You are on page 1of 5

316 / 316L Stainless Steel

Grade 316 / 316L | UNS S31600 / UNS S31603 | 1.4401 / 1.4404

These steels are the second most regularly specified stainless steels after Type 304 and are
part of the SAE defined 300 Series which encompasses a range of austenitic chromium-nickel
alloys. Austenitic stainless steels like Type 316 are widely available, have good general
corrosion resistance, good cryogenic toughness, and excellent formability and weldability.
Type 316 has 2-3% Molybdenum included in its chemical composition which prevents
specific forms of corrosion and generally enhances its corrosion resistance. Type 316 is often
referred to as marine grade stainless due to its increased resistance to chloride corrosion
compared to Type 304 making it a very suitable material for use in salt water environments.
Type 316L is a variant of Type 316 and differs by having a lower Carbon content as well as
slightly lower yield and tensile strengths. Type 316L offers improved weldability and also
reduces the possibility of lower corrosion resistance around welded areas.
As with most steel plate products a number of different designations are used for these steels.
The most common are:

Type 316

1.4401 (EN Steel Number)

S31600 (UNS)

Type 316L

1.4404 (EN Steel Number)

S31603 (UNS)

316 / 316L Stainless Steel Properties:


Typical chemical and mechanical properties of Type 316 and Type 316L steel:

316
316L

Chemical Analysis (%)


C
Cr
Ni
.08
17
11.5
.03
17
11.5

PREN
Mechanical Properties
Mo
Proof Stress
Tensile
Elongation
24 255
550-700 40
24 220
520-670 40

304 / 304L Stainless Steel


Steel Grade 304 / 304L | UNS S30400 / UNS S30403 | 1.4301 / 1.4307

These types of steel are some of the most regularly specified and have come to represent the
embodiment of the basic stainless product. They are part of the 300 Series of steels (as
defined in SAE specifications) which covers a range of austenitic chromium-nickel alloys.
They are also known as 18/8 stainless due to their chemical composition which includes
approximately 18% chromium and 8% nickel by weight. The steels are easy to form, weld,
and fabricate and their resistance to corrosion from, amongst other things, acids naturally
contained in food has resulted in them being used widely in the food and drink processing
industries.
Type 304 and Type 304L have very similar chemical and mechanical properties and are often
included on a single material test certificate when the actual properties of a stainless steel
plate meet the criteria of both types. This is a very common occurrence. Type 304L is a
variation of Type 304 and has a lower carbon content which improves weldability and lowers
the risk of reduced corrosion resistance around the weld. Type 304L also has a slightly lower
yield and tensile strength than Type 304.
As with most steel plate products a number of different designations are used for these steels.
The most common are:

Type 304

1.4301 (EN Steel Number)

S30400 (UNS)

Type 304L

1.4307 (EN Steel Number)

S30403 (UNS)

304 / 304L Stainless Steel Properties:


Typical chemical and mechanical properties of Type 304 and Type 304L stainless steel:

304
304L

Chemical Analysis (%)


C
Cr
Ni
.08
18.5
9
.03
18.5
9

PREN
Mo
- 19
- 19

Mechanical Properties
Proof Stress
Tensile
Elongation
235
530-730
40
200
500-700
40

Oteluri inoxidabile austenitice


SR EN 10088-1
Simbolizare
alfanumerica
X2CrNi19-11
X5CrNi18-10
X6CrNiTi18-10
X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2

SR EN 10088-1
Simbolizare
numerica
1.4306
1.4301
1.4541
1.4571

X5CrNiMo17-12-2
X2CrNiMo17-12-2
X2CrNiMo18-14-3

1.4401
1.4404
1. 4435

STAS 3583
2NiCr185
5NiCr180
10TiNiCr180
10TiMoNiCr1
75
-

AISI;
SAE
304L
304
321
316Ti
316
316L
316L

Oteluri inoxidabile feritice


SR EN 10088-1
Simbolizare
alfanumerica
X2CrTi12
X6CrAl13
X6Cr17
X3CrTi17

SR EN 10088-1
Simbolizare
numerica
1.4000
1.4002
1.4016
1.4510

STAS 3583

AISI;
SAE

(10Cr130)
7AlCr130
8Cr170
8TiCr170

403
405
430

Oteluri inoxidabile martensitice


SR EN 10088-1
Simbolizare
alfanumerica
X12Cr13
X20Cr13
X30Cr13
X39Cr13
X46Cr13

SR EN 10088-1
Simbolizare
numerica
1.4006
1.4021
1.4028
1.4031
1.4034

STAS 3583

AISI;
SAE

10Cr130
20Cr120
30Cr130
(40Cr130)
40Cr130

410
420
420F
-

Tipuri de otel inoxidabil


Exista trei categorii principale de otel inoxidabil - feritic, martensitic si austenic. Otelurile
feritice sunt magnetice si au un continut scazut de carbon si contin cromul ca element
principal, in general in proportie de 13% si 17%. Otelurile martensitice sunt magnetice avand
un continut tipic de 12% crom si un continut mediu de carbon. Otelurile austenice sunt nonmagnetice si pe langa crom, in concentratii tipice de 18%, contin nichel care creste rezistenta
la coroziune. Acestea sunt cele mai utilizate tipuri de oteluri inoxidabile.

Denumirile otelurilor
W.Nr.
1.4301
1.4948
1.4306
1.4307
1.4310
1.4541
1.4878
1.4550
1.4401
1.4919
1.4404
1.4432
1.4435
1.4436
1.4571
1.4580
1.4828
1.4845
1.4841
1.4311
1.4406
1.4016
1.4510
1.4006
1.4021
1.4028

EN
X5CrNi18-10
X6CrNi18-10
X2CrNi19-11
X2CrNi18-9
X10CrNi18-8
X6CrNiTi18-10
X8CrNiTi18-10
X6CrNiNb18-10
X5CrNiMo17-12-2
X5CrNiMo17-13
X2CrNiMo17-12-2
X2CrNiMo17-12-3
X2CrNiMo18-14-3
X3CrNiMo17-13-3
X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2
X6CrNiMoNb17-12-2
X15CrNiSi20-12
X12CrNi25-21
X15CrNiSi25-20
X2CrNiN18-10
X2CrNiMoN17-11-2
X6Cr17
X3CrTi17
X12Cr13
X20Cr13
X30Cr13

ASTM
304
304 H
304 L

AFNOR
Z7CN18-09

301
321
321 H
347
316
316 H
316 L

Z11CN17-08
Z6CNT18-10

316 Ti
316 Cb
309
310 S

Z3CN18-10

Z7CND17-11-02
Z3CND17-11-02

Z6CNDT17-12
Z17CNS20-12
Z15CNS25-20

430
430Ti
410
420
420

Type
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Austenitic
Ferritic
Ferritic
Martensitic
Martensitic
Martensitic

CR HR QP
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Compozitie chimica
Steel designation
Name
X5CrNi18-10
X2CrNi19-11
X10CrNi18-8
X2CrNiN18-10
X5CrNiMo17-12-2

Number
1.4301
1.4306
1.4310
1.4311
1.4401

C
0,05
0,02
0,10
0,02
0,05

Cr
18
19
18
18
17

Percentage by mass
Ni
Mo
10
11
8
10
12
2

Other

N alloyed

X2CrNiMo17-12-2
X2CrNiMoN17-11-2
X2CrNiMo17-12-3
X2CrNiMo18-14-3
X3CrNiMo17-13-3
X6CrNiTi18-10
X6CrNiNb18-10
X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2
X6CrNiMoNb17-12-2
X15CrNiSi20-12
X15CrNiSi25-20
X12CrNi25-21
X8CrNiTi18-10
X5CrNiMo17-13
X6Cr17
X3CrTi17
X12Cr13
X20Cr13
X30Cr13

1.4404
1.4406
1.4432
1.4435
1.4436
1.4541
1.4550
1.4571
1.4580
1.4828
1.4841
1.4845
1.4878
1.4919
1.4016
1.4510
1.4006
1.4021
1.4028

0,02
0,02
0,02
0,02
0,03
0,06
0,06
0,06
0,06
0,15
0,15
0,12
0,10
0,10
0,06
0,03
0,12
0,20
0,30

17
17
17
18
17
18
18
17
17
20
25
25
18
17
17
17
13
13
13

12
11
12
14
13
10
10
12
12
12
20
21
9
12

2
2
3
3
3

2
2

N alloyed

Ti alloyed
Nb alloyed
Ti alloyed
Nb alloyed
Si alloyed
Si alloyed

2
Ti alloyed