7
16.8
14.7
13.3
11.8
10.6
9.1
7.7
215.0
196.0
178.0
162.0
147.0
134.0
125.0
117.0
109.0
101.0
91.4
83.3
75.6
68.5
62.0
56.8
51.8
46.7
42.7
38.8
35.3
32.0
29.1
26.5
24.1
2
3{11
hc
d btff
Ix
Sx
Iy Sy
Zx
Zy
tw
in
in
in
in in
in
in
21.13 6.0 43.6 1480 140
65 16 160.0 24.4
20.99 6.7 46.9 1330 127
58 14 144.0 21.7
21.06 5.0 46.3 1170 111
31
9 129.0 14.8
20.83 6.1 49.4
984
94
25
8 110.0 12.2
20.66 7.2 53.6
843
82
21
6
95.4 10.2
22.32 2.2 10.6 6960 624 795 132 753.0 207.0
21.85 2.4 11.5 6160 564 704 118 676.0 185.0
21.46 2.6 12.5 5510 514 628 107 611.0 166.0
21.06 2.8 13.8 4900 466 558 96 549.0 149.0
20.67 3.0 15.1 4330 419 493 85 490.0 132.0
20.35 3.3 16.7 3870 380 440 77 442.0 119.0
20.04 3.6 18.0 3450 344 391 69 398.0 106.0
19.72 3.9 19.8 3060 310 347 61 356.0 94.8
19.49 4.2 21.9 2750 282 311 56 322.0 85.4
19.25 4.6 23.9 2460 256 278 50 291.0 76.7
18.97 5.3 24.5 2190 231 253 45 261.0 69.1
18.73 6.0 27.2 1910 204 220 39 230.0 60.5
18.59 6.4 30.0 1750 188 201 36 211.0 55.3
18.39 7.2 33.4 1530 166 175 32 186.0 48.4
18.21 8.1 37.8 1330 146 152 28 163.0 42.2
18.47 4.7 32.4 1170 127
60 16 145.0 24.7
18.35 5.1 35.7 1070 117
55 14 133.0 22.5
18.24 5.4 38.7
984 108
50 13 123.0 20.6
18.11 6.0 41.2
890
98
45 12 112.0 18.5
17.99 6.6 45.2
800
89
40 11 101.0 16.6
18.06 5.0 44.6
712
79
22
7
90.7 11.7
17.90 5.7 51.0
612
68
19
6
78.4
9.9
17.70 7.1 53.5
510
58
15
5
66.5
8.1
16.97 5.3 24.3 1490 175 186 36 198.0 54.9
16.75 5.9 27.0 1300 155 163 31 175.0 48.1
16.52 6.8 31.2 1110 134 138 27 150.0 41.1
16.33 7.7 35.9
954 117 119 23 130.0 35.5
16.43 5.0 33.0
758
92
43 12 105.0 18.9
16.26 5.6 37.4
659
81
37 10
92.0 16.3
16.13 6.2 41.2
586
73
33
9
82.3 14.5
16.01 6.9 46.6
518
65
29
8
72.9 12.7
15.86 8.1 48.1
448
56
24
7
64.0 10.8
15.88 6.3 51.6
375
47
12
4
54.0
7.0
15.69 8.0 56.8
301
38
10
3
44.2
5.5
22.42 1.8 3.7 14300 1280 4720 527 1660.0 816.0
21.64 2.0 4.0 12400 1150 4170 472 1480.0 730.0
20.92 2.1 4.4 10800 1040 3680 423 1320.0 652.0
20.24 2.3 4.8 9430 931 3250 378 1180.0 583.0
19.60 2.4 5.2 8210 838 2880 339 1050.0 522.0
19.02 2.6 5.7 7190 756 2560 304 936.0 468.0
18.67 2.8 6.1 6600 707 2360 283 869.0 434.0
18.29 2.9 6.4 6000 656 2170 262 801.0 402.0
17.92 3.1 6.9 5440 607 1990 241 736.0 370.0
17.54 3.3 7.4 4900 559 1810 221 672.0 338.0
17.12 3.6 8.1 4330 506 1610 199 603.0 304.0
16.74 3.9 8.8 3840 459 1440 179 542.0 274.0
16.38 4.2 9.7 3400 415 1290 161 487.0 246.0
16.04 4.6 10.7 3010 375 1150 145 436.0 221.0
15.72 5.1 11.6 2660 338 1030 130 390.0 198.0
15.48 5.5 12.8 2400 310 931 119 355.0 180.0
15.22 6.0 13.7 2140 281 838 107 320.0 163.0
14.98 6.5 15.3 1900 254 748 96 287.0 146.0
14.78 7.1 16.8 1710 232 677 87 260.0 133.0
14.66 7.1 17.7 1530 209 548 74 234.0 113.0
14.48 7.8 19.3 1380 190 495 68 212.0 102.0
14.32 8.5 21.7 1240 173 447 61 192.0 92.7
14.16 9.3 23.5 1110 157 402 55 173.0 83.6
14.02 10.2 25.9
999 143 362 50 157.0 75.6
14.31 5.9 22.4
882 123 148 29 139.0 44.8
2
Draft
3{12
Designation
W 14x 74
W 14x 68
W 14x 61
W 14x 53
W 14x 48
W 14x 43
W 14x 38
W 14x 34
W 14x 30
W 14x 26
W 14x 22
W 12x336
W 12x305
W 12x279
W 12x252
W 12x230
W 12x210
W 12x190
W 12x170
W 12x152
W 12x136
W 12x120
W 12x106
W 12x 96
W 12x 87
W 12x 79
W 12x 72
W 12x 65
W 12x 58
W 12x 53
W 12x 50
W 12x 45
W 12x 40
W 12x 35
W 12x 30
W 12x 26
W 12x 22
W 12x 19
W 12x 16
W 12x 14
W 10x112
W 10x100
W 10x 88
W 10x 77
W 10x 68
W 10x 60
W 10x 54
W 10x 49
W 10x 45
W 10x 39
W 10x 33
W 10x 30
W 10x 26
W 10x 22
W 10x 19
W 10x 17
W 10x 15
W 10x 12
Victor Saouma
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
A
in
21.8
20.0
17.9
15.6
14.1
12.6
11.2
10.0
8.9
7.7
6.5
98.8
89.6
81.9
74.1
67.7
61.8
55.8
50.0
44.7
39.9
35.3
31.2
28.2
25.6
23.2
21.1
19.1
17.0
15.6
14.7
13.2
11.8
10.3
8.8
7.7
6.5
5.6
4.7
4.2
32.9
29.4
25.9
22.6
20.0
17.6
15.8
14.4
13.3
11.5
9.7
8.8
7.6
6.5
5.6
5.0
4.4
3.5
2
d
in
14.17
14.04
13.89
13.92
13.79
13.66
14.10
13.98
13.84
13.91
13.74
16.82
16.32
15.85
15.41
15.05
14.71
14.38
14.03
13.71
13.41
13.12
12.89
12.71
12.53
12.38
12.25
12.12
12.19
12.06
12.19
12.06
11.94
12.50
12.34
12.22
12.31
12.16
11.99
11.91
11.36
11.10
10.84
10.60
10.40
10.22
10.09
9.98
10.10
9.92
9.73
10.47
10.33
10.17
10.24
10.11
9.99
9.87
bf
hc
tw
6.4
7.0
7.7
6.1
6.7
7.5
6.6
7.4
8.7
6.0
7.5
2.3
2.4
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.4
3.7
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.6
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.2
9.0
9.9
7.8
8.7
6.3
7.0
7.8
6.3
7.4
8.5
4.7
5.7
7.5
8.8
4.2
4.6
5.2
5.9
6.6
7.4
8.2
8.9
6.5
7.5
9.1
5.7
6.6
8.0
5.1
6.1
7.4
9.4
25.3
27.5
30.4
30.8
33.5
37.4
39.6
43.1
45.4
48.1
53.3
5.5
6.0
6.3
7.0
7.6
8.2
9.2
10.1
11.2
12.3
13.7
15.9
17.7
18.9
20.7
22.6
24.9
27.0
28.1
26.2
29.0
32.9
36.2
41.8
47.2
41.8
46.2
49.4
54.3
10.4
11.6
13.0
14.8
16.7
18.7
21.2
23.1
22.5
25.0
27.1
29.5
34.0
36.9
35.4
36.9
38.5
46.6
2t
Ix
in
796
723
640
541
485
428
385
340
291
245
199
4060
3550
3110
2720
2420
2140
1890
1650
1430
1240
1070
933
833
740
662
597
533
475
425
394
350
310
285
238
204
156
130
103
89
716
623
534
455
394
341
303
272
248
209
170
170
144
118
96
82
69
54
4
Sx
Iy Sy
Zx
Zy
in
in in
in
in
112 134 27 126.0 40.6
103 121 24 115.0 36.9
92 107 22 102.0 32.8
78
58 14 87.1 22.0
70
51 13 78.4 19.6
63
45 11 69.6 17.3
55
27
8 61.5 12.1
49
23
7 54.6 10.6
42
20
6 47.3
9.0
35
9
4 40.2
5.5
29
7
3 33.2
4.4
483 1190 177 603.0 274.0
435 1050 159 537.0 244.0
393 937 143 481.0 220.0
353 828 127 428.0 196.0
321 742 115 386.0 177.0
292 664 104 348.0 159.0
263 589 93 311.0 143.0
235 517 82 275.0 126.0
209 454 73 243.0 111.0
186 398 64 214.0 98.0
163 345 56 186.0 85.4
145 301 49 164.0 75.1
131 270 44 147.0 67.5
118 241 40 132.0 60.4
107 216 36 119.0 54.3
97 195 32 108.0 49.2
88 174 29 96.8 44.1
78 107 21 86.4 32.5
71
96 19 77.9 29.1
65
56 14 72.4 21.4
58
50 12 64.7 19.0
52
44 11 57.5 16.8
46
24
7 51.2 11.5
39
20
6 43.1
9.6
33
17
5 37.2
8.2
25
5
2 29.3
3.7
21
4
2 24.7
3.0
17
3
1 20.1
2.3
15
2
1 17.4
1.9
126 236 45 147.0 69.2
112 207 40 130.0 61.0
98 179 35 113.0 53.1
86 154 30 97.6 45.9
76 134 26 85.3 40.1
67 116 23 74.6 35.0
60 103 21 66.6 31.3
55
93 19 60.4 28.3
49
53 13 54.9 20.3
42
45 11 46.8 17.2
35
37
9 38.8 14.0
32
17
6 36.6
8.8
28
14
5 31.3
7.5
23
11
4 26.0
6.1
19
4
2 21.6
3.3
16
4
2 18.7
2.8
14
3
1 16.0
2.3
11
2
1 12.6
1.7
3
Draft
3.6 Steel Section Properties
Designation
W 8x 67
W 8x 58
W 8x 48
W 8x 40
W 8x 35
W 8x 31
W 8x 28
W 8x 24
W 8x 21
W 8x 18
W 8x 15
W 8x 13
W 8x 10
W 6x 25
W 6x 20
W 6x 15
W 6x 16
W 6x 12
W 6x 9
W 5x 19
W 5x 16
W 4x 13
M 14x 18
M 12x 12
M 12x 11
M 12x 10
M 10x 9
M 10x 8
M 10x 8
M 8x 6
M 6x 4
M 5x 19
S 24x121
S 24x106
S 24x100
S 24x 90
S 24x 80
S 20x 96
S 20x 86
S 20x 75
S 20x 66
S 18x 70
S 18x 55
S 15x 50
S 15x 43
S 12x 50
S 12x 41
S 12x 35
S 12x 32
S 10x 35
S 10x 25
S 8x 23
S 8x 18
S 7x 20
S 7x 15
S 6x 17
S 6x 12
S 5x 15
S 5x 10
S 4x 10
S 4x 8
S 3x 8
S 3x 6
Victor Saouma
A
in
19.7
17.1
14.1
11.7
10.3
9.1
8.2
7.1
6.2
5.3
4.4
3.8
3.0
7.3
5.9
4.4
4.7
3.5
2.7
5.5
4.7
3.8
5.1
3.5
3.2
2.9
2.7
2.3
2.2
1.9
1.3
5.6
35.6
31.2
29.3
26.5
23.5
28.2
25.3
22.0
19.4
20.6
16.1
14.7
12.6
14.7
12.0
10.3
9.4
10.3
7.5
6.8
5.4
5.9
4.5
5.1
3.7
4.3
2.9
2.8
2.3
2.2
1.7
2
3{13
hc
d btff
Ix Sx Iy Sy
tw
in
in in in in
9.00 4.4 11.1 272 60 89 21
8.75 5.1 12.4 228 52 75 18
8.50 5.9 15.8 184 43 61 15
8.25 7.2 17.6 146 36 49 12
8.12 8.1 20.4 127 31 43 11
8.00 9.2 22.2 110 28 37
9
8.06 7.0 22.2
98 24 22
7
7.93 8.1 25.8
83 21 18
6
8.28 6.6 27.5
75 18 10
4
8.14 8.0 29.9
62 15
8
3
8.11 6.4 28.1
48 12
3
2
7.99 7.8 29.9
40 10
3
1
7.89 9.6 40.5
31
8
2
1
6.38 6.7 15.5
53 17 17
6
6.20 8.2 19.1
41 13 13
4
5.99 11.5 21.6
29 10
9
3
6.28 5.0 19.1
32 10
4
2
6.03 7.1 21.6
22
7
3
2
5.90 9.2 29.2
16
6
2
1
5.15 5.8 14.0
26 10
9
4
5.01 6.9 15.8
21
9
8
3
4.16 5.9 10.6
11
5
4
2
14.00 7.4 60.3 148 21
3
1
12.00 6.8 62.5
72 12
1
1
11.97 7.3 63.6
65 11
1
1
11.97 9.1 68.0
62 10
1
1
10.00 6.5 58.4
39
8
1
0
9.95 7.4 59.3
34
7
1
0
9.99 7.8 65.0
33
7
0
0
8.00 6.0 53.8
18
5
0
0
6.00 5.4 47.0
7
2
0
0
5.00 6.0 11.2
24 10
8
3
24.50 3.7 26.4 3160 258 83 21
24.50 3.6 34.1 2940 240 77 20
24.00 4.2 28.3 2390 199 48 13
24.00 4.1 33.7 2250 187 45 13
24.00 4.0 42.1 2100 175 42 12
20.30 3.9 21.6 1670 165 50 14
20.30 3.8 26.2 1580 155 47 13
20.00 4.0 27.1 1280 128 30
9
20.00 3.9 34.1 1190 119 28
9
18.00 4.5 21.8 926 103 24
8
18.00 4.3 33.6 804 89 21
7
15.00 4.5 23.2 486 65 16
6
15.00 4.4 31.0 447 60 14
5
12.00 4.2 13.9 305 51 16
6
12.00 4.0 20.7 272 45 14
5
12.00 4.7 23.4 229 38 10
4
12.00 4.6 28.6 218 36
9
4
10.00 5.0 13.8 147 29
8
3
10.00 4.7 26.4 124 25
7
3
8.00 4.9 14.5
65 16
4
2
8.00 4.7 23.7
58 14
4
2
7.00 4.9 12.3
42 12
3
2
7.00 4.7 21.9
37 10
3
1
6.00 5.0 9.9
26
9
2
1
6.00 4.6 19.9
22
7
2
1
5.00 5.0 7.5
15
6
2
1
5.00 4.6 17.4
12
5
1
1
4.00 4.8 8.7
7
3
1
1
4.00 4.5 14.7
6
3
1
1
3.00 4.8 5.6
3
2
1
0
3.00 4.5 11.4
3
2
0
0
2
Zx
in
70.2
59.8
49.0
39.8
34.7
30.4
27.2
23.2
20.4
17.0
13.6
11.4
8.9
18.9
14.9
10.8
11.7
8.3
6.2
11.6
9.6
6.3
24.9
14.3
13.2
12.2
9.2
8.2
7.7
5.4
2.8
11.0
306.0
279.0
240.0
222.0
204.0
198.0
183.0
153.0
140.0
125.0
105.0
77.1
69.3
61.2
53.1
44.8
42.0
35.4
28.4
19.3
16.5
14.5
12.1
10.6
8.5
7.4
5.7
4.0
3.5
2.4
2.0
3
Zy
in
32.7
27.9
22.9
18.5
16.1
14.1
10.1
8.6
5.7
4.7
2.7
2.2
1.7
8.6
6.7
4.8
3.4
2.3
1.7
5.5
4.6
2.9
2.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
5.0
36.2
33.2
23.9
22.3
20.7
24.9
23.0
16.7
15.3
14.4
12.1
10.0
9.0
10.3
8.9
6.8
6.4
6.2
5.0
3.7
3.2
3.0
2.4
2.4
1.9
1.9
1.4
1.1
1.0
0.8
0.7
3
Draft
3{14
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
A
in
C 15.x 50 14.7
C 15.x 40 11.8
C 15.x 34 10.0
C 12.x 30 8.8
C 12.x 25 7.3
C 12.x 21 6.1
C 10.x 30 8.8
C 10.x 25 7.3
C 10.x 20 5.9
C 10.x 15 4.5
C 9.x 20 5.9
C 9.x 15 4.4
C 9.x 13 3.9
C 8.x 19 5.5
C 8.x 14 4.0
C 8.x 12 3.4
C 7.x 15 4.3
C 7.x 12 3.6
C 7.x 10 2.9
C 6.x 13 3.8
C 6.x 11 3.1
C 6.x 8 2.4
C 5.x 9 2.6
C 5.x 7 2.0
C 4.x 7 2.1
C 4.x 5 1.6
C 3.x 6 1.8
C 3.x 5 1.5
C 3.x 4 1.2
Designation
Designation
d
in
15.
15.
15.
12.
12.
12.
10.
10.
10.
10.
9.
9.
9.
8.
8.
8.
7.
7.
7.
6.
6.
6.
5.
5.
4.
4.
3.
3.
3.
A
in
11.00
8.44
6.43
5.75
7.69
6.48
5.25
3.98
11.00
9.73
8.44
7.11
6.43
5.75
5.06
4.36
3.65
7.98
6.94
5.86
5.31
4.75
4.18
3.61
3.03
4.50
3.42
2.87
L 8.0x4.0x1.000
L 8.0x4.0x0.750
L 8.0x4.0x0.563
L 8.0x4.0x0.500
L 7.0x4.0x0.750
L 7.0x4.0x0.625
L 7.0x4.0x0.500
L 7.0x4.0x0.375
L 6.0x6.0x1.000
L 6.0x6.0x0.875
L 6.0x6.0x0.750
L 6.0x6.0x0.625
L 6.0x6.0x0.563
L 6.0x6.0x0.500
L 6.0x6.0x0.438
L 6.0x6.0x0.375
L 6.0x6.0x0.313
L 6.0x4.0x0.875
L 6.0x4.0x0.750
L 6.0x4.0x0.625
L 6.0x4.0x0.563
L 6.0x4.0x0.500
L 6.0x4.0x0.438
L 6.0x4.0x0.375
L 6.0x4.0x0.313
L 6.0x3.5x0.500
L 6.0x3.5x0.375
L 6.0x3.5x0.313
Victor Saouma
bf
2t
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
wgt
k=ft
37.40
28.70
21.90
19.60
26.20
22.10
17.90
13.60
37.40
33.10
28.70
24.20
21.90
19.60
17.20
14.90
12.40
27.20
23.60
20.00
18.10
16.20
14.30
12.30
10.30
15.30
11.70
9.80
hc
tw
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Ix
in
69.6
54.9
42.8
38.5
37.8
32.4
26.7
20.6
35.5
31.9
28.2
24.2
22.1
19.9
17.7
15.4
13.0
27.7
24.5
21.1
19.3
17.4
15.5
13.5
11.4
16.6
12.9
10.9
4
Ix
in
404.0
349.0
315.0
162.0
144.0
129.0
103.0
91.2
78.9
67.4
60.9
51.0
47.9
44.0
36.1
32.6
27.2
24.2
21.3
17.4
15.2
13.1
8.9
7.5
4.6
3.8
2.1
1.9
1.7
Sx
in
14.1
10.9
8.4
7.5
8.4
7.1
5.8
4.4
8.6
7.6
6.7
5.7
5.1
4.6
4.1
3.5
3.0
7.2
6.3
5.3
4.8
4.3
3.8
3.3
2.8
4.2
3.2
2.7
4
Sx
in
53.8
46.5
42.0
27.0
24.1
21.5
20.7
18.2
15.8
13.5
13.5
11.3
10.6
11.0
9.0
8.1
7.8
6.9
6.1
5.8
5.1
4.4
3.6
3.0
2.3
1.9
1.4
1.2
1.1
Iy
in
11.60
9.36
7.43
6.74
9.05
7.84
6.53
5.10
35.50
31.90
28.20
24.20
22.10
19.90
17.70
15.40
13.00
9.75
8.68
7.52
6.91
6.27
5.60
4.90
4.18
4.25
3.34
2.85
3
Iy
in
11.
9.23
8.13
5.14
4.47
3.88
3.94
3.36
2.81
2.28
2.42
1.93
1.76
1.98
1.53
1.32
1.38
1.17
0.97
1.05
0.87
0.69
0.63
0.48
0.43
0.32
0.31
0.25
0.20
Sy
in
3.94
3.07
2.38
2.15
3.03
2.58
2.12
1.63
8.57
7.63
6.66
5.66
5.14
4.61
4.08
3.53
2.97
3.39
2.97
2.54
2.31
2.08
1.85
1.60
1.35
1.59
1.23
1.04
4
Sy
Zx Zy
in
in
in
3.78 8.20 8.17
3.37 57.20 6.87
3.11 50.40 6.23
2.06 33.60 4.33
1.88 29.20 3.84
1.73 25.40 3.49
1.65 26.60 3.78
1.48
23. 3.19
1.32 19.30 2.71
1.16 15.80 2.35
1.17 16.80 2.47
1.01 13.50 2.05
0.96 12.50 1.95
1.01 13.80 2.17
0.85 10.90 1.73
0.78 9.55 1.58
0.78 9.68 1.64
0.70 8.40 1.43
0.63 7.12 1.26
0.64 7.26 1.36
0.56 6.15 1.15
0.49 5.13 0.99
0.45 4.36 0.92
0.38 3.51 0.76
0.34 2.81 0.70
0.28 2.26 0.57
0.27 1.72 0.54
0.23 1.50 0.47
0.20 1.30 0.40
Zx
Zy
in
in
24.30 7.72
18.90 5.81
14.50 4.38
13.00 3.90
14.80 5.65
12.60 4.74
10.30 3.83
7.87 2.90
15.50 15.50
13.80 13.80
12.00 12.00
10.20 10.20
9.26 9.26
8.31 8.31
7.34 7.34
6.35 6.35
5.35 5.35
12.70 6.31
11.20 5.47
9.51 4.62
8.66 4.19
7.78 3.75
6.88 3.30
5.97 2.85
5.03 2.40
7.50 2.91
5.76 2.20
4.85 1.85
3
Draft
3.6 Steel Section Properties
Designation
L 5.0x5.0x0.875
L 5.0x5.0x0.750
L 5.0x5.0x0.625
L 5.0x5.0x0.500
L 5.0x5.0x0.438
L 5.0x5.0x0.375
L 5.0x5.0x0.313
L 5.0x3.5x0.750
L 5.0x3.5x0.625
L 5.0x3.5x0.500
L 5.0x3.5x0.438
L 5.0x3.5x0.375
L 5.0x3.5x0.313
L 5.0x3.5x0.250
L 5.0x3.0x0.625
L 5.0x3.0x0.500
L 5.0x3.0x0.438
L 5.0x3.0x0.375
L 5.0x3.0x0.313
L 5.0x3.0x0.250
L 4.0x4.0x0.750
L 4.0x4.0x0.625
L 4.0x4.0x0.500
L 4.0x4.0x0.438
L 4.0x4.0x0.375
L 4.0x4.0x0.313
L 4.0x4.0x0.250
L 4.0x3.5x0.500
L 4.0x3.5x0.438
L 4.0x3.5x0.375
L 4.0x3.5x0.313
L 4.0x3.5x0.250
L 4.0x3.0x0.500
L 4.0x3.0x0.438
Victor Saouma
A
in
7.98
6.94
5.86
4.75
4.18
3.61
3.03
5.81
4.92
4.00
3.53
3.05
2.56
2.06
4.61
3.75
3.31
2.86
2.40
1.94
5.44
4.61
3.75
3.31
2.86
2.40
1.94
3.50
3.09
2.67
2.25
1.81
3.25
2.87
2
wgt
k=ft
27.20
23.60
20.00
16.20
14.30
12.30
10.30
19.80
16.80
13.60
12.00
10.40
8.70
7.00
15.70
12.80
11.30
9.80
8.20
6.60
18.50
15.70
12.80
11.30
9.80
8.20
6.60
11.90
10.60
9.10
7.70
6.20
11.10
9.80
3{15
Ix Sx
in in
17.8 5.2
15.7 4.5
13.6 3.9
11.3 3.2
10.0 2.8
8.7 2.4
7.4 2.0
13.9 4.3
12.0 3.7
10.0 3.0
8.9 2.6
7.8 2.3
6.6 1.9
5.4 1.6
11.4 3.5
9.4 2.9
8.4 2.6
7.4 2.2
6.3 1.9
5.1 1.5
7.7 2.8
6.7 2.4
5.6 2.0
5.0 1.8
4.4 1.5
3.7 1.3
3.0 1.0
5.3 1.9
4.8 1.7
4.2 1.5
3.6 1.3
2.9 1.0
5.1 1.9
4.5 1.7
4
Iy
in
17.80
15.70
13.60
11.30
10.00
8.74
7.42
5.55
4.83
4.05
3.63
3.18
2.72
2.23
3.06
2.58
2.32
2.04
1.75
1.44
7.67
6.66
5.56
4.97
4.36
3.71
3.04
3.79
3.40
2.95
2.55
2.09
2.42
2.18
4
Sy
in
5.17
4.53
3.86
3.16
2.79
2.42
2.04
2.22
1.90
1.56
1.39
1.21
1.02
0.83
1.39
1.15
1.02
0.89
0.75
0.61
2.81
2.40
1.97
1.75
1.52
1.29
1.05
1.52
1.35
1.16
0.99
0.81
1.12
0.99
3
Zx
in
9.33
8.16
6.95
5.68
5.03
4.36
3.68
7.65
6.55
5.38
4.77
4.14
3.49
2.83
6.27
5.16
4.57
3.97
3.36
2.72
5.07
4.33
3.56
3.16
2.74
2.32
1.88
3.50
3.11
2.71
2.29
1.86
3.41
3.03
3
Zy
in
9.33
8.16
6.95
5.68
5.03
4.36
3.68
4.10
3.47
2.83
2.49
2.16
1.82
1.47
2.61
2.11
1.86
1.60
1.35
1.09
5.07
4.33
3.56
3.16
2.74
2.32
1.88
2.73
2.42
2.11
1.78
1.44
2.03
1.79
3
Draft
3{16
Designation
L 4.0x3.0x0.375
L 4.0x3.0x0.313
L 4.0x3.0x0.250
L 3.5x3.5x0.500
L 3.5x3.5x0.438
L 3.5x3.5x0.375
L 3.5x3.5x0.313
L 3.5x3.5x0.250
L 3.5x3.0x0.500
L 3.5x3.0x0.438
L 3.5x3.0x0.375
L 3.5x3.0x0.313
L 3.5x3.0x0.250
L 3.5x2.5x0.500
L 3.5x2.5x0.438
L 3.5x2.5x0.375
L 3.5x2.5x0.313
L 3.5x2.5x0.250
L 3.0x3.0x0.500
L 3.0x3.0x0.438
L 3.0x3.0x0.375
L 3.0x3.0x0.313
L 3.0x3.0x0.250
L 3.0x3.0x0.188
L 3.0x2.5x0.500
L 3.0x2.5x0.438
L 3.0x2.5x0.375
L 3.0x2.5x0.313
L 3.0x2.5x0.250
L 3.0x2.5x0.188
L 3.0x2.0x0.500
L 3.0x2.0x0.438
L 3.0x2.0x0.375
L 3.0x2.0x0.313
L 3.0x2.0x0.250
L 3.0x2.0x0.188
L 2.5x2.5x0.500
L 2.5x2.5x0.375
L 2.5x2.5x0.313
L 2.5x2.5x0.250
L 2.5x2.5x0.188
L 2.5x2.0x0.375
L 2.5x2.0x0.313
L 2.5x2.0x0.250
L 2.5x2.0x0.188
L 2.0x2.0x0.375
L 2.0x2.0x0.313
L 2.0x2.0x0.250
L 2.0x2.0x0.188
L 2.0x2.0x0.125
L 1.8x1.8x0.250
L 1.8x1.8x0.188
L 1.5x1.5x0.250
L 1.5x1.5x0.188
L 1.3x1.3x0.250
L 1.3x1.3x0.188
L 1.1x1.1x0.125
L 1.0x1.0x0.125
Victor Saouma
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
A wgt Ix Sx
in k=ft in in
2.48 8.50 4.0 1.5
2.09 7.20 3.4 1.2
1.69 5.80 2.8 1.0
3.25 11.10 3.6 1.5
2.87 9.80 3.3 1.3
2.48 8.50 2.9 1.1
2.09 7.20 2.5 1.0
1.69 5.80 2.0 0.8
3.00 10.20 3.5 1.5
2.65 9.10 3.1 1.3
2.30 7.90 2.7 1.1
1.93 6.60 2.3 1.0
1.56 5.40 1.9 0.8
2.75 9.40 3.2 1.4
2.43 8.30 2.9 1.3
2.11 7.20 2.6 1.1
1.78 6.10 2.2 0.9
1.44 4.90 1.8 0.8
2.75 9.40 2.2 1.1
2.43 8.30 2.0 1.0
2.11 7.20 1.8 0.8
1.78 6.10 1.5 0.7
1.44 4.90 1.2 0.6
1.09 3.71 1.0 0.4
2.50 8.50 2.1 1.0
2.21 7.60 1.9 0.9
1.92 6.60 1.7 0.8
1.62 5.60 1.4 0.7
1.31 4.50 1.2 0.6
1.00 3.39 0.9 0.4
2.25 7.70 1.9 1.0
2.00 6.80 1.7 0.9
1.73 5.90 1.5 0.8
1.46 5.00 1.3 0.7
1.19 4.10 1.1 0.5
0.90 3.07 0.8 0.4
2.25 7.70 1.2 0.7
1.73 5.90 1.0 0.6
1.46 5.00 0.8 0.5
1.19 4.10 0.7 0.4
0.90 3.07 0.5 0.3
1.55 5.30 0.9 0.5
1.31 4.50 0.8 0.5
1.06 3.62 0.7 0.4
0.81 2.75 0.5 0.3
1.36 4.70 0.5 0.4
1.15 3.92 0.4 0.3
0.94 3.19 0.3 0.2
0.71 2.44 0.3 0.2
0.48 1.65 0.2 0.1
0.81 2.77 0.2 0.2
0.62 2.12 0.2 0.1
0.69 2.34 0.1 0.1
0.53 1.80 0.1 0.1
0.56 1.92 0.1 0.1
0.43 1.48 0.1 0.1
0.27 0.90 0.0 0.0
0.23 0.80 0.0 0.0
2
Iy
in
1.92
1.65
1.36
3.64
3.26
2.87
2.45
2.01
2.33
2.09
1.85
1.58
1.30
1.36
1.23
1.09
0.94
0.78
2.22
1.99
1.76
1.51
1.24
0.96
1.30
1.18
1.04
0.90
0.74
0.58
0.67
0.61
0.54
0.47
0.39
0.31
1.23
0.98
0.85
0.70
0.55
0.51
0.45
0.37
0.29
0.48
0.42
0.35
0.27
0.19
0.23
0.18
0.14
0.11
0.08
0.06
0.03
0.02
4
Sy
in
0.87
0.73
0.60
1.49
1.32
1.15
0.98
0.79
1.10
0.98
0.85
0.72
0.59
0.76
0.68
0.59
0.50
0.41
1.07
0.95
0.83
0.71
0.58
0.44
0.74
0.66
0.58
0.49
0.40
0.31
0.47
0.42
0.37
0.32
0.26
0.20
0.72
0.57
0.48
0.39
0.30
0.36
0.31
0.25
0.20
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.19
0.13
0.23
0.14
0.13
0.10
0.09
0.07
0.04
0.03
3
Zx
in
2.64
2.23
1.82
2.68
2.38
2.08
1.76
1.43
2.63
2.34
2.04
1.73
1.41
2.53
2.26
1.97
1.67
1.36
1.93
1.72
1.50
1.27
1.04
0.79
1.88
1.68
1.47
1.25
1.02
0.78
1.78
1.59
1.40
1.19
0.97
0.75
1.31
1.02
0.87
0.71
0.55
0.99
0.84
0.69
0.53
0.63
0.54
0.44
0.34
0.23
0.34
0.26
0.24
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.07
0.06
3
Zy
in
1.56
1.31
1.06
2.68
2.38
2.08
1.76
1.43
1.98
1.76
1.53
1.30
1.05
1.40
1.24
1.07
0.91
0.74
1.93
1.72
1.50
1.27
1.04
0.79
1.35
1.20
1.05
0.89
0.72
0.55
0.89
0.79
0.68
0.58
0.47
0.36
1.31
1.02
0.87
0.71
0.55
0.66
0.56
0.46
0.35
0.63
0.54
0.44
0.34
0.23
0.34
0.26
0.24
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.07
0.06
3
Draft
3.7 Joists
3{17
3.7 Joists
43 Steel joists, Fig. 3.8 look like shallow trusses (warren type) and are designed as simply supported uniformly loaded beams assuming that they are laterally supported on the top (to prevent lateral torsional
buckling). The lateral support is often proded by the concrete slab it suppors.
44 The standard openweb joist designation consists of the depth, the series designation and the chord
type. Three series are available for
oor/roof construction, Table 3.3
Span (ft)
860
2596
89120
4"
4"
Span
Figure 3.8: prefabricated Steel Joists
Typical joist spacing ranges from 2 to 4 ft, and provides an ecient use of the corrugated steel deck
which itself supports the concrete slab.
45
Victor Saouma
Draft
3{18
46
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
For preliminary estimates of the joist depth, a depth to span ratio of 24 can be assumed, therefore
d L=2
(3.5)
Victor Saouma
Draft
3.7 Joists
Joint 8K1 10K1 12K1
Desig.
Depth 8
10 12
(in.)
W 5.1 5
5
(lbs/ft)
Span
(ft.)
8
550
550
9
550
550
10
550 550
480 550
11
532 550
377 542
12
444 550 550
288 455 550
13
377 479 550
225 363 510
14
324 412 500
179 289 425
15
281 358 434
145 234 344
16
246 313 380
119 192 282
17
277 336
159 234
18
246 299
134 197
19
221 268
113 167
20
199 241
97 142
21
218
123
22
199
106
23
181
93
24
166
81
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
3{19
12K3 12K5 14K1 14K3 14K4 14K6 16K2 16K3 16K4 16K5 16K6 16K7 16K9
12
12
14
14
14
14
16
16
16
16
16
5.7 7.1
5.2
6.7 7.7
5.5
6.3
7.5
550
550
511
475
448
390
395
324
352
272
315
230
284
197
257
170
234
147
214
128
196
113
180
100
166
88
154
79
143
70
550
550
550
507
550
467
495
404
441
339
395
287
356
246
322
212
293
184
268
160
245
141
226
124
209
110
193
98
180
88
550
550
550
507
550
467
550
443
530
397
475
336
428
287
388
248
353
215
322
188
295
165
272
145
251
129
233
115
216
103
550
550
512
488
456
409
408
347
368
297
333
255
303
222
277
194
254
170
234
150
216
133
200
119
186
106
173
95
161
86
151
78
142
71
550
550
550
526
508
456
455
386
410
330
371
285
337
247
308
216
283
189
260
167
240
148
223
132
207
118
193
106
180
96
168
87
158
79
550
550
550
526
550
490
547
452
493
386
447
333
406
289
371
252
340
221
313
195
289
173
268
155
249
138
232
124
216
112
203
101
190
92
550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
503
373
458
323
418
282
384
248
353
219
326
194
302
173
281
155
261
139
244
126
228
114
214
103
550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
548
405
498
351
455
307
418
269
384
238
355
211
329
188
306
168
285
151
266
137
249
124
233
112
550
550
550
510
550
463
543
428
476
351
420
291
374
245
335
207
302
177
273
153
249
132
227
116
208
101
550
550
550
510
550
463
550
434
550
396
550
366
507
317
454
269
409
230
370
198
337
172
308
150
282
132
550
550
550
507
550
467
550
443
550
408
550
383
525
347
475
299
432
259
395
226
362
199
334
175
308
56
285
139
265
124
16
550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
550
406
550
385
507
339
465
298
428
263
395
233
366
208
340
186
317
167
296
151
277
137
259
124
16
550
550
550
526
550
490
550
455
550
426
550
406
550
385
550
363
550
346
514
311
474
276
439
246
408
220
380
198
355
178
332
161
311
147
Victor Saouma
Draft
3{20
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 4
Draft
4{2
The tower is 984 feet high, and 328 feet wide at the base. The
large base was essential to provide adequate stability in the presence of wind load.
5 We can assume that the shape of the tower is parabolic. If we
take the x axis to be along the vertical axis of symmetry and y the
half width, then we know that at x = 984 the (half) width y = 0
and at x = 0 the half width is 328=2 = 164, thus the equation of
the half width is given by
y = 164 984984; x

{z
av(x)2
(4.1)
dy dv
dy
dx = dv dx
d 2
dx ax = 2ax
(4.2a)
(4.2b)
dy
984 ; x
1
dx = 2(164){z 984 }  ;{z
984 }
dy
dv
;x
= 984
2; 952
(4.3a)
dv
dx
Also
dy = tan ) = tan;1 dy
dx
dx
where is the angle measured from the x axis to the tangent to the curve.
3
2
(4.3b)
(4.4)
Victor Saouma
Draft
4.2 Loads
4{3
Width
dy
Location
Height Width/2 Estimated Actual dx
Support
0
164
328
.333 18.4o
First platform
186
108
216 240
.270 15.1o
second platform
380
62
123 110
.205 11.6o
Intermediate platform
644
20
40
.115 6.6o
Top platform
906
1
2
.0264 1.5o
Top
984
0
0
0.000 0o
4 The tower is supported by four inclined supports, each with a cross section of 800
of the tower is shown in Fig. 4.2.
2.
in
ACTUAL
CONTINUOUS
CONNECTION
An idealization
IDEALIZED
CONTINUOUS
CONNECTION
ACTUAL
POINTS OF
CONNECTION
4.2 Loads
5
6
Location
Height Dead Weight
Ground second platform
380 ft
15; 500
Second platformintermediate platform 264 ft
2; 200
intermediate platform  top
340 ft
1; 100
Total
984 ft
18; 800
k
k
k
From the actual width of the lower two platforms we can estimate the live loads (the intermediate and
top platforms would have negligible LL in comparison):
kip
1st platform: (50) (240)2 2 (1;000)
2; 880
2
2
2nd platform: (50) (110) (1;000)
600
Total:
3; 480
Hence the total vertical load is Pvert = DL + LL = 18; 800 + 3; 480 = 22; 280 .
psf
psf
ft
ft
lbs
lbs
k
k
Victor Saouma
Draft
4{4
Figure 4.3: Eiel Tower, Dead Load Idealization; (Billington and Mark 1983)
The wind pressure is known to also have a parabolic distribution (maximum at the top), the cross
sectional area over which the wind is acting is also parabolic (maximum at the base). Hence we will
simplify our analysis by considering an equivalent wind force obtained from a constant wind pressure
(force/length) and constant cross section Fig. 4.4: The pressure is assumed to be 2.6 k/ft, thus the
lateral wind force is, Fig. 4.5
(4.5)
Plat = (2:6) (984) = 2,560 acting at 984
2 = 492
k/ft
ft
ft
4.3 Reactions
Simplifying the three dimensional structure with 4 supports into a two dimensional one with two
supports, the reactions can be easily determined for this statically determinate structure, Fig.4.6.
Gravity Load
(4.6a)
(4.6b)
Lateral Load
Lateral Moment (we essentially have a cantilivered beam subjected to a uniform load). The
moment at a distance x from the support along the cantilevered beam subjected to a uniform
pressure p is given by
2
(4.7)
Mlat = p (L{z; x}) L ;2 x = p (L ;2 x)
 {z }
Force Moment arm
Victor Saouma
Draft
4.3 Reactions
4{5
Figure 4.4: Eiel Tower, Wind Load Idealization; (Billington and Mark 1983)
TOTAL
LOADS
LOADS
P
P=2560k
Q
Q=22,280k
L/2
1111
0000
0000 H
1111
0000
1111
000 0
111
0000
1111
000
111
000
000
111
V111
0
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
REACTIONS
M0
WINDWARD
SIDE
VERTICAL
FORCES
WIND
FORCES
LEEWARD
SIDE
TOTAL
Victor Saouma
Draft
4{6
Thus the lateral moment caused by the wind is parabolic. At the base (x = 0), the maximum
moment is equal to
2
2
Mlat = p (L ;2 x) = (2:6) (984 2; 0) 2 = 1,260,000 ;
(4.8)
We observe that the shape of the moment diagram is also parabolic, just like the tower itself.
This is not accidental, as nearly optimum structures have a shape which closely approximate
their moment diagram (such as the varying depth of continuous long span bridges).
To determine the resulting internal forces caused by the lateral (wind) moment, and since we
have two supports (one under tension and the other under compression) we use
1; 260; 000 = 3,850
wind
=
Rvert
= M
(4.9)
6?
d
328
Lateral Forces to be resisted by each of the two pairs. By symmetry, the lateral force will be
equally divided among the two pairs of supports and will be equal to
wind
= 1,280
Rlat
= (2; 560)
(4.10)
2
k/ft
ft
k.ft
k.ft
ft
Fy
Fx
11
=18.40
=18.4
INCLINED
INTERNAL
FORCE: N
CONSEQUENT
HORIZONTAL
COMPONENT: H
KNOWN VERTICAL
COMPONENT: V
H
FORCE POLYGON
Figure 4.7: Eiel Tower, Internal Gravity Forces; (Billington and Mark 1983)
Victor Saouma
V )N= V
cos = N
cos
(4.12a)
Draft
4.4 Internal Forces
4{7
; 140
N = 11
cos 18:4o = 11,730 kip
tan = H
V ) H = V tan
H = 11; 140 (tan 18:4o) = 3,700 kip
(4.12b)
(4.12c)
(4.12d)
The horizontal forces which must be resisted by the foundations, Fig. 4.8.
H
3700 k
3700 k
13
3;300 k
2
Nvert = cos 11
:6o = 1; 685
o
Hvert = 3; 300
2 (tan 11:6 ) = 339
(4.13a)
(4.13b)
Note that this is about seven times smaller than the axial force at the base, which for a given axial
strength, would lead the designer to reduce (or taper) the crosssection.
The horizontal force will be resisted by the axial forces in the second platform itself.
15 Wind Load: We now have determined at each pair of support the vertical and the horizontal forces
caused by the wind load, the next step is to determine their axial components along the inclined leg,
Fig. 4.9:
wind
wind
Nc = ;Rvert
cos ; Rlat
sin
o
= ;(3; 850) (cos 18:4 ) ; (1; 280) (sin 18:40)
k
=
Nt =
=
=
Victor Saouma
4,050
Leeward
wind
;R cos + Rlat
sin
o
(3; 850) (cos 18:4 ) + (1; 280) (sin 18:40)
4,050 Winward
k
wind
vert
(4.14a)
(4.14b)
(4.14c)
(4.14d)
(4.14e)
(4.14f)
Draft
4{8
18.4
3,850 k
18.4
1,280 k
Figure 4.9: Eiel Tower, Internal Wind Forces; (Billington and Mark 1983)
The total forces caused by both lateral and gravity forces can now be determined:
NLTotal = ;(11; 730) ;(4; 050) = 15,780 Leeward side

{z
}
{z
gravity
lateral
Total
;{z050) } = 7,630
NW
= ;
(11;{z730) } +(4


gravity
lateral
k
Winward side
(4.15a)
(4.15b)
We observe that even under wind load, the windward side is still under compression.
2.
17 In the idealization of the tower's geometry, the area of each pair of the simplied columns is 1; 600
and thus the maximum stresses will be determined from
T
; 780 = 9.9
comp = NAL = ;1;15600
(4.16)
2
in
ksi
in
18
ksi
Victor Saouma
(4.17)
Draft
Chapter 5
REVIEW of STATICS
To every action there is an equal
and opposite reaction.
Newton's third law of motion
5.1 Reactions
In the analysis of structures (hand calculations), it is often easier (but not always necessary) to start
by determining the reactions.
2 Once the reactions are determined, internal forces are determined next; nally, internal stresses and/or
deformations (de
ections and rotations) are determined last1 .
3 Reactions are necessary to determine foundation load.
4 Depending on the type of structures, there can be dierent types of support conditions, Fig. 5.1.
Roller: provides a restraint in only one direction in a 2D structure, in 3D structures a roller may provide
restraint in one or two directions. A roller will allow rotation.
Hinge: allows rotation but no displacements.
Fixed Support: will prevent rotation and displacements in all directions.
5.1.1 Equilibrium
5
6
7
method, we determine displacements rsts, then internal forces and reactions. This method is most suitable to computer
implementation.
In a dynamic system F = ma where m is the mass and a is the acceleration.
2
Draft
5{2
REVIEW of STATICS
(5.1)
(5.2)
For reaction calculations, the externally applied load may be reduced to an equivalent force3 .
10 Summation of the moments can be taken with respect to any arbitrary point.
11 Whereas forces are represented by a vector, moments are also vectorial quantities and are represented
by a curved arrow or a double arrow vector.
12 Not all equations are applicable to all structures, Table 5.1
13 The three conventional equations of equilibrium in 2D: Fx ; Fy and Mz can be replaced by the
independent moment equations MzA, MzB , MzC provided that A, B, and C are not colinear.
14 It is always preferable to check calculations by another equation of equilibrium.
15 Before you write an equation of equilibrium,
1. Arbitrarily decide which is the +ve direction
2. Assume a direction for the unknown quantities
3. The right hand side of the equation should be zero
9
However for internal forces (shear and moment) we must use the actual load distribution.
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.1 Reactions
5{3
Structure Type
Fx
Fy
Fy
Fx
Fy
Alternate Set
Equations
Fz
Fz
Mz
Mz
Mx My
Mx My Mz
Rx = Sy
Ry Sx
(5.3)
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{4
REVIEW of STATICS
If the reactions can not be determined simply from the equations of static equilibrium (and equations
of conditions if present), then the reactions of the structure are said to be statically indeterminate.
23 The degree of static indeterminacy is equal to the dierence between the number of reactions
and the number of equations of equilibrium (plus the number of equations of conditions if applicable),
Fig. 5.3.
22
24
26
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.1 Reactions
5{5
3. The number of reactions is smaller than the number of equations of equilibrium, that is a mechanism is present in the structure.
28 Mathematically, this can be shown if the determinant of the equations of equilibrium is equal to
zero (or the equations are interdependent).
5.1.5 Examples
29 Examples of reaction calculation will be shown next. Each example has been carefully selected as it
brings a dierent \twist" from the preceding one. Some of those same problems will be revisited later
for the determination of the internal forces and/or de
ections. Many of those problems are taken from
Prof. Gerstle textbok Basic Structural Analysis.
Solution:
The beam has 3 reactions, we have 3 equations of static equilibrium, hence it is statically determinate.
(+  ) Fx = 0; ) Rax ; 36 = 0
(+ 6) Fy = 0; ) Ray + Rdy ; 60 ; (4) (12) = 0
(+ ;) Mzc = 0; ) 12Ray ; 6Rdy ; (60)(6) = 0
k
1 0 0
0 1 1
0 12 ;6
38
<
5
:
Rax
Ray
Rdy
9
=
;
8
<
=:
36
108
360
9
=
;
8
<
):
k/ft
Rax
Ray
Rdy
9
=
;
ft
8
<
=:
36
56
52
k
k
k
9
=
;
Check:
Victor Saouma
k
k
6
6
(+ 6) Fy = 0; ; 56 ; 52 ; 60 ; 48 = 0
Draft
5{6
REVIEW of STATICS
Solution:
We have 4 unknowns (Rax ; Ray ; Rcy and Rdy ), three equations of equilibrium and one equation of
condition (Mb = 0), thus the structure is statically determinate.
1. Isolating ab:
M ;b = 0; (9)(Ray ) ; (40)(5) = 0 ) Ray = 22.2 6
(+ ;) Ma = 0; (40)(4) ; (S )(9) = 0 ) S = 17.7 6
Fx = 0;
) Rax = 30
k
2. Isolating bd:
(+ ;) Md = 0; ;(17:7)(18) ; (40)(15) ; (4)(8)(8) ; (30)(2) + Rcy (12) = 0
) Rcy = 1;12236 = 103 6
;
(+ ) Mc = 0; ;(17:7)(6) ; (40)(3) + (4)(8)(4) + (30)(10) ; Rdy (12) = 0
) Rdy = 20112:3 = 16.7 6
k
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.1 Reactions
5{7
3. Check
psf
psf
Solution:
1. Due to symmetry, we will consider only the dead load on one side of the frame.
2. Due to symmetry, there is no vertical force transmitted by the hinge for snow and dead load.
3. Roof dead load per frame is
p
1
302 + 152 1; 000
DL = (20) (30)
= 20:2 ?
psf
Victor Saouma
ft
ft
lbs/k
Draft
5{8
REVIEW of STATICS
SL = (30)
psf
1
(30) (30) 1; 000
ft
ft
lbs/k
= 27:
WL = (15)
psf
1
(30) (35) 1; 000
ft
ft
lbs/k
= 15:75
6. There are 4 reactions, 3 equations of equilibrium and one equation of condition ) statically
determinate.
7. The horizontal reaction H due to a vertical load V at midspan of the roof, is obtained by taking
moment with respect to the hinge
(+ ;) MC = 0; 15(V ) ; 30(V ) + 35(H ) = 0 ) H = 1535V = :429V
B
VDL
B
HDL
B
VSL
B
HSL
=
20:2 6
= (:429)(20:2) = 8:66 =
27: 6
= (:429)(27:) = 11:58 k
B = 4:60
) VWL
B = 3:95
) HWL
A
) HWL = 11:80
A = ;4:60
) VWL
k
k
6
?
= 24.19
= 52.3
5.2 Trusses
5.2.1 Assumptions
Cables and trusses are 2D or 3D structures composed of an assemblage of simple one dimensional
components which transfer only axial forces along their axis.
31 Trusses are extensively used for bridges, long span roofs, electric tower, space structures.
32 For trusses, it is assumed that
1. Bars are pinconnected
30
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.2 Trusses
5{9
33
Sign Convention: Tension positive, compression negative. On a truss the axial forces are indicated as
forces acting on the joints.
StressForce: = PA
StressStrain: = E"
ForceDisplacement: " = LL
Equilibrium: F = 0
In practice the bars are riveted, bolted, or welded directly to each other or to gusset plates, thus the bars are not free
to rotate and socalled secondary bending moments are developed at the bars. Another source of secondary moments
is the dead weight of the element.
4
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{10
REVIEW of STATICS
Since each joint is pinconnected, we can apply M = 0 at each one of them. Furthermore, summation
of forces applied on a joint must be equal to zero.
39 For a 2D truss we have 2 equations of equilibrium FX = 0 and FY = 0 which can be applied at
each joint. For 3D trusses we would have three equations: FX = 0, FY = 0 and FZ = 0.
40 If we refer to j as the number of joints, R the number of reactions and m the number of members,
then we would have a total of m + R unknowns and 2j (or 3j ) equations of statics (2D or 3D at each
joint). If we do not have enough equations of statics then the problem is indeterminate, if we have too
many equations then the truss is unstable, Table 5.2.
38
2D
3D
Static Indeterminacy
External
R>3
R>6
Internal m + R > 2j m + R > 3j
Unstable m + R < 2j m + R < 3j
Table 5.2: Static Determinacy and Stability of Trusses
Fig. 5.6 shows a truss with 4 reactions, thus it is externally indeterminate. This truss has 6 joints
(j = 6), 4 reactions (R = 4) and 9 members (m = 9). Thus we have a total of m + R = 9 + 4 = 13
unknowns and 2 j = 2 6 = 12 equations of equilibrium, thus the truss is statically indeterminate.
41
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.2 Trusses
5{11
5. Because truss elements can only carry axial forces, the resultant force (F~ = F~x + F~y ) must be
along the member, Fig. 5.7.
F = Fx = Fy
l lx ly
(5.4)
44 Always keep track of the x and y components of a member force (Fx , Fy ), as those might be needed
later on when considering the force equilibrium at another joint to which the member is connected.
45
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{12
REVIEW of STATICS
Solution:
1. R = 3, m = 13, 2j = 16, and m + R = 2j
2. We compute the reactions
(+ 6) Fy = 0; ) FAHy ; 58 = 0
FAH = lly (FAHy )
p
ly = 32
l = 322 + 242 = 40
Compression
) FAH = 40
32 (58) = 72:5
(+  ) Fx = 0; ) ;FAHx + FAB = 0
FAB = llxy (FAHy ) = 24
32 (58) = 43:5 Tension
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.2 Trusses
5{13
Node B:
Node H:
Node E:
k
k
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{14
REVIEW of STATICS
4. We could check our calculations by verifying equilibrium of forces at a node not previously used,
such as D
Later on, in more advanced analysis courses we will use a dierent one.
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{15
2D:
Load Positive along the beam's local y axis (assuming a right hand side convention), that is
positive upward.
Axial: tension positive.
Flexure A positive moment is one which causes tension in the lower bers, and compression in
the upper ones. For frame members, a positive moment is one which causes tension along the
inner side.
Shear A positive shear force is one which is \up" on a negative face, or \down" on a positive one.
Alternatively, a pair of positive shear forces will cause clockwise rotation.
Torsion Counterclockwise
Draftpositive
3D: Use double arrow vectors (and NOT curved arrows). Forces
and moments
(including torsions) are
x
6M
dened with respect to a right hand side coordinate system,
Fig.
5.10.
*
6
y
* Tx
*
Mz
6M
y
6
6
>

 z
>
Figure 5.10:
for 3D Frame Elements
M
Sign Conventions
Tx
In this derivation, as in all other ones we should assume all quantities to be positive.
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{16
54
or
REVIEW of STATICS
dV = w(x)
dx
(5.5)
The slope of the shear curve at any point along the axis of a member is given by
the load curve at that point.
55
Similarly
(+ ;) Mo = 0 ) Mx + Vx dx ; wx dx dx
2 ; (Mx + dMx ) = 0
Neglecting the dx2 term, this simplies to
dM = V (x)
dx
(5.6)
The slope of the moment curve at any point along the axis of a member is given
by the shear at that point.
56
V =
w(x)dx
x2
x1
(5.7)
w(x)dx (5.8)
The change in shear between 1 and 2, V21 , is equal to the area under the load
between x1 and x2 .
and
M =
V (x)dx
M21 = M2 ; M1 =
x2
x1
(5.9)
V (x)dx (5.10)
The change in moment between 1 and 2, M21, is equal to the area under the
shear curve between x1 and x2 .
Note that we still need to have V1 and M1 in order to obtain V2 and M2 respectively.
58 Fig. 5.12 and 5.13 further illustrates the variation in internal shear and moment under uniform and
concentrated forces/moment.
57
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{17
Figure 5.12: Shear and Moment Forces at Dierent Sections of a Loaded Beam
Positive Constant
Negative Constant
Positive Constant
Negative Constant
Load
Shear
Shear
Moment
Figure 5.13: Slope Relations Between Load Intensity and Shear, or Between Shear and Moment
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{18
REVIEW of STATICS
5.3.1.4 Examples
Example 511: Simple Shear and Moment Diagram
Draw the shear and moment diagram for the beam shown below
Solution:
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{19
5.
Moment
1.
2.
3.
Solution:
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{20
REVIEW of STATICS
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{21
)
(+ ;) MA = 0; )
)
(+ 6) Fy = 0; )
)
load
RAx = 36
Shear:
1. For A ; B , the shear is constant, equal to the horizontal reaction at A and negative according
to our previously dened sign convention, VA = ;36
2. For member B ; C at B , the shear must be equal to the vertical force which was transmitted
along A ; B , and which is equal to the vertical reaction at A, VB = 64:06.
3. Since B ; C is subjected to a uniform negative load, the shear along B ; C will have a slope
equal to ;3 and in terms of x (measured from B to C ) is equal to
VB;C (x) = 64:06 ; 3x
k
4. The shear along C ; D is obtained by decomposing the vertical reaction at D into axial and
shear components. Thus at D the shear is equal to 53 52:96 = 31:78 and is negative. Based
on our sign convention for the load, the slope of the shear must be equal to ;3 along C ; D.
Thus the shear at point C is such that Vc ; 53 9(3) = ;31:78 or Vc = 13:22. The equation for
the shear is given by (for x going from C to D)
V = 13:22 ; 3x
k
Moment:
1. Along A ; B , the moment is zero at A (since we have a hinge), and its slope is equal to the
shear, thus at B the moment is equal to (;36)(12) = ;432
2. Along B ; C , the moment is equal to
k.ft
k.ft
Victor Saouma
ft
k.ft
Draft
5{22
REVIEW of STATICS
4. Finally along C ; D, the moment varies quadratically (since we had a linear shear), the
moment rst increases (positive shear), and then decreases (negative shear). The moment
along C ; D is given by
R
R
MC ;D = MC + 0x VC ;D (x)dx2 = 139:8 + 0x (13:22 ; 3x)dx
= 139:8 + 13:22x ; 3 x2
which is a parabola.
2
Substituting for xp= 15, we obtain at node C MC = 139:8 + 13:22(15) ; 3 152 = 139:8 +
198:3 ; 337:5 = 0
Solution:
The hydrostatic pressure causes lateral forces on the vertical members which can be treated as
cantilevers xed at the lower end.
The pressure is linear and is given by p =
h. Since each frame supports a 2 ft wide slice of the
ume, the equation for w (pounds/foot) is
w = (2)(62:4)(h)
= 124:8h
At the base w = (124:8)(6) = 749
= :749
Note that this is both the lateral pressure on the
end walls as well as the uniform load on the horizontal members.
lbs/ft
lbs/ft
Victor Saouma
k/ft
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{23
End Actions
k.ft
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{24
REVIEW of STATICS
k.ft
k.ft
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{25
12
10
30k
5k/ft
2k/ft
Vba
10k
C
Vbc
bd
M ba H
VA
20k
Vbd
52.5k
M bc
M bd
30k
15
0
0
0
650k
450k
HD
4k/ft
200k
82.5k
VD
CHECK
30k
10k
5k/ft
B
M bc
M ba
Vba
17.5k
2k/ft
Hbc
Hba
C
Vbc
(10)+(2)(10) 30k
17.5k
17.55*x=0
22.5k
3.5
22.5+(30)
10k
Vbc
M bc
200k
17.5(5)(8)
(10)(10)+(2)(10)(10)/2
Vba
52.5k
30.6k
(17.5)(3.5)/2
20k
(17.5)(3.5)/2+(22.5)(83.5)/2
(52.5)(12)+(20)
650k
M ba
Vbd
M bd
50k
Victor Saouma
20k
450k
(50)(15)[(4)(5)/2][(2)(15)/3)]
(50)(4)(15)/2
450k
Hbd
20k
4k/ft
50k
82.5k
Draft
5{26
REVIEW of STATICS
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{27
26k
26k
10
13
10
13
13
20k
C
13
5
12
15
B
2k/ft
20
Ha
36
20
Ve
48.8k
2k/ft
60k
Fx
F
800k
z
y
Fy
20k
60(2)(20)
20k
(20)(20)+(6020)(20)/2
19.2k
800k
(60)(20)(2)(20)(20)/2
Va
0k
x
F/Fy=z/x
F/Fx=z/y
Fx/Fy=y/x
60k
2
11.1k
26.6k
800k
8k
28.8k
20k
8k
12k
20k
778k
29.3k
48.9k
777k
1130
9 BC
.1
16 k
11 CD
(39.1)(12.5)
488k
12 CD
14
13
1k
2k
112
777k
48
800k
+60k
+20k
0k
113
23
.1
k
k k
8
6
.
5
.
6
0
2
39
.
(20)(12)/(13)=18.46
(19.2)(5)/(13)=7.38
(19.2)(12)/(13)=17.72
(26)(12)/(13)=24
(26.6)(13)/(12)=28.8
(26.6)(5)/(12)=11.1
(28.8)(4)/(5)=23.1
(28.8)(3)/(5)=17.28
(20)(4)/(5)=16
(20)(3)/(5)=12
(39.1)(5)/(4)=48.9
(39.1)(3)/(4)=29.3
1,130(.58)(13)
k
800+(25.4)(13)
1122
3.1
8 BC
777
25.42
.1k
2 39
1,122(26.6)(13)
k
k 26.6
0.58 26 0.626
488+(23.1)(12.5)
+25
+25.4
10
23
8.7
17.7+ .4k
800k
0k
0k
39.1k
19.2k
(20)(15)/13=7.7
17.2
18.46k
7.38k
17.72k
16k
0k
24k
24k
10k
28.8k
778k
10k
26k
48.8k
4
1k
26k
23.
201010
19.2k
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{28
REVIEW of STATICS
5.3.2 Formulaes
Adapted from (of Steel COnstruction 1986)
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{29
w L
R
R
L / 2
R
Vx
= V
= w L2 ; x
2
at center Mmax = wL
8
Mx = wx
2 (L ;4 x)
5 wL
max = 384
EI 3
2
3
x
= 24wx
EI (L ; 2Lx + x )
L / 2
Shear
M max.
Moment
= W3
= 2W
3
2
W
= 3 ; Wx
2
L
= :1283WL
2
2
= Wx
3L2 (L ; x )
3
= :01304 WL
EI
3
4
2 2
4
= 180Wx
EIL2 (3x ; 10L x + 7L )
R=V
for x < L2 Vx
at center Mmax
for x < L2 Mx
for x < L2 x
max
Victor Saouma
W
2
W
2
2
2WL
L2 (L ; 4x )
6
2
1
2
x
= Wx 2 ; 3 L2
2
22
= 480Wx
2 (5L ; 4x )
EIL
3
WL
= 60
EI
=
=
=
Draft
5{30
REVIEW of STATICS
R1 = V1
R2 = V2
Vx
Mx
Mx
Mx
Mmax
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
wb
2L (2c + b)
wb
2L (2a + b)
R1 ; w(x ; a)
R1 x
R1 x ; w2 (x ; a)2
R2 (L ; x)
R1 a + 2Rw1
max R1 = V1
R=V
at x = L2 Mmax
when x < L2 Mx
whenx < L2 x
at x = L2 max
wa (2L ; a)
2L
2P
PL
4
Px
2Px
2
2
48EI3 (3L ; 4x )
PL
= 48
EI
=
=
=
=
=
at x =
Victor Saouma
R1 = V1
R2 = V2
Mmax
Mx
at x = a a
when x < a x
a(a+2b) & a > b
max
3
Pb
L
Pa
L
Pab
L
Pbx
L2 2
Pa
b
= 3EIL
2 b2 ; x2 )
= 6Pbx
EIL (L ; p
Pab(a + 2b) 3a(a + 2b)
=
27EIL
=
=
=
=
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{31
R=V = P
Mmax = Pa
max = 24Pa
(3L2 ; 4a2 )
EI
(3La ; 3a2 ; x2 )
when x < a x
= 6Px
EI
2
2
when a < x < L ; a x
= 6Pa
EI (3Lx ; 3x ; a )
R1 = V1
R2 = V2
Vx
M1
M2
Mx
Mx
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
P ( L ; a + b)
PL (L ; b + a)
PL (b ; a)
L
R1 a
R2 b
R1 x
R1 x ; P (x ; a)
at x = :4215L max
Victor Saouma
=
=
=
=
=
3 wL
85
8 wL
R1 ; wx
wL2
98 wL2
128
= R1 x ; wx2
3
+ 3
= 48wx
EI4 (L ; 3Lx 2x )
wL
= 185
EI
Draft
5{32
REVIEW of STATICS
R1 = V1
R2 = V2
at x = L Mmax
when x < L2 Mx
when L2 < x Mx
at x = :4472L max
=
=
=
=
5P
16P
11
316
PL
16
5Px
16
x
= P L2 ; 11
16
3
= :009317 PL
EI
2L+a
max
Pb2 (a + 2L)
2Pa
L3
2
2
2L3 (3L ; a )
R1 a
Pab (a + L)
2L2 2 3
b
= 12Pa
EIL32(3L +2 a3 )
(L ; a )
= 3Pa
EI2(3rL2 ; a2 )2
a
= Pab
6EI 2L + a2
=
=
=
=
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{33
R = V = P2
at x = L2 Mmax = PL
8
when x < L2 Mx
= P8 (4x ; L)
PL3
at x = L2 max = 192
EI
2
Px
L
when x < 2 x
= 48EI (3L ; 4x)
R=V
Vx
at x = L Mmax
Mx
x
at x = 0 max
= 83 W
2
= W Lx 2
= WL
3
2
= Wx
3LW2
= 60EIL2 (x5 ; 5L2x + 4L5 )
WL3
= 15
EI
R=V
Vx
Mx
at x = L Mmax
x
at x = 0 max
Victor Saouma
= wL
= wx
2
= wx2
2
= wL
2
= 24wEI (x4 ; 4L3 x + 3L4 )
4
= wL
8EI
Draft
5{34
REVIEW of STATICS
R=V
at x = L Mmax
when a < x Mx
at x = 0 max
at x = a a
when x < a x
when a < x x
P
Pb
P (x ; a)
Pb2 (3L ; b)
6EI3
= 3Pb
EI2
= 6Pb
EI (3L ;2 3x ; b)
; x) (3b ; L + x)
= P (L6EI
=
=
=
=
R=V = P
at x = L Mmax = PL
Mx
= Px
3
at x = 0 max = PL
3PEI
(2L3 ; 3L2x + x3 )
x
= 6EI
R=V = P
Mx
= P L2 ; x
at x = 0 and x = L Mmax = PL
2
PL3
at x = 0 max = 12
EI 2
P
(
L ; x) ((L + 2x)
x
=
12EI
Victor Saouma
Draft
5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams
5{35
R1 = V1
R2 = V2 + V3
R3 = V3
V2
Mmax
at x = L M1
Victor Saouma
=
=
=
=
=
=
Draft
5{36
REVIEW of STATICS
b
x
L2 ; M1 + M2 + M1 ; M2 2
4
wl
w
wx
3
M
4
M
1
3
= 24EI x ; 2L + wL ; wL2 x2
+ 12wM1 x + L3 ; 8Mw1 L ; 4Mw2L
Victor Saouma
P + M1 ; M2
LM
P2 ; M1 ;
2
2PL ML+ M
; 1 2 2
4
M2 x ; M
= P2 + M1 ;
1
L
M2 x ; M
= P2 (L ; x) + M1 ;
1
L
2
Px
= 48EI 3L ; 4x2
8(
L
;
x
)
; PL (M1 (2L ; x) + M2(L + x))
=
=
=
Draft
5.4 Flexure
5{37
at 0 < x < L
at L < x< L + a
at x = L2 1 ; La22
at x = L
at 0 < x < L
at L < x < L + a
at 0 < x < L x
at L < x < L + a x1
R1 = V1
R2 = V2 + V3
at 0 < x < L
at L < x< L + a
2
at x = L2 1 ; La 2
at x = L
V2
V3
Vx
Vx1
M1
M2
Mx
Mx1
at 0 < x < L
at L < x < L + a
at 0 < x < L x
at L < x < L + a x1
5.4 Flexure
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
R1 = V1
R2 = V2 + V3
V2
V3
Vx
Vx1
M1
M2
Mx
Mx1
w (L2 ; a2 )
2wL
2
2L (L + a)
wa
w (L2 + a2 )
2L
R1 ; wx
w(a ; x1 )
w
2
2
8L22 (L + a) (L ; a)
= wa2
2
2
= wx
2wL (L ; a2 ; xL)
= (a ; x )
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
61
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{38
REVIEW of STATICS
O
+ve Curvature, +ve bending
d
ve Curvature, ve Bending
Neutral Axis
F
Y
dA
dx
d = dx
(5.12)
(5.13)
0 F 0 ; EF dx ; y dx
E
; dx
"x = EF
=
dx
(5.14)
"x = ; y
(5.15)
where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis). Thus strains are proportional to the
distance from the neutral axis.
64 (Greek letter rho) is the radius of curvature. In some textbook, the curvature (Greek letter
kappa) is also used where
= 1
(5.16)
thus,
"x = ;y
Victor Saouma
(5.17)
Draft
5.4 Flexure
5{39
x = E"x
(5.18)
x = ;Ey
(5.19)
68
x dA = ;
EydA = 0
(5.21a)
But since the curvature and the modulus of elasticity E are constants, we conclude that
Z
ydA = 0
(5.22)
or the rst moment of the cross section with respect to the z axis is zero. Hence we conclude that the
The second equation of internal equilibrium which must be satised is the summation of moments.
However contrarily to the summation of axial forces, we now have an external moment to account for,
72
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{40
REVIEW of STATICS
the one from the moment diagram at that particular location where the beam was sliced, hence
Z
(5.24)
We now pause and dene the section moment of inertia with respect to the z axis as
I def
=
and section modulus as
75
(5.23)
y2 dA
(5.25)
S def
= Ic
(5.26)
76
M = E
I =
y2 dA
y2 dA
9
>
=
>
;
M
1
EI = =
(5.27)
which shows that the curvature of the longitudinal axis of a beam is proportional to the bending moment
M and inversely proportional to EI which we call
exural rigidity.
78 Finally, inserting Eq. 5.19 above, we obtain
x = ;Ey = ; My
(5.28)
x
M
I
= EI
Hence, for a positive y (above neutral axis), and a positive moment, we will have compressive stresses
above the neutral axis.
79 Alternatively, the maximum ber stresses can be obtained by combining the preceding equation with
Equation 5.26
x = ; M
S
(5.29)
Draft
5.4 Flexure
5{41
A
x
y
Ix
Iy
X
y
=
=
=
=
=
bh
b
2h
2
bh3
12
hb3
h h
A
x
y
Ix
Iy
X
y
12
b
b
=
=
=
=
=
bh ; b0 h0
b
2h
2
A = h(a2+b)
y = h3((2aa++bb))
3 a2 +4ab+b2
Ix = h (36(
a+b)
X
y
X
y
b
A
x
y
Ix
Iy
=
=
=
=
=
bh
b2+c
h3
3
bh3
36 2
bh
(b ; bc + c2 )
36
r
X
A = r42 = d4 42
Ix = Iy = r4 = d64
A = 2rt = dt3
Ix = Iy = r3 t = d8 t
b
X
b
a
A = ab3
Ix = ab3 3
Iy = ba4
Table 5.3: Section Properties
Victor Saouma
Draft
5{42
REVIEW of STATICS
A 20 ft long, uniformly loaded, beam is simply supported at one end, and rigidly connected at the
other. The beam is composed of a steel tube with thickness t = 0:25 . Select the radius such that
max 18 , and max L=360.
in
ksi
1 k/ft
r
0.25
20
Solution:
wL , and I = r3 t.
1. Steel has E = 29; 000 , and from above Mmax = wL8 , max = 185
EI
2. The maximum moment will be
2 (1)
(20)2 2 = 50
Mmax = wL
=
8
8
2
ksi
k/ft
(5.30)
ft
k.ft
I = r t
=
=
=
wL4
185Er3 t 4 4 3 3 3
(1) k/ft(20) ft (12) in = ft
(185)(29;000) ksi(3:14)r3 (0:25) in
65:365
(5.31)
= MS
S = Ir
I = r3 t
9
=
;
= rM2 t
(50)
= (3:14)r2(12)
(0:25)
= 764
r2
k.ft
(5.32)
in/ft
in
L = (20) (12)
max = 360
360
ft
max = (18)
ksi
in/ft
= 0:67 = 65r:365 ) r =
in
= 764
r2 ) r =
764 = 6.51
18
in
r
3
65:65 = 4:61
0:67
in
(5.33a)
(5.33b)
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5.4 Flexure
5{43
1. A positive and negative moment would correspond to positive and negative curvature respectively
(adopting the sign convention shown in Fig. 5.14).
2. A zero moment correspnds to an in
ection point in the de
ected shape.
82
Hence, for
Statically determinate structure, we can determine the de
ected shape from the moment diagram,
Fig. 5.15.
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5{44
REVIEW of STATICS
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Draft
5.4 Flexure
5{45
20k
16
12
28
28
Solution:
20k
16
12
28
22
28
28
B
22
C
6
D
28
1. We have 3 unknowns RA , RC , and RD , all in the vertical directions, and only two applicable
equations of equilibrium (since we do not have any force in the x direction), thus the problem is
statically indeterminare.
2. We sketch the anticipated de
ected shape, and guess the location of the in
ection point.
3. At that location, we place a hinge, and we now have an additional equation of condition at that
location (M = 0).
Victor Saouma
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5{46
REVIEW of STATICS
(5.34a)
6. Check
(5.36a)
(5.37a)
(5.37b)
8. We now compare with the exact solution from Section 5.3.2, solution 21 where:L = 28, a = 16,
b = 12, and P = 20
2
R1 = RA = 4Pb
4
L
;
a
(
L
+
a
)
3
L
2 ; (16)(28 + 16) = 6.64
= (20)(12)
4(28)
3
4(28)
Pa
R2 = RB = 2L3 2L2 + b(L + a)
2 + 12(28 + 16) = 15.28
2(28)
= (20)(16)
3
2(28)
R3 = RD = ; Pab
4L3 (L + a)
= ; (20)(16)(12)
4(28)3 (28 + 16) = ;1.92
Mmax = R1 a = (6:64)(16) = 106.2
M1 = R3 L = (1:92)(28) = 53.8
(5.38a)
(5.38b)
(5.38c)
(5.38d)
(5.38e)
(5.38f)
(5.38g)
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5.4 Flexure
5{47
Victor Saouma
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5{48
REVIEW of STATICS
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 6
T
V
x w(x)
v(x)
dv
ds
dx
L
dx
V+dV
H
T+dT
d (H tan ) = w
d(H tan ) + wdx = 0 ) ; dx
(6.3)
Draft
6{2
2
But H is constant (no horizontal load is applied), thus, this last equation can be rewritten as
d (tan ) = w
;H dx
(6.4)
4 For a cable subjected to a uniform load w , we can determine its shape by double integration of Eq.
6.5
;Hv0 = wx + C1
2
;Hv = wx2 + C1 x + C2
(6.6a)
(6.6b)
and the constants of integrations C1 and C2 can be obtained from the boundary conditions: v = 0 at
x = 0 and at x = L ) C2 = 0 and C1 = ; wL
2 . Thus
v = 2wH x(L ; x)
(6.7)
This equation gives the shape v(x) in terms of the horizontal force H ,
L ) we can solve for the horizontal force
5 Since the maximum sag h occurs at midspan (x =
2
2
H = wL
8h
(6.8)
we note the
analogy with the maximum moment in a simply supported uniformly loaded beam M =
Hh = wL8 2 . Furthermore, this relation clearly shows that the horizontal force is inversely proportional
to the sag h, as h & H %. Finally, we can rewrite this equation as
r def
= Lh
wL = 8r
H
6
(6.9a)
(6.9b)
2
v = 4h ; Lx 2 + Lx
(6.10)
Thus the cable assumes a parabolic shape (as the moment diagram of the applied load).
7 Whereas the horizontal force H is constant throughout the cable, the tension T is not. The maximum
tension occurs at the support where the vertical component is equal to V = wL
2 and the horizontal one
to H , thus
s
s
2
2
p
wL
2 = H 1 + wL=2
Tmax = V 2 + H 2 =
+
H
(6.11)
2
H
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6.2 The Case Study
6{3
(6.12)
Had we assumed a uniform load w per length of cable (rather than horizontal projection), the
equation would have been one of a catenary2.
w L
v=H
w cosh H 2 ; x
(6.13)
+h
The George Washington bridge, is a suspension bridge spanning the Hudson river from New York City
to New Jersey. It was completed in 1931 with a central span of 3,500 ft (at the time the world's longest
span). The bridge was designed by O.H. Amman, who had emigrated from Switzerland. In 1962 the
deck was stiened with the addition of a lower deck.
6.2.1 Geometry
A longitudinal and plan elevation of the bridge is shown in For simplicity we will assume in our
analysis that the two approaching spans are equal to 650 ft.
11 There are two cables of three feet diameter on each side of the bridge. The centers of each pair are 9
ft apart, and the pairs themselves are 106 ft apart. We will assume a span width of 100 ft.
12 The cables are idealized as supported by rollers at the top of the towers, hence the horizontal components of the forces in each side of the cable must be equal (their vertical components will add up).
13 The cables support the road deck which is hungby suspenders attached at the cables. The cables are
made of 26,474 steel wires, each 0.196 inch in diameter. They are continuous over the tower supports
and are rmly anchored in both banks by huge blocks of concrete, the anchors.
I
14 Because the cables are much longer than they are thick (large
L ), they can be idealized a perfectly
exible members with no shear/bending resistance but with high axial strength.
15 The towers are 578 ft tall and rest on concrete caissons in the river. Because of our assumption
regarding the roller support for the cables, the towers will be subjected only to axial forces.
10
6.2.2 Loads
The dead load is composed of the weight of the deck and the cables and is estimated at 390 and 400
psf respectively for the central and side spans respectively. Assuming an average width of 100 ft, this
2
3
Recalling that (a + b)n = an + nan; b + n n; an; b + or (1 + b)n = 1 + nb + n n; b + n n; n; b + ;
p
1
Thus for b << 1, 1 + b = (1 + b) 2 1 + b
16
1)
2 2
2!
1)
2!
1)(
2)
3!
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6{4
??
377 ft
610 ft
327 ft
3,500 ft
650 ft
4,760 ft
ELEVATION
N.J.
HUDSON RIVER
N.Y.
PLAN
Figure 6.2: Longitudinal and Plan Elevation of the George Washington Bridge
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Draft
6.2 The Case Study
6{5
would be equivalent to
psf
ft
lbs
= 39
(6.14)
k/ft
ft
k/ft
8
k/ft
(6.15)
The thrust H (which is the horizontal component of the cable force) is determined from Eq. 6.8
2
H = wL8hcs
(3;500)
= (47) (8)(327)
= 220; 000
k/ft
ft
ft
Victor Saouma
Draft
6{6
wD,S = 40 k/ft
wD = 39 k/ft
wD,S = 40 k/ft
DEAD LOADS
wL = 8 k/ft
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Draft
6.2 The Case Study
6{7
h = 327 = 0:0934
Lcs
p 3;500
H 1 + 16pr2
(2; 200) 1 + (16)(0:0934)2
(2; 200) (1:0675) = 235,000
k
6.2.4 Reactions
21
The vertical force in the columns due to the central span (cs) is simply the support reaction, 6.6
wTOT = 39 + 8 = 47 k/ft
B
REACTIONS AT
TOP OF TOWER
POINT OF NO
MOMENT
L = 3,500 FT
k/ft
ft
Note that we can check this by determining the vector sum of H and V which should be equal to Tmax :
p
p
Vcs + H = (82; 250) + (220; 000) = 235; 000 kp
2
(6.16)
(6.17)
Along the side spans (ss), the total load is TL = 40 + 8 = 48 . We determine the vertical reaction
by taking the summation of moments with respect to the anchor:
(6.18a)
MD = 0; ;+; hssH + (wss Lss) L2ss ; Vss Lss = 0
23
Victor Saouma
k/ft
Draft
6{8
24
(650) (650)
2 ; 650Vss = 0
Vss = 143; 200
ft
k/ft
ft
25
(6.18b)
(6.18c)
(6.19)
The vertical reaction at the anchor is given by summation of the forces in the y direction, Fig. 6.7:
(6.20a)
(+ 6) Fy = 0; (wss Lss) + Vss + Ranchor = 0
;(48) (650) + (143; 200) + Ranchor = 0
(6.20b)
Ranchor = 112,000 ?
(6.20c)
(6.20d)
k/ft
ft
225,450 k
220,000 k
112,000 k
The axial force in the side cable is determined the vector sum of the horizontal and vertical reactions.
q
p
ss
2
Tanchor
= Ranchor
+ H 2 = (112; 000)2 + (220; 000)2 = 247; 000
(6.21a)
q
p
ss
Ttower
= Vss2 + H 2 = (143; 200)2 + (220; 000)2 = 262,500
(6.21b)
k
27
ksi
in
in
ksi
in
in
ksi
in
Victor Saouma
(6.22a)
2 =wire = 3; 200 (6.22b)
2
in
in
(6.22c)
(6.22d)
(6.22e)
Draft
6.2 The Case Study
6{9
73.4 ksi
81.9 ksi
68.75 ksi
77.2 ksi
28
lbs
lbs ft
ft
The deck, for all practical purposes can be treated as a continuous beam supported by elastic springs
with stiness K = AL=E (where L is the length of the supporting cable). This is often idealized as
a beam on elastic foundations, and the resulting shear and moment diagrams for this idealization are
shown in Fig. 6.9.
29
K=AL/E
Shear
Moment
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6{10
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 7
A BRIEF HISTORY OF
STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE
If I have been able to see a little farther than some others,
it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.
Sir Isaac Newton
1 More than any other engineering discipline, Architecture/Mechanics/Structures is the proud outcome
of a of a long and distinguished history. Our profession, second oldest, would be better appreciated if
we were to develop a sense of our evolution.
7.2 Greeks
The greek philosopher Pythagoras (born around 582 B.C.) founded his famous school, which was
primarily a secret religious society, at Crotona in southern Italy. At his school he allowed neither
textbooks nor recording of notes in lectures, on pain of death. He taught until the age of 95, and is
Draft
7{2
228. If a builder build a house for some one and complete it, he shall
give him a fee of two shekels in money for each sar of surface.
229 If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it
properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then
that builder shall be put to death.
230. If it kill the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be put to
death.
231. If it kill a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave to
the owner of the house.
232. If it ruin goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been
ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which
he built and it fell, he shall reerect the house from his own means.
233. If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has not yet
completed it; if then the walls seem toppling, the builder must make the
walls solid from his own means.
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7.3 Romans
7{3
7.3 Romans
Science made much less progress under the Romans than under the Greeks. The Romans apparently
were more practical, and were not as interested in abstract thinking though they were excellent ghters
and builders.
11 As the roman empire expanded, the Romans built great roads (some of them still in use) such as the
Via Appia, Cassia, Aurelia; Also they built great bridges (such as the third of a mile bridge over the
Rhine built by Caesars), and stadium (Colliseum).
12 One of the most notable Roman construction was the Pantheon, Fig. 7.3. It is the bestpreserved
10
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Draft
7{4
1960) is the oldest surviving work on the subject and consists of dissertations on a wide variety of
subjects relating to architecture, engineering, sanitation, practical hydraulics, acoustic vases, and the
like. Much of the material appears to have been taken from earlier extinct treatises by Greek architects.
Vitruvius's writings have been studied ever since the Renaissance as a thesaurus of the art of classical
Roman architecture, Fig. 7.4.
14
Victor Saouma
Draft
7.5 The Renaissance
7{5
During the Renaissance there was a major revival of interest in science and art.
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{6
He was the rst to explore concepts of mechanics, since Archimedes, using a scientic approach.
He applied the principle of virtual displacements to analyze various systems of pulleys and levers. He
appears to have developped a correct idea of the thrust produced by an arch.
25 In one of his manuscripts there is a sketch of two members on which a vertical load Q is acting and
the question is asked: What forces are needed at a and b to have equilibrium? (From the dotted line
parallelogram, in the sketch, it can be concluded that he had the right answer).
26 Leonardo also studied the strength of structural materials experimentally. He tried to determine the
tensile strength of an iron wire of dierent length (size eect).
27 He also studied the load carrying capacity of a simply supported uniformly loaded beam and concluded
that \the strength of the beam supported at both ends varies inversely as the length and directly as the
width" (is this correct? how about the depth of the beam?).
28 For a cantilevered beam he stated
\If a beam 2 braccia long supports 100 libre, a beam 1 braccia long will support 200"
Finally, Leonardo brie
y studied the strength of columns and found that
\it varies inversely as its length, but directly as some ratio of its cross section."
24
Leonardo's was the rst indeed to attempt to apply statics in nding the forces acting in members of
structures, friction and the rst to perform experiments to determine the strength of structural materials.
30 Interestingly, here is Leonardo's denition of force, (Penvenuto 1991)
\I say that force is a spiritual virtue, an invisible power, which, through accidental exterior
violence, is caused by motion and placed and infused into bodies which are [thus] removed
and deviated from their natural use, giving to such virtue an active life of marvelous power".
29
Unfortunatly, these important ndings, were buried in his notes, and engineers in the fteenth and
sixteenth centuries continued, as in the Roman era, to x dimensions of structural elements by relying
on experience and judgment.
31
32
Victor Saouma
Draft
7.5 The Renaissance
7{7
33 He was born in Florence in 1377 and received his early training as an artisan in silver and gold. In 1401
he entered, and lost, the famous design competition for the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery. He
then turned to architecture and in 1418 received the commission to execute the dome of the unnished
Gothic Cathedral of Florence, also called the Duomo. The dome, Fig. 7.6 a great innovation both
36
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{8
He was born in Genoa, the son of a Florentine noble. He received the best education available in
the 15th century. He was procient in Greek, mathematics, and the natural sciences. As a poet, a
philosopher, and one of the rst organists of his day, Alberti greatly in
uenced his contemporaries.
38 Alberti's architectural training began with the study of antique monuments during his rst stay in
Rome. Subsequently he joined the papal court in Florence, where he became intensely involved with the
cultural life of the city. Probably at this time he became familiar with the mathematical laws of linear
perspective, which Brunelleschi had studied.
39 Alberti took took an active part in the literary life of Florence and championed the literary use of
Italian rather than the use of Latin.
40 In the late 1440s, Alberti began to work as an architect. Although his buildings rank among the best
architecture of the Renaissance, he was a theoretical rather than a practical architect. He furnished
the plans of his buildings but never supervised their construction. His De Re Aedicatoria (1485) was
the rst printed work on architecture of the Renaissance. He also wrote books on sculpture, the family,
government, and literature.
37
41
7.5.5 Stevin
Stevin, Fig. 7.8, was a Dutch mathematician and engineer who founded the science of hydrostatics
by showing that the pressure exerted by a liquid upon a given surface depends on the height of the liquid
and the area of the surface.
45 Stevin was a bookkeeper in Antwerp, then a clerk in the tax oce at Brugge. After this he moved to
Leiden where he rst attended the Latin school, then he entered the University of Leiden in 1583 (at the
age of 35). While quartermaster in the Dutch army, Stevin invented a way of
ooding the lowlands in
the path of an invading army by opening selected sluices in dikes. He was an outstanding engineer who
44
Victor Saouma
Draft
7.5 The Renaissance
7{9
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{10
built windmills, locks and ports. He advised the Prince Maurice of Nassau on building fortications for
the war against Spain.
46 The author of 11 books, Stevin made signicant contributions to trigonometry, geography, fortication, and navigation. Inspired by Archimedes, Stevin wrote important works on mechanics. In his book
De Beghinselen der Weeghconst in 1586 appears the theorem of the triangle of forces giving impetus to
statics. In 1586 (3 years before Galileo) he reported that dierent weights fell a given distance in the
same time.
Victor Saouma
Draft
7.5 The Renaissance
7{11
When he was almost seventy years old, his life shattered by the Inquisition, he retired to his villa
near Florence and wrote his nal book, Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences, (Galilei 1974), Fig.
7.10. His rst science was the study of the forces that hold objects together the dialogue taking place
51
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{12
entire responsibility for Galileo's condemnation has customarily been placed on the Roman Catholic
church. This conceals the role of the philosophy professors who rst persuaded theologians to link
Galileo's science with heresy. An investigation into the astronomer's condemnation, calling for its reversal, was opened in 1979 by Pope John Paul II. In October 1992 a papal commission acknowledged the
Vatican's error.
Hooke was best known for his study of elasticity but also original contributions to many other elds
of science.
56 Hooke was born on the Isle of Wight and educated at the University of Oxford. He served as assistant
to the English physicist Robert Boyle and assisted him in the construction of the air pump. In 1662
Hooke was appointed curator of experiments of the Royal Society and served in this position until his
death. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1663 and was appointed Gresham Professor of
Geometry at Oxford in 1665. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, he was appointed surveyor of
London, and he designed many buildings.
57 Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time but failed to carry
many of them through to completion. He formulated the theory of planetary motion as a problem in
mechanics, and grasped, but did not develop mathematically, the fundamental theory on which Newton
formulated the law of gravitation.
58 His most important contribution was published in 1678 in the paper De Potentia Restitutiva. It
contained results of his experiments with elastic bodies, and was the rst paper in which the elastic
properties of material was discused, Fig. 7.12.
55
Victor Saouma
Draft
7.6 Pre Modern Period, Seventeenth Century
7{13
said distance,then put inweights into the said scale and measure the several stretchings of the
said string, and set them down. Then compare the several strtchings of the said string, and
you will nd that they will always bear the same proportions one to the other that the weights
do that made them".
This became Hooke's Law = E".
59 Because he was concerned about patent rights to his invention, he did not publish his law when rst
discovered it in 1660. Instead he published it in the form of an anagram \ceiinosssttuu" in 1676 and
the solution was given in 1678. Ut tensio sic vis (at the time the two symbos u and v were employed
interchangeably to denote either the vowel u or the consonant v), i.e. extension varies directly with force.
Born on christmas day in the year of Galileo's death, Newton, Fig. 7.13 was Professor of Mathematics
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{14
Victor Saouma
Draft
7.6 Pre Modern Period, Seventeenth Century
7{15
69
Euler obtained a near exact expression for the de ection of a cantilever subjected to a point load, and
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{16
Coulomb (17361806) was a French military engineer, Fig. 7.16, as was the rst to publish the correct
Victor Saouma
Draft
7.8 The Modern Period (1857Present)
7{17
From 1857 the evolution of a comprehensive theory of structures proceeded at astonishing rate now
that the basic and requisite principles had been determined.
81 Great contributors in that period include: Maxwell (rst analysis of indeterminate structures), Culmann (graphics statics), Mohr (Mohr's circle, indeterminate analysis), Castigliano (1st and 2nd theorems), Cross (moment distribution), Southwell (relaxation method).
80
7.8.2 Eiel Tower
The Eiel Tower was designed and built by the French civil engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiel for
the Paris World's Fair of 1889. The tower, without its modern broadcasting antennae, is 300 m (984
ft) high. The lower section consists of four immense arched legs set on masonry piers. The legs curve
inward until they unite in a single tapered tower. Platforms, each with an observation deck, are at three
levels; on the rst is also a restaurant.
83 The tower, constructed of about 6300 metric tons (about 7000 tons) of iron, has stairs and elevators.
A meteorological station, a radio communications station, and a television transmission antenna, as well
as a suite of rooms that were used by Eiel, are located near the top of the tower.
82
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{18
89
7.8.5 Maillart
From (Billington 1973)
Robert Maillart was born on February 6, 1872, in Bern, Switzerland, where his father, a Belgian
citizen, was a banker. He studied civil engineering at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and
graduated in 1894. Ironically, one of his lowest grades was in bridge design, even though he is regarded
today as one of the half dozen greatest bridge designers of the twentieth century.
93 For eight years following his graduation, he worked with dierent civil engineering organizations. In
1902, he founded his own rm for design and construction; thereafter, his business grew rapidly and
expanded as far as Russia and Spain. In the summer of 1914, he took his wife and three children to
Russia. Since the World War prevented their return to Switzerland, Maillart stayed and worked in
Russia until 1919, when his business was liquidated by the Revolution. Forced to
ee, he returned to
Switzerland penniless and lonely, his wife having died in Russia.
94 Because of these misfortunes Maillart felt unable to take up the construction business again and
henceforth concentrated on design alone. He opened an oce in Geneva in 1919 and branches in Bern
and Zurich in 1924.
95 During the twenties he began to develop and modify his ideas of bridge design; and from 1930, when
the Salginatobel and Landquart Bridges were completed, until his death in 1940, he produced over
thirty bridge designs of extraordinary originality. Unfortunately, no Swiss municipality would accept his
designs for prominent urban locations.
96 In 1936, he was elected an honorary member of the Royal institute of British Architects (R.I.B.A.)
although he had never ocially acted as architect on any project. The 1941 rst edition of Space, Time
and Architecture by art historian Siegfried Giedion introduced Maillart to a wide public in the U.S.A.
Finally, Max Bill's 1949 book, Robert Maillart, with its photographs and commentary on nearly all
Maillart's bridges powerfully presented him as an artist of rst rank.
92
Victor Saouma
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7.8 The Modern Period (1857Present)
7{19
He attended the Civil Engineering School in Bologna and established his own rm in 1920. His rst
major commission (a stadium in Florence, 1932) features cantilevered beams and a daringly exposed
concrete structure. For airplane hangars he used reinforced concrete to cover enormous spans with a
light but strong latticework.
99 Nervi considered himself primarily an engineer and technician, not an architect, and he
strove primarily for strength through form. He maintained that the strong aesthetic appeal of his
buildings was simply a byproduct of their structural correctness. His introduction of a versatile new
type of reinforced concrete layers of ne steel mesh sprayed with cement mortar made possible one of his
masterpieces, the Turin Exposition Hall (1949), in which the approximately 76m (250ft) corrugated
lattice roof (only about 5 cm thick) creates an immense interior space as dramatic as a cathedral.
100 The best known and most in
uential is probably his Palazetto dello Sport (Small Sport Palace, 1960,
Rome), Fig. 7.17. Encircled by Yshaped supports and topped by a shallow scalloped concrete dome,
98
7.8.7 Khan
Fazlur Khan was born in 1929 in Dacca India, (Anon. xx). After obtaining a B.A. in engineering from
the University of Dacca in 1950, Khan worked as assistant engineer for the India Highway Department
and taught at the University of Dacca. Qualifying for a scholarship in 1952, he enrolled at the University of Illinois, ChampaignUrbana, where he received master's degrees in both applied mechanics
and structural engineering and a Ph.D. in structural engineering. He returned brie
y to Pakistan and
won an important position as executive engineer of the Karachi Development Authority. Frustrated by
administrative demands that kept him from design work, however, he returned to the United States and
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{20
joined the prestigious architectural rm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in Chicago in 1955, eventually
becoming a partner (1966).
Among his many designs for skyscrapers are Chicago's John Hancock Center (1970) and the Sears
Tower (1973), which are among the world's tallest buildings, and One Shell Plaza in Houston, Texas.
The Sears Tower was his rst skyscraper to employ his "bundled tube" structural system, which consists
of a group of narrow steel cylinders that are clustered together to form a thicker column. The system
was innovative because it minimized the amount of steel needed for high towers, eliminated the need
for internal wind bracing (since the perimeter columns carried the wind loadings), and permitted freer
organization of the interior space.
His later projects included the strikingly dierent Haj Terminal of the King Abdul Aziz International
Airport, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia (197681), and King Abdul Aziz University, also in Jiddah (197778).
7.8.8
et al.
To name just a few of the most in
uential Architects/Engineers: Menn, Isler, Candella, Torroja,
Johnson, Pei, Calatrava, ...
101
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7.8 The Modern Period (1857Present)
7{21
NEW ARCHITECTURE
by
Felix Candela
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{22
Victor Saouma
Draft
7.8 The Modern Period (1857Present)
7{23
he could do it cheaper than anybody else. But an ecient and economical structure has not necessarily
to be ugly. Beauty has no price tag and there is never one single solution to an engineering problem.
Therefore, it is always possible to modify the whole or the parts until the ugliness disappears. This
aversion to ugliness is quite the opposite of the task of the professional artist who has to produce beauty
as an obligation or of today's stararchitect who has to be original at any cost in each new project.
Maillart's works did not need to be beautiful. This word did not even exist in the practical world
of the serious citizens who had to judge his competitive bids. He achieved a beauty without need or
purpose; just for the pure joy of it. The kind of joy that you can feel also in the works of Haydn or
Vivaldi. They were simply enjoying what they were doing, and so was obviously Maillart.
He did also possess that rare quality, source of artistic creation and of all invention, of being able
to challenge the conventional wisdom and come up with the obvious solution, one, nevertheless, which
nobody could think of before. I can imagine the ts of rage and jealousy of some of his contemporary
colleagues at the sight of one of his bridges (Landquart or Schwandbach), in which the curved route
is supported in a straight arched slab. The problem with this unusual combination  which, of course,
looks perfectly logical after the fact  is that it was very dicult, if not impossible, to analyze with the
methods available at that time. But Maillart would not take any unnecessary risk and rst he tried the
soundness of his approximated calculations in a small example (the Halbkern Bridge) with a span of
only fteen meters. This was his testing model which gave him rm ground from which to extrapolate
at the next opportunity.
I would like to insist at this moment cn something that everybody knows but which is easily forgotten; that all calculations, no matter how sophisticated and complex, can not be more than rough
approximations of the natural phenomenon they try to represent by means of a mathematical model.
The complexity, or even elegance, of such a model bears no relation at all with the degree of approximation. There is not such a thing as an exact method of structural analysis and, notwithstanding the
popular belief in the letter of the codes, the accuracy of any calculation is still a question of personal
judgement. This fortunate circumstance allows engineering to reach sometimes the highest category of
art, to the despair of dull and in
exible technicians.
If I nd something lacking in this commendable conference in memory of one of the greatest engineers
of all times it is that the side of Maillart's personality as a rebel, with his tireless and successful struggle
against the establishment of his times, has not been suciently stressed.
Victor Saouma
Draft
7{24
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 8
8.1 Geometry
1 This sotrage house, built by Maillart in Chiasso in 1924, provides a good example of the mariage
between aesthetic and engineering.
2 The most strking feature of the Magazini Generali is not the structure itself, but rather the shape of
its internal supporting frames, Fig. 8.1.
3 The frame can be idealized as a simply supported beam hung from two cantilever column supports.
Whereas the beam itself is a simple structural idealization, the overhang is designed in such a way as to
minimize the net moment to be transmitted to the supports (foundations), Fig. 8.2.
8.2 Loads
The load applied on the frame is from the weights of the roof slab, and the frame itself. Given the
space between adjacent frames is 14.7 ft, and that the roof load is 98 , and that the total frame
weight is 13.6 kips, the total uniform load becomes, Fig. 8.3:
psf
ft
k/ft
ft
k/ft
k/ft
(8.1a)
(8.1b)
(8.1c)
Draft
8{2
ACTUAL FRAME
9.2 ft
63.6 ft
Figure 8.1: Magazzini Generali; Overall Dimensions, (Billington and Mark 1983)
B
P
MB =B*d1
MP =P*d 2
d2
d1
B
MR=MB M P
Figure 8.2: Magazzini Generali; Support System, (Billington and Mark 1983)
Victor Saouma
Draft
8.3 Reactions
8{3
q ROOF = 1.4 k/ft + q FRAME = 0.2 k/ft
q ROOF = 1.4 k/ft
+ q FRAME = 0.2 k/ft
q TOTAL = 1.6 k/ft
8.3 Reactions
5
Reactions for the beam are determined rst taking advantage of symmetry, Fig. 8.4:
ft
(8.2a)
(8.2b)
We note that these reactions are provided by the internal shear forces.
q TOTAL = 1.6 k/ft
63.6 ft
51 k
51 k
Figure 8.4: Magazzini Generali; Beam Reactions, (Billington and Mark 1983)
8.4 Forces
The internal forces are pimarily the shear and moments. Those can be easily determined for a simply
supported uniformly loaded beam. The shear varies linearly from 51 kip to 51 kip with zero at the
center, and the moment diagram is parabolic with the maximum moment at the center, Fig. 8.5, equal
to:
2
2
Mmax = qL8 = (1:6) 8(63:6) = 808
(8.3)
k/ft
ft
k.ft
The externally induced moment at midspan must be resisted by an equal and opposite internal moment.
This can be achieved through a combination of compressive force on the upper bers, and tensile ones
on the lower. Thus the net axial force is zero, however there is a net internal couple, Fig. 8.6.
Victor Saouma
Draft
8{4
SHEAR FORCE
51 K
25 K
L
L/2
25 K
MOMENT
51 K
Mmax
L
0
L/2
L/4
3L/4
Figure 8.5: Magazzini Generali; Shear and Moment Diagrams (Billington and Mark 1983)
q TOTAL
C
d
VA
T
Figure 8.6: Magazzini Generali; Internal Moment, (Billington and Mark 1983)
Victor Saouma
Draft
8.4 Forces
8{5
Mext = Cd ) C = Mdext
T = C = (808)
(9:2)
k.ft
ft
(8.4a)
= 88
(8.4b)
8 Because the frame shape (and thus d(x)) is approximately parabolic, and the moment is also parabolic,
then the axial forces are constants along the entire frame, Fig. 8.7.
M
MOMENT DIAGRAM
FRAME
CABLE :
FRAME :
CURVE OF DIAGRAM
SHAPE OF DIAGRAM
Figure 8.7: Magazzini Generali; Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram,
(Billington and Mark 1983)
The axial force at the end of the beam is not balanced, and the 88 kip compression must be transmitted
to the lower chord, Fig. 8.8. Fig. 8.9 This is analogous to the forces transmiited to the support by a
88 k
Tension
88 k
88 k
88 k
Compression
Horizontal Component
Tied Arch
Cable Force
Axial Force
Vertical Reaction
Figure 8.8: Magazzini Generali; Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support, (Billington and Mark 1983)
tied arch.
10 It should be mentioned that when a rigorous computer analysis was performed, it was determined
that the supports are contributing a compression force of about 8 kips which needs to be superimposed
over the central values, Fig. 8.9.
Victor Saouma
Draft
8{6
FRAME ACTS AS A
UNIT, UNLIKE THE
ABSTRACTION
88 k  8 k = 96 k
16 k
88 k  8 k = 80 k
16 k
Figure 8.9: Magazzini Generali; Eect of Lateral Supports, (Billington and Mark 1983)
in
ksi
in
in
in
in
ksi
in
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 9
Draft
9{2
Victor Saouma
Draft
9.3 Ultimate Strength Method
9
9{3
In this method:
1. All loads are assumed to have the same average variability.
2. The entire variation of the loads and the strengths is placed on the strength side of the equation.
yld
< all = F:S:
(9.1)
Probabilistic Preliminaries
In this approach, it is assumed that the load Q and the resistance R are random variables.
Typical frequency distributions of such random variables are shown in Fig. 9.2.
The safety margin is dened as Y = R ; Q. Failure would occur if Y < 0
Q and R can be combined and the result expressed logarithmically, Fig. 9.3.
R
X = ln Q
(9.2)
Victor Saouma
Draft
9{4
Victor Saouma
Draft
9.3 Ultimate Strength Method
9{5
Type of Load/Member
AISC
DL + LL; Members
3.0
DL + LL; Connections
4.5
DL + LL + WL; Members 3.5
DL + LL +EL; Members 1.75
ACI
Ductile Failure
Sudden Failures
33.5
3.54
21
9.3.2 Discussion
ACI refers to this method as the Strength Design Method, (previously referred to as the Ultimate
Strength Method).
24 AISC refers to it as Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).
25 Terms such as failure load should be avoided; it is preferable to refer to a structure's Limit State
load.
1
26 The general form is (LRFDA4.1)
23
Rn i Qi
(9.4)
where
is a strength reduction factor, less than 1, and must account for the type of structural element,
Table 9.3.
1
Throughout the notes we will refer by this symbol the relevant design specication in the AISC code.
Victor Saouma
Draft
9{6
ACI
Axial Tension
Flexure
Axial Compression, spiral reinforcement
Axial Compression, other
Shear and Torsion
Bearing on concrete
0.9
0.9
0.75
0.70
0.85
0.70
Tension, yielding
Tension, fracture
Compression
Beams
Fasteners, Tension
Fasteners, Shear
0.9
0.75
0.85
0.9
0.75
0.65
AISC
AISC
ACI
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.4D
1.2D+1.6L+0.5(Lr or S)
1.2D+0.5L (or 0.8W)+1.6(Lr or S)
1.2D+0.5L+0.5(Lr or S)+1.3W
1.2D+0.5L(or 0.2 S)+1.5E
0.9D+1.3W(or 1.5 E)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1.4D+1.7L
0.75(1.4D+1.7L+1.7W)
0.9D+1.3W
1.05D+1.275W
0.9D+1.7H
1.4D +1.7L+1.7H
0.75(1.4D+1.4T+1.7L)
Victor Saouma
Draft
9.4 Example
9{7
8. 1.4(D+T)
where D= dead; L= live; Lr= roof live; W= wind; E= earthquake; S= snow; T= temperature; H= soil.
We must select the one with the largest limit state load.
28 Thus, in this method, we must perform numerous analysis, one for each load, of a given structure.
For trusses, this is best achieved if we use the matrix method, invert the statics matrix [B ], and multiply
[B ];1 by each one of the load cases, (Refer to Section ??). For the WSD method, we need not perform
more than one analysis in general.
29 Serviceability Limit States must be assessed under service loads (not factored). The most important ones being
1. De
ections
2. Crack width (for R/C)
3. Stability
9.4 Example
Example 918: LRFD vs ASD
To illustrate the dierences between the two design approaches, let us consider the design of an axial
member, subjected to a dead load of 100 and live load of 80 . Use A36 steel.
k
ASD: We consider the total load P = 100 + 80 = 180 . From Table 9.1, the allowable stress is
0:6yld = 0:6 36 = 21:6 . Thus the required cross sectional area is
k
ksi
180 = 8:33
A = 21
:6
in
k
k
From Table 9.3 = 0:9, and Rn = (0:9)Ayld . Hence, applying Eq. 9.4 the cross sectional area
should be
2
A = i Qi = (0:248
9)(36) = 7:65
in
yld
Note that whereas in this particular case the USD design required a smaller area, this may not be the
case for dierent ratios of dead to live loads.
30
Victor Saouma
Draft
9{8
TIMBER
Plywood
Planks
Joists
Beams
Girders
Gable bents
Trusses
I Beams
Joists
Plate and I girders
Trusses
Gable bents
Arches span to rise
Arches span to thickness
Simple suspension (span to rise)
Cable stayed
36
28
22
16
12
26
4
18
18
14
12
30
8
40
10
6
40
32
26
20
16
30
8
24
25
20
18
40
16
50
15
10
REINFORCED CONCRETE
35
26
1025
1530
2035
3050
30100
1560
1560
40100
4080
50120
80200
150300
150300
Solid slabs
28
32
1025
Slabs with drops and capitals
30
36
2035
Twoway slab on beams
30
36
2035
Wae slabs
20
24
3040
Joists
22
26
2545
Beams
16
20
1540
Girders
12
16
2060
Gable bents
24
30
4080
Arches span to rise
8
12
60150
Arches span to thickness
30
40
Cylindrical thin shell roof (Min. thickness may govern)
Longitudinal span to Structural depth
12
15
5070
Transverse span to thickness
50
60
1230
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Solid slabs
40
44
2035
Slabs with drops
44
48
3545
Twoway slab on beams
44
48
3545
Wae slabs
28
32
3570
Cored slabs
36
40
3060
Joists
32
36
4060
Beams
24
28
3080
Girders
20
24
40120
Cylindrical thin shell roof (Min. thickness may govern)
Longitudinal span to structural depth
15
20
60120
Transverse span to thickness
60
70
1535
Table 9.4: Approximate Structural SpanDepth Ratios for Horizontal Subsystems and Components (Lin
and Stotesbury 1981)
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 10
A) COMPOSITE BEAM
B) OTHER FRAMING
C) CROSS BRACING
Draft
10{2
The strength requirement for beams in load and resistance factor design is stated as
b Mn Mu
(10.1)
where:
The equations given in this chapter are valid for
exural members with the following kinds of cross
section and loading:
1. Doubly symmetric (such as W sections) and loaded in plane of symmetry
2. Singly symmetric (channels and angles) loaded in plane of symmetry or through the shear center
parallel to the web1 .
Lb < Lp
(10.2)
300
Lp = p
r (10.3)
Fy ; y
r
(10.4)
ry = IAy
where ry is the radius of gyration with respect to the (minor) y axis (as opposed to the major x axis).
ksi
Victor Saouma
Draft
10.2 Failure Modes and Classication of Steel Beams
10{3
M=(wL2 )/8
wu

11
00
00
11
00
11
Mp
y
M p=(wL2 )/8
tw
bf
hf
hc
COMPACT
FLANGE BUCKLING
WEB BUCKLING
Victor Saouma
Draft
10{4
B
LATERAL DEFLECTION AND
TORSION OF THE COMPRESSION
FLANGE
COMPRESSION
FLANGE
A
B
A
11
Victor Saouma
Draft
10.3 Compact Sections
10{5
13
(10.5)
Mn = My = SxFy
Mp = Fy
where
def
(10.6)
ydA = Fy Z
(10.7)
Z = ydA
S = d=I 2
Z
I def
=
y2 dA
A
16
(10.8a)
(10.8b)
The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula
(10.9)
Zx wd=9
Victor Saouma
(10.10)
Draft
10{6
(10.11)
The nominal strength Mn for laterally stable compact sections according to LRFD is
(10.12)
Mn = Mp
where:
19
20
where:
(10.13)
Fy
bf
tf
hc
21
Mn = Mp ; (Mp ; Mr )( ;;p ) Mp
r
Victor Saouma
(10.14)
Draft
10.5 Slender Section
10{7
Draft
Mn
6
Mp
Compact
Partially Compact

Slender
Mr
p
r
Flanges
2tf
bf
p65F
pF141;F
Web
hc
tw
p640F
p970F
Figure 10.7: Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections
where:
All other quantities are as dened earlier. Note that we use the associated with the one being
violated (or the lower of the two if both are).
22
23
10.6 Examples
Example 1019: Z for Rectangular Section
Determine the plastic section modulus for a rectangular section, width b and depth d.
Victor Saouma
Draft
10{8
Solution:
1. The internal plastic moment is equal to
2
M = Fy b d2 d2 = Fy b d4
(10.15)
 {z }
Force
2. The yield stress, Fy , plastic moment Mp and plastic section modulus Z are related by:
3. Substituting, we get:
Z = MZp
(10.16)
p = Fy bd2 = bd2
Z=M
4
Fy
4Fy
(10.17)
Note that this is to be contrasted with the elastic section modulus S = bd62 .
Solution:
wD = 0:2
wL = 0:8
wu = 1:2wD + 1:6wL
= 1:2(0:2) + 1:6(0:8) = 1:52
k/ft
k/ft
Victor Saouma
k/ft
Draft
10.6 Examples
10{9
2. Compute the factored load moment Mu . For a simply supported beam carrying uniformly
distributed load,
Mu = wu L2 =8 = (1:52)(20)2=8 = 76
Assuming compact section, since a vast majority of rolled sections satisfy p for both the
ange and the web. The design strength b Mn is
k.ft
b Mn = b Mp = b Zx Fy
The design requirement is
b Mn = Mu
b Zx Fy = Mu
3. Required Zx is
Zx = MFu = 076(12)
:90(36) = 28:1
b y
in
From the notes on Structural Materials, we select a W12X22 section which has a Zx = 29:3
(22)(12)
Note that Zx is approximated by wd
9 = 9 = 29:3.
4. Check compact section limits p for the
anges from the table
in
= 2btff = 4:7
p = p65Fy = p6536 = 10:8 > p
and for the web:
= thwc = 41:8
p = p640Fy = p64036 = 107p
5. Check the Strength by correcting the factored moment Mu to include the self weight. Self
weight of the beam W12X22 is 22 lb./ft. or 0.022 kip/ft
wD
wu
Mu
Mn
b Mn
=
=
=
=
=
k/ft
k.ft
in
ksi
in/ft
k.ft
k.ft
Iy = 5 = 0:88
A
6:5
300
Lp = p ry
Fy
300
= p 0:88 = 43
ry =
36
Victor Saouma
ft
in
(10.18a)
(10.18b)
(10.18c)
Draft
10{10
p
p
=
=
=
=
in
in
Note that Zx is
hc = 54:3
t640
pwFy = p64065 = 79:4p
bf
2tf = 8:82
p65Fy = p6565 = 8:1 < Not Good
In this case the controlling limit state is local buckling of the
ange.
Since p < < r , as above, the section is classied as noncompact.
5. Check the strength:
Since the section is noncompact, the strength is obtained by interpolation between Mp and
Mr .
For the
anges:
r
Mn
Mp
Mr
Mn
b Mn
=
=
=
=
=
=
pF141
= p65141;10 = 19:0
y ;10
Mp ; (Mp ; Mr )( r;;pp ) Mp
in
ksi
k.ft
in/ft
in
ksi
in/ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 11
REINFORCED CONCRETE
BEAMS
11.1 Introduction
Recalling that concrete has a tensile strength (ft0 ) about one tenth its compressive strength (fc0 ),
concrete by itself is a very poor material for
exural members.
2 To provide tensile resistance to concrete beams, a reinforcement must be added. Steel is almost
universally used as reinforcement (longitudinal or as bers), but in poorer countries other indigenous
materials have been used (such as bamboos).
3 The following lectures will focus exclusively on the
exural design and analysis of reinforced concrete rectangular sections. Other concerns, such as shear, torsion, cracking, and de
ections are left for
subsequent ones.
4 Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed in most cases by the Building Code Requirements
for Reinforced Concrete, of the American Concrete Institute (ACI318). Some of the most relevant
provisions of this code are enclosed in this set of notes.
5 We will focus on determining the amount of
exural (that is longitudinal) reinforcement required at a
given section. For that section, the moment which should be considered for design is the one obtained
from the moment envelope at that particular point.
11.1.1 Notation
6
Draft
11{2
As
b
c
d
fc0
fr0
fs0
ft0
fy
h
Area of steel
Width
Distance from top of compressive bers to neutral axis
Distance from the top of the compressive bers to the centroid
of the reinforcement
Concrete compressive strength
Concrete modulus of rupture
Steel stress
Concrete tensile strength
Steel yield stress (equivalent to Fy in AISC)
Height
Steel ratio, Abds
Steel Yielding
Concrete Crushing
Victor Saouma
Draft
11.1 Introduction
11{3
Analysis: Given a certain design, determine what is the maximum moment which can be applied.
Design: Given an external moment to be resisted, determine cross sectional dimensions (b and h) as
well as reinforcement (As ). Note that in many cases the external dimensions of the beam (b and
h) are xed by the architect.
12
We often consider the maximum moment along a member, and design accordingly.
Compatibility
Equilibrium
C
d
T=C
M_ext=Cd
Figure 11.2: Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam
1. Equilibrium: of forces and moment at the cross section. 1) Fx = 0 or Tension in the reinforcement
= Compression in concrete; and 2) M = 0 or external moment (that is the one obtained from
the moment envelope) equal and opposite to the internal one (tension in steel and compression of
the concrete).
2. Material Stress Strain: We recall that all normal strength concrete have a failure strain u = :003
in compression irrespective of fc0 .
14
Compatibility of Displacements: Perfect bond between steel and concrete (no slip). Note that those
two materials do also have very close coecients of thermal expansion under normal temperature.
Plane section remain plane ) strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis.
Victor Saouma
Draft
11{4
17 In determining the limit state moment of a cross section, we consider Fig. 11.3. Whereas the strain
distribution is linear (ACI318 10.2.2), the stress distribution is nonlinear because the stressstrain
curve of concrete is itself nonlinear beyond 0:5fc0 .
18 Thus we have two alternatives to investigate the moment carrying capacity of the section, ACI318:
10.2.6
19
Victor Saouma
Draft
11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method
20
11{5
It was shown that the depth of the equivalent stress block is a function of fc0 :
1 = :85
if fc0 4; 000
1
0
= :85 ; (:05)(fc ; 4; 000) 1;000 if 4; 000 < fc0 < 8; 000
(11.3)
21
= Abds
As fy = :85fc0 ab = :85fc0 b1 c
) c = 0:85ffy0 d
c 1
(11.4)
Compression Failure: where the concrete strain is equal to the ultimate strain; From the strain
diagram
"c = 0:003
c
:003
d = :003+"s
22
)c=
:003
d
fs
Es + :003
(11.5)
Balanced Design is obtained by equating Eq. 11.4 to Eq. 11.5 and by replacing by b and fs by fy :
fy
= fs:003
d
Es +:003
fs = fy
= b
0:85fc0 1 d
ksi
9
>
=
>
;
:003
b fy
:85fc0 1 d = Efys + :003 d
we obtain
0
; 000
b = :851 ffc 87;87000
+f
y
(11.6)
This b corresponds to the only combination of b, d and As which will result in simultaneous yielding of
the steel and crushing of the concrete, that is an optimal design.
Victor Saouma
Draft
11{6
23 Because we need to have ample warning against failure, hence we prefer to have an underreinforced
section. Thus, the ACI code stipulates:
(11.7)
< :75b
In practice, depending on the relative cost of steel/concrete and of labour it is common to select lower
values of . If < 0:5b (thus we will have a deeper section) then we need not check for de
ection.
25 A minimum amount of reinforcement must always be used to prevent temperature and shrinkage
cracks:
(11.8)
200
24
min
26
fy
MD = Mn > Mu
(11.9)
= b = 0:9
11.2.3 Analysis
87
2. b = (:85)1 ffyc 87+
fy
MD = As fy d ; 0:59 Afs0fby
c

{z
Mn
}
MD = fy
bd2
1 ; :59 ffy0
c
(11.10)
4. y If act > b is not allowed by the code as this would be an overreinforced section which would
fail with no prior warning. However, if such a section exists, and we need to determine its moment
carrying capacity, then we have two unknowns:
(a) Steel strain "s (which was equal to "y in the previous case)
(b) Location of the neutral axis c.
We have two equations to solve this problem
Equilibrium: of forces
s
(11.11)
c = :85Afs0fb
c 1
Victor Saouma
Draft
11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method
11{7
Strain compatibility: since we know that at failure the maximum compressive strain "c is equal
to 0.003. Thus from similar triangles we have
c = :003
d :003 + "s
(11.12)
MD = As fs d ; 21 c
(11.13)
11.2.4 Design
We distinguish between two cases. The rst one has dimensions as well as steel area unknown, the
second has the dimensions known (usually specied by the architect or by other constraints), and we
seek As .
27
1. We start by assuming , at most = :75b, and if de
ection is of a concern (or steel too
expensive), then we can select = 0:5b with b determined from Eq. 11.6
0
; 000
= 0:75 :851 ffc 87;87000
+f
y
MD = fy 1 ; :59 ffy0 bd2

or
{z
f
y
R = fy 1 ; :59 f 0
c
(11.14)
which does not depend on unknown quantities1 . Then solve for bd2 :
D
bd2 = M
R
(11.15)
3. solve for b and d (this will require either an assumption on one of the two, or on their ratio).
4. As = bd
1
Victor Saouma
Draft
11{8
y b, d and Md known, As unknown: In this case there is no assurance that we can have a design
with b . If the section is too small, then it will require too much steel resulting in an overreinforced
section.
We will again have an iterative approach
1. Since we do not know if the steel will be yielding or not, use fs .
2. Assume an initial value for a (a good start is a = d5 )
3. Assume initially that fs = fy
4. Check equilibrium of moments (M = 0)
M
D
;
fs d ; a2
5. Check equilibrium of forces in the x direction (Fx = 0)
a = :A85sff0sb
c
6. Check assumption of fs from the strain diagram
"s
:003
d;c
d ; c = c ) fs = Es c :003 < fy
where c = a1 .
As =
(11.16)
(11.17)
(11.18)
As = 2:35
Solution:
in
in
psi
2:35 = :0102
= Abds = (10)(23)
0
87 = :02885 > act p
= :851 ffyc 87+87fy = (:85)(:85) 604 87+60
:35)(60) = 4:147
= :A85sffc0yb = (:(285)(4)(10)
= (2:35)(60)(23 ; 4:147
2 ) = 2; 950
= Mn = (:9)(2; 950) = 2; 660
Note that from the strain diagram
c = 0:a85 = 40::414
85 = 4:87
Alternative solution
2 1 ; :59act fy0
Mn = act fy bd
f
c
= As fy d 1 ; :59act ffyc0
= 245
= (2:35)(60)(23) 1 ; (:59) 604 (:01021) = 2; 950
MD = Mn = (:9)(2; 950) = 2; 660
act
b
a
Mn
MD
in
ksi
in
k.in
k.in
in
k.in
k.ft
k.in
Victor Saouma
Draft
11.2 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method
11{9
Solution:
k/ft
ft
in/ft
k.in
k.in in
ksi
in
in
and d = 16
in
in
in
Md = 1; 600
Solution:
in
k.in
ksi
in
ksi
D
As = f M
(d ; a ) ==
y
1; 600
(:9)(40) (20 ; 42 )
k.in
ksi
in
= 2:47
in
:47) 2 (40)
a = :A85sff0yb = (:(2
85)(3) (11:5)
c
in
ksi
ksi
in
= 3:38
in
4. We originally assumed a = 4, at the end of this rst iteration a = 3:38, let us iterate again with
a = 3:30
Victor Saouma
Draft
11{10
5. Equilibrium of moments:
D
As = f M
(d ; a ) ==
y
1; 600
(:9)(40) (20 ; 32:3 )
k.in
ksi
in
= 2:42
:42) 2 (40)
a = :A85sff0yb = (:(2
85)(3) (11:5)
c
in
ksi
ksi
in
= 3:3
in
in
7. we have converged on a.
:42 = :011
8. Actual is act = (112:5)(20)
9. b is equal to
0
3 87 = :037
=
(
:
85)(
:
85)
b = :851 ffc 87 87
+f
40 87 + 40
y
10. max = :75 = (0:75)(0:037) = :0278 > 0:011 thus fs = fy and we use As = 2:42
in
28
Victor Saouma
Victor Saouma
Stirrups
Exterior span
Exterior span
Stirrups
Interior span
Interior column
Interior span
Interior column
Points of deflection
Straight bar
Bent bars
Cracks
Cracks
Interior span
Interior span
Reinforcement
Bottom bars
Bottom bars
Bent bar
Stirrups
Top bars
Stirrups
Top bars
Draft
11.4 ACI Code
11{11
Draft
11{12
where load combinations shall include both full value and zero value of L to determine the more severe
condition, and
U = 0:9D + 1:3W
but for any combination of D, L, and W, required strength U shall not be less than Eq. (91).
9.3.1  Design strength provided by a member, its connections to other members, and its cross
sections, in terms of
exure, axial load, shear, and torsion, shall be taken as the nominal strength
calculated in accordance with requirements and assumptions of this code, multiplied by a strength
reduction factor .
9.3.2  Strength reduction factor shall be as follows:
9.3.2.1  Flexure, without axial load 0.90
9.4  Design strength for reinforcement Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of reinforcement
fy in excess of 80,000 psi, except for prestressing tendons.
10.2.2  Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance
from the neutral axis, except, for deep
exural members with overall depth to clear span ratios greater
than 2/5 for continuous spans and 4/5 for simple spans, a nonlinear distribution of strain shall be
considered. See Section 10.7.
10.2.3  Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression ber shall be assumed equal to
0.003.
10.2.4  Stress in reinforcement below specied yield strength fy for grade of reinforcement used
shall be taken as Es times steel strain. For strains greater than that corresponding to fy , stress in
reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to fy .
10.2.5  Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in
exural calculations of reinforced concrete,
except when meeting requirements of Section 18.4.
10.2.6  Relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain may be
assumed to be rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any other shape that results in prediction of
strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests.
10.2.7  Requirements of Section 10.2.5 may be considered satised by an equivalent rectangular
concrete stress distribution dened by the following:
10.2.7.1  Concrete stress of 0:85fc0 shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral
axis at a distance (a = 1 c) from the ber of maximum compressive strain.
10.2.7.2  Distance c from ber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in a
direction perpendicular to that axis.
10.2.7.3  Factor 1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths fc0 up to and including 4,000 psi.
For strengths above 4,000 psi, 1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.05 for each 1000 psi of
strength in excess of 4,000 psi, but 1 shall not be taken less than 0.65.
10.3.2  Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when tension reinforcement reaches the
strain corresponding to its specied yield strength fy just as concrete in compression reaches its assumed
ultimate strain of 0.003.
10.3.3  For
exural members, and for members subject to combined
exure and compressive axial
load when the design axial load strength (Pn ) is less than the smaller of (0:10fc0 Ag ) or (Pb ), the ratio
of reinforcement p provided shall not exceed 0.75 of the ratio b that would produce balanced strain
conditions for the section under
exure without axial load. For members with compression reinforcement,
the portion of b equalized by compression reinforcement need not be reduced by the 0.75 factor.
10.3.4  Compression reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement may be
used to increase the strength of
exural members.
10.5.1  At any section of a
exural member, except as provided in Sections 10.5.2 and 10.5.3, where
positive reinforcement is required by analysis, the ratio provided shall not be less than that given by
= 200
min
Victor Saouma
fy
Draft
Chapter 12
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
12.1 Introduction
Beams with longer spans are architecturally more appealing than those with short ones. However, for
a reinforced concrete beam to span long distances, it would have to have to be relatively deep (and at
some point the self weight may become too large relative to the live load), or higher grade steel and
concrete must be used.
2 However, if we were to use a steel with fy much higher than 60 ksi in reinforced concrete (R/C),
then to take full advantage of this higher yield stress while maintaining full bond between concrete and
steel, will result in unacceptably wide crack widths. Large crack widths will in turn result in corrosion
of the rebars and poor protection against re.
3 One way to control the concrete cracking and reduce the tensile stresses in a beam is to prestress the
beam by applying an initial state of stress which is opposite to the one which will be induced by the
load.
4 For a simply supported beam, we would then seek to apply an initial tensile stress at the top and
compressive stress at the bottom. In prestressed concrete (P/C) this can be achieved through prestressing
of a tendon placed below the elastic neutral axis.
5 Main advantages of P/C: Economy, de
ection & crack control, durability, fatigue strength, longer
spans.
6 There two type of Prestressed Concrete beams:
Pretensioning: Steel is rst stressed, concrete is then poured around the stressed bars. When enough
concrete strength has been reached the steel restraints are released, Fig. 12.1.
Postensioning: Concrete is rst poured, then when enough strength has been reached a steel cable is
passed thru a hollow core inside and stressed, Fig. 12.2.
12.1.1 Materials
P/C beams usually have higher compressive strength than R/C. Prestressed beams can have fc0 as
high as 8,000 psi.
8 The importance of high yield stress for the steel is illustrated by the following simple example.
If we consider the following:
Draft
12{2
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Vertical
bulkhead
Harping
holdup
point
Harping
holddown
point
Jacks
Anchorage
Prestressing
bed slab
Continuous
tendon
Precast Concrete
element
Tendon
anchorage
Jacks
Support
force
Casting bed
Jacks
Casting bed
Holddown
force
Tendon
Anchorage
Anchorage
Intermediate
diaphragms
Jack
Beam
Jack
Tendon in conduct
Anchorage
Jack
Slab
Wrapped tendon
Victor Saouma
Draft
12.1 Introduction
12{3
(12.1)
we want to make sure that this amout of deformation is substantially smaller than the stretch of
the steel (for prestressing to be eective).
;3 =
5. Assuming ordinary steel: fs = 30 , Es = 29; 000 , "s = 2930
;000 = 1:03 10
ksi
in
ksi
in
(12.2)
ksi
Thus the total loss is 3030;4 = 87% which is unacceptably too high.
9. Alternatively if initial stress was 150 after losses we would be left with 124
10. Note that the actual loss is (:90 10;3)(29 103 ) = 26 in each case
ksi
ksi
or a 17% loss.
ksi
Having shown that losses would be too high for low strength steel, we will use
Strands usually composed of 7 wires. Grade 250 or 270 ksi, Fig. 12.3.
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
000000
111111
0000000
1111111
111111
000000
0000000
1111111
Tendon have diameters ranging from 1/2 to 1 3/8 of an inch. Grade 145 or 160 ksi.
Wires come in bundles of 8 to 52.
Note that yield stress is not well dened for steel used in prestressed concrete, usually we take 1% strain
as eective yield.
10 Steel relaxation is the reduction in stress at constant strain (as opposed to creep which is reduction
of strain at constant stress) occrs. Relaxation occurs indenitely and produces signicant prestress loss.
If we denote by fp the nal stress after t hours, fpi the initial stress, and fpy the yield stress, then
Victor Saouma
(12.3)
Draft
12{4
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
12.1.3 Assumptions
12
13
The loaddeformation curve for a prestressed concrete beam is illustrated in Fig. 12.6.
Victor Saouma
Draft
12.2 Flexural Stresses
12{5
W
000
111
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
fy
Q
P
h/2
fc
00
11
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
fc
fc
000
111
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
2f c
00
11
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
fc =f t
2Q
2h/3
2Q
P
h/2
h/3
2f c
0
11
00
0000000
1111111
00
11
0000000
00 +1111111
11
0000000 =
1111111
00
11
0000000
1111111
00 1111111
11
0000000
2f c
2f =2f
t
c
2f c
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
0
0
2f c
11
00
0000000
1111111
00
11
0000000
00 +1111111
11
0000000 =
1111111
00
11
0000000
1111111
00 1111111
11
0000000
2f c
2f t =2f c
fc
Midspan
000
111
000 +
111
=
0
000
111
000
111
000
111
Ends
fc
2f c
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
0
fc
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
fc
0
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
2f c
Q
P
h/2
h/3
fc
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
fc
f
c
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
ft =f c
fc
Midspan
+
fc
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
Ends
fc
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
fc
Figure 12.4: Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)
f1 = ; APi + PiIec1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21 (12.4)
c
c
P
P
ec
P
i
i
2
i
f2 = ; A ; I = ; A 1 + ecr22 (12.5)
c
c
2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam
cambers due to prestressing)
0 (12.6)
f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S1
c
M
P
ec
i
2
f2 = ; A 1 + r2 + S 0 (12.7)
Service Load when the prestressing force was reduced from Pi to Pe beacause of the losses, and the
actual service (not factored) load is apllied
3. Pe and M0
Victor Saouma
Draft
12{6
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Member
(a)
P
P sin
P sin
P cos
P cos
2 P sin
(b)
P sin
P sin
P cos
P cos
(c)
Pe
P
Pe
P
(d) P
P sin
P sin
e
P cos
P cos
(e)
P
P
P sin
P sin
P cos
None
P cos
2 P sin
(f)
P
P
None
(g)
P
Ultimate
Steel yielding
Service load limit
including
tolerable overload
Ru
ptu
re
Overload
Tn
Service
load
range
Decompression
or higher
cgs (f=0)
Balanced
Full dead load
o D
pe
pi
Deformation
(deflection of camber)
pi= Initial prestress camber
pe= Effective prestress camber
O= Selfweight deflection
D= Dead load deflection
L= Live load deflection
Figure 12.6: LoadDe ection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)
Victor Saouma
Draft
12.2 Flexural Stresses
12{7
0
f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S1 (12.8)
c
0
f2 = ; APe 1 + ecr22 + M
S (12.9)
The internal stress distribution at each one of those four stages is illustrated by Fig. 12.7.
Pi
Ac
c1
e
Pi e c 1
Ic
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
c2
11111
00000
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
Pi
(1Ac
e c1
)
r2
111111111
000000000
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
Pi
(1+
Ac
Stage 2
Pe
(1Ac
Stage 4
e c2
)
r2
e c1
Mo
)r2
S1
000000
111111
111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
Pe
(1+
Ac
Mo
S1
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
Pi
(1Ac
Md + Ml
S1
Md + Ml
S2
e c2
)
r2
e c1
Mo
)r2
S1
111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
Pi
(1+
Ac
00000000000
11111111111
11111111111
00000000000
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
e c2
Mo
)+
r2
S2
Pi
(1+
Ac
Mo
S2
e c1
)
r2
111111111
000000000
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
Pi e c 2
Ic
Pi
Ac
Stage 1
Pi
(1Ac
Pe
(1Ac
e c2
Mo
)+
r2
S2
e c1
Mt
)r2
S1
111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
Pe
(1+
Ac
e c2
Mt
)+
r2
S2
Figure 12.7: Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity; Maximum Moment
Section and Support Section, (Nilson 1978)
17
Those (service) exural stresses must be below those specied by the ACI code (where the subscripts
Victor Saouma
Draft
12{8
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
0
permitted concrete compression stress at initial stage :60fp
ci
permitted concrete tensile stress at initial stage
< 3 fci0
0
permitted concrete compressive stress at service stage :45
p
pfc
permitted concrete p
tensile stress at initial stage
6 fc0 or 12 fc0
Note that fts can reach 12 fc0 only if appropriate de
ection analysis is done, because section would
be cracked.
18 Based on the above, we identify two types of prestressing:
Full prestressing (pioneered by Freysinet), no tensile stresses, no crack, but there are some problems
with excessive camber when unloaded.
Partial prestressing (pioneered by Leonhardt, Abeles, Thurliman), cracks are allowed to occur (just
as in R/C), and they are easier to control in P/C than in R/C.
fci
fti
fcs
fts
The ACi code imposes the following limits on the steel stresses in terms of fpu which is the ultimate
strength of the cable: Pj < :80fpuAs and Pi < :70fpuAs . No limits are specied for Pe .
19
The following I Beam has fc0 = 4; 000 , L = 40 ft, DL+LL =0.55 k/ft, concrete density
= 150
lb/ft3 and multiple 7 wire strands with constant eccentricity e = 5:19 . Pi = 169 , and the total losses
due to creep, shinkage, relaxation are 15%.
psi
in
12"
4"
5"
2"
7"
6"
4"
24"
6"
7"
2"
5"
r2
4"
The section properties for this beam are Ic = 12; 000 4 , Ac = 176 2 , S1 = S2 = 1; 000 3 ,
= AI = 68:2 2 .
Determine
exural stresses at midspan and at support at initial and nal conditions. Solution:
in
in
in
in
f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21
c
169
; 000 1 ; (5:19)(12) = ;83
= ; 176
68:2
P
ec
f2 = ; Ai 1 + r22
c
169
;
000
(5
:
19)(12)
= ; 176 1 + 68:21
= 1; 837
(12.12a)
psi
Victor Saouma
(12.12b)
(12.12c)
psi
(12.12d)
Draft
12.2 Flexural Stresses
12{9
2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers
due to prestressing)
(176) 2 (:150) = 3 = :183
(12.13a)
w0 = (144)
2= 2
2
M0 = (:183)(40)
= 36:6
(12.13b)
8
The
exural stresses will thus be equal to:
; 000) = 439
f1w;20 = SM0 = (36:6)(12
(12.14)
1
;
000
1;2
in
in
ft
k/ft
ft
k.ft
psi
0
f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S
c
1
(12.15a)
(12.15b)
(12.15c)
(12.15d)
psi
psi
(12.15e)
(12.15f)
3. Pe and M0. If we have 15% losses, then the eective force Pe is equal to (1 ; 0:15)169 = 144
0
f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S
c
1
; 000 1 ; (5:19)(12) ; 439
= ; 144176
68:2
psi
0
f2 = ; APe 1 + ecr22 + M
S
c
2
144
;
000
(5
:
19)(12)
= ; 176 1 + 68:2
+ 439
= ;1; 561 + 439 = ;1; 122
psi
(12.16a)
(12.16b)
(12.16c)
(12.16d)
(12.16e)
(12.16f)
note that ;71 and ;1; 561 are respectively equal to (0:85)(;83) and (0:85)(;1; 837) respectively.
4. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL
2
MDL + MLL = (0:55)(40)
= 110
(12.17)
8
and corresponding stresses
; 000) = 1; 320
f1;2 = (110)(12
(12.18)
1; 000
Thus,
(12.19a)
f = ; Pe 1 ; ec1 ; M0 + MDL + MLL
k.ft
psi
Victor Saouma
Ac
r2
S1
Draft
12{10
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
= ;510 ; 1; 320 = ;1; 830
fcs = :45fc0 = ;2; 700p
f2 = ; APe 1 + ecr22 + M0 + MSDL + MLL
c
2
= ;1; 122 + 1; 320 = +198
p
fts = 6 fc0 = +380p
(12.19b)
(12.19c)
(12.19d)
psi
(12.19e)
(12.19f)
psi
2
1122
+198
1
1398
1837
83
510
522
1830
5. The stress distribution at each one of the four stages is shown below.
The historical Walnut Lane Bridge (rst major prestressed concrete bridge in the USA) is made of
three spans, two side ones with lengths of 74 ft and a middle one of length 160 feet. Thirteen prestressed
cocnrete beams are placed side by side to make up a total width of 44 fet of roadway and two 9.25 feet of
sidewalk. In between the beams, and cast with them, are transverse stieners which connect the beams
laterally, Fig. 12.8
20
12
= = 1; 277 103
= h2 = 79
2 = 39:5
in
c1 = c2
Victor Saouma
in
12
(12.20a)
(12.20b)
(12.20c)
(12.20d)
Draft
12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge
12{11
80 ft
CENTER
LINE
9.25
44
ROAD
9.25
SIDEWALK
TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGMS
52"
10"
3"
7"
TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGM
10"
7"
33"
67"
SLOTS FOR CABLES
6 1/2"
3 1/2"
7"
30"
Victor Saouma
Draft
12{12
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
52"
8.9"
22.5"
7"
22.5"
67"
= 79"
61.2"
8.9"
(12.20e)
in
(12.20f)
in
12.3.2 Prestressing
Each beam is prestressed by two middle parabolic cables, and two outer horizontal ones along the
anges. All four have approximately the same eccentricity at midspan of 2.65 ft. or 31.8 inch.
23 Each prestressing cable is made up 64 wires each with a diameter of 0.27 inches. Thus the total area
of prestressing steel is given by:
2
2
Awire = (d=2)2 = 3:14( 0:276
(12.21a)
2 ) = 0:0598
Acable = 64(0:0598) 2 = 3:83 2
(12.21b)
2
2
Atotal = 4(3:83) = 15:32
(12.21c)
22
in
in
in
in
in
in
Whereas the ultimate tensile strength of the steel used is 247 ksi, the cables have been stressed only
to 131 ksi, thus the initial prestressing force Pi is equal to
Pi = (131) (15:32) 2 = 2; 000
(12.22)
24
ksi
25
in
Victor Saouma
(12.23)
Draft
12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge
12{13
12.3.3 Loads
The self weight of the beam is q0 = 1:72 .
27 The concrete (density=.15
= 3 ) road has a thickness of 0.45 feet. Thus for a 44 foot width, the
total load over one single beam is
1 (44) (0:45) (0:15) = 3 = 0:23
(12.24)
qr;tot = 13
26
k/ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
k/ft
Similarly for the sidewalks which are 9.25 feet wide and 0.6 feet thick:
1 (2)(9:25) (0:60) (0:15) = 3 = 0:13
qs;tot = 13
(12.25)
We note that the weight can be evenly spread over the 13 beams beacause of the lateral diaphragms.
29 The total dead load is
qDL = 0:23 + 0:13 = 0:36
(12.26)
28
ft
ft
ft
k/ft
k/ft
The live load is created by the trac, and is estimated to be 94 psf, thus over a width of 62.5 feet
this gives a uniform live load of
1 (0:094) =ft2 (62:5) = 0:45
wLL = 13
(12.27)
30
31
ft
k/ft
(12.28)
k/ft
f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21
c
(12.29a)
(12.29b)
psi
f2
(12.29c)
psi
(12.29d)
2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers
due to prestressing)
2
M0 = (1:72)(160)
= 5; 504
(12.30)
8
k.ft
Victor Saouma
psi
(12.31)
Draft
12{14
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
0
f1 = ; APi 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S
c
1
= 490 ; 2; 043 = ;1; 553
p
fti = 3 fc0 = +190p
0
f2 = APi 1 + ecr22 + M
S
(12.32a)
(12.32b)
(12.32c)
(12.32d)
psi
(12.32e)
(12.32f)
psi
3. Pe and M0 . If we have 13% losses, then the eective force Pe is equal to (1 ; 0:13)(2 106 ) =
1:74 106
lbs
0
f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M
S
c
1
6
(31
:5) ; 2; 043: = ;1; 616
1
:
74
10
= ; 1; 354 1 ; :8)(39
943:
M
ec
P
f2 = Ae 1 + r22 + S 0
c
2
6
1
:
74
10
(31
:
8)(39
:
5)
= ; 1; 354 1 + 943:
+ 2; 043: = ;954:
(12.33a)
psi
psi
(12.33b)
(12.33c)
(12.33d)
k.ft
psi
(12.34)
(12.35)
Thus,
f1 = ; APe 1 ; ecr21 ; M0 + MSDL + MLL
c
1
= ;1; 616 ; 962: = ;2; 578:
fcs = :45fc0 = ;2; 700p
f2 = APe 1 + ecr22 + M0 + MSDL + MLL
psi
Victor Saouma
psi
(12.36a)
(12.36b)
(12.36c)
(12.36d)
(12.36e)
(12.36f)
Draft
Chapter 13
ThreeHinges ARCHES
13.1 Theory
Solving for H
H = wL
8h
(13.2)
We recall that a similar equation was derived for arches., and H is analogous to the C ; T forces in a
beam, and h is the overall height of the arch, Since h is much larger than d, H will be much smaller
than C ; T in a beam.
5 Since equilibrium requires H to remain constant across thee arch, a parabolic curve would theoretically
result in no moment on the arch section.
6 Threehinged arches are statically determinate structures which shape can acomodate support settlements and thermal expansion without secondary internal stresses. They are also easy to analyse through
statics.
Draft
13{2
ThreeHinges ARCHES
M = w L /8
L
w=W/L
IDEALISTIC ARCH
SHAPE GIVEN BY
MOMENT DIAGRAM
C
RISE = h
C
BEAM
+T
W/2
MARM small
C CT large
BEAM
T
C
+T
SAG = h
W/2
IDEALISTIC SUSPENSION
SHAPE GIVEN BY
MOMENT DIAGRAM
Figure 13.1: Moment Resisting Forces in an Arch or Suspension System as Compared to a Beam, (Lin
and Stotesbury 1981)
wL/2
H
h
H = wL2 /8h
L/2
R
R
V = wL/2
R = V 2+ H
V = wL/2
2
MCROWN = VL/2  wL /8  H h = 0
M BASE
= wL /8  H h = 0
Victor Saouma
Draft
13.1 Theory
13{3
An arch carries the vertical load across the span through a combination of axial forces and
exural ones.
A well dimensioned arch will have a small to negligible moment, and relatively high normal compressive
stresses.
8 An arch is far more ecient than a beam, and possibly more economical and aesthetic than a truss in
carrying loads over long spans.
9 If the arch has only two hinges, Fig. 13.3, or if it has no hinges, then bending moments may exist
either at the crown or at the supports or at both places.
h
M base
H=wl /8h<
2
wl /8h
APPARENT LINE OF
PRESSURE WITH
ARCH BENDING
INCLUDING BASE
APPARENT LINE
OF PRESSURE WITH
ARCH BENDING
EXCEPT AT THE BASE
H<H H<H
M crown
M base
h
H
L
V
10
h
M base
H=wl /8h<
2
wl /8h
APPARENT LINE OF
PRESSURE WITH
ARCH BENDING
INCLUDING BASE
APPARENT LINE
OF PRESSURE WITH
ARCH BENDING
EXCEPT AT THE BASE
H<H H<H
V
M crown
M base
L
V
Figure 13.4: Arch Rib Stiened with Girder or Truss, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
Victor Saouma
Draft
13{4
ThreeHinges ARCHES
100
Garage and hotel Building
510
It is necessary to determine preliminary dimensions for the size of the arch section. The arches are
spaced 60 ft on centers and carry fourstory loading totaling 27 k/ft along each arch.
Solution:
1. To the initial DL and LL of 27 k/ft we add the arch own weight estimated to be 25% of the
load, thus the total load is
w = (1 + :25)27 = 33:7 33
(13.3)
2. We next determine the various forces:
2 (33)(510)2
H = wL
(13.4a)
8h = 8(100) = 10; 700
(33)(510) = 8; 400
V = wL
(13.4b)
2 =
2
k/ft
R =
3.
(13.4c)
If we use concretelled steel pipe for arch section, and selecting a pipe diameter of 6 ft with a
thickness of 1/2 inch, then the steel cross sectional area is
As = 2rt = Dt = (3:14)(6) (12) = (0:5) = 113 2
(13.5)
The concrete area is
2
2
(13.6)
Ac = D4 = (3:14) (6)4 2 (144) 2 =ftsq = 4; 070 2
Assuming that the steel has an allowable stress of 20 ksi and the concrete 2.5 ksi (noting that the
strength of conned concrete can be as high as three times the one of fc0 ), then the load carrySteel Ac (113)(20)ksi = 2,260 k
ing capacity of each component is Concrete As (4; 070)(2:5)ksi = 10,180 k
Total
12,440 kip
which is o.k. for the crown section (H =10,700 k) but not quite for the abutments at R=13,600 k.
This process of trial and error can be repeated until a satisfactory preliminary design is achieved.
Furthermore, a new estimate for the arch self weight should be undertaken.
ft
4.
ft
5.
6.
Victor Saouma
in
in
ft
in
in
in
Draft
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)
13{5
13.2.1 Geometry
The Salginatobel bridge, perhaps the most famous and in
uential structure of Maillart is located in
high up in the Swiss Alps close to Shuders.
14 It is a three hinged pedestrian bridge which crosses a deep valley with a most beautiful shape which
blends perfectly with its surrounding, Fig. 13.5
13
20 ft
20 ft
20 ft
87.5 ft
87.5 ft
20 ft
20 ft
42.6 ft
20 ft
295 ft
15
ft
in
(13.7)
(13.8)
2 = 1; 735 in2
(13.9)
ft
20
= 4; 291
in
Victor Saouma
ft
Draft
13{6
ThreeHinges ARCHES
42.6 ft
IDEALIZATION
(ONE DEMENSIONAL)
295 ft
CONCRETE
CORK PADS
HINGE
IDEALIZATION
CORK PAD
CONCRETE
HINGE
HARD WOOD
IDEALIZATION
Victor Saouma
Draft
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)
42.6 ft
13{7
ACTUAL ARCH
295 ft
SECTIONS
12.46 ft
0.59 ft
12.17 ft
d=12.79 ft
13.41 ft
0.62 ft
0.62 ft
Victor Saouma
Draft
13{8
ThreeHinges ARCHES
13.2.2 Loads
The dead load WD is assumed to be linearly distributed (even though it is greater where the arch is
deeper, and the vertical members longer) and is equal to 1,680 kips, Fig. 13.9.
21
; 680) = 5:7
wD = WLD = (1(295)
(13.10)
k/ft
ft
wD = 5.7 k/ft
WD = 1680 k
L = 295 ft
Figure 13.9: Salginatobel Bridge; Dead Load, (Billington and Mark 1983)
For the sake of simplicity we will neglect the snow load (which is actually negligible compared to the
dead load).
23 The live load is caused by trac, and we consider the case in which two trucks, each weighing 55 kips,
are placed at the quarterpoint, Fig. 13.10. This placement of the load actually corresponds to one of
the most critical loading arrangement. The total vertical load is shown in Fig. 13.11
22
13.2.3 Reactions
24
= 840
=
=
=
) HD =
(55)(147:5) ; (55)(73:75) ; HL (42:6) =
) HL =
p
2
RD = (840) + (1; 455)2 =
p
RL = (55)2 + (95)2 =
Victor Saouma
(13.11a)
55
0
0
1; 455
0
95
1; 680
110
k
(13.11b)
(13.11c)
(13.11d)
(13.11e)
(13.11f)
(13.11g)
(13.11h)
(13.11i)
Draft
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)
13{9
PLAN
P = 55 k
ROADWAY
295 ft
P = 55 k
ARCH ABUTMENT
42.5 ft
Figure 13.10: Salginatobel Bridge; Truck Load, (Billington and Mark 1983)
Victor Saouma
Draft
13{10
ThreeHinges ARCHES
P = 55 k
B
VB,D = 840 k
VA,D = 840 k
P = 55 k
DEAD LOAD
VA,L = 55 k
LIVE LOAD
42.6 ft
Q D = 1680 k
VB,L = 55 k
295 ft
Figure 13.11: Salginatobel Bridge; Total Vertical Load, (Billington and Mark 1983)
d=42.6 ft
A
l/4=73.75 ft
V
l/2=147.5 ft
Figure 13.12: Salginatobel Bridge; Reactions, (Billington and Mark 1983)
Victor Saouma
Draft
13.2 Case Study: Salginatobel Bridge (Maillart)
13{11
The shear diagrams for the dead, live and combined load is shown in Fig. 13.13.
840 k
3L/4
L/4
295 ft
55 k
SHEAR FORCE
SHEAR FORCE
420 k
L/2
420 k
840 k
295 ft
SHEAR FORCE
+ 895 k
L/2
L
55 k
295 ft
=
+ 475 k
+ 420 k
L
 420 k
 475 k
 895 k
295 ft
Figure 13.13: Salganitobel Bridge; Shear Diagrams, (Billington and Mark 1983)
At the quarter point the axial force can be expressed as:
N = H cos + V sin
(13.12)
where
tan = 2Ld
(13.13)
and = 16:1o at this location. The horizontal force for the dead and live loads was determined previously
as 1; 455 and 95 kips respectively, and the vertical forces are obtained from the shear diagram, thus
NDqr = (;1; 455) cos16:1o + (;420) sin 16:1o = ;1; 514
(13.14a)
qr
(13.14b)
NL = (;95) cos 16:1o + (;55) sin 16:1o = ;106
and at the crown where there is no vertical force (and = 0)
26
27
28
The uniform dead load will not produce a moment on the parabolic arch.
The (point) live load will create a moment which can be decomposed into two parts,
1. Vertical load will cause a trapezoidal moment diagram, and the max moment is
MLV = P2 L4 = 112o 295
4 = 4; 050
k.ft
(13.15a)
(13.15b)
(13.16)
2. The second is caused by the horizontal reaction, and the resulting moment is MLH = Hd(x), since
d varies parabolically, and H is constant, that second moment is parabolic with a peak value equal
to
MLV = Hdmax = (95)(32:6) = ;4; 050
(13.17)
k.ft
Victor Saouma
Draft
13{12
ThreeHinges ARCHES
(13.18)
k.ft
The overall bending moment diagram from the live loads is determined by simply adding those two
components, Fig. 13.14.
29
L/4
4,050 kft
BENDING
MOMENT
BENDING
L/4
3,040 kft
MOMENT
L/4
L/2
x
3L/4
295 ft
MOMENT
BENDING
295 ft
Figure 13.14: Salginatobel Bridge; Live Load Moment Diagram, (Billington and Mark 1983)
We observe that the actual shape of the arch follows this bending moment diagram for one of the
most critical live load case.
31 The maximum moment at midspan is
30
(13.19)
k.ft
which would produce internal forces in the upper and lower
anges equal to:
max
; 010) = 79
Fint = MLd = (1(12
:8)
k.ft
ft
(13.20)
32
in
psi
in
k
psi
in
psi
Victor Saouma
Draft
13.3 Structural Behavior of DeckStiened Arches
13{13
At the crown, we repeat the same calculations, where the axial force is equal to the horizontal
component of the reactions
(1; 455) 1; 000 = ;839
crD = ;
(13.22a)
(1; 735) 2
(95) 1; 000 = ;55
crL = (1;; 735)
(13.22b)
2
s crTotal = ;839 ; 55 = ;894
(13.22c)
34
psi
in
k
psi
in
psi
The stresses at the quarter point are determined next. Note that we must include the eect of both
axial and
exural stresses
(1; 514) 1; 000 + ;(106) 1; 000 ; (79)
qrtop = ;
(13.23a)
2
2
2
(4
;
291)
(4
;
291)
(1
;
113)

{z
} 
{z
} 
{z
}
35
DeadLoad
in
in
LiveLoad
{z
AxialStresses
in
Flexural
= ;353 ; 25 ; 71 ;449
(1; 514) 1; 000 + ;(106) 1; 000 (79)
qrbot = ;
(4
; 291){z 2 } (4; 291){z 2 } (1; 113)

{z
(13.23b)
psi
DeadLoad
in
in
{z
LiveLoad
AxialStresses
= ;353 ; 25 + 71 ;307
in
Flexural
(13.23c)
psi
(13.23d)
INCOMPLETE
The issue of unsymmetrical live load on a stiened or unstiened arch was also addressed by Maillart.
As discussed in (Billington 1979) and illustrated by Fig. 13.15
36
Victor Saouma
Draft
13{14
ThreeHinges ARCHES
wL
/10
wL
wL a
wL
Unstiffened Arch
wL
wL
wL a
2
wL a
2
Stiffened Arch
Victor Saouma
Draft
Chapter 14
BUILDING STRUCTURES
14.1 Introduction
The connection between the beam and the column can be, Fig. 14.1:
b
Flexible
Rigid
)
M=K(
s s b c
b = c
SemiFlexible
Flexible that is a hinge which can transfer forces only. In this case we really have cantiliver action
only. In a
exible connection the column and beam end moments are both equal to zero, Mcol =
Mbeam = 0. The end rotation are not equal, col =
6 beam.
Rigid: The connection is such that beam = col and moment can be transmitted through the connection.
In a rigid connection, the end moments and rotations are equal (unless there is an externally applied
moment at the node), Mcol = Mbeam =
6 0, col = beam.
SemiRigid: The end moments are equal and not equal to zero, but the rotation are dierent. beam =6
col, Mcol = Mbeam =
6 0. Furthermore, the dierence in rotation is resisted by the spring Mspring =
Kspring (col ; beam).
Draft
14{2
BUILDING STRUCTURES
The advantages of a rigid connection are greater when the frame is subjected to a lateral load. Under
those conditions, the connection will stien the structure and reduce the amount of lateral de
ection,
Fig. 14.2.
3
PI
PI
PI
PI
PI
PI
PI
PI
Figure 14.2: Deformation of Flexible and Rigid Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads, (Lin
and Stotesbury 1981)
4 Fig. 14.3 illustrates the deformation, shear, moment and axial forces in frames with dierent boundary
conditions under both vertical and horizontal loads.
e= M
P
(14.1)
The induced stresses can be decomposed into uniform (;P=L) (assuming a unit width) and linearly
varying one ( = M=S ) and the end stresses are
min = ; PL ;
max = ; PL +
(14.2a)
(14.2b)
We note that the linearly varying stress distribution must satisfy two equilibrium requirements: F = 0,
thus the neutral axis (where the stress is equal to zero) passes through the centroid of the section, and
M = 0, i.e. Mint = Mext .
max equals zero, then = P
7 If we seek the eccentricity ecr for which
L
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.1 Introduction
14{3
2
Frame Type
L
Moment
Shear
Deformation
w/2
Axial
M
w/2
w/2
w/2
a
h
P
p
w/2
M
w/2
w/2
w/2
c
M/L
p
M/L
M/L
w/2
M
w/2
w/2
w/2
e
M/L
M/L
M/L
f
p
THREEHINGE PORTAL
w/2
w/2
M
M/h
M/h
M/h
M/2
M/L
M/L
p/2
THREEHINGE PORTAL
w/2
0.4M
0.4M
0.36M/h
w/2
M/2
M/L
0.4M/h
0.64M
0.36M/h
w/2
M/2
w/2
0.45M
0.45M
w/2
M/4
0.5M/L
0.68M/h
0.55M
0.68M/h
0.68M/h
w/2
M/L
M/L
p/2
TWOHINGE FRAME
w/2
M/4
p/2
p/2
p/2
RIGID FRAME
M/4
M/4
M/2L
w/2
p/2
p/2
M/L
p/2
p/2
w/2
M/2
M/2L
w/2
Figure 14.3: Deformation, Shear, Moment, and Axial Diagrams for Various Types of Portal Frames
Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{4
BUILDING STRUCTURES
T = 12 L2
(14.3)
If we want this net tensile force to be equal and opposite to the compressive force, then
T = PL
T = L4
P
= A
applied at 32 L2 from the centroid
Thus the net internal moment is
Mint = 2T 23 L2 = 2 P4 23 L2 = PL
6
(14.4)
(14.5)
9 To satisfy the equilibrium equation, this internal moment must be equal and opposite to the external
moment Mext = Pecr hence
PL = Pe
(14.6)
6  {zcr}
{z}
Mint
or
Mext
ecr = L6
(14.7)
in other words to avoid tensile stresses on either side, the resultant force P must be placed within the
midle third kernel, Fig. 14.4
L/2
L/2
L/3
L/3
L/3
L/3
L/6
L/2
L/2
L/3
P
L/3
L/3
L/3
L/3
L/3
L/3
L/3
L/6
L/3
L/3
L/6
P/A
+
M/S
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.2 Buildings Structures
14{5
1. Prestressed concrete beams: If the prestressing cable is within the kernel (i.e middle third), then
there will not be any tensile stresses caused by prestressing alone.
2. Foundations: If the eccentricity is within the middle kernel, then we have compressive stresses only
under the foundation and no undesirable uplift.
3. Buildings: If the eccentricity of the vertical load is within the middle third, all columns will be
loaded under compression only.
12
We consider a reinforced concrete wall 20 ft wide, 1 ft thick, and 120 ft high with a vertical load of
400 k acting on it at the base. As a result of wind, we assume a uniform horizontal force of 0.8 kip/ft
of vertical height acting on the wall. It is required to compute the
exural stresses and the shearing
stresses in the wall to resist the wind load, Fig. 14.5.
1. Maximum shear force and bending moment at the base
16
k.ft
Victor Saouma
ft
(14.8a)
ft
k.ft
(14.8b)
Draft
14{6
BUILDING STRUCTURES
w=0.8 k/ft
20
11111
00000
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
W11111
00000
00000
40011111
k
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
H=96 k;
M =5760 k
60
120
V
f
HORIZONTAL
+f
2/(3d)
+F
F
VERTICAL
+ FDL
11111
00000
11111
00000
+140
+ 740 PSI
+ 600
7.7 IN TENSION
Figure 14.5: Design of a Shear Wall Subsystem, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
2. The resulting eccentricity is
(5; 760)
=
eActual = M
P
(400)
k.ft
k
= 14:4
(14.9)
ft
(14.10)
ft
ft
3 (1) (20)
I = bh
12 =
12
ft
ft
= 667
(14.11)
ft
ft
ksf
ft
= (600)
psi
(14.12)
(96)
= VA = (1)(20)
k
ft
= 4:8
ksf
= 33:3
psi
(14.13)
A concrete with nominal shear reinforcement can carry at least 100 psi in shear, those computed
shear streses are permissible.
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.2 Buildings Structures
14{7
ksf
ft
= ;140
(14.14a)
psi
psi
psi
(Tension)
(Compression)
(14.15a)
(14.15b)
9. The compressive stress of 740 psi can easily be sustained by concrete, as to the tensile stress of
460 psi, it would have to be resisted by some steel reinforcement.
10. Given that those stresses are service stresses and not factored ones, we adopt the WSD approach,
and use an allowable stress of 20 ksi, which in turn will be increased by 4=3 for seismic and wind
load,
all = 34 (20) = 26:7
(14.16)
ksi
11. The stress distribution is linear, compression at one end, and tension at the other. The length of
the tension area is given by (similar triangles)
x = 20 ) x = 460 (20) = 7:7
(14.17)
460 460 + 740
460 + 740
ft
12. The total tensile force inside this triangular stress block is
= 250
T = 12 (460) (7:7 12) (12)
 {z }
ksi
in
in
(14.18)
width
in
ksi
ft
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{8
BUILDING STRUCTURES
120
20
W
400 k
60
H=96 k
24
1
1.2
~1.6
V
+FM
F
(14.21a)
(14.21b)
3. The force in the diagonal which must resist a base shear of 96 kip is (similar triangles)
p
(14.22)
4. The design could be modied to have no tensile forces in the columns by increasing the width of
the base (currently at 20 ft).
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.2 Buildings Structures
14{9
With reference to Fig. 14.7, the reinforced concrete shaft is 20 ft square, 120 ft high, and with 1 ft
~ 20
20
w = 0.8 k/ft
H = 96 k
60
20
~ 20
111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
120
N.A.
Figure 14.7: Design Example of a Tubular Structure, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
thick walls. It is subjected to a lateral force of 0.8 k/ft.
1. Comparing this structure with the one analysed in Sect. 14.2.1.1 the total vertical load acting on
the base is now increased to
V = 4(400) = 1; 600
(14.23)
2. As previously, the maximum moment and shear are 5; 760 and 96 respectively.
3. The moment of inertia for a tubular section is
3 (20)(20)3 (18)(18)3
4
I = bd
(14.24)
12 = 12 ; 12 = 4; 600
4. The maximum
exural stresses:
(5; 760) (20=2) = 12:5 = 87
=
fl = MC
(14.25)
I
(4; 600) 4
k
k.ft
ft
k.ft
ft
ksf
psi
ft
(96)
= VA = 2(20)(1)
k
ft
= 2:4
ksf
= 17
ft
Victor Saouma
ksf
(14.26)
psi
= ;140
psi
(14.27)
Draft
14{10
BUILDING STRUCTURES
= ax + fl
1 = ;140 + 87 = ;53
2 = ;140 ; 87 = ;227
(14.28a)
(14.28b)
(14.28c)
psi
psi
thus we do not have any tensile stresses, and those stresses are much better than those obtained
from a single shear wall.
L
P
P
L/2
P
h/2
PI
H 1=P/2
H 2=P/2
h/2
V1 =P/(2L)
V2 =P/(2L)
Despite the widespread availability of computers, approximate methods of analysis are justied by
1. Inherent assumption made regarding the validity of a linear elastic analysis vis a vis of an ultimate
failure design.
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
14{11
Based on the rst assumption, all beams are statically determinate and have a span, Ls equal to 0.8
the original length of the girder, L. (Note that for a rigidly connected member, the in
ection point is
at 0.211 L, and at the support for a simply supported beam; hence, depending on the nature of the
connection one could consider those values as upper and lower bounds for the approximate location of
the hinge).
33 End forces are given by
Maximum positive moment at the center of each beam is, Fig. 14.9
32
(14.29)
Maximum negative moment at each end of the girder is given by, Fig. 14.9
M left = M rgt = ; w2 (0:1L)2 ; w2 (0:8L)(0:1L) = ;0:045wL2
(14.30)
Girder Shear are obtained from the free body diagram, Fig. 14.10
V lft = wL
2
Victor Saouma
V rgt = ; wL
2
(14.31)
Draft
14{12
BUILDING STRUCTURES
Mrgt
lft
Vrgt
Vlft
0.1L
0.1L
0.8L
L
Figure 14.9: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Girder Moments
Pabove
Vrgti1
Vlfti
Pbelow
Figure 14.10: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Axial Forces
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
14{13
Column axial force is obtained by summing all the girder shears to the axial force transmitted by the
column above it. Fig. 14.10
lft
P dwn = P up + Virgt
;1 ; Vi
(14.32)
Column Moment are obtained by considering the free body diagram of columns Fig. 14.11
h/2
h/2
Mcolabove
Mi1lft
Mi1rgt
Vi1rgt
Vi1lft
Li1
Mirgt
Milft
Virgt
Vilft
Mcolbelow
Li
h/2
h/2
Figure 14.11: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Moments
bot ; M rgt + M lft
M top = Mabove
i
i;1
M bot = ;top
(14.33)
Column Shear Points of in
ection are at midheight, with possible exception when the columns on
the rst
oor are hinged at the base, Fig. 14.11
top
V = Mh
2
(14.34)
Girder axial forces are assumed to be negligible eventhough the unbalanced column shears above and
below a
oor will be resisted by girders at the
oor.
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{14
BUILDING STRUCTURES
35
36
H/2
H/2
Figure 14.12: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Shear
P
lateral
V ext = 2No.F of bays
V int = 2V ext
(14.35)
Column Moments at the end of each column is equal to the shear at the column times half the height
of the corresponding column, Fig. 14.12
M top = V h2
Victor Saouma
M bot = ;M top
(14.36)
Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
14{15
h/2
h/2
Mcol
Mi1lft
above
Mi1rgt
Vi1rgt
Vi1lft
Li1/2
Li1/2
Mirgt
Milft
Virgt
Vilft
Mcolbelow
Li/2
Li/2
h/2
h/2
Figure 14.13: ***Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Girder Moment
Girder Moments is obtained from the columns connected to the girder, Fig. 14.13
above ; M below + M rgt
Milft = Mcol
col
i;1
Mirgt = ;Milft
(14.37)
Girder Shears Since there is an in
ection point at the center of the girder, the girder shear is obtained
by considering the sum of moments about that point, Fig. 14.13
V lft = ; 2LM
V rgt = V lft
(14.38)
Column Axial Forces are obtained by summing girder shears and the axial force from the column
above, Fig. ??
Pabove
Vrgti1
Vlfti
Pbelow
Figure 14.14: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Axial Force
(14.39)
Example 1426: Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{16
BUILDING STRUCTURES
0.25K/ft
15
30
12
13
0.50K/ft
14
14
9
1
10
20
11
3
30
16
24
Vertical Loads
1. Top Girder Moments
= ;0:045w12L212 = ;(0:045)(0:25)(20)2
= 0:08w12L212 = (0:08)(0:25)(20)2
= M12lft
= ;0:045w13L213 = ;(0:045)(0:25)(30)2
= 0:08w13L213 = (0:08)(0:25)(30)2
= M13lft
= ;0:045w14L214 = ;(0:045)(0:25)(24)2
= 0:08w14L214 = (0:08)(0:25)(24)2
= M14lft
2. Bottom Girder Moments
M9lft = ;0:045w9L29 = ;(0:045)(0:5)(20)2
M9cnt = 0:08w9 L29 = (0:08)(0:5)(20)2
M9rgt = M9lft
M10lft = ;0:045w10L210 = ;(0:045)(0:5)(30)2
M10cnt = 0:08w10 L210 = (0:08)(0:5)(30)2
M10rgt = M11lft
M11lft = ;0:045w12L212 = ;(0:045)(0:5)(24)2
M11cnt = 0:08w12 L212 = (0:08)(0:5)(24)2
M11rgt = M12lft
3. Top Column Moments
M5top = +M12lft
M5bot = ;M5top
M6top = ;M12rgt + M13lft = ;(;4:5) + (;10:1)
M6bot = ;M6top
M7top = ;M13rgt + M14lft = ;(;10:1) + (;6:5)
M7bot = ;M7top
M8top = ;M14rgt = ;(;6:5)
M8bot = ;M8top
M12lft
M12cnt
M12rgt
M13lft
M13cnt
M13rgt
M14lft
M14cnt
M14rgt
Victor Saouma
=;
=
=;
=;
=
=;
=;
=
=;
4:5
8:0
4:5
10:1
18:0
10:1
6:5
11:5
6:5
=;
=
=;
=;
=
=;
=;
=
=;
9:0
16:0
9:0
20:3
36:0
20:3
13:0
23:0
13:0
=;
=
=;
=
=;
=
=
=;
4:5
4:5
5:6
5:6
3:6
3:6
6:5
6:5
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
14{17
=;
=
=;
=
=
=;
=
=;
4:5
4:5
5:6
5:6
3:6
3:6
6:5
6:5
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
0.25K/ft
12
13
10
4.5
20
30
+8.0k
+18.0k
4.5k
+16.0k
9.0k
9.0k
4.5k
+4.5k
+5.6k
4.5k
+4.5k
+5.6k
5.6
16
24
+11.5k
6.5k
+23.0k
k
k 13.0
20.2k 20.2
5.6k
14
11
3
14
0.50K/ft
+3.6k
13.0k
+6.5k
3.6k
6.5k
k
+3.6
+6.5
k
3.6k
6.5k
Victor Saouma
V12lft
V12rgt
V13lft
V13rgt
V14lft
V14rgt
=
=
=
=
=
=
;V12
;V13
;V14
=;
=
=;
=
=;
2:5
2:5
3:75
3:75
3:0
3:0
k
k
k
k
k
k
Draft
14{18
BUILDING STRUCTURES
V9lft
V9rgt
V10lft
V10rgt
V11lft
V11rgt
7. Column Shears
=
=
=
=
=
=
V5
V6
V7
V8
V1
V2
V3
V4
+2.5K
+3.75
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
w9 L9 = (0:5)(20)
2
2
lft
;V9
;V10
;V11
7
2
2
2
4
2
=
=
k
k
k
0:46
0:81
+3.0
3.75K
K
3.0K
+6.0
5.0K
0.56K
k
k
M3top = 3:6
16
H3
2
2
M4top = 6:5
16
H
+7.5
0.64K
M8top = 6:5 =
0:93 k
14
H8
2
2
M1top = ;4:5 = ; 0:56 k
16
H1
2
2
M2top = ;5:6 = ; 0:70 k
16
H
2.5K
+5.0
5:00
5:00
7:50
7:50
6:00
6:00
=
=;
=
=;
=
=;
6.0K
7.5K
0.80K
+0.51K
0.70K
+0.45K
+0.93K
+0.81K
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
14{19
P5
P6
P7
P8
=
=
=
=
V12lft
;V12rgt + V13lft = ;(;2:50) + 3:75
;V13rgt
+ V14lft = ;(;3:75) + 3:00
rgt
;V14
2:50
6:25
6:75
3:00
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
k
k
k
k
7:5
18:75
20:25
9:00
k
k
k
V5
V6
V7
V8
V1
V2
V3
V4
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
15
(2)(3)
2(V5 ) = (2)(2:5)
2(V5 ) = (2)(2:5)
V5
15+30
(2)(3)
2(V1 ) = (2)(7:5)
2(V1 ) = (2)(2:5)
V1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
2:5
5
5
2:5
7:5
15
15
7:5
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
M5top
M5bot
M6top
M6bot
M7top
M7bot
M8top
M8bot
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
V1 H5 = (2:5)(14)
2 top
2
;M5
V6 H6 = (5)(14)
2
2
;upM6top
V7 H7 = (5)(14)
2
2
;upM7top
V8 H8 = (2:5)(14)
2 top
2
;M8
=
=;
=
=;
=
=;
=
=;
17:5
17:5
35:0
35:0
35:0
35:0
17:5
17:5
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
M1top
M1bot
M2top
M2bot
M3top
M3bot
M4top
M4bot
Victor Saouma
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
V1dwn H1 = (7:5)(16) =
2 top
2
;dwn
M1
V2 H2 = (15)(16)
2
2
;dwn
M2top
V3 H3
2
;dwn
M3top
V4 H4
2
;M4top
= (15)(16)
2
=
(7:5)(16)
2
=;
=
=;
=
=;
=
=;
60
60
120
120
120
120
60
60
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
Draft
14{20
BUILDING STRUCTURES
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Height
14
16
Span
Load
Load
APROXVER.XLS
Victor E. Saouma
L1
20
0.25
0.5
L2
L3
30
24
0.25
0.25
0.5
0.5
MOMENTS
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft Cnt Rgt
Lft Cnr Rgt
Lft Cnt Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA 10.1 18.0 10.1AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA 4.5
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
A 6.5
8.0 4.5 AAAA
11.5 6.5 AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAA
4.5 AAAA
5.6
3.6
6.5
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
4.5 AAAA
5.6
3.6
6.5
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA 20.3 36.0 20.3AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA 9.0 16.0
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
A 13.0 23.0 13.0 AAAA
9.0 AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
4.5 AAAA
5.6
3.6
6.5
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
4.5 AAAA
5.6
3.6
6.5
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
SHEAR
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
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AXIAL FORCE
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
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Victor Saouma
Victor Saouma
L1
20
0.25
0.5
H
L2
30
0.25
0.5
APROXVER.XLS
M
L3
24
0.25
0.5
Victor E. Saouma
=F13+I13+G12
=G14
=K13+N13+L12
=L14
=P13+Q12
=Q14
=+C28+D22
Bay 2
Beam
0
=+I3*I5/2
=I22
Column
=2*L14/A5
Bay 3
Beam
0
=+N3*N5/2
=N22
Col
=2*Q14/A5
=+G28F22+I22
=F20+I20
=+L28K22+N22
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=+D20
Column
AXIAL FORCE
Bay 1
Col
Beam
0
=2*G14/A5
=D22
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=+D3*D5/2
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Bay 2
Bay 3
Beam
Column
Beam
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Beam
Col
Lft
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A
SHEAR
Bay 1
Col
=+D13+C12
=C14
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Bay 2
Bay 3
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft
Cnt
Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAALft
Cnr
Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft
Cnt
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=0.045*D4*D3^2
=0.08*D4*D3*D3
=+D10
=0.045*I4*I3^2
=0.08*I4*I3*I3
=+I10
=0.045*N4*N3^2
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MOMENTS
Bay 1
Col
29
30
Span
Load
Load
24
25
26
27
28
22
23
16
17
18
19
20
21
13
14
15
A
1
2
3 Height
4 14
5 16
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
14{21
Draft
14{22
BUILDING STRUCTURES
M12lft
M12rgt
M13lft
M13rgt
M14lft
M14rgt
=
=
=
=
=
=
M5top
;M12lft
M12rgt + M6top = ;17:5 + 35
;M13lft
M13rgt + M7top = ;17:5 + 35
;M14lft
=
=;
=
=;
=
=;
17:5
17:5
17:5
17:5
17:5
17:5
V12lft
V12rgt
V13lft
V13rgt
V14lft
V14rgt
=
=
=
=
=
=
:5) = ;1:75
; 2LM1212 = ; (2)(17
20
lft
+V12
= ;1:75
lft
2
M
(2)(17
:
5)
13
; L13 = ; 30 = ;1:17
+V13lft
= ;1:17
lft
2
M
(2)(17
:
5)
; L1414 = ; 24 = ;1:46
+V14lft
= ;1:46
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
=
=;
=
=;
=
=;
77:5
77:5
77:5
77:5
77:5
77:5
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
lft
k
k
k
k
k
k
:5) = ;7:75
= ; 2ML912 = ; (2)(77
20
= +V9lft
= ;7:75
lft
:5) = ;5:17
= ; 2LM1010 = ; (2)(77
30
= +V10lft
= ;5:17
lft
2
M
(2)(77
:
5)
11
= ; L11 = ; 24
= ;6:46
= +V11lft
= ;6:46
8. Top Column Axial Forces (+ve tension, ve compression)
P5 = ;V12lft
= ;(;1:75)
P6 = +V12rgt ; V13lft = ;1:75 ; (;1:17) = ;0:58
P7 = +V13rgt ; V14lft = ;1:17 ; (;1:46) = 0:29
P8 = V14rgt = ;1:46
9. Bottom Column Axial Forces (+ve tension, ve compression)
P1 = P5 + V9lft = 1:75 ; (;7:75)
= 9:5
P2 = P6 + V10rgt + V9lft = ;0:58 ; 7:75 ; (;5:17) = ;3:16
P3 = P7 + V11rgt + V10lft = 0:29 ; 5:17 ; (;6:46) = 1:58
P4 = P8 + V11rgt = ;1:46 ; 6:46
= ;7:66
V9lft
V9rgt
V10lft
V10rgt
V11lft
V11rgt
k.ft
lft
k
k
k
k
k
k
Design Parameters On the basis of the two approximate analyses, vertical and lateral load, we now
seek the design parameters for the frame, Table 14.2.
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
15K
12
30K
14{23
13
10
20
35K
+60K
120K
17.5K
60K
+17.5K
17.5K
+77.5K
+17.5K
120K
+17.5K
16
24
35K
+120K
60K
+17.5K
+35K
+35K
14
11
30
17.5K
+120K
+60K
+17.5K
14
+77.5K
17.5K
17.5K
77.5K
77.5K
+77.5K
77.5K
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{24
BUILDING STRUCTURES
Portal Method
PORTAL.XLS
A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Victor E. Saouma
PORTAL METHOD
# of Bays
# of Storeys
2
Force Shear
H Lat. Tot Ext Int
H1
14 15 15 2.5
H2
16 30 45 7.5 15
L1
20
L2
L3
30
24
MOMENTS
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
A 17.5 17.5 AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAA 17.5 17.5 AAAAAAAA
AAAA 17.5 17.5AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
17.5 AAAA
35.0
35.0
17.5
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
17.5 AAAA
35.0
35.0
17.5
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAA 77.5 77.5 AAAAAAAA
AAAA 77.5 77.5AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA 77.5 77.5 AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
60.0 AAAA
120.0
120.0
60.0
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
60.0 AAAA
120.0
120.0
60.0
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
SHEAR
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft Rgt
Lft Rgt
Lft Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA 1.46 1.46AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
1.17
1.17
A 1.75 1.75 AAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
2.50 AAAA
5.00
5.00
2.50
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
2.50 AAAA
5.00
5.00
2.50
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
A 7.75 7.75 AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAA 5.17 5.17 AAAAAAAA
AAAA 6.46 6.46AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
7.50 AAAA
15.00
15.00
7.50
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
7.50 AAAA
15.00
15.00
7.50
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AXIAL FORCE
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam Col
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
0.00
0.00
0.00
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
1.75
0.58
0.29
1.46
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
0.00
0.00
0.00
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
9.50 AAAA
3.17
1.58
7.92
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings
14{25
Portal Method
PORTAL.XLS
A
1
PORTAL METHOD
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Victor E. Saouma
A
A
A
A
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A3
AL1
A AAAAAAAA
A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
A
AAAAA
2 AAAA
# of Bays
L2
L3 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A AAAAAAAAAAAA
A AAAAAAAA
A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
3
A
A
A
A
A
A20
A
A
AA30
A
A
A 24
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A MOMENTS
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A2
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
Bay 1
Bay 2 AA
Bay 3 AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Force A
Shear
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
6
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AInt
A Rgt
ARgt
A Rgt
H Lat. AAA Tot
Ext
Lft
Lft
Lft
7
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=+H9
AAAAAAAA
AAA=+J8+K9
AAAAAAAA
AAA =+N8+O9
AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAA
A
A
=I8 AAAA
=M8 AAAA
=Q8 AAAA
8
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=+F9*B9/2
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA =+K9
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA=+H9
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A=2*E9
9 AAAA
H1AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
14 AAAAA
15 AAAAAAAAAA
=+C9
=+D9/(2*$F$2)
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E9*B9/2
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=K9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K10
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H10
A
A
10
=H9
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAA
A
A
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=+H12H10 =I11 AAAAAAAA
AAA=+K12K10+J11 =M11 AAAAAAAA
AAA =+O12O10+N11 =Q11 AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
11
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=+F12*B12/2
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA =+K12
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA=+H12
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
H2
16 A30
=SUM($C$9:C12) A=+D12/(2*$F$2)
=2*E12
=+E12*B12/2
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=K12
AAAAAAAA
AA =+K13
AAAAAAAA
AAA=+H13
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
13
=H12
AAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAA
AAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A SHEAR
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
14
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
15 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Bay 1
Bay 2 AA
Bay 3
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
16
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
17
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA =2*Q8/Q$3
AA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
18
=+M18AAAA
=+Q18AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=2*I8/I$3 =+I18 AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA=2*M8/M$3
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+F9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E9
A
A
A
A
A
A
19
=+E9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K19
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O19
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S19
A
A
A
A
A
A
20
=+H19
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=2*I11/I$3 =+I21 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=2*M11/M$3 =+M21AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*Q11/Q$3
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
21
=+Q21AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=+F12
AAAAAAAA
AA =+F12
AAAAAAAA
AAA =+E12
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
22
=+E12
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K22
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O22
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S22
A
A
A
A
A
A
23
=+H22
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
24
AXIAL FORCE
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
25
Bay 1
Bay 2 AA
Bay 3
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
26
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAA0
AAAAAAAA
AAA0
AAAAAAAA
AAA 0
AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
27
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA=+J18M18
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA =+N18Q18
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAA=+R18
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
28 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
=I18
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA0
AAAAAAAA
AAA0
AAAAAAAA
AAA 0
AAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAA
A
A
A
A
29
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
30
=+H28I21
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K28+J21M21
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O28+N21Q21
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S28+R21
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
5 # of Storeys
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{26
BUILDING STRUCTURES
Mem.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Vert.
Hor.
Design
Values
64.50
17.00
8.06
125.60
34.58
15.70
123.60
34.50
15.45
66.50
16.92
8.31
22.00
4.25
3.14
40.60
9.17
5.80
38.60
9.38
5.51
24.00
4.46
3.43
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.4 Lateral De
ections
14{27
Mem.
9
10
11
12
13
14
ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
Vert.
Hor. Design
9.00
16.00
5.00
20.20
36.00
7.50
13.0
23.00
6.00
4.50
8.00
2.50
10.10
18.00
3.75
6.50
11.50
3.00
77.50
0.00
7.75
77.50
0.00
5.17
77.50
0.00
6.46
17.50
0.00
1.75
17.50
0.00
1.17
17.50
0.00
1.46
Values
86.50
16.00
12.75
97.70
36.00
12.67
90.50
23.00
12.46
22.00
8.00
4.25
27.60
18.00
4.92
24.00
11.50
4.46
39
GA
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{28
BUILDING STRUCTURES
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
WALL ELEVATION
Figure 14.23: Shear Deformation in a Short Building, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
Alternatively, in a tall building exural deformations, Fig. 14.24 are predominant. dominates.
111111
000000
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
Figure 14.24: Flexural Deformation in a Tall Building, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
4
8wh
EI
(14.41)
41
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.4 Lateral De
ections
14{29
LINTELS
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
LINTEL BENDING
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
2 WALLS CONNECTED
BY LINTELS
DEFORMATION
Figure 14.25: De
ection in a Building Structure Composed of Two Slender Walls and Lintels, (Lin and
Stotesbury 1981)
42
(14.42a)
(14.42b)
(14.42c)
(14.42d)
(14.42e)
and
h
(14.43)
14.4.4 Frames
De
ection of a rigid frame is essentially caused by shear between stories which produces vertical shears
in the girders. From the portal method we can estimate those deformations, Fig. 14.26.
44 The deformation for the rst story at the exterior joint can be approximated from
43
VcolE h
col = 12
EIcolE
2
(14.44a)
L h 2VcolE Lh
gdr = V12gdr
EIgdr = 12EIgdr
Eh
totE = colE + gdr = Vcol
12E
Victor Saouma
(14.44b)
2
h
2L
IcolE + Ig dr
(14.44c)
Draft
14{30
BUILDING STRUCTURES
DUE TO GI
h STORIES
DUE TO CO
DEFORMATION OF ONE BE
Vcol
Vcol
h/2
V gdr
L/2
h/2
L/2
L/2
Vgd
h/2
Vgdr
h/2
Vcol
MOMENT EQUILIBRIUM
INTERIOR JOINT
EXTERIOR JOINT
Figure 14.26: Portal Method to Estimate Lateral Deformation in Frames, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
45
VcolI h
col = 12
EIcolI
(14.45a)
L2 h = 2VcolI Lh2
(14.45b)
gdr = V12gdr
EIgdr 12EIgdr
2 h
V
h
L
col
I
totI = colI + gdr = 12E I + I dr
(14.45c)
colI
g
and the total displacement will be
(14.46)
tot = n 2tot
where n is the number of stories, and tot is for either the interior or exterior joints.
46 The two major sources of lateral de
ection are the bending of column in resisting horizontal shear
and girders in resisting vertical shear, Fig. 14.27.
47 A vertical unsymmetric load will cause lateral de
ection in frames, Fig. 14.28.
48
= PPL
AE
Victor Saouma
(14.47)
Draft
14.4 Lateral De
ections
14{31
M
S + M
SHEAR EFFECT
(RACKING)
SHORTENING
ELONGATION
OVERALL EFFECT
MOMENT EFFECT
(OVERALL BENDING)
(RACKING + BENDING)
Figure 14.27: Shear and Flexural De ection of a Rigid Frame Subsystem, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
SIDE SWAY
Figure 14.28: SideSway De ection from Unsymmetrical Vertical Load, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
H1
H2
H3
H4
a
P1
a
T
Figure 14.29: Axial Elongation and Shortening of a Truss Frame, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{32
BUILDING STRUCTURES
where: P is the force in any member due to loading on the whole system, L is the length of the member,
A and E the corresponding cross sectional area and modulus of elasticity, P the force in the same member
due to a unit (1) force applied in the direction of the de
ection sought, and at the point in question.
50 Alternatively, we can neglect the web deformation and consider only the axial deformations in the
colums:
t + c h (14.48)
a
Th
t + c = 2 AE
(14.49)
13@12=156
CORE SHAFT
1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
W=4.8 K/FT
CORE
MOMENT
DIAGRAM
TOTAL M
58500 KFT
12
TYP.
20
LOAD
156
51
20
TRANSVERSE ELEVATION OF CORE
60
TRANSVERSE ELEVATION OF BUILDING
1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
1111
0000
1111
0000
20" TYP.
40
COLUMN SECTION
20"
60
20"
20
20
1111111111111111
0000000000000000
0000000000000000
1111111111111111
0000000000000000
1111111111111111
FLOOR PLAN
2.5
5"
12"
GIRDER SECTION
53
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.4 Lateral De
ections
14{33
1. Determine the
exural deformation of the top of the shaft (we may neglect shear deformations
since the shaft is slender):
4
= 8wh
EI
3 ; b2 d3
b
2
I = 1 d1 12
3 ; (39)(19)3
= (41)(21) 12
= 9; 400 4
E = 3 106 = 432; 000
(4:8) (156)4 4 = 0:087
=
8(432; 000) (9; 400) 4
= 0:087 = 1 p
h
156 1; 800
(14.50a)
(14.50b)
(14.50c)
(14.50d)
ft
psi
ksf
k.ft
(14.50e)
ft
ksf
ft
ft
(14.50f)
The h ratio is much less than 1/500 as permitted in most building codes, and s within the usual
index for concrete buildings, which ranges between 1/1,000 and 1/2,500.
If the wall thickness is reduced, and if door openings are considered, the de
ection will be correspondingly smaller.
The de
ection due to moment increases rapidly at the top, the value of 1/1,800 indicates only the
average drift index for the entire building, whereas the story drift index may be higher, especially
for the top
oor.
2. We next consider the de
ection of the top of the frame. Assuming that each frame takes 1/9 of
the total wind load and shear, and neglecting column shortening, then:
2
h
2L
Eh
= Vcol
12E IcolE + Ig dr
3 (20=12)(20=12)3
Icol = bh
= 0:64 4
12 =
12
Igdr = 3:64 4
(156) = 41:7 =col
ground = (4:8)
Vcol
I
(2)(9)
2 (12)
(41
:
7)
(12)
= 12(432; 000)
+ 2(60)
(0:64) 4 (3:46)
= 0:00116(18:8 + 34:7) = 0:062
(14.51a)
(14.51b)
(14.51c)
ft
ft
k.ft
(14.51d)
ft
ft
ksf
ft
ft
ft
ft
(14.51e)
(14.51f)
3. Since the story drift varies with the shear in the story, which decreases linearly to the top, the
average drift will be 0:062=2 = 0:31 per story and the de
ection at top of the building is
approximately
(14.52)
= (13)(0:031) = 0:40
which indicates a drift ratio of
(0:4) = 1
(14.53a)
Drift Ratio for Building = (156)
400
:062) = 1
Drift Ratio for Ground Floor = (0(12)
(14.53b)
194
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
ft
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{34
BUILDING STRUCTURES
4. Comparing the frame de
ection of 0:40 with the shaft de
ection of 0:087 , it is seen that the
frame is about ve times more
exible than the shaft. Furthermore, the frame would not be
sti enough to carry all the lateral load by itlself. Proportioning the lateral load to the relative
stinesses, the frame would carry about 1/6 of the load, and the remaining 5/6 will be carried by
the shaft.
Increasing the column size will stien the frame, but in order to be really eective, the girder
stiness will also need to be increased, since thegirders contribute about 2/3 of the de
ection.
Then the frames can be made o carry a larger proportion of the load. Note that the de
ected
shapes of the shaft and the frames are quite dierent, so that the above simple comparison of top
de
ections is not an accurate assessment.
Finally, we have not studied the eect of the shaft stiened by the exterior columns, which are
rigidly connected to the shaft walls and will avt with the shaft as a unit, Fig. 14.31. This would
ft
ft
60
20
20
20
156
1111
0000
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
CORE
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
COLUMNS PARTICIPATE
+
+
Figure 14.31: Frame Rigidly Connected to Shaft, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
be quite eective as the horizontal
oor diaphragms will hold and force them to de
ect together.
5. In summary, this appears to be quite an ecient layout, further analysis would rene and optimize
it.
54
Victor Saouma
Draft
14.4 Lateral De
ections
14{35
equalize temperature shortening of vertical components, and reduce lateral de
ections, Fig. 14.32.
TUBE
HAT
FULL
CANTILEVER
DEFLECTION
WIND
HAT  TRUSS
TRUSS
T
TENSION
COMPRESSION
CORE
BRACING REDUCE
OVERALL DEFLEC
OF BUILDING
WITH
BRACING
EFFECT
HEIGHT
MID  HEIGHT
BRACE
WITH CANTILEVER
CORE BENDING
TIEDOWN
DEFLECTION
RESISTANCE ARM OF
CORE SHAFT ONLY
Figure 14.32: Eect of Exterior Column Bracing in Buildings, (Lin and Stotesbury 1981)
Victor Saouma
Draft
14{36
BUILDING STRUCTURES
Victor Saouma
Draft
Bibliography
318, A. C.: n.d., Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, (ACI 31883), American Concrete
Institute.
Anon.: xx, Envyclopaedia Brittanica, University of Chicago.
Billington, D.: 1973, in D. Billington, R. Mark and J. Abel (eds), The Maillart Papers; Second National
Conference on Civil Engineering: History, Heritage and the Humanities, Department of Civil Engineering, Princeton University.
Billington, D.: 1979, Robert Maillart's Bridges; The art of Engineering, Princeton University Press.
Billington, D.: 1985, The Tower and the Bridge, xx.
Billington, D. and Mark, R.: 1983, Structural studies, Technical report, Department of Civil Engineering,
Princeton University.
Galilei, G.: 1974, Two New Sciences, Including Centers of Gravity and Forces of Percussion, University
of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisc. S. Drake translation.
le Duc, V.: 1977, Entretiens sur L'Architecture, Pierre Mardaga, Bruxelles, Belgique.
Lin, T. and Stotesbury, S.: 1981, Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers, John
Wiley.
Nilson, A.: 1978, Design of Prestressed Concrete, John Wiley and Sons.
of Steel COnstruction, A. I.: 1986, Manual of Steel Construction; Load and Resistance Factor Design,
American Institute of Steel Construction.
Palladio, A.: 19xx, The Four Books of Architecture, Dover Publications.
Penvenuto, E.: 1991, An Introduction to the History of Structural Mechanics, SpringerVerlag.
Schueller, W.: 1996, The design of Building Structures, Prentice Hall.
Timoshenko, S.: 1982, History of Strength of Materials, Dover Publications.
UBC: 1995, Uniform building code, Technical report, International COnference of Building Ocials.
Vitruvius: 1960, The Ten Books on Architecture, Dover.