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Math Moti"ators!
Investigations in Geometry
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Alfred S. Posamentier
Gordon Sheridan

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~~ Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
Menlo Park, California . Reading, Massachusetts . London . Amsterdam . Don Mills, Ontario . Sydney

The odd-numbered pages that follow the introduction to this book are
black-line masters, designed to be used with appropriate equipment to
produce spirit masters from which the teacher may duplicate as many
copies as are needed for a class. The other pages of this book are teacher
education and resource materials and are not to be reproduced by electronic, mechanical, photocopying or other means.

This book is published by the Addison-Wesley Innovative Division.

Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publislting Company, Inc. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America. Published simultaneously in Canada.
ISBN 0-201-05583-X
5678910-ML-95

Contents

Introduction

1

Presenting the Investigations
The Extensions
Selecting the Investigations

Constructions

Non-Euclidean Geometry

9

Solid Geometry

Constructing Segments
Constructing Radical Lengths
Trisecting a Circle
Trisecting an Angle
Constructing a Pentagon
Constructing Triangles

23

The Py thagorean Theorem
The Golden Rectangle
The Golden Triangle
The Arbelos

Post-Euclidean Theorems
Ptolemy's Theorem
Ceva's Theorem
Stewart's Theorem
Simson's Theorem
Napoleon's Theorem

49

This Wraps It Up
Regular Polyhedra
Cavalieri's Principle
The Jolly Green Giant?

Geometric Applications
Problems of Antiquity

41

Taxicab Geometry
Transformational Geometry-Symmetry
Projective Geometry
Spherical Geometry

31

57

Mathematics on a Billiard Table
Bypassing an Inaccessible Region
The Inaccessible Angle
Minimizing Distances
Problem Solving-A Reverse Strategy

Geometric Puzzlers
Geometric Fallacies
The Nine-Point Circle
Equicircles
More Equicircles
Locus Methods

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from Fordham University and is Chairman of the Department of Secondary and Continuing Education in Mathematics at City University of New York. to William Aiken of San Francisco who prepared the many fine cartoons that appear throughout most of the series.D. Our thanks too. both students at Nevada Union High School. Posamentier received his Ph. Dr. Posamentier has co-authored several resource books in mathematics education and is presently Director of the NSF-sponsored Mathematics Development Program for Secondary Teachers at City College. Their comments and suggestions have been of great value to assuring the workability of these materials. California. . Alfred S. two of the people who assisted must be singled out: Carl Johnson and Patrick Sneeringer. we extend our sincere thanks. He has 20 years experience in the development of materials of instruction in science. Gordon Sheridan did his undergraduate work as a physics major at the University of Pittsburgh and his graduate work in comparative literature at Northwestern University. Although it is impossible to list these students and teachers. California. However.Acknowledgement During their development these investigations were pilot tested in scores of classrooms and studied by hundreds of students. Posamentier Gordon Sheridan Alfred S. mathematics and engineering. For the past five years he has been the proprietor of a publications services company in Nevada City. Nevada County.

perhaps in part because of its visual nature. Where possible in this book we have tried to show this important connection. nonmathematics school courses. That is. First and foremost. Most of the investigations in this volume can be used to enhance. they find these problem-solving techniques are applicable to other areas. Euclid. the investigations must be quite different from what students encounter in their basal texts. Several criteria have been used in developing the investigations and in selecting the topics that have been included. the investigations serve as door openers. these investigations provide opportunities and incentives to hone problem-solving skills-not merely chapt€?r-end exercises that are called problems. All of them bear heavily on your concerns for curriculum goals and classroom management. The problem-solving orientation of these investigations cannot be overemphasized. at the outset. A third criterion. and exercises in their basal texts. postulates." Unfortunately. nearly every class experiences the "blahs. it may seem naive or unrealistic to suggest adding additional material. 1 . but they also greatly increase your students' awareness of the different directions these ideas can lead to. extend. These 15 investigations draw upon the full arsenal of what you've given your students from the theorems. a heuristic value. With the large number of topics you may have to cover during the normal school year. many teachers through many centuries have taught geometry as though algebra didn't exist. is the linkage between algebra and geometry. As much as possible. we wanted the investigations to be motivational. Equally important. however. That is. but realistic problems such as your students will encounter in their everyday living and in later. different in both substance and form. consideration of some investigations must wait for the appropriate point in the course so that students are properly prepared for the activity. This is especially critical because no matter how excellent a basal text is being used.Introduction An inspection of the first three sections of this book quickly reveals how this is so. the students discover they can tackle a much bigger monster than they had thought they were capable of doing. Moreover. and their contemporaries were unaware of algebra and unfortunately. there is much in geometry that can be considered spectacular. This brings us to the second criterion. post-Euclidean. Another criterion was that each investigation should have some use or merit beyond itself. Finally. To demonstrate this aspect of geometry. Presenting investigations on a regular basis gives the variety and change of pace needed to sustain interest in any sUbject-both the teacher's interest and the students'. Pythagoras. this sort of boredom is often well entrenched long before the teacher and perhaps even the students are aware of it. Most of the investigations begin by posing a problem that students find intriguing and which. In working tlirough the problem. Those Investigations in Geometry is a set of versatile enrichment exercises that covers a wide variety of topics in geometry-Euclidean. and non-Euclidean. The non-Euclidean geometry units are good examples of this. Your selection of topics will naturally depend on the students' achievement in the geometry course. one special to this volume. introductions to areas not usually treated in basal texts. These investigations give good practice in what you're trying to teach anyway. and reinforce the concepts and skills that already make up the better part of your curriculum and course goals. many students are unable to solve on their own. this book is to show students that there is much more to geometry than proving theorems.

Your perusal of the investigation will best determine when this is appropriate. In pilot-testing these investigations we worked with teachers who had very diverse mathematical preparation and who had to deal with a wide spectrum of class-size. If your class is like many that we have encountered. The Extensions Presenting the Investigations The Extensions offer the greatest opportunity for flexibility in using the investigations. In some cases they dip into more sophisticated mathematical concepts and should be considered as optional activities primarily for your better students. In all cases. By giving both the student page and Teacher's Notes to one of these "stars. deferring the discussion of the Extension until the following day. The following pages give an overview of the investigations.dents' abilities and interests and offer some hints as to how they can be used. you may wish to try peer teaching. and class heterogeneity. One or more of them should be useful in your situation. The investigations have been divided into seven categories.) 2 . The normal presentation.of you who have read the NCTM Agenda for Action probably agree that its recommendations. The Math Motivators! series is a deliberate step toward achieving these goals. This allows you time to work with your average and below-average students to bring their skills up to Selecting the Investigations This volume probably contains more investigations than you'll be able to use in a single school year. In some cases the student investigation can be handed out the day preceding class discussion. par without boring the students who are already well on top of things. Their pride is at stake and thus you can be sure they won't let you down. In working through the student page you'll find the accompanying Teacher's Notes explain the rationale for the entire investigation. do not attempt to conduct a class session without first having spent 20 or 30 minutes going over the Teacher's Notes. a typical student page encompasses the concepts that four or five basal-text pages generally treat. (Note that a t doesn't mean that your better students won't like the investigation. A star (*) indicates the investigations that are probably best given only to your better students or given a more careful presentation to the general class. In many other cases. you should think of the Extension as an element that allows you to tailor your mathematics program to best meet the needs and interests of all your students. Sometimes you may want to present the basic investigation to the class and assign the Extension as homework for your better students. the one that best suits most classes. student ability. you will find it best to discuss only the body of the student investigation the day you pass it out. But however familiar you feel with the mathematical topics presented." he or she can present the investigation the following day to this group of above-average students. The difficulty level among the investigations varies and so the teachers' assessment with respect to their class's interest and ability is of paramount importance. This has many advantages for both you and your students if your classes have three to six really bright students. Thus. it simply means the investigation is within the grasp of your mathematically less proficient ones. Both the student pages and the Teacher's Notes are highly compressed. but they differ. but simply give an opportunity to explore the topic in greater detail. are right on target and long overdue. Your reading of the investigation will quickly determine which is the case. category by category. In other cases the Extensions require no additional mathematical sophistication. The following pages will assist you in selecting the investigations best suited to your stll. Every investigation in these volumes has one. We discovered several. A diamond (t) precedes the titles of the investigations that are in reach of your slower students. as well as providing all anticipated student responses and questions. it seemed very desirable to search for alternative means of presenting the investigations. is to present the investigation as a new lesson at the outset of a class period. however difficult to implement. Our experience has shown that students who are asked to present investigations prepare very well.

Constructions _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
• Constructing Segments
• Constructing Radical Lengths
Trisecting a Circle
Trisecting an Angle
Constructing a Pentagon
* Constructing Triangles

Constructions using a straightedge and compass
are a basic part of any Euclidean geometry course.
Unfortunately, many of the more interesting
constructions are not explored. Nor are constructions presented in their most useful way, as
reinforcement of many different geometric concepts and relations and for the development of
problem-solving skills.
The six investigations in this category present
specific construction problems, none of which
are usually presented in high school geometry
texts. These constructions are all proved either
on the student page or in the Teacher's Notes.
One of the common ways of linking algebra
and geometry is through numerical applications
of geometric theorems. "Constructing Segments"
and "Constructing Radical Lengths" show how to
construct lengths representing sums, differences,
products, quotients, and square roots of given
lengths, given only the unit line segment. After
these five operations are represented geometrically, students use them to represent complex algebraic expressions. The constructions may seem
strange to students at first, so it is useful to assign
numerical values to the variables. By making the
constructions on graph paper, students can compare the algebraic and geometric answers.
"Trisecting a Circle" uses the area formula for
a circle and the constructions developed in the
two investigations above. Thus, it is best presented immediately after these investigations; if
not, the investigations should be briefly reviewed.
The three trisection methods that are presented
result in three very different figures. Thus, students can see that unlike algebra, where there is
usually a single right answer, there can be several
correct answers to a geometry problem. The Extension is especially intriguing and should not be
difficult for average students.

It is well known that the general angle cannot
be trisected with Euclidean tools. And although
"construction" usually implies using only a compass and straightedge, there are other construction tools. "Trisecting an Angle" presents two
methods of trisecting an angle using these other
construction tools.
The method usually given for constructing a
pentagon is both tedious and difficult to understand. The method presented in "Constructing a
Pentagon" is easy to do and easy to justify. The
justification is given in· the Extension and only
requires knowledge of similar triangles. This investigation is closely related to "The Golden
Rectangle" and "The Golden Triangle."
In the usual geometry course students construct triangles using the congruence theorems,
and most texts provide ample illustrations of
these constructions. In "Constructing Triangles"
three parts of a triangle are given and students are
to construct the triangle from which they are
taken. However, these parts include combinations
of sides, altitudes, and medians rather than sides
and angles. Only three cases are considered on the
student page, but there are many other possibilities using the parts mentioned above, as well as
angles, angle bisectors, the semiperimeter, and the
inradii and circum radii of a given triangle.
These triangle constructions not only review
many important geometric concepts, but also
help develop students' problem-solving skills. At
first, students will need to see complete analyses
of the constructions, but in time they will get the
knack and begin to solve problems of increasing
difficulty. "Constructing Triangles" is best presented near the end of the year so students can
draw on more geometric concepts and relations.

3

Problems of Antiquity _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The Pythagorean Theorem
The Golden Rectangle
The Golden Triangle
The Arbelos

The ancient Greeks considered many geometric
problems. These proplems and the relations developed in their solutions are the basis of Euclid's
Elements. Because geometry is taught as a logical
mathematical system-one relation proved from
an earlier proven relation-most students don't
realize that geometry did not somehow spring
into being as a finished, logical system. It grew
from considering specific problems in art, architecture, and nature. Thus, consideration of some
of the problems of antiquity can help students realize why the Greeks found geometry. fascinating
and beautiful. However, many of the problems of
antiquity are not included in geometry texts. The
four investigations in this category consider three
very different geometric problems and develop
many geometric and algebraic relations.
The first investigation considers the most famous relation discovered then, the Pythagorean
Theorem. This theorem is proved in every geometry text, of course, usually using similar triangles,
as shown in the first method on the student page.
This proof was discovered by Pythagoras. The
other two proofs in "The Pythagorean Theorem"
are also historically interesting because of the
people who developed them, Euclid and President James A. Garfield. These two proofs are
based on area. The three have been given here to
emphasize again that there is often more than
one correct proof of a geometric theorem and
more than one way to solve a geometric problem.

A

c

B

"The Golden Rectangle" can be a good change
of pace early in a geometry course. The Greeks
were unaware of the algebraic relations in a golden
rectangle and considered it only for its pleasing
proportions. By incorporating the algebraic properties discovered 1700 years later, "The Golden
Rectangle" presents an interesting example of
the relation between algebra and geometry.
"The Golden Triangle" extends some of the
properties of a golden rectangle to a triangle.
Finding the measures of the angles of a golden
triangle requires some knowledge of circles, so
this investigation is best presented later in the
year. The link between a golden triangle and a
golden rectangle is provided by the golden ratio
and the golden spiral.
Most geometry texts present triangles, quadrilaterals, and circles as separate topics. The important theorems and definitions are developed
for each type of figure separately. As a result,
few problems are given whose solutions depend
on properties from all three types of figures. The
relations developed in "The Arbelos" use properties of triangles, rectangles, and circles, thus testing students' knowledge in several areas. "The
Arbelos" shows students how several relations can
be developed from a relatively simple geometric
figure. This, of course, was a large part of the
Greeks' fascination with geometry.

Post-Euclidean Theorems
Ptolemy s Theorem
Ceva's Theorem
Stewart's Theorem
• Simson's Theorem
* Napoleon's Theorem

Most students know that geometry originated
with the ancient Greeks and was organized into
logical form by Euclid. However, most students

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has two parts and two cases. Thus, it may be best
to present it only to your better students.
In "Ceva's Theorem," students prove that
certain cevians-segments joining a vertex of a
triangle and a point on the opposite side-are
concurrent. In "Stewart's Theorem" they learn a
formula for finding the length of any cevian of a
triangle. The proof of Stewart's Theorem is given
in the Teacher's Notes and provides a good algebra review and excellent reinforcement for the
Pythagorean Theorem. Stewart's Theorem shows
the importance of the development of algebra to
the growth of geometry.
Problems and theorems about collinear points
are seldom included in geometry texts because
proving points collinear is often difficult. The
proofs in "Simson's Theorem" are an exception.
Although students will probably not be able to
write the proof of Simson's Theorem or the
proof in the Extension, they should be able to
understand them if they are discussed in class.
"Napoleon's Theorem" is interesting not only
because of the fame of its discoverer, but because,
as with "The Arbelos," it tests many areas of
geometric knowledge: congruence and similarity
in triangles, the ratios in 30-60-90 triangles, and
angle measure in circles. "Minimizing Distances,"
an application using the equiangular or Napoleon
point, can immediately follow this investigation.

don't realize how much geometry has changed
and grown since Euclid's time. Many theorems of
Euclidean geometry were developed and proved
hundreds of years later. Five of these theorems
are shown in this section.
Many of the new theorems based on Euclidean
geometry were discovered in the scientific boom
that began during the Renaissance. All the investigations in this category except "Ptolemy's
Theorem" explore theorems developed during
this period.
"Ptolemy's Theorem" uses cyclic quadrilaterals
to develop a method for finding the length ofthe
diagonals of a quadrilateral. Surprisingly, students
need not be familiar with properties of circles.
Only the idea of an inscribed polygon is necessary
and a brief discussion in class of this concept
should be sufficient. Thus, "Ptolemy's Theorem"
is an excellent way to use circles without needing
any properties of circles.
Many texts do not prove that the medians of
a triangle are concurrent; others prove it very
late in the course and must introduce coordinate
geometry first. "Ceva's Theorem" presents a
very simple method for proving the concurrency
theorems for medians, angle bisectors, and altitudes. Only a knowledge of similar triangles and
the angle bisector theorem is required. The proof
of Ceva's Theorem, given in the Teacher's Notes,

Non-Euclidean Geometry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
• Taxicab Geometry
• Transformational Geometry -Symmetry
Projective Geometry
Spherical Geometry
Traditional geometry courses present a somewhat one-sided view of geometry; students typically learn only the definitions and theorems of
Euclidean geometry. As little as 50 years ago
non-Euclidean geometries were considered oddities and of little importance. Einstein's theory of
relativity has shown the physical relevance of
non-Euclidean geometries, but there has been
little change in the geometry curriculum. It isn't
possible to present a comprehensive study of
non-Euclidean geometries, but students should
at least be made aware that they exist.

The four investigations in this category present
four different geometries. The ideas presented in
these four investigations are not difficult and they
can be interspersed throughout the year. This
gives students a change from standard Euclidean
theorems and proofs and provides them with a
broader view of geometry.

5

"Taxicab Geometry" presents a mathematical
model of a city and explores how distances are
found when travel must be along city streets.
Little knowledge of geometry is required for this
investigation, but students may need to briefly
review how to locate points on coordinate axes.
As mentioned in the Teacher's Notes, Taxicab
Geometry by Eugene F. Krause is an excellent
resource for students who wish to explore other
ideas of taxicab geometry.
Transfonnational geometry is not actually nonEuclidean; it's a different approach to Euclidean
geometry based on movement in a plane. "Transfonnational Geometry-Symmetry" presents only
a very small part of transfonnational geometry,
but it is especially applicable to the study of
quadrilaterals and regular polygons. Students
enjoy the change of pace from theorems about
these figures, and the Extension helps to sort
out the various quadrilaterals.
Although projective geometry was not fully
developed until the 19th century, it originated
with the Renaissance painters. While mathematics
and painting seem very different fields today, in
the 15th century the best mathematicians, archi-

tects, and engineers were also the best painters.
The concepts developed by the Renaissance artists are still used in present books on perspective
drawing. The origin of projective geometry shows
students how an important branch of mathematics developed by thinking about a specific
problem in the "non-mathematical" world.
The two theorems presented in "Projective
Geometry" are easy to understand and the investigation can be presented at any time in a
geometry course. Desargue's Theorem and its
converse can be used to discuss duality-one of
the most fascinating principles of mathematics.
Morris Kline's essay on pages 622-641 in The
World of Mathematics provides additional information on the origin, development, and importance of projective geometry.
"Spherical Geometry" gives an overview of
some of the differences between spherical and
Euclidean geometry. This investigation more
specifically compares the two geometries than
do the other investigations in this category. Thus,
students must have more background in Euclidean geometry, and "Spherical Geometry" is best
used only after spheres have been introduced.

Solid Geometry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
• This Wraps It Up
Regular Polyhedra
Cavalieri's Principle
• The Jolly Green Giant?

Over the past decade or so, solid geometry has
been given a progressively smaller role and many
interesting relations and ideas have been simply
dropped from the curriculum. Most texts treat
little other than the surface area and volume
formulas of solids. There is often no justification
of these fonnulas and few applications. The investigations in this section are not a mini-course
in solid geometry, but they can introduce students to some of the concepts in this branch of
mathematics.
"This Wraps It Up" poses a rather deceptive
problem: Which way of wrapping a package uses
less ribbon? Surprisingly, finding the answer to
this question doesn't involve volume or surface
area, but only the Pythagorean Theorem. However, because it is necessary for students to visu-

alize how a rectangular box can be unfolded to
produce a flat surface, the investigation is a good
introduction to volume and surface area. To solve
the Extension, students must set up general equations using their solutions to the specific problem
analyzed earlier. To solve one of these equations,
they must use the Quadratic Fonnula, so the investigation provides a good algebra review.
"Regular Polyhedra" leads students through
an intuitive "proof," based on manipulation of
models, that only five regular polyhedra can exist.
This is followed by a proof based on mathematical facts. While the fonner "proof" is not a proof
in any fonnal sense, practicing scientists know

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Unfortunately. "Regular Polyhedra" is very motivational and can be presented as soon as regular polygons have been studied. Most textbook applications that relate surface area and volume deal with water tanks. A proof that only five regular polyhedra exist using Euler's Theorem is given on pages 584-585 in The World of Mathematics. an applications section is necessary. Both lead students through one solution to the problem and then challenge them to find another solution." "Projective Geometry. the two investigations are best used together over a two-day period. Several investigations in this volume are an attempt to fill this need: "Taxicab Geometry. allowing different students to approach the problem in different ways." "This Wraps It Up. storage bins. "The Jolly Green Giant?" explores several biological applications of the ratio of surface area to volume and will help emphasize the importance of mathematics to other scientific fields. In each case students are asked to solve "real" problems that require some fairly creative thinking. "Mathematics on a Billiard Table" is one of the most highly motivating investigations in this volume because it appeals to such a wide range of students. yet somewhat baffling constructions using straightedge and compass. and so many of the practical applications of geometry are difficult to present. such as proving two triangles congruent. that both processes are needed for scientific inquiry. and edges is also developed. "Bypassing an Inaccessible Region" and "The Inaccessible Angle" both deal with artificial. this investigation can be presented early in the course. Moreover. students need to have learned only the properties of perpendicular bisectors and isosceles triangles. 7 . The Extension may be difficult for some students and should be discussed thoroughly during class." the equiangular point can be compared to the minimum distance point in taxicab geometry. students can immediately apply a geometric concept to a real-world problem. "Minimizing Distances" includes an application of the equiangular point discovered in "Napoleon's Theorem. Both of the problems have several correct answers. If students have studied "Taxicab Geometry. In "Cavalieri's Principle. they simply show students the derivation." students must think through each step-a much more effective way Geometric Applications _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ • Mathematics on a Billiard Table Bypassing an Inaccessible Region The Inaccessible Angle * Minimizing Distances Problem Solving. and the investigations in this category have been found to be among the most popular." Thus. "Cavalieri's Principle" presents an easy-tounderstand derivation of the formula for the volume of a sphere. Euler's Theorem relating the number of vertices. Finding out whether or not giants can exist is a much more intriguing problem. Although some texts derive this formula using the method of this investigation. In "Minimizing Distances. In this way." distance as the crow flies is important and driving distance is not. most high-school geometry students have not yet studied physics or chemistry.of making sure students remember and understand this formula. The investigation can easily be used in place of your text's presentation of the formula for the volume of a sphere. and other objects that are of little interest to students. The proofs given in the early part of geometry courses. Nonetheless." and "The Jolly Green Giant?" are good examples. faces. Placement of these two investigations depends on when basic constructions are studied.A Reverse Strategy Most stUdents need some evidence that what they're studying has some value outside the classroom.

The two investigations provide a comprehensive study that reinforces algebra and many concepts of geometry. The next three present geometric figures that lead to one relation after another until many areas of geometric knowledge are tested. The last four investigations in this category must be presented late in the year because they draw on many areas of geometric knowledge. orthocenter. "Geometric Fallacies" can be presented after similar triangles have been studied. Two class periods should be allowed for this investigation so that verification for the construction can be presented. The investigation shows students how to approach a proof and analyze it Geometric Puzzlers ____________________ Geometric Fallacies The Nine-Point Circle * Equicircles * More E quicircles * Locus Methods All five investigations in this category will test the ingenuity of your students. often give students some trouble. In geometry. The first presents two geometric paradoxes to unravel. "The Nine-Point Circle" presents one of the most interesting figures in geometry. But when more difficult proofs are introduced. The last investigation demonstrates how an apparently simple problem can become much more complicated as every possible case is considered. Both of the fallacies in this investigation are of this type and teach students to be careful in relying on figures. and center of the nine-point circle via the Euler Line. In "Equicircles" students find the lengths of various tangent segments in terms of the lengths of the sides of the triangle. it is obvious that many students do not understand how to approach writing proofs." students' ingenuity and problem-solving skills are called upon in "Locus Methods. The next two investigations discuss the many relations among the three escribeq circles and the inscribed circle of a triangle. however. they can often get through these proofs by sheer repetition. This strategy should be emphasized in presenting all proofs and problems. an important scientific skill. 8 . a circle with nine triangle-related points on it. "Problem Solving-A Reverse Strategy" provides students with some tools for understanding proofs. The Extension relates the circum center. If you wish to present "Geometric Fallacies" before similar triangles are studied." This investigation leads students through a complete analysis of a construction problem by considering the locus of possible solutions. have students draw the figure in the Extension on graph paper and in that way discover that it is not a triangle. The ideas discussed in "Locus Methods" are fairly complex and in most cases the investigation should be presented over at least two class sessions. centroid. but they are "puzzlers" for different reasons.in reverse. As in "Constructing Triangles. With diligence. fallacies are usually the result of incorrectly drawn figures. These points are located by constructing the midpoints of the sides of the triangle and the three altitudes. It is strongly recommended that this investigation be presented immediately after parallel lines and the triangle congruence theorems. something that is not true appears to be so. The Extension for "Equicircles" asks students to generalize their results. In "More Equicircles" they write the radii of the equicircles in tem1S of the area and the lengths of the sides of the triangle. Students' proof-writing and problem-solving skills will improve dramatically when they approach a problem by first analyzing what they want to find or prove.

from segments 0 and b.Constructing Segments Using a straightedge and compass. values to b. decide c N ow assign . segment an d construct ob on a Unit c _+o. How can you locate A on eM so that AM =~? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What proportion justifies this construction? _______________ Complete the construction. x. o How should the productob compare too and b? ________ Construct ob using the method above and LC at the right.. NOB a b c . 0> 1 and b> 1. The unit segment and segments with lengths 0 and b are shown below. you can construct 0 + b. Copyright©1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.-------------------~ N o - ---+ Construct a line through A parallel to MN and intersecting CN at B. difference. b. Constructing 0 + band o . and c at the right. That is. o b Constructing a segment of length ob is a little more difficult. ob. Now consider the proportion ~ = ~. Inc. Solve algebraically to find the value of Make your construction on graph paper and see if the answer you get geometrically agrees with your algebraic answer. 0: ! .b. 0. I . Use the segments with lengths 0 and b below and construct a segment of length 0 + b and a segment of length 0 . and quotient of two given segments.b. product. o b C~--------~. In this case we need aunit segment in addition to our given segments. and~. and c. Label the length of NB. Why is this proportion true? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ______________________ Whatdoesxequal? _________________________ Notice above that the unit segment is less than both 0 and b. Begin by drawing any angle C and marking off the segments as shown below. you can construct the sum. EXTENSION! Given segments of length 0. 0 . Does your construction verify your comparison of ob to 0 andb? _____________ C~--------------------~ We use a similar method to construct a segment of length ~.b is easy. This means algebraic expressions can be represented geometrically. That is. speci·f·IC numenca . How should the product ob compare to 0 and b? __________________ Is this true in the construction above? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Suppose 0 < 1 and b < 1 as in the segments at the right.

F or a < 1 and b < 1. ob Step 3: Construct c . Students will be surprised at how easy it is to construct a + b. doing one construction at a time. as shown below. is the same as adding and subtracting on a number line. of course. Point out that each element of the construction must be constructible. b 0 o+b: I Extension Most students should be able to do this construction without much trouble. Since both a > 1 and b > 1. After students know these four constructions. A similar method is used to construct-g. I . using the techniques presented here. When b < a < 1. b < a < -g. Students should construct a line through B parallel to MN and intersecting eM at A. This. 0 o-b: b Stepl'CO~. -g < 1 < a < b. A c~-----------L~-­ c-o o ob+c Students may wish to explore constructing similar algebraic expressions. and the unit segment. ab + c Step 4: Construct c .) And. c-o o ( c I . The proportion is true because a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides proportionally.b without any additional instructions. and -g given segments of lengths a and b. This investigation should be presented immediately before "Constructing Radical Lengths. The proportion -g = l' where x is the length of MA.a. students have constructed the product of the lengths of the two given segments." and after students have studied proportional segments in triangles. either a <-g < b < 1 or a < b < -g < 1. (This is the case given on the student page. ab < b and ab < a. Students should also be able to easily complete the construction of ab. For example. they will be able to easily represent complicated algebraic expressions geometrically. This investigation shows them how to construct segments that represent algebraic expressions. when I < b < a. When a < b < 1. o ob Step 2: Construct ab + c. justifies the construction. The construction (shown below) verifies this.b~ ab. They simply copy the segments on a straight line as shown below. It is easy to prove this algebraically: Multiply a > 1 by band b > 1 by a.Teacher's Notes for Constmcting Segments _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Geometry students know how to use straightedge and compass to copy segments and bisect segments.a = O. C"----------3'----~B 0 N You may wish to have students explore the results for different lengths of a. The completed constructed is shown below. Your advanced students may want to explore this. ab > b and ab > a.. either 1 <-g < b < a or 1 < b <-g < a. a . b. it isn't possible to construct c . Solving the proportion for x gives x = abo Thus. This relationship is true in the construction since the constructed segment oflength ab is longer than both of the original segments.a if a > c or if c . They simply work in steps. Note that different unit segments will produce different constructions.. Students must decide on the length of the unit segment and should be reminded to use the same unit segment throughout. Presenting the Investigation Students should be able to construct a + band a . 10 .a . When 1 < a < b.

ACD? Continue constructing right triangles using the hypotenuse of the preceding triangle as one leg and the unit length as the other leg until you have a segment of length v'TS. b. the hypotenuse? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ How would you construct !:J.ACD. A a This method can be used instead of the radical spiral to constructVa for a specific value of a.. The radical spiral gives us a method for constructing Va for specific values of a. D the hypotenuse? _ _ _ _ _ __ How would you construct !:J." you learned how to use a straightedge and compass to construct a + b.. A segment of length a and a unit segment are given at the right. Using the line at the right. I n isosceles right triangle ABC at the right. ab. Then construct a perpendicular at B intersecting the circle at D.. First. decide j 2b -c on a unit segment and construct a a + c . a b c .Constructing Radical Lengths In "Constructing Segments.. Construct the midpoint of AC and draw a semicircle that goes through points A and C.ABC? In right!:J.7. and~. use the unit segment at the right to construct a segment of length . EXTENSION! Given segments of length a. how long is AC. Th is figu re is called a radical spiral. It's also possible to construct a segment of length Va. But suppose we don't know the value of a? Then we use a unit segment and a different method to construct Va. Copyright © 1982 by Addison·Wesley Publishing Company. let's construct a segment of length v'2. how long isAD. and c at the right. Inc.b. From B mark off BC of length a on the same line. The length • of BD is Va. start at A and mark off AB of length 1. On a separate sheet of paper. such thatAC = 1 + a. a .

." pointing out that the only other algebraic operation for which a geometric representation is needed is finding square roots. Then CD of length I is marked off on the perpendicular and AD is drawn. Triangle ACD is constructed by first constructing a perpendicular to A C at C.1. They must decide on a unit segment and should be reminded to use the same unit segment throughout. The construction of v'7 using this method is shown below. Again using the Pythagorean Theorem.....c. Then have students consider isosceles right triangle ABC. the length of AD in ~ACD is.. DB is the altitude to the hypotenuse in ~ADC. Thus.(2. The radical spiral to a segment of length v'T5 is shown below. right ~ADC is formed. a c 2b ..AC =. respectively. The next construction on the student page is shown below.Teacher's Notes for Constructing Radical Lengths _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ This investigation should be presented immediately after "Constructing Segments" since it completes the geometric representation of algebraic operations. a' Extension As in the Extension for "Constructing Segments. Step 1: Construct 2b . By the Pythagorean Theorem. " triangle is the mean proportional between the segments into which it divides the hypotenuse. Step 4: Construct J2b a +-c c _. a perpendicular is constructed at a point B on a line. AB DB I" DB DB = BC or DB = Presenting the Investigation Begin with a brief review of "Constructing Segments. Then AC is drawn. The constructions presented in these two investigations will be used in "Trisecting a Circle. Toconstruct~ABC. because any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. b 2b-c b l1. Then (DB)2 = a and DB = Va. D 1 2b-c a+c Step 5: Construct a J2b a +-c c . A 8 a c This construction can be justified as follows: By drawing AD and DC..." students should do one construction at a time. Then a unit segment is marked off at points A and C on the base line and perpendicular. The altitude to the hypotenuse of a right a 12 aj2b-c C1TC ._ _ c Step 2: Construct a + c.c Step 3: Construct a + c .

Then draw a ray from D. First consider the circle with radius x._0/1 .Trisecting a Circle The circle at the right is divided into three regions of equal area. Draw EC. the radius of the other concentric circle.J3 on the ray. Mark off DC = .. The area of this circle must be one-third the area of the given circle with radius r. Copyright © 1982 by Addlson-Wesley Publishing Com pany. we must find x and y. two circles are constructed inside and concentric with the given circle. as shown at the right.3 x-. Construct a line through A parallel to EC and r A r E 3 intersecting DC at B. What doesy equal? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Construct y using r and the unit segment above.!. The area of the circle with radius y must be two-thirds the area of the circle with radius r. Thus. The circle is trisected into the two shaded regions and the unshaded region. the radii of the inner circles. write e astequatlon r = 3' U· sing the unit segment and r. To trisect a circle this way. What is the length of BC? _ __ Why? _________________________________ The same method is used to constructy. th To construct x. Then draw the three concentric circles using r and your constructed x and y. How would you construct this figure using only a straightedge and compass? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ There are several ways to trisect a circle using a straightedge and compass. mark off lengths rand 3 on a line segment as shown at the right.VJ. On a separate sheet of paper use the given unit segment to construct a length VJ.3 = i ' as VJ x . the circle has been trisected. I n one of these methods. EXTENSION! I n the circle at the right the diameter is trisected at C and D and four semicircles are drawn as shown. 1Tx2 t1Tr2 r2 X2 -.. Inc. Each of the differently shaded regions is one-third the area of the largest circle. Why? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Therefore. D . Prove that this trisection is valid. 1Ty2 = t1Tr2.

The area of the circle with radius y must be two-thirds the area of the largest circle so the area of the ring will be one-third the area of the largest circle. Six equal arcs are marked off along the circle with the compass open to the radius of the circle.. the radius of the circle to be trisected. Some students may have difficulty seeing this. Students can use either of the methods from "Constructing Radical Lengths" to construct v'1. Thus. This sum is two-thirds the area of the largest circle.D E 3 v'1 ="3 is used to find x. Therefore. The investigation reinforces basic construction techniques and gives students an opportunity to use the area formula for a circle in an interesting situation. using the same method as was used to construct x. Students must construct radius x and radius y given only r.. The method presented in the Extension is particularly interesting and will inspire some students to explore other circle constructions on their own. Presenting the Investigation The first trisection shown is easy to construct.j3 using the methods shown in "Constructing Segments.! 1T(2r)2 + ! 1Tr2 = ~ 1Tr2 . In this investigation students explore three methods of trisecting a circle.Teacher's Notes for Trisecting a Circle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now students should turn their attention to the construction of y. The area of the upper shaded region = area semicircle AB .. the area of the upper shaded region equals! 1T(3r)2 . 14 . Remind them that the area of the unshaded ring and the area of the small circle must each be one-third the area of the largest circle. You may wish to have students construct the figure on the student page as additional practice. the area of the shaded region is one-third the area of the original circle.. The area of the original circle to be trisected equals 1T(3r)2 = 91Tr2. The completed construction of x is shown below. Radii are then drawn to every other mark." You may wish to point out these other methods and ask students to demonstrate them. Using the formula for the area of a circle. The length of BC isx because aline parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides proportionally. r A." so these two investigations should be reviewed if they have not been presented recently. and BD = 2r. Then the proportion x r Students can then construct y as shown below.. A~ r E ______________ 3 ________ ~ ~D Extension While the trisection in the Extension is an intriguing one. Students will need to use the constructions presented in "Constructing Segments" and "Constructing Radical Lengths.. simply show that one of the shaded regions has an area one-third that of the original circle. it is not difficult to prove valid.. students are shown how to find x in terms of r..------~Ir---------------. First be sure they understand the figure: The areas of the small circle and each of the two rings must all be the same-each one equals one-third the area of the largest circle. AO = 3r.. If AE = r.area semicircle BC + area semicircle AC. The area of the circle with radius y is the sum of the area of the unshaded ring and the area of the small circle. Trisecting into concentric circles is more complicated and students must understand each step in the construction of x. Students should also know the area formula for a circle.~ 1Tr2 + ! 1Tr2 = 31Tr2. Students may realize it's possible to construct x = r-F'l T r or x =.

00. say D. Label the point of intersection with oA. Complete the construction by copying LCFD twice in the interior of LAOB. Now you can trisect LAOa below. Explain how to trisect a 900 angle using straightedge and compass. and with D. this doesn't mean it's impossible to trisect an angle using other methods. What is m L GOF? _______ Why? _______________ F L CGO is an exterior angle of f:j. To trisect any LAOa. for example. but you should construct your own. We will have proved the trisection valid if mLAOB = 3x. The figure at the right shows the results of your construction. Of course. 2 inches and 3 inches. The easiest way is to use a ruler and consider the marks as at. Let mLCFD = x.CFO. Start with a line segment RS trisected at U and T. Open your compass to the distance between the two marks on your straightedge and draw a circle with the center at O. and the semicircle is tangent to oA at some point. R u 5 T x . GOF. so mLAoa = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Another method of trisecting an angle uses a tool called a tomahawk. A drawing of a tomahawk is shown at the right. Then use this method to check that you get the same angle of trisection. They were not successful. These marks can be any convenient distance apart. mLCFD = 1mLAOa. Draw a semicircle about U with radius UT and construct TX perpendicular to RS. Now place your marked a straightedge so that it contains C. simply place the tomahawk on the angle so that 5 falls on 08. But the reason for this latk of success was not explained until 1837. Inc. C. Use tracing paper to trace LAOa above. At the same time have one mark on the circle and the other on ED. with the addition of GO. The only difference is that the straightedge has two marks on it. otJ and Of trisect LAOa. Now let's see if we can prove this construction is true. Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Then explain how th is construction allows you to trisect a 45 0 angle.Trisecting an Angle For hu ndreds of years mathematicians tried to trisect an angle using only straightedge and compass. One interesting method uses tools very close to a straightedge and compass. EXTENSION! Some angles can be trisected using only a straightedge and compass. CGO? ______________________ What is mLGCO? ______ LAoa is an exterior angle of f:j. TX passes through vertex 0. so m L CGO = Why? _____________________________________________ What kind of triangle is f:j. Label the intersection with ED point F and draw line Fe. Extend DO to intersect the circle at £ and continue on farO~------------------------~~ ther. In that year algebra was used to prove that the construction is impossible.

Thus. Or. Students can do this by constructing an equilateral triangle and bisecting one angle. UTO by the hypotenuse-leg congruence theorem. The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the measures of the two remote interior angles. Using the figure above. Students need to know basic constructions and should be familiar with the exterior angle theorem and basic properties of right triangles and circles. fj. You may wish to ask students to find other angles that can be trisected using straightedge and compass. Thus. To use the tomahawk. Probably the most widely known of the impossible geometric constructions attempted by the ancient Greeks is trisecting an angle. Besides giving construction practice. it's necessary to construct a 15° angle. then the opposite angle has measure 30°. UDO ~ fj. 16 . the angle to be trisected must be drawn on tracing paper so it can be placed over the tomahawk. so mLAOB = mLGFO + mLFCO = x + 2x = 3x. STO and mLDOU = mL TOU = mL OTS. this is a good method to present using an overhead projector.the measure ofLAOB will be three times the measure of LCFD. Since UO ~ UO. Now have students do the construction using a compass and marked straightedge. Emphasize the importance of a proof such as the one above: If it can't be proved that a construction method is true. Both L UDO and L UTO are right angles. This gets it out of the way. In addition. This means that mL GOF = x. Thus. But this is not so. B F The proof following the construction is quite easy and students should not have trouble completing it. For additional practice have students draw different angles and use this method to trisect them. this investigation provides practice in writing proofs. FG = OG and fj. Then have them explain how to do the construction. (3) Using A as the center and 2AC as the radius. Also. o The proof that the tomahawk method is valid is also an easy one. In the figure below an arc from A is drawn intersecting the sides of the angle at Band C. Because they are radii of the same circle. Angle ABC is a 30° angle. fj. UT ~ Sf. This shows that it doesn't matter what the measure of LCFDis.STO by the SAS congruence theorem. CGO is isosceles (OG and OC are radii). (2) Mark Off a convenient length on the perpeudicular and label this point A. Since fj. it can't be considered a valid method. This is easily done by bisecting the 30° angle constructed above. students sometimes get the impression that the only way to trisect an angle is to use a protractor.Teacher's Notes for Trisecting an Angle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ mL GCO = mL CGO = 2x. mark off an arc on the base line. Try using an obtuse angle and the difference in the size of the angles will be obvious. UTO ~ fj. Label this point B. To trisect a 45° angle. Unfortunately. To be sure they place the marked straightedge correctly. And. UTO ~ fj. It appears AD and At trisect LBAC. This construction is as follows: (1) Draw a base line and construct a perpendicular at some point C on the line. L UTO ~ LSTO. this investigation shows two interesting ways of trisecting an angle using simple construction tools. Extension To trisect a 90° angle using straightedge and compass it's necessary to construct a 30° angle. Therefore. it may be necessary to do the construction on the chalkboard as students work at their desks. However. they might use the converse of the 30-60-90 triangle theorem: If one leg of a right triangle is half as long as the hypotenuse. LA OB is an exterior angle of fj. GFO is isosceles. fj. 8 A Presenting the Investigation Present the method most people think of when they try to trisect an angle using straightedge and compass. UD is drawn. mLCGO = x + x = 2x. UD ~ UT. (4) Draw AB. The figure below shows how LAOB is placed over the tomahawk. Since the radius of the circle is the same as the distance between the marks on the straightedge. the Extension shows that some specific angles can be trisected using only straightedge and compass. Segment BC is drawn and then trisected at D and E. UDO ~ fj. and TO ~ TO.CFO. so L UDO ~ L UTO.

Construct the midpoint R of PQ. Cut a strip of paper an inch wide and about ten inches long. Using the figure below. complete the construction as follows: Mark point P on Q such that AP is 2 units. a point A was selected on line Q. If you hold the pentagon up to the light. Inc. pulling it taut and flattening it at the same time. you can see its diagonals forming a pentagram or star. Then use the Pythagorean Theorem to show that PR in the figure you constructed above has length V52. Tie the strip in a regular knot. How can you use PR to construct the pentagon? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Complete the construction. and a point 0 was selected on the perpendicular. Then the circle with center 0 and radius OA was drawn.OB. and AB form an isosceles triangle and AC bisects LOAB. There is an easy way to make a regular pentagon using a strip of paper. PR is the length of a side of the regular decagon (1 O-sided polygon) inscribed in the circle. In the figure below.1. Then cut off the excess flaps. Constructing a regular pentagon with straightedge and compass is not as easy as knotting a strip of paper. .Constructing a Pentagon A regular pentagon has five sides of equal length. EXTENSION! The figure at the right is an inscribed regular decagon. Draw OP and label the intersection of OP and the circle point Q. OA.1 A Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. a perpendicular was construct~atA. The length of OA is 1 unit. Let AB = x and use similar triangles to show that x = V52.

Solving for x using the quadratic formula.mLOAC = mLCAB = 36°. Then they can join alternate vertices of the decagon to draw the pentagon. Since ACbisectsLOAB.-xx 1 . Tying the strip of paper in a knot and flattening it is quite easy and most students will be surprised that they haven't seen it before. we find one root is ofPQ.Teacher's Notes. If they have not studied these investigations. II OCA and II CAB are isosceles and we have the figure shown below. 18 . " Many students will fmd the Extension difficult to do on their own.'Of i--." they should recognize x as 4>' the reciprocal of the golden ratio and llAOB as a golden triangle. Be sure they understand that the figure shown on the student page was constructed using straightedge and compass. The construction method is different from the method usually presented in geometry texts and is much easier to justify-an important consideration for any construction.llBAC. Thus. mLOAB = mLOBA = 72°. the justification of why it works helps develop a better understanding of geometric concepts and their relation to algebra. This completes the first half of the justification. The investigation is best presented either immediately before or after "The Golden Rectangle" and "The Golden Triangle. While the construction of a regular pentagon is useful by itself. it presents a method for constructing a pentagon and reinforces simple construction techniques. by the Pythagorean Theorem OP = VS. By marking ten segments of length PR on the circle. Students should easily see that mLAOB = 36° since = 36°. If necessary. 3fr o Presenting the Investigation It's a good idea to have strips of paper cut before class begins. Thus. This justifies the construction because a converse argument can be made: Since p PR Extension Although many of the Extensions in this volume are not essential to the development of a topic. the Extension explores why the construction works and uses algebraic formulas to discover geometric relationships. we can write the proportion 1 . for Constructing a Pentagon _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ This investigation has a twofold purpose. x = vs 2- 1 . First. this Extension is an excellent introduction to them. Second. this one is an exception. The complete construction is shown below. Students should have no difficulty with the straightedge and compass construction. It is given just to help them get started. mLAOB = 36° and is therefore one central angle of a regular decagon. If students have studied "The Golden Rectangle" and "The Golden Triangle. remind students that the midpoint R is found by constructing the perpendicular bisector A x Since llAOB .x' which leads to the equation x 2 + x-I = O. Since R is the midpoint ofPQ. students will determine the vertices of the inscribed decagon. X P. Therefore. 1. VS 2-1 . Since OA = 1 and AP = 2.OQ = VS . PQ = OP . Now it's necessary to show that PR in the construction has length x. Students should be familiar with the properties of inscribed regular polygons and similar triangles. = AB = VS :.1. Begin by drawing isosceles triangle AOB on the chalkboard. so be sure to allow enough time to present it as a class discussion.

such as altitudes. With C as the center and a as the radius. Inc.· B ~·-------a-----~ Is t:. draw the arc that intersects the base line.ABC or the measures of any angles. Draw t:. is there only one triangle with sides a and b and altitude hal _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Under what conditions will there be only one triangle? _ _ _ _ __ Under what conditions will there be no triangle? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A Now let's construct a triangle given only the lengths of its medians.. medians.ABC given the lengths of a. How can you locatepoint~?-------------------------------HowcanyoulocatepointC? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ How can you locate point A? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Complete the construction. 2. and angle bisectors. What kind of quadrilateral is BGCD? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Why? ____________________________________________________________________ How can you determine the lengths of the sides of t:. EXTENSION! Construct t:. Triangles can also be constructed given the measures of other parts of triangles.. the altitude to b. Mark off the segment HA of length ha on this perpendicular. A sketch of the finished triangle is shown at the right with the given lengths in bold lines..Constructing Triangles You have used the ancient Greek geometers' straightedge and compass to construct triangles given the measures of various sides and angles.GBD? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Use the given lengths of mediansma . Use the base line on the next page to do the following constructions: 1. Since we don't know the lengths of the sides of t:. A C----.ABC unique? That is. draw the arc that intersects the base line. Label this point C. 3. (ha is the altitude to side a. 5.. and the median to c shown at the right. mb . This is more difficult and it's best to begin by analyzing the construction in reverse. and me on the next page and construct t:. 4. Label this pointB.. Construct a perpendicular at H... Again we start with a sketch of the finished triangle.GBD.) It's usually a good idea to sketch the "finished product" before beginning the construction.ABC. These lengths are given on the next page... a . With A as the center and b as the radius. I n many cases this suggests an idea of where to start. Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Let's consider constructing a triangle given the lengths of two sides and the altitude to one of these sides. we can't construct any of the triangles in the figure. So we extend GMa its own length to D and draw BD and CD as shown at the right.

By extending GMa its own length to D. scribed circle."'" " ~ / / / / / . Be sure they understand that for a triangle construction to not produce a unique triangle. 2. 3. three sides."/ Me.. Ask students for ideas on how to do the construction. they have usually not been exposed to any of the more difficult ones. Therefore./ CaB This parallelogram is constructed as follows: (1) A line through B is constructed parallel to line AC. Extension Students should again make a sketch of the triangle as shown below: A C~~----------·B a They can construct fl CBHb using the same method described in the first construction on the student page: Draw any lineAC. medians. If b = ha' flABC will be unique and if b < ha' the construction is not possible. . A. They should see thatflACH can be constructed easily because they have the lengths of the hypotenuse and leg of a right triangle. pointing out that the arc can cross the base line on either side of point C. Presenting the Investigation Begin by discussing the triangle constructions students have already done in tenus of the given angles and sides. Each consists of measures of three of these parts of a triangle. Thus. two sides and their included angle. (2) Using C as the center and 2me as the radius. angles and sides. and the semiperimeter as well as altitudes. Or. Students should be familiar with the basic geometry constructions and the median concurrency theorem. we have GMa = DMa.-------... The completed construction is shown on the back of the second student sheet. three angles. The next construction is much more difficult. 4. BG = j mb' BD = GC = j me' and. If they can construct a parallelogram ADBC as shown below. since GMa = DMa = ma. radius of an in. then there are 179 possible triangle construction problems. soBMa = CMa. BG can be extended and BMb equal in length to mb marked off. To detenuine the lengths of the sides of flGBD.. students can fmd Ma by bisecting Gl5. they will be able to complete the construction of flABC.. (3) Point A can be found by constructing a line through D parallel to CB. or by marking off length me on Cl5 and extending QMe to line A C. D ~ -------. and does produce a unique triangle.-:. and BMe and CMb extended to meet at A. two angles and their included side. (Point out that flACH is a special case of construction 2 above. 6. Then from B with radius a locate point C on line AC.Ma is the midpoint ofBC.. BGCD is a parallelogram because the diagonals bisect each other. students need to know that the medians of a triangle meet in a point that is the trisection of each one. 5. point D is marked on the line through B. They can locate C by extending BMa and marking off MaC equal in length to BMa' t Point A can be located several different ways. When you consider the measures of other parts of a triangle such as angle bisectors. two sides and any angle... Extending GD and marking off MaA equal in length to ma is one way. the two triangles produced must not be congruent. Also. refer students to construction 4 on the student page.Teacher's Notes for Constructing Triangles _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ While most geometry students are familiar with the basic triangle constructions.. Not only does this problem review many importan t concepts from elementary geometry.) Then have students follow the step-by-step constructions to draw flABC. Drawing BC completes the construction of fl CBHb' Before continuing. Now discuss the sketch for the first construction. but it also provides an opportunity for students to practice "reverse" reasoning in analyzing the problem. Have students consider the lengths of band ha to answer the next two questions on the student page. There should be one or two students who realize flABC is not unique. choose a pointHb and construct a perpendicular at Hb of length hb.. students should again consider their original sketch. This investigation presents three interesting triangle constructions that not only review geometric concepts. GD = j mao After constructing fl GBD. radius of a circumscribed circle.. Ask students which of these constructions produce unique triangles and which do not (2 and 5 are not unique). but also help students analyze geometry problems. two angles and any side. CG can be extended and CMe equal in length to me marked off. If not. The completed construction is shown on the back of the second student sheet. Students should have constructed triangles given the measures of: 1. The segments to be used in the constructions are given in reproducible form on the next page.

Inc. .Constructing Triangles a b • H Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Constructing Triangles A 8' c a 8 a A ~~-------------4~------------~c 22 .

F . What is the formula for the area of a trapezoid? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ~------~B What is the formula for the area of a triangle? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ a AreaDEBC = Area !lEAD + Area!lEAB + Area!lABC Find the areas above in terms of a. First trapezoid DEBC is constructed using the lengths from !lABC. One book lists 370 of them. Therefore.f = !!. In the figure at the right.. LC is constructed perpendicular to DE. Adding. Pythagoras is given credit for developing the following proof based on similar triangles. 0 2 + b 2 = _ _ _ __ Complete the proof: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Another proof of the Pythagorean Theorem was discovered by President James A.The Pythagorean Theorem More different proofs have been written for the Pythagorean Theorem than for any other theorem in geometry. .4-------C--------~ = ___ and 0 2 = ___ . Garfield's proof is based on area. What is the relationship between !lEAD and !lABC? What is the length of AE? _ _ What kind of angle is LEAB? _ _ __ Why? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ Now consider the areas of the trapezoid and the three triangles. b. H~--~~---~j G Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Given right !lABC with the right angle at C. and CE and KB are drawn.. Inc. as shown at the right. Prove that Area ACHK + Area BCGF = AreaABDE. prove 0 2 + b2 ~ = c2• Altitude CD forms two right triangles that are similar to each other and to the original triangle.f _ band. and c. b man So. Garfield in 1876 while he was a member of Congress. A~B D . b 2 C . squares are constructed on the sides of right !lABC.. E K~---< D EXTENSION! Another proof of the Pythagorean Theorem based on area was developed by Euclid. AreaDEBC = __________________ Area !lEAD = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Area!lEAB = Area!lABC = __________ Use these areas and the relation among them to complete the proof.

The area of a triangle is hn. Point out that the statement to be proved is the geometric equivalent ofa 2 + b 2 = c 2.. and LCAE 2:: LKAB). and care: Area DEBC = (a + b)(a + b) Area !:l EAD = ab Area !:l EAB = cc Area !:lABC = 1ab 1 1 1 E Kr--------t' D 1 1 1 HL---~-rr. using the figure above on the right.. Washington.C. If it is not worked through in class. it should be assigned only to better students. the proofs are historically interesting: One is by Py thagoras. Area ACHK + AreaBCGF = AreaLEAM + AreaBDLM and Area ACHK + Area BCGF = AreaABDE. By addition. mLABC + mLCAB = 90°. Garfield. Therefore. a wide range of geometric concepts are reinforced. b. It may by best for students to use letters other than b to avoid confusion with length b in the figure. one is. mLEAD -I. where h is the altitude and m and n are the lengths of the bases. LEAD 2:: LABC.Teacher's Notes for The Pythagorean Theorem _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Although all geometry texts prove the Pythagorean Theorem.. the altitudes of rectangle LEAM. Similarly. ($ \ ~--T--"p I D x 1= I \ c H In the figure on the left. In!:lABC.) The areas in terms of a. E A . The area of a trapezoid is h(m + n).mLCAB = 90° and LEAB is a right angle. Therefore. Area !:l CAE = Area!:l KAB Area LEAM = Area ACHK Now students must draw CD and AF. G F Then. AE. Since !:lEAD 2:: !:lABC. Since !:l CAE 2:: !:l KAB . published in 1968 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. !:l KAB and square ACHK have the same base and congruent altitudes. !:l CAE and rectangle LEAM have the same base. (Note that these area formulas are usually given using b to represent the length of the base. Thus. it is easier to see the relations. Students should begin by proving!:l CAE 2:: !:l KAB (CA 2:: KA. By redrawing only parts of the figure on the student page as shown below. unexpectedly.. so Area !:lKAB = Area ACHK. by President James A. The altitude to AE in!:l CAE (shown by dashed lines) is congruent toEL and AM. AE 2:: AB. Extension Many students will fmd Euclid's proof difficult. the originator of the theorem. they can prove Area BCGF = Area BDLM using the same method as above. where h is the altitude and n is the length of the base. In addition. Presenting the Investigation Students will be amazed that as many as 370 different proofs exist for one theorem. Given the proportions to use in Pythagoras' proof. b 2 = cm and a 2 = cn + b 2 = cn + cm = c(n + m) = c· c a2 + b 2 = c 2 a2 1 In Garfield's proof. Three proofs are presented in this investigation-two using area relationships and one using proportions in similar triangles. D. The book referred to is The Pythagorean Proposition by Elisha S. 1(a + b)(a + b) = 1ab + 1c 2 + 1 ab 1(a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ) = 1(c 2 + 2ab) a 2 + b 2 + 2ab = c 2 + 2ab a2 + b 2 = c2 24 . Area !:l CAE = Area LEAM. . The only prerequisites for the investigation are knowledge of the area formulas and proportional segments in right triangles. most students are unaware of the variety of existing proofs. Thus. using !:lABF and !:lDBC. !:lEAD 2:: !:lABC and the length of AE is c. Loomis. one of the most famous mathematicians of all times. students should be able to complete the proof easily. one is by Euclid.

AE = AM + ME = _____________ And. Follow the steps below to construct a golden rectangle such as ABFE. = ______________ The golden ratio is denoted by the Greek lettert/>(phi). show that t/>2 = t/> + 1. The ratio of the length. Using!:J. Now look at rectangle CDEF. MDC and the Pythagorean Theorem. MC = _ _. What do you notice about the coefficients and the constants? What is this sequence called? Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Inc. construct a perpendicular to AE that meets BC at F. of a golden rectangle to its width. 1. EF. find t/>'. ME = B A M . 3. First. t/>' = t/> .whatarethey? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! Another interesting mathematical relation concerns the powers of t/>. and verified by modern psychologists. Then use this equation to write the powers of t/> from t/> 1 to t/>8 in terms of t/>. Is it a golden rectangle? We can find out by finding the ratio of length (EF) to width (DE). Is this equal to t/>? ____ Is CDEF a golden rectangle? _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now draw HG as shown at the right so that DEGH is a square. Use H as the center and HD as radius and draw arc DG. EF= EF Thus. is called the golden ratio. The Greeks used this rectangle in many of their buildings-it is called a golden rectangle. With a compass centered at M. DE andDE=ME-MD= _ __ = _ _ _ _ . Thus. Then. Then MD = _ _ . Continue partitioning the smaller rectangle into a square and another golden rectangle as shown in the figure. : . draw arc BD. Continue drawing arcs to form a spiral. Let's find this ratio. AE. most people find the rectangle at the top more pleasing. Construct a square about 10 cm on a side and label it ABCD. draw an arc from C to meet AD at E. the ratio of width to length in a golden rectangle. Br-____________~C--_rJ-~F G A D E There are many interesting mathematical relations involving t/>.t/>' = ------------ Are there any other numbers in mathematics for which this is true? If so. 2. t/> = 02+ 1. Use I as the center and draw arc GJ. This spiral is closely related to the spiral of the chambered nautilus shell and is called the golden spiral. 4. At E. Locate the midpoin-t M of AD and draw MC. . CFGH is also a golden rectangle. Then find the product and difference of t/> and t/>'. Thus. Let AD = 1 unit. since EF = AD = 1. and having radius MC. using a compass with C as the center and BC as radius.The Golden Rectangle Which of the rectangles at the right is more pleasing to look at? According to the ancient Greeks. To discover one of them. t/>' = i= t/> . Since we constructed ME = MC.

rs 2+ I DE = H "" 4. see the Algebra volume in this series. for althQugh the ancient Greeks knew the geometric proportions of the golden rectangle. EF= 2 I " .1 2 . The other powers of cp to cps can be generated in a similar manner.g - N K The relation between cp and its reciprocal cp' is developed next. while the one at the top can be appreciated at one glance. they will get the quadratic equation x 2 . Solving for x... . . VS + I or x = -~--=-VS + I x = 2 2 When VS + 1 VS . cp = (cp + l)cp = cp2 + cp =cp+l+cp=2cp+1. students can verify that these smaller rectangles are golden by fmding the ratio of length to width.1 cp ~ 2 Rectangle CDEF is also a golden rectangle since the ratio oflength to width is cp as shown below. such that xy = I and x . If pictures of ancient Greek buildings are available. Extension To find the powers ofcp. The only geometric prerequisites are constructing midpoints and perpendiculars.I x= 2 .1 - 2 2 - 4 - '" _ ". When a square is cut from one end of a golden rectangle.y = 2 X= -VS + 1 -VS .1 'I' 2 2- 'I' To check for other numbers.rs - G 2 + VS = VS + 1 222 1= RJ5 MI "\ cp' = ! = _1_ = VS . 26 . compare the golden rectangle to the shape of these buildings. x and y.. Solving this.1 . DE=ME -MD EF I DE = . The Extension for this investigation relates geometry to algebra via the Fibonacci sequence.. ! 1. - _/ D " / I / £ cp • cp' _ VS + 1 . For a more detailed consideration of this topic.cp and _cp'. \ \ \ AE Therefore. Since M is the midpoint of AD. The second two values are their additive .2 _ 2 . AE = AM + ME = Lf \ Presenting the Investigation Briefly discuss the two rectangles at the top of the student page. I '1'- 1 (VS 2+ 1)2 -_ 5 + 2VS + I _ 3 + VS 4 2 cp + 1 = VS 2+ 1 + 1 = 3 +2 VS Rationalizing the denominator gives Then. They are cpS = 5cp + 3 cpl = lcp + 0 cp6 = 8cp + 5 cp2 = lcp + 1 cp3 = 2cp + 1 cp4 = 3cp + 2 cp 7 = 13cp + 8 cps = 21cp + 13 The coefficients and the constants form Fibonacci sequences. the remaining rectangle is also a golden rectangle.. its algebraic relations could not have been known until 1700 years later.x . EF = VS + 1 = '" DE 2 '1'. VS ... Then have students do the construction indicated..y = 1. AM = MD = Also.. The completed figure with the spiral drawn is shown below. Point out that the rectangle at the bottom requires a scanning motion in viewing. This investigation reinforces construction techniques and relates geometry to algebra...-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Very few topics in algebra and geometry present as B c J F many fascinating relations as the golden rectangle. _ VS + 1 _ VS .1 ". This idea is explored in the next construction.. students should consider two numbers.1 _ 5 ..y= 2 The first two values of x and yare cp and cp I. students first fmd cp2 and cp + I: VS 2.Teacher's Notes for The Golden Rectangle ... cp3 = cp2 .) Students should not have any difficulty fmding the golden ratio.....I = O.. If time permits. (Note that squareABCD can be any size10 cm on each side is suggested because it is a convenient measure.inverses. Discovery of these relations spanned many centuries.1 . / I A . Successively smaller golden rectangles are formed by partitioning squares from golden rectangles.ME = MC = so !.~ = .

The measures of arcs AB. Use a compass to construct smaller and smaller golden triangles as described above. Triangle ADC is one of many golden triangles in this figure. Using j as the center and Aj as the radius. draw arc AC. and EA are all A equal. the golden ratio.The Golden Triangle The golden rectangle is considered to be the rectangle with the most pleasing shape. DE." I n the isosceles triangle at the right. the ratio of leg to base is <p. A new golden triangle can also be constructed from a given golden triangle. Look at the figure at the right. As you might guess. this isosceles triangle is called a golden triangle. We can use 6. Copyright © 1982 by Addison·Wesley Publishing Company. Inc. This ratio determines whether a rectangle is "golden. A . it exhibits the golden ratio.ADC to find the measures of the angles of a golden triangle. How was 6. In the figure at the right a regular pentagon is inscribed in a circle and the regular pentagram (star) is drawn.DLj a golden triangle? _________ How long could you continue this process? _____________________________________ EXTENSION! Use a protractor to draw a golden triangle. Do you' remember the ratio of length to width in agolden rectangle? It's called <p. and equals 02+ 1. What is the measure of arc AB? _ _ _ __ Of arc BC? _ _ _ _ _ Of arc ABC? _ _ __ Is the measure of arc AED the same as the measure of arc ABC? _ _ _ _ Why or why not? _ _ __ What is the measure of LA DC? _ _ _ Of LACD? ______ Why? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ What is the measure of LDAC? _ _ _ _ _ Why? What are the measures of the angles of a golden triangle? _________________________________ Recall that a new golden rectangle can be constructed from a given golden rectangle. While it isn't necessarily the triangle with the most pleasing shape. Continue drawing arcs to construct a golden spiral. BC.CjD constructed? ____________________________________ Is it a golden triangle? _ _ _ _ Why or why not? ____________ Is 6. CD.

.1/>2 = O. t.. CD. Similarly. ADC.. Also. Using angle measure in a circle. Presenting the Investigation Begin by briefly reviewing 1/>... x = I/> • I/> = 1/>2. and 72°. 2 . Then DJ = X-I/>.. Thus..... CDJ . the ratio of leg to base is AD 1/>2 DC =~= 1/>. But by definition. Assume each side of pentagon ABCDE has length 1/>.. Similarly... the golden ratio and golden spiral should be reviewed. It is a golden triangle because its angles measure 36°.. CDJ is constructed by bisecting L C.. Arcs AB.DLJ is also a golden triangle.AD= 1/>2... the measure of arc ABC equals 2· 72° or 144°. AC I/> DJ = DC or x - This (nvestigation is a natural extension of "The Golden Rectangle. in t.. the golden ratio detennined in "The Golden Rectangle.. The positive root of this equation from the quadratic fonnula is x = 1/>(1 +2VS )." and should be presented later in a geometry course. DJ = x . x 2 . I+VS=. we can find the angle measures shown on the figure below. _--. " / .I/>x . -!. 72°.ADC is a golden triangle is not presented on the student page. Thus. BC. 1 - Cf> = 1..I/> = I/> + t. so in Therefore. . " "- "\ \ \ \ \ I I I / / '" We can see thaf t. and 72°. DC .. 72°. Let AD = A C = x... It gives students an opportunity to apply their knowledge of angle measure in circles and triangles in a context not usually presented in geometry texts. 72° = 36° 2 Thus. you may want to present it in class as follows. in any 72° -72° -36° isosceles triangle.I." Then consider the measures of the angles and arcs in the inscribed pentagon. the ratio of leg to base is I/> and any triangle with these angle measures is a golden triangle.". Extension The figure constructed by the students should be similar to the one shown below . 28 . The next paragraph explores how a new golden triangle can be constructed from a given golden triangle. Hence.(2.. Some of the skills and terminology presented in "The Golden Rectangle" are necessary for this investigation-specifically. and sinceAD= x. CDJ are similar isosceles triangles. Note that a proof that t. x I/> = ~. .I/> = I/> 2 . the measure of arc AED is 144°.. The measure of inscribed LADC is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc: mLADC = 144° = 72°. This process can be continued indefinitely to produce a series of smaller and smaller golden triangles. 72°) = 36° mLDAC = ImDc = 12 . !. The measure of LDAC can be found in two ways: mLDAC = 180° .. the measures of the angles of a golden triangle are 36°. Thus. the ratio of leg to base is CD I/> DJ = T= 1/>. ADC and t. If time permits. t. mLACD = 72°. DE. A .Teacher's Notes for The Golden Triangle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ and since DC = 1/>... and EA each have measure equal to 360° or 72°.

C determine a circle with center S? __________________ Whyorwhynot? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EXTENSION! Prove that the area of the arbelos equals the area of the circle with diameter HC.. and jE 1 FD. What relation do you think would exist among these semicircular arcs? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A Now consider some other properties of the arbelos. Copyright © 1982 by Add lson-Wesley Publishing Company. 21T'l = 1T'l ..-. One property of the arbelos is that for any point C on AB. ve ri fy t hat HC and FG b isec t eac h 0 th erat S.The Arbelos Archimedes (287-212 B.Also.. Inc.. BC. Archimedes' last words were. QAC 1 = 2" . the semicircle on AC + the semicircle on BC = the semicircle on AB... QAB= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We know that R ='1 + '2' so 1TR = ______________ Therefore. We can prove this by finding the lengths of the semicircular arcs: A C B Let the radii of semicircles on AC. He was killed by a roman soldier who found him drawing geometric figures in the sand..C. Since a line segment drawn perpendicular to a diameter is the geometric mean between the segments of the diameter. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Do the points F. FG = jE. respectively. Why? Express j D and DE in terms of'l and r 2: j D = DE =_____________ =________________ = _______________ Then use the Pythagorean Theorem to find (jE)2. ~c =~~. (HC)2 = D C B H . H.-. Thus.. and AB be '1 .'s Knife.-. '2' and R.belos or Shoemake. FG isacommon external tangent of the two smaller semicircles. "Don't disturb my circles!" One figure Archimedes studied is shown at the right. (jE)2 Since jE = FG.) is considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. . I n the figure at the right HC 1 ACB at C. The shaded portion is known as the A. QBC= . G. According to one source... (jE)2 = (FG)2. .. QA"""' B = ____________________________________ Suppose three (or more) semicircles are drawn on AB as shown at the right. Thus. (FG)2 Wha t does th is te II abou t th e rela t ion bet ween HC and FG? _____________________________________________________________________________ Now..

l.. the radius of circle Sis Then the area of the circle equals Tr( yrl r2)2 = Trrl r2' Thus. The arbelos provides students with an opportunity to apply what they know about several areas of geometry-properties of triangles. we have JD = r} . where n is the number of degrees in the arc and r is the length of the radius of the circle.} and r2 such as r} = 16 and r2 = 4. For the r--. Therefore. Then r--. Therefore. Trrl.. Or they can simply use the fact that a semicircle is " = half the circumference of the circle.. (After completing the Extension. students must show that FGEJ is a rectangle. Extension Express the area of the arbelos in terms of rl and r2' Area of the arbelos = area of semicircle AHB (area of semicircle AFC + area of semicircle CGB). We found earlier that (HC)2 = 4rl '2' So. . The points F. But since HC = FG and HC = HS + SC and FG = SC + SC.r.r..r--. QAB = QA C + QCD + QDB.. we have area of arbelos = I«rl + r 2)2 . TrR = Trr] + Trr2 and QAB = QAC + QBC. Since DF 1 FG and EG 1 FG.2Tr( rl 2 + 2rl'2 + r22 = r 12 . FS = SC and SC = SG.. ~ ~ H ~ A~------~~~----~B C H 2 Since the area of a semicircle = Tr. the arbelos is one of these. HC + SC = SC + Sc. we get The next series of questions leads students to the discovery that HC = FG. the diameter HC = 2y r l r2' Therefore. r--. we have area of arbelos = = TrR2 2 - Trr T 2 Trr 2 +~ ~(R2 . R = r] + r2. No.r1 2 .Teacher's Notes for The Arbelos _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Many of the problems studied by the ancient geometers are not included in most standard geometry texts. and then another-all derived from a relatively simple drawing of semicircles. (a radius is perpendicular to a tangent at the point of tangency).Since r--.pp. Students will find that one interesting relation leads to another. C determine a circle with center S because FS = GS =HS =SC.) Presenting the Investigation Students can use the formula for the length of an arc: 360 X 2Trr. r--. which gives us FS = SG. G. three semicircles on the student page.rl) -. Thus. If students question this relation. and it is given thatJE 1 FD. Therefore.. . and circles are all needed to complete the investigation. and RAB = TrR.r2 and DE ='1 + r2' Then. Expressing JD and DE in terms of rl and r2... they would find the area is 64Tr. rectangles.r1 2 .rl) We know that R = r l + r2' Substituting.. (FG)2 = 4rl'2 and HC = FG~ _ Now students can verify that HC and FG bisect each other at S: SC is a common internal tangent 30 . They begin by finding that (HC)2 =4r} '2' To show that FG =JE. in /:"JDE. the area of the arbelos is equal to the area of circle S. Volume 240. Some are included in Martin Gardner's "Mathematical Games" in the Scientific American (January 1979. you may want to give students values for. use these values to show that QAB = QAC + RBC and to fmd the radius of circle S (8) and the area of the arbelos. we also know that HS =SC. So HC and FG bisect each other at S.r2 2) Tr 2(2'1 r2) = Tr'I r2 Now find the area of circle S. H. FGEJ has four right angles. to both circles. There are many other fascinating properties and extensions of the arbelos. have them verify it using the same procedure as used for two semicircles. Thus. FGEJ is a rectangle. have themr--. lf time pennits. This investigation should usually be presented late in a geometry course since students must be able to compute lengths of arcs and areas of circles.18-28). QBC = Trr2. RAC " r--.. Unfortunately.

D. Inc. known as Ptolemy's Theorem. What is the length of HF? _ _ _ _ __ Can we apply Ptolemy's Theorem to a rectangle? That is. Is any trapezoid cyclic? _ _ _ _ _ __ Is any isosceles trapezoid cyclic? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ So.ABC. 5 Look at the figure at the right. we can use Ptolemy's Theorem to find the length of HF in trapezoid EFGH above. Copyright © 1982 by Add ison·Wesley Publishing Company. E~---~----~F In a cyclic (inscribed) quadrilateral. R Ptolemy's Theorem can help find the length of a diagonal of a quadrilateral only if we know the quadrilateral is cyclic. Write the relation given in Ptolemy's Theorem as an equation using the quadrilateral in the figure.Ptolemy's Theorem 8 Can you find the length of diagonal BD of rectangle ABCD? What D~-------~C theorem should you use? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 6 What is the length of BD? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A "-----------B Suppose we now consider finding the length of diagonal HF of the isosceles trapezoid EFGH. The Almagest. What is the length of CP? _ _ _ _ ___ EXTENSION! Using the figure at the right. C~---j-'P . write a proof of Ptolemy's Theorem. The following theorem. whereLBAC ~ LDAP. the product of the lengths of the diagonals is equal to the sum of the products of t"'he lengths of the pairs of opposite sides. who lived in Alexandria about 150 A. AP = 3. It is possible to prove that a quadrilateral is cyclic if and only if its opposite angles are supplementary. and BP = 4. was included in his book. Can you use the same theorem you used 6 above to find the length of HF? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ This problem was studied by Claudius Ptolemy. What theorem do you get? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now apply Ptolemy's Theorem to this problem: Point P is on arc AB of the circumscribed circle of equilateral b. is a rectangle cyclic? _ _ _ _ _ Try it.

. is the Pythagorean Theorem. Therefore. by substitution..AC' or AB . 6.ABD . Then consider when Ptolemy's Theorem can be used. Since quadrilateral APBC is cyclic.BAC . rectangles.----t---7I P inscribed in a circle and any point on the circle that is not a vertex of the triangle. Students should be encouraged to investigate similar problems where the equilateral triangle is replaced with other regular polygons. For everything except the Extension.. LADP is also supplementary to LADC. Now simplifying this expression gives us the desired result: (AC)(BD) = (AB)(CD) + (AD)(BC). and trapezoids and with the Pythagorean Theorem. They will find that for a rectangle such as WXYZ shown below.. after being shown this method. to write the proof given in the Extension.. Therefore. ~------------~y But. 6. we may apply Ptolemy's Theorem: (CP)(t) =(AP)(t) + (BP)(t). students only need to be familiar with the basic properties of regular polygons.Dr or AB . (WY)(ZX) = (Zy)(WX) + (WZ)(XY). CP =AP + BP = 3 + 4 = 7. Ask students which quadrilaterals have opposite angles that are supplementary. they can find the length of HF.. Since mLBAC =mLDAP. This investigation provides students with just such a theorem concerning cyclic quadrilaterals. They should realize that all squares. Extension The proof of Ptolemy's Theorem is based on similar triangles. AD = AP" Therefore. and isosceles trapezoids have opposite angles that are supplementary and are therefore cyclic quadrilaterals.DAP. Point out that by drawing a perpendicular from H to EF and applying the Pythagorean Theorem twice.. (ZX)2 = (WX)2 + (WZ)2.. making sure students can write the relation as an equation using quadrilateral PQRS: (PR)(QS) = (PS)(QR) + (PQ)(SR). mLABC = mLADP. 32 . However. So. we know that 6. ZY = WX. Therefore. they should be surprised. Now they can apply Ptolemy's Theorem to trapezoid EFGH: (HF)(EG) = (HG)(EF) + (HE)(GF). However. This. most students. XY = WZ and WY = ZX. students will find that the length of diagonal BD of rectangle ABCD is 10. they may make too quick a decision and assume they can't use the Pythagorean Theorem to find HF. students will need to know how to prove that two triangles are similar.. w~--------------~ However.DAP.Teacher's Notes for Ptolemy's Theorem _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ In the next problem. Thus. You may wish to have students try to generalize the concept illustrated by this problem: Given any equilateral triangle that is CL!:::. 6. 6. Since HF = EG. ABC. When students apply Ptolemy's Theorem to a rectangle. rectangles. Students often encounter problems and proofs that appear to be very difficult-until they find the right theorem to use. will welcome a less tedious one. CP = CD + DP. However.. Since AB AC 6. (HF)2 = (6)(8) + (5)(5) = 73 and HF= V73. Take some time to consider the statement of Ptolemy's Theorem. A C~------~~--~P Since quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic. Presenting the Investigation By using the Pythagorean Theorem. Then BD _ AB C'P _ (AC)(BD) CP .mLBAD=mLCAP. The sum of the distances from the point to the closer vertices equals the distance from the point to' the further vertex. of course. LABC'is supplementary to LADC. Since AP was drawn so that LBAC ~ LDAP. by substitution. let t represent the length of a side of equilateral 6.BAC . AB _ BC DP _ (AD)(BC) AD .ACP. (AC)(BD) =CD + (AD)(BC) AB AB . When students consider the isosceles trapezoid. They will discover when to apply Ptolemy's Theorem and how it relates to other concepts in geometry.

AL---~--------~B . LC BL. and CN of £lABC at the right are concurrent.andCM = MA. If the ruler has uniform thickness and density. It's the point where the medians of the triangle intersect. LC' MA = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Does this prove the interior angle bisectors are concurrent? ______ What special circle can be drawn using this point of concurrency? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! Using £lABC at the right. BM. (AN)(BL)(CM) and NB AN. Why? ______________ CM an d MA = ______ C ~ A B N BL CM . and N. We know thatAN = NB. I' . Are they concurrent? Since AL bisects LCAB. prove that the altitudes AL. NB f~ = ~~. Why? By multiplication. By mu ItiP Icatlon. where do you think its center of gravity will be? _ _ _ _ __ Now suppose you have a triangular board that you want· to use as a platform for a bird feeder. B. AN NB . What difficulty do you have if you try to apply this proof to a right triangle? Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Can you prove that the medians of a triangle are concurrent (intersect in a point)? Try it. This theorem states: Three lines drawn from the vertices A. MA CM = C = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ________________________________ A ~ N B Does this prove the medians are concurrent? Why or why not? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now consider the three interior angle bisectors of £lABe. AN = S·Iml'1 ar Iy. and C of £lA BC meeting the opposite sides in points L. M.Ceva's Theorem Have you ever tried to balance a ruler on your finger? The point where it balances is its center of gravity. It's easy to prove the medians of a triangle are concurrent if you know a theorem published in 1678 by the Italian mathematician Giovanni Ceva. and CN are concurrent. Inc. are concurrent if and only if Now let's prove that the mediansAL. respectively. BM. Why would it help to know where the board's center of gravity is? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The center of gravity of a triangle is called the centroid.BL = LC.

fj. RA For part 2. LC . Multiplying gives (AN)(BL )( CM) = (NB)(LC)(MA) or AN BL CM NB . The proof that the medians are concurrent is unambiguous using Ceva's Theorem. NB AN However. Thus.RAP. we get AN BL CM AC AB BC MA .ABC. We know. NB . so NA = SA· 34 . we get. so NB = BC· CM fj. They should also be familiar with the definitions of median. BL CM AN' proved. The investigation should be presented after students have studied similar triangles and the anglebisector theorem.ANC. BL LP fj. AN . AR CB· BN CB fj. the lines are concurrent. B L C Thus. LC· MA . AC SA RA· AM fj. thus. and N are midpoints by the definition of a median. as shown by the figures below: The three lines may meet inside or outside the given triangle. MA = 1. of course. there are two parts.Teacher's Notes for Ceva's Theorem _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Multiplying. there are two cases. so MC 1.ABC is a right triangle. If fj. The lengths of the segments are equal because L. LC = AB· BC .CLA.BLP . This investigation presents Ceva's Theorem. and CN are concurrent at P. N S A R ~ = = 1. giving students an opportunity to shorten proofs that deal with concurrent lines. A proof of Ceva's Theorem is given below. with Non AB. that this isn't the case.fj. lIM. let lIM and At meet atP. so LC = = BC AC· By multiplying. MA = BC . Also. so MA = AB· BL AB fj. We want to prove that CL Therefore. Presenting the Investigation By experimenting. BL Most of the theorems studied in high schoolgeometry were considered by Euclid. this can give students the idea that nothing has been discovered since his time. students will fmd that if a ruler has uniform thickness and density. LC . its center of gravity is at the midpoint of its length. CLP .fj. and L on Be. the three lines are concurrent.fj. To show the angle bisectors ofa triangle are concurrent. and inscribed circle of a triangle. However.fj. It is possible to prove that the medians of a triangle are concurrent without using Ceva's Theorem. CM = I NB LC MA Draw a line through A. by Ceva's Theorem the three angle bisectors are concurrent. we have AM BN CL MC .SAP. SA . By the part of Ceva's Theorem we have already .BLA . Note that it is biconditional.BNC. SA AR CB SA CB . Thus.fj. NA . so At.fj.AMR . By Ceva's Theorem then. AC .AMB. B~------~~~L BL CL RA' or BL 1. and CN' are concurrent atP. students must use similar triangles: AN AC fj. M. also At. most students would be unlikely to think of how to do so because the proof requires placing the triangle in a coordinate plane.BL.CMB . CL LP fj. by Ceva's Theorem the altitudes are concurrent. N'B = 1. students must recall that an angle bisector of a triangle divides the opposite side into segments proportional to the two remaining sides of the triangle.ANS. Unfortunately. The bird feeder will be stable if the post supporting the feeder is attached at the triangular board's center of gravity. lIM. so RA = AP" = = AN' AN N'B NB' so that Nand N' must coincide. Ceva's Theorem for proving lines concurrent was one of several that appeared in the seventeenth century. Extension To prove the altitudes are concurrent.CMB. It follows that: AN AC BL AB CM BC NB = BC' LC = AC' and MA = AB· Then by multiplying AN BL CM AC AB BC NB . AB = 1. The point of concurrency of the three angle bisectors is the center of the triangle's inscribed circle. the altitudes are concurrent at the right angle and the proof is obvious. Let CPmeet AB at N'. so SA = AP" = = · th at BL CM . Therefore. we aruiven fj. parallel to Be meeting CP at S andBP atR.BNC .M on XC. 1· tIS·gIven LC· MA For Ert 1. altitude.

B~---~---~A m 4 Copyright © 1982 by Add lson-Wesley Publishing Company. Matthew Stewart published a theorem in 1745 that makes it much easier to find the length of any cevian of a triangle.. (14 . the length of cevian RS. Such a line segment is called a cevian of a triangle. Show that Stewart's Theorem can be written as d 2 = ab .y)2 = 225 x 2 + y2 = 169 By subtraction.. Consider the median to AB of !lABC at the right. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Z ~ 10 X C EXTENSION! In 6.. in the figure at the right.--------"~-. What is true aboutm andn? _______________________________ Write m and n in terms of c: _____________________ B~---~~--~A Substitute these values of m and n in Stewart's Theorem and solve for d 2• Now write a general equation for finding the length of a median of a triangle: d2 n m -4-------C------_ y = -------------------- Use your equation to find the length of the median to XZ in the triangle at the right.andn = 10. but there's a lot of computation involved. a2n + b 2m = c(d 2 + mn).ABC.mn when d is the length of the angle bisector shown in the figure. B &. -------14------- C Stewart's Theorem: I n the figure at the right.Stewart's Theorem In 6. n c----- . CD is the angle bisector of LBCA. Fortunately. So are medians and angle bisectors. b = 15.y)2 . the length of the altitude to AB.A m R n --------c-------Use Stewart's Theorem to find x. I t's possible to find the length of a cevian using the Pythagorean Theorem.y2 What is the value of x? C = 56.ABC you can find x. Then find d when a = 9. What is the value of x? _ _ __ QL-__~--~--~p C Altitudes are special kind~f cevians. Inc. by using the Pythagorean Theorem twice: x 2 + (14 . What is the value of y? _ _ __ ---- Suppose CD is any line segment joining C to any point Don AB.m = 6.

2mnp These values are substituted in Stewart's Theorem to simplify the a 2 nand b 2 m terms.ABC. draw altitude CE and let CE = h and let ED = p.lc 2 d 2 -. C ! ! ! For 6.60 = 75 and d = 5y'3.f + ~ = c(d 2 + ~) 224 2a 2c + 2b 2c = 4cd 2 + c 3 4cd 2 = 2a 2c + 2b 2c .2mp + p2 (2) a2 = d 2 + m 2 .y2 = 56 x 2 + 25 = 169 -28y = -140 x 2 = 144 y=5 x = 12 Cevians are named after Giovanni Ceva.2mp Applying the Pythagorean Theorem to 6. a 2n + b 2m = c(d 2 + mn) abm + abn = c(d 2 + mn) ab(m + n) = c(d 2 + mn) abc = c(d 2 + mn) ab = d 2 + mn d 2 = ab . Students will see how algebra can be used to simplify geometric problemsolving.(100) 25 = 53 . since m = n = ~ . It is given below and you may wish to present it if time permits. or a 2n + b 2m = c(d 2 + mn).p2 + n 2 + 2np + p2 (3) b 2 = d 2 + n 2 + 2np Now multiply equation (2) by n to get (4) a2n = d 2n + m 2n . The investigation also reinforces the Pythagorean Theorem and provides an excellent algebra review.25 = 28 and d = 2.p2.y2 = 56 x 2 + y2 = 169 196 ." The proof of Stewart's Theorem is lengthy but not difficult.p2 + m2 .CEB to obtain (1) By applying the Pythagorean Theorem to 6.p2 + (m _ p)2 a2 = d 2 . Presenting the Investigation Students should be able to complete the first problem easily as shown below.6(10) = 135 .y)2 .£.[7. in 6. so b 2 = d 2 _ p2 + (n + p)2 b 2 = d 2 . In 6. we have h 2 = d 2 . (14 .c 3 c(2a 2 + 2b 2 .ABC. and angle bisectors of triangles.Teachers Notes for Stewart's Theorem _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ and multiply equation (3) by m to get b 2m = d 2m + n 2m + 2mnp (5) Adding (4) and (5) gives a 2n + b 2 m = d 2n + d 2m + m 2n + n 2 m a2n + b 2m = d 2(n + m) + mn(m + n) Since m + n = c.28y + y2 . students simply substitute into Stewart's Theorem: a2n + b 2m = c(d 2 + mn) 36(4) + 81(8) = 12(x 2 + 32) 144 + 648 = 12x 2 + 384 12x2 = 408 x 2 = 34 x = v'34 You may wish to show students how difficult it would be to find x without Stewart's Theorem. medians. Substituting ~ for m and n in Stewart's Theorem gives 2 b2 2 f. CEA. CED. His theorem about the concurrency of cevians is presented in "Ceva's Theorem.. they would have to find hand p before fmding x. we find that b 2 = h 2 + (n + p)2. ¥- B n D m _-----. medians.-'-->-=-"---:----~ 4c 2 + Ib 2 . and angle bisectors of triangles.c ------ = ~ + A Extension The bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite sides into segments whose measures are proportional to the measures of the other two sides of the triangle. it's possible to simplify the equation. To find x in 6. This investigation presents a theorem that makes it easy to find the length of any segment joining a vertex of a triangle to any point on the opposite side. a 2n + b 2m = d 2c + mnc. Stewart's Theorem can be used in its given form to find the length of a median of a triangle. Using the figure from the proof above. Students must know the Pythagorean Theorem and the properties of altitudes. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to 6. finding the lengths of these segments will probably be a new experience.PQR.. Thus.1a 2 2 4 While students are familiar with the properties of altitudes. However. Replacing h 2 in equation (1). 36 .mn For the lengths given.c 2) d 2 -. which will simplify the computation. a2 = d 2 . a m Ii = Ii and an = bm. d 2 = (25) + (81) . students will find that d 2 = 9(15) .XYZ.

Simson's Theorem Using the circle at the right. and C. Y. Y. Construct a perpendicular segment from P to each of the three sides of 6. (You may have to extend the sides of the triangle. Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. B. or C. Inc. The line containing the three points is known as the Simson Line. and Z. . draw any inscribed 6.ABC. B. Draw three chords from P meeting the circle at points~. How wou Id you descri be the Simson Li ne? _______________________________________________ Now try another construction using the circle at the right. PB.) Label the points where the perpendiculars intersect the sides X. Construct the th ree ci rcles that have PA. These three circles intersect each other in three points. How many Simson Li nes does a triangle have? __________________________________________________ Suppose point P is chosen at one of the vertices of the inscribed triangle. and PC as diameters. and Z? _______________________ EXTENSION! Use Simson's Theorem to prove that the three points of intersection of the three circles above are collinear. Choose any point P on the circle other than A.andZ? _______________________________ The figure you have constructed illustrates Simson's Theorem: The feet of the perpendiculars drawn from any point on the circumcircle of a given triangle to the sides of the triangle are collinear. and Z. Y. Choose any point P on circle O. What seems to be true about X.ABC. What seems to be true about points X. Y. Label the points of intersection X.

Y. Ask students which points P lie on their own Simson Lines. (7) mLPYX = mLPCB (both are inscribed in the same arc). P is on circle 0. (3) Draw PA. This is unfortunate because it's also a topic that provides many fascinating constructions and theorems. n 38 . students should review the properties of cyclic quadrilaterals. Students may be interested to learn that Simson's Theorem was not discovered by a mathematician named Simson as might be expected. and Z are collinear. llABC is inscribed in circle 0. and PZ as shown bebw. This will emphasize that Simson's Theorem is true. Presenting the Investigation A completed construction is shown below. and Z are collinear. LPYZ and LPYX. but through careless misquotes was attributed to Robert Simson. Therefore. n. X. (To prove Z is on B~note that LPZC and LPZB are right angles with ZY as one ray of the angle. and 8). (5)LPYCissupplementary to LPXC (both are right angles). LPYC and LPZC are right ~les and PY 1 AC and JiZ 1 JJC. Therefore. (I)LPYA issupplementarytoLPZA (both are right angles). You may wish to present a proof of Simson's Theorem. They should see that the three vertices of the triangle are the only points for which this is true. We want to prove points X. (9) mLPYZ = mLPYX (transitivity with steps 4. /it 1)fjj at Z. If P is chosen at one of the vertices of the inscribed triangle. The investigation reinforces construction techniques and angle measurement in a circle. points X. the Simson Line contains the altitude from that vertex to the opposite side. and are drawn from a point on the circumcircle perpendicular to the sides of llABC. (6) Quadrilateral PXCY is cyclic (opposite angles are supplementary). Proving collinearity of points is often difficult and the following proof uses a somewhat unusual approach that will be helpful in later work. but students may need some help deriving the relationships from the figure. yP and have the same measure. It was discovered by William Wallace in 1797. (8) mLPAZ (mLPAB) = mLPCB (both Extension The proof is not difficult. Have students compare their constructions to those of other students in the class. JiY 1 XC at Y. (Note that LPXB is also a right angle. PX 1 AB. Begin by drawing llABC and fiX. 7. In the circle on PA.PB. Points X. their other rays Yi and IT must coincide. ZCB must be the other ray.) Since PX. Simson published an English version of Euclid's Elements in 1756 and his influence as a result was so great that he was mistakenly given credit for Wallace's theorem. (4)mLPYZ = mLPAZ (both are inscribed in the same arc).Teacher's Notes for Simson's Theorem _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ are inscribed in the same arc). and Z are collinear. Y.andPC. so AXB must be a straight line. Since both angles. Again have students compare their constructions to those of other students in the class. PY. and Z are collinear. In the next construction. Every triangle has an infinite number of Simson Lines because there will be a different Simson Line for every point P on the circle and there are infinitely many points P. In the figure above.) Similarly. and PXIBC at X. Y. If the proof of Simson's Theorem is presented. (2) Quadrilateral PZAY is cyclic (opposite angles are supplementary). Y. Simson's Theorem is one of the more interesting theorems about collinearity of points. points X. and Z determine a Simson Line and are therefore collinear. Y. LPXA is a right angle because any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. share the same ray Collinearity of points is usually a neglected topic of a high school geometry course.

.Napoleon's Theorem Napoleon Bonaparte. This last triangle is also equilateral. In quadrilateral AOCD. BD. Next. EXTENSION! Prove thatl:J. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Notice that AE. Circles K and L meet at points 0 and A. On each side of the triangle construct an equilateral triangle facing outwards. To prove this. as shown at the right. Triangles ABF. mLAOB = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Whymu~mLBOC= E 12if? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Using arc CEB. we need to draw the circumscribed circle of each of the equilateral triangles. How can you find the centers K.---. how would you prove circle M contains point O? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Thus. Copyright © 1982 by Addison·Wesley Publishing Company. First. and CAD are the equilateral triangles constructed on the sides of I:J. and CF concurrent? Why or why not? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Point 0 is called the equiangular point of I:J. inc. and CF also appear to be concurrent (meet in a point). L. BD. and CF were drawn. This construction seems rather amazing since we started with any scalene triangle. And there are some other surprising relations in this figure. and F? _________________ AreAE. Now connect the centers to form another triangle. consider the figure at the right. D__--~---~2F Do AE. We need to prove that circle M also contains point O . 0. we first want to show that the circles are concurrent at O. .. What is true about points D. mLAOC = 1mADC = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ In quadrilateral AOBF. the circles are concurrent at 0.KLM is equilateral.ABC. and B? ________________ Is this also true for pointsA. BCE. and mLDOA = ____ mLAOF = ____ mLFOB = ____ Then mLDOB = ___ . AE. 0. and E and points C. the French general and emperor.ABC.. Triangle A BC is our original scalene triangle. was also interested in geometry. He is supposed to have discovered the construction shown in the figure at the right: Draw any scalene triangle.. and M? ___________________ To prove the segments are concurrent. 0. BD. because mLAOC = mLBOC = mLAOB. . BD. Then find the center of the circumscribed circle of each equilateral triangle. and CF appear to be congruent? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What triangles would you use to prove BD ~ CF? _________ How would you prove these triangles congruent? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ E Now prove AE ~ BD ~ CF.

They will soon realize that they must prove t. CAE ~ t.AFY. and B are on the same line. we obtain KL = KM = ML. the basic properties of congruence and similarity. Thus. 0. t. Here the common element is LCAB. we know that mLDOA = mLAOF = mLFOB = 60°. after a few minutes. Since t. Also. mLCOB must be 120°.j'J = mLLAF E KL If Napoleon's figure was discussed in the begin- ning of the class. tell them to name triangles that use the required segments BD and CF as sides.j'J = A -1 . CF DB AE KL = KM = ML' But since CF = DB = AE. students should recall that the centers K. construct Napoleon's figure on the chalkboard before class begins or prepare a construction to use on an overhead projector. For this reason.DAB by SAS. 0. Thus. Angles DOA. Presenting the Investigation If possible. AD ~ A D__----~~------~F E Now consider 30-60-90 triangle ACX as shown at the right. Since t. Therefore. We showed that mLCOB = 120° = !mCEiJ. using other triangles in the figure. AC AK AF AC AK 2 = j. A C 2 3 . and M of the circumscribed circles are the points of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of the triangles. the sides are all proportional and CF AC . Thus.CAF ~ t.CDB to get AE ~ JJJ5. ACandAB ~ AF. --------. students do not find them.CEB is equilateral.ADC is equilateral. students must draw on several areas ofgeometric knowledge-angle measure in a circle.. DB.AK is j of altitude AX. the investigation should usually be presented late in a geometry course. we know mADC = j . KAL '" t.. CAF. mLAOB = 120°. Similarly. What seems to be most perplexing is the selection of the correct pair of triangles to prove congruent. and CF all contain point 0 and are concurrent at O. Since a complete revolution equals 360°. we can prove ~=1 and ~~=1· Therefore. Thus. Therefore. 0. Discuss the figure in class. - = AK= -1' In the same way. L COB must be an inscribed angle and circle M must contain O. intersecting at O. Circles K and L meet at 0 and A. AE ~ BD ~ CF.t. mLFAB = 60°. L. asking students to explain how each construction is done. Therefore. students should prove t. First redraw the figure as shown below. ~f = 1. Thus.ACD and t. and FOB are all inscribed in arcs measuring 120°. and F. If. and the ratios in 30-60-90 triangles. - 40 . as proved earlier. 360° = 240° and mLAOC = 120°.ABF are equilateral. To prove all three segments congruent.. To complete these proofs..j'J Similarly.KAL '" t. we can see that the three circles are concurrent. We need to prove circle M also contains O. so mLKAL = mLCAF by addition. Although the next relation uses only elementary concepts. In circle M. Therefore. and thus.DAB. and mLDAB = mLFAC (addition). BD :!!! CF. Then. mLCAL = mLCAL (reflexive). Therefore. Extension This proof is quite difficult and it is unlikely any students will think of it on their own. should look forward to proving them.CAF~ t. mCEB = 240°.CAF: mLKAC = 30°. This is also true for points A. = AL' We now use this toprovet. AE. most students find it challenging. and points C. and therefore. and E. in t. This means mLDOB = 180° and points D. Therefore.. two sides of the triangles are proportional and the included angles are equal and t. mLDAC = 60°.KML is equilateral.j'J = . AOF. Students may find these relations difficult to believe. t...Teacher's Notes for Napoleon's Theorem _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ This investigation develops interesting geometric relations from an unusual construction.. Point out that overlapping triangles usually share a common element.

" All these distances are the actual lengths a person has to walk from one place to another. Where is the apartment? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ EXTENSION! There are three voting locations in a city. -6). Where could their apartmentbelocated? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ They find an apartment that is five blocks from their health spa and equidistant from their jobs. Show where their apartment could be located on your graph. On a separate sheet of graph paper draw the precinct boundary lines so that each person can vote at the location closest to his home. at (-6. The health spa is at (4. After the polls close. -9). . Amanda works at a store at (-3." "The Obitz' house is four blocks from ours. What is the sum of the taxi distance from C to A plus the taxi distance A Mark all the points you can from C to B? find so that the sum of the taxi distance from the point to A plus the point to B is 10." "I have to wal k 18 blocks to school. What is the taxi distance from A to P? Mark all the points you can find at a taxi distance 4 from A. Where are all these points located? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now mark all the points that are an equal taxi distance from A and B. Taxicab geometry is based on these distances instead of a distance that's sometimes called "as the crow flies. What are the coordinates of B? _ _ __ Mark P at (. Think ofthe lines of the grid as streets. -3). Brian works in an office at (2. The coordinates of A are (-4.Taxicab Geometry "It's eight blocks to the subway station from my office." The grid at the right represents a map of a city. They would like their apartment to be located so that the distance Amanda has to walk to work plus the distance Brian has to walk to work is as small as possible. -5). the ballots are taken to a central location for counting. B What is the shortest taxi distance from A to B? _ _ _ Mark C at (-3.2). Copyright © 1982 by Addlson·Wesley Publishing Company. Connect these points to form a square.4)' (4. Use a separate sheet of graph paper to solve this problem: Amanda and Brian are looking for an apartment. 7) and (6. This figure is a taxi circle. Inc.4).1). . they decide all they really need is for them both to be the same distance from their jobs.2). and (-3. What point is an equal distance from each voting location? The population in the city increases and two new voting locations are opened at (7.2. The center of town is where the axes cross. Redraw the precinct boundary lines. After a day of apartment hunting.1).

The points five blocks from the health spa are on the taxi circle with center (4.-1) ir-' -r- ~ " ~ " ~ 1--(-3." - t-: t. -9) 42 (6.Y21. the precinct boundary lines are as indicated below. streets have no width. Nevertheless. The taxi distance from A to P is 4. Other geometric figures and ideas can also be considered. mi'.. buildings have no size. 1). The shortest taxi distance from A to B is 10. However. The shaded rectangle is the area of Amanda's and Brian's first search for an apartment. The taxi circle with center A and radius 4 is shown below.the right includes all the points such that the sum of the taxi distances from the point to A plus· the point to B is 10. The precinct boundary lines for the three voting locations are shown below.x21 + IYI .--. Prel(!nting the Investigation Briefly review how points are located on coordinate axes.(-3. They should quickly grasp the idea of counting blocks to find taxi distances. When a problem asks for all the points at a given taxi distance from a point.I). the police dispatcher must know which police cars are closest to the scene of the accident.2. the distance between two points. I--I--. their apartment is at either (6. finally the points equidistant from the last pair of points.f T / / "' " "' -~ I\.7) . Then they find the points equidistant from two of the points.~ (r. Then have students begin the student page.. then the points equidistant from a different pair of points. This is also the sum of the taxi distances from C to A plus C to B.-j*-=t . and. Taxicab geometry is an exception. -6)1 ~ ~ . (-3!.- . Notice that many of the points on a taxi circle are not on a street.2) i- ~~2. An excellent resource book for further exploration is Taxicab Geometry by Eugene F. the taxi distance to this point from A (assuming a taxi could drive to it). The above regions are altered by fmding the points equidistant from each new point and the two points closest to each. 1) or (2. For example. This investigation only explores one idea of taxicab geometry. many of the problems solved using taxicab geometry have applications in real situations..Teacher's Notes for Taxicab Geometry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Euclidean geometry is the geometry of a perfect world and most students see no relation between geometry and the imperfect world we live in. Most non-Euclidean geometries try to relate geometry to our imperfect world. they can find which line to use for regions that overlap. Extension Students first locate the three points on their graphs. and all the blocks are the same size. Have students fmd some other taxi distances. By testing points.4) * f-. The points equidistant from their jobs are on L.--I h~ -4- (4. the points not on streets should be included. I). The line on the grid is all the points an equal taxi distance from A and B. Discuss how the grid differs from a real city: On the grid. -- - ~ -(-6. Note that there is no point equidistant from the five locations.. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Although the grid is only an ideal model of a city. !) is in the middle of a block. The taxi distance between points (Xl' YI) and (x2' Y2) is defined algebraically as IXI .-9) When the two new voting locations are added. The completed graph of the next problem is shown below. The shaded _~_~ ________ .1-' i-- - -- . most non-Euclidean geometries are difficult for secondary school students to understand. Thus. 4) and radius 5. For example. ___ _ rectangle on the grid a t .4) - (7. Students will be delighted to find a geometry that is based on their familiar world and that has square circles instead of round ones. . all the streets run exactly north and south or east and west. when an automobile accident occurs.. The centrallocation for counting the votes is at (. The coordinates of Bare (2. would be 4. Krause. ttl -(-6.

The center of rotation isA and the degree of rotation is 90°. (2) rotation symmetry and no lines of symmetry. it would look just the same. and hexagon: Write an equation for the degree of rotation for a regular polygon in terms of n. It has four linesofsymmetry and has rotation symmetry. your face would have reflection or line symmetry. The center of rotation is the center of the triangle's circumscribed circle. ABeD EFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Which letters have a vertical line of symmetry? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Which have a horizontal line of symmetry? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Which have both horizontal and vertical lines of symmetry? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Do any of the letters have rotation symmetry? If so. (3) one line of symmetry and no rotation symmetry. . it would coincide exactly with the original figure.Transformational Geometry-Symmetry If you drew a vertical line through the center of a photograph of your face. An equilateral triangle has rotation symmetry. That is. Inc. Yourface probably doesn't have line symmetry . pentagon.but many geometric figures do have lines of symmetry. which ones? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Write a word that has a vertical line of symmetry: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Write a word that has a horizontal line of symmetry: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Write a word that has rotation symmetry: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Regular polygons have both reflection and rotation symmetry. Draw this line and describe where it lies. would the two halves of your face match exactly? If they did. Draw all the lines of symmetry for each regular polygon below. What is the degree of rotation? _ _ __ The capital letters of our alphabet are shown below. Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. An isosceles triangle such as the one shown at the right has only one line of symmetry. If the figure at the right were rotated 90° about point A. (4) rotation symmetry and two lines of symmetry. Draw a quadrilateral with (1) no lines of symmetry and no rotation symmetry. LDOOOOOO How does the number of lines of symmetry compare to the number of sides of the polygon? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--'-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the degree of rotation for the square. Some figures have a different kind of symmetry called rotation symmetry. the number of its sides: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! A square is a regular quadrilateral.

0. Those with both horizontal and vertical lines of symmetry are of course the ones that occur in both lists: H. bring a front view photo to class with a vertical line drawn through its center. S. H. However. I. It can easily be proved that the two triangles formed are congruent and thus. These four letters also have rotation symmetry. Students can investigate the planes of symmetry for various prisms and pyramids. The letters with vertical lines of symmetry are A. The line of symmetry for an isosceles triangle is the line through the vertex and the midpoint of the base. This investigation provides a good introduction to transformational geometry and can be expanded to show students how Euclidean geometry can be approached from a different viewpoint. Most students should be able to find the symmetries in the letters of the alphabet with little difficulty. If possible. and 270° of rotation. K. Thus. the words must read the same backwards and forwards in addition to the letters coming from the correct lists. the square has 90°. for words to have rotation symmetry or a vertical line of symmetry. the degree of rotation for a regular polygon of n sides is Notice that we have used the degree of rotation to mean the smallest rotation necessary for the figure to coincide with its image. Finally. and some students may be interested in exploring them. In this case. Students interested in art may wish to find examples of reflection. and Z.) 36t.Teacher's Notes for Transformational Geometry-Symmetry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Symmetry is only a small part of transformational geometry. The number of lines of symmetry equals the number of sides (or vertices) of the polygon. The polygons and their lines of symmetry are shown below. Prepare two congruent equilateral triangles on separate transparencies. W. •••• Presenting the Investigation A person's face is very close to symmetric. For example. I. If a student has difficulty. The degree of rotation for the square is 90°. However. Ask students to fmd points of dissimilarity between the two sides. it presents ideas that many students will find very interesting. a third type of symmetry is translation symmetry. for the pentagon. You can also approach the investigation as a change-of-pace from standard proofs and theorems. 0. 72°. Extension Most students should be able to solve the Ex tension. X. For example. you may wish to discuss planes of symmetry for space figures. T. and X. and X. For example. and translation symmetry in painting and sculpture. a rectangular box has three planes of symmetry.0. and for the hexagon. There is more than one answer in some of the four cases. U. rotation. (Only rotations less than 360° are considered. Those with horizontal lines of symmetry are B. have him draw various quadrilaterals and check each for rotation symmetry and lines of symmetry. 60°. C. There are many such examples. There are many alternate extensions for this investigation. An example for each case is given below. marking the center of rotation on each and drawing a line from the center of rotation to one vertex. the image slides to the right or left to coincide with the figure. TOF>T BOX HIDE N()O()N SIS CHOICE ONO Ask students what rules must be used in forming the words: For words with a horizontal line of symmetry. any combination of letters with a horizontal line of symmetry may be used. 1. one will exactly match the other. the lines will have formed an angle of 120°. E. Each figure has other degrees of rotation. When the triangle is rotated to coincide with its image. The nose may be a little crooked or one eyebrow will be higher or differently shaped. M. H. 44 . An electrocardiogram and a border print show translation symmetry. D. V. Using an overhead projector is an excellent way to present rotation symmetry. Several examples of words with line and rotation symmetry are shown below. The other letters with rotation symmetry are N. 180°. but the left and right sides will not match exactly. A**. and Y.

(Avoid having any opposite sides parallel.Projective Geometry Railroad tracks are a physical example of parallel lines-you know they can never meet. The figure at the right shows railroad tracks going off into the distance. lines of projection and !:l DEF is a section. Thus. A. then the points of intersection of the corresponding sides are collinear. The section is then reproduced on the artist's canvas. . Inc. draw any two triangles "lined-up" (lines joining corresponding vertices are concurrent). no lines are parallel.---t-7C 8 On a separate sheet of paper. we assumed !:lABC and !:lDEF were in different planes. object The relations between an object and its section provided mathematicians with the basis for projective geometry. and OC are at T. 5. If the lines joining corresponding vertices of two triangles are concurrent. Extend A B and DE to meet at R. In projective geometry any two lines meet in one and only one point. GA. What is true about R. BC and EF to meet at 5. What appears to be true? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The problem of how to represent the three-dimensional real world in a two-dimensional drawing was solved by the Renaissance painters. the three points at which the extended pairs of lines meet will be collinear. and AC and DF to meet 08. Consider the figure at the right. The lines from the artist's eye to the object are called lines of projection. Desargue's Theorem is true if the triangles are both in the same plane. Draw a figure to illustrate this theorem. The eye at point 0 looks at !:lABC. They imagined a glass screen between the artist and the object to be painted. However. and eye ~ o n _____________ In the figure at the right. One of the basic theorems of projective geometry is Desargue's Theorem.) Copyright©1982 by Addlson·Wesley Publishing Company. Do the corresponding sides meet in three collinear points? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Write the converse of Desargue's Theorem: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! Another theorem of projective geometry was proved by Pascal: If the opposite sides of any hexagon inscribed in a circle are extended. The set of points where the lines of projection intersect the imaginary glass screen is a section. That is.

It is also agreed that all the intersection points of different sets of parallel lines lie on a "line at infinity." So even if each of the three pairs of corresponding sides of the triangle.) Explain that in projective geometry. The proof ofthe converse of Desargue's Theorem is written directly from the proofofDesargue's Theorem simply by interchanging point and line in each step of the proof. These arguments are logical when students are reminded that projec- In the section. area. 46 . Ask students what properties of an object change from section to section (length. In addition. Also notice that 0. are parallel. and P' are collinear. they will find that points R. then the lines joining corresponding vertices are concurrent. What we see and what we know to be true are often contradictory. we never actually see parallel lines. lines are defined as meeting in a point. This is the basis of projective geometry. It is hoped. Mathematicians tried to find geometric properties common to an object and its various sections. As shown by the railroadtracks example. Point out that essentially only the words point and line are interchanged: Sides are lines and vertices are points. by interchanging point and line we have written a new theorem. Q. P. When students extend the corresponding sides of the two triangles. that this investigation will encourage students to explore this elegant and "logically per/ect" geometry. Presenting the Investigation Most students will have had some drawing experience and most will have been frustrated in trying to make their drawings reflect the real world. (This situation may arise by accident when students draw their own "lined-up" triangles.Teachers Notes for Projective Geometry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Projective geometry has been called "all geometry" because Euclidean geometry and the non-Euclidean geometries 0/ Lobachevsky. One statement is obtained from the other by interchanging certain words: lines • • points sides • • vertices concurrent • • collinear These words are duals of each other.:. Space limitations prevent a comprehensive study 0/ projective geometry. Hence. Different sections of the same object look very different depending on the position of the viewer and the position of the glass screen. their intersections would still be collinear on the line at infinity. Q'. The converse of Desargue's Theorem is: If the points of intersection of the corresponding sides of two triangles are collinear. and R' and p'. and R' are collinear. angle. The principle of duality is true for every theorem of projective geometry. a triangle is still a triangle). S. Desargue's Theorem and its converse are examples of the principle of duality. and Reimann can all be derived as special cases o/projective geometry. Q'. as in the case of the railroad tracks. 0. and parallelism) and which do not (a straight line is still straight. Desargue's Theorem states a more significant property common to an object and its sections. the basic theorems 0/ projective geometry are easy to understand. however. This figure also shows the lines of projection meeting at a point and a section so the relation of Pascal's theorem to projective geometry is clear. Extension The figure below shows more than what is asked for on the student page. the pairs of opposite sides meet at points p'. R. and 0. In spite 0/ this. tive geometry arose from depicting the real world as it's seen by the human eye. Some students may wonder what happens if the sides of the triangles happen to be parallel. Lines that appear parallel should be thought of as meeting in a point at infinity. concurrent means lines meeting in a point and collinear means points meeting in a line. and Q' are collinear. and R' are collinear. and T are collinear. most high school students never study projective geometry nor learn anything o/its origin. Bolyai.

but rather the surface of a sphere. The sum of the angle measures of a triangle is 180°. there are no parallelograms because there are no parallel lines. Are A. c . How many obtuse angles can a spherical triangle have? _ _ _ _ _ _ __ An obtuse angle has a measure greater than 90° and less than 180°. points A. These statements are all true in the geometry developed by Euclid. A line in spherical geometry is a great circle of a sphere. In spherical triangle ABC at the right. Are there other lines through D perpendicular to line AB? _ _ _ _ _ __ Ifso. In spherical geometry a flat surface is not used. What is a great circle? _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Do spherical lines have iength? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ What is the length of a line in spherical geometry? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A point in spherical geometry is any point on the surface of a sphere. B. what kind of angles will it have? What other quadrilaterals from Euclidean geometry exist in spherical geometry? What quadrilaterals do not? Draw figures to illustrate your answers. and C collinear? _ _ _ _ _ Which of the three points is between the other two? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ C A Suppose the spherical line through D is perpendicular to line AB. their intersection contains only one point. B. but rather as an equiangular quadrilateral. They are all false in spherical geometry. Inc. Suppose a rectangle is not defined as a parallelogram. Then can a rectangle exist in spherical geometry? If so.Spherical Geometry True or false: Through a point not on a line there is exactly one line perpendicular to the line. Thus. Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. If two lines intersect. and C are on the same great circle.howmany? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Are there any lines parallel to line AB? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now consider spherical triangles. How many points of intersection are there for two spherical lines? D _ _ _ _ In the figure at the right. is the sum of the angle measures 180°? than 180°? Is it greater or less How many right angles can a triangle have in Euclidean geometry? _ _ _ _ How many right angles can a triangle have in spherical geometry? _ _ __ A triangle in Euclidean geometry can have only one obtuse angle. the sum of the angle measures of a spherical triangle is less than EXTENSION! In spherical geometry.

Betweenness of points is a different matter. A spherical square will be a spherical rectangle with equilateral sides. When this is done.Teacher's Notes for Spherical Geometry _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ rather another point on line DB. If students have difficulty seeing this. Students will be surprised to find the number of Euclidean concepts that do not apply when geometry is modeled on this universe. two. students can more easily see the figures being considered. points A andB determine a line. two points do not necessarily determine a line. and they can have one. remind them that a spherical line is defined as a great circle and that two great circles always intersect. By stretching rubber bands around the spheres to represent great circles. it is possible to go from A to C without crossing point B. Note that if there are three acute angles. so it is not possible to tell which of the three points is between the other two. Of course. Ask students for some other Euclidean theorems that are not true in spherical geometry. a spherical triangle can have three right angles. Use a globe and other actual spheres to consider the angles of various spherical triangles. through point B on line AB there is only one perpendicular as in Euclidean geometry. However. point out that lines AC and BC in the figure on the student page could be perpendicular at C. but 48 . If polar points are considered as two separate points. or three acute angles. the measure of an exterior angle of a spherical triangle does not equal the sum of the measures of the two remote interior angles. for a given pair of points. A great circle is the shortest path between two points on a sphere. On a globe. Airplane routes are a good exa:mple of this: On a flat map the routes seem longer. If a rectangle is defined as an equiangular quadrilateral. Collinear points in spherical geometry are the same as collinear points in Euclidean geometry. A trapezoid does not exist in spherical geometry. Although a sphericalIine has no endpoints. Also. there will be only one perpendicular. While there can be only one right angle in a Euclidean triangle. or three right angles. the geometry used by Einstein in his theory of relativity. Ask students when there will be only one perpendicular to line AB from a point not on the line. it does have length. o There are an infmite number of lines through D perpendicular to line AB. In spherical geometry."r. c Extension Have students use globes and spheres to explore spherical quadrilaterals. there is exactly one line that contains them. A spherical rhombus is an equilateral quadrilateral. "Spherical Geometry" should be presented after students have had some experience studying properties of spheres in Euclidean geometry. the north and south poles are polar points. 2. A great circle of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a Euclidean plane containing the center of the sphere. two lines perpendicular to the same line are not parallel. Spherical geometry is an example of Riemann geometry. Also. Students may say that point B is between points A and C in the figure on the student page. or three obtuse angles. If students question this. but there are infinitely many lines through polar points C and D. two. two spherical lines will have only one point of intersection as in Euclidean geometry. Presenting the Investigation Have a globe and several other spheres in class to use as models. It will have four obtuse angles. but a quadrilateral similar to an isosceles trapezoid could be defined as a quadrilateral with two pairs of equal consecutive angles with no angle common to both pairs. In the figures below. the circumference of the sphere. Spherical geometry is sometimes presented using polar points. Spherical triangles can have one. the sum of the angle measures is always greater than 180°. A sphere is an easy model to work with and of course represents the world we live on. If D is not a polar point. The figures below illustrate the spherical quadrilaterals discussed above. a spherical triangle can have three obtuse angles and the sum of the angle measures of a spherical triangle is less than 540°. Polar points can be considered to count as just one point. Polar points are the points of intersection of a line through the center of the sphere with the sphere. In spherical geometry there are no parallel lines because two spherical lines always intersect. a rectangle exists in spherical geometry. but following the route on a globe shows the airplanes take the shortest path. the sum of the measures of the angles is still greater than 180°. Similarly. many Euclidean theorems about quadrilaterals will not apply to spherical quadrilaterals. they can have one. There are two points of intersection for two spherical lines. Also. In a spherical triangle. two.

Complete the following to find out how much ribbon is needed (not including the knot and bow).r 8 inches First consider the package on the left. .- - This Wraps It Up Look at the two ways below of wrapping a gift. Inc. Which do you think uses less ribbon? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2 inches 2 inches 1 inch ·~~r---~---_.- .- -- Top The ribbon is the line segment A BCDEFGHA'.. What is the length of AK? ____________ What is the length of A' K? What is the length of AA' to the nearest tenth of an inch? _______ Which way of wrapping uses less ribbon? ________________ How much less? __________ EXTENSION! A piece of ribbon 44 inches long is to be used to wrap a rectangular box 2 inches deep and 10 inches long... First a line is drawn on the box where the ribbon touches it. Number of 2-inch lengths: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ N umber of 4-i nch lengths: _______________________ Number of 8-inch lengths: ______________________ Total length of ribbon: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Finding out how much ribbon is used for the other package is a little more difficult.. A knot and bow are not included and all the ribbon is to be used.- . and then the box is unfolded as shown A at the right. Bottom I I I C --- Front I I Top I I Bottom Left Side I I Back I I KL .. How wide can the box be using the first method above? How wide can the box be using the second method? Copyright©1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.- ...

Presenting the Investigation Most students will not fmd the first half of this investigation at all difficult. two 4-inch lengths. Extension This Extension provides an excellent algebra review. and two 8-inch lengths. but the second method needs only 22.5 inches. It will be helpful to prepare a box before class to demonstrate the second method on the student page. Present the folded-up box to the class and then unfold it to show the ribbon line.4 ± y"'I'6--:-+-1:.1344 = 0 w2 + 4w . The latter half of the Extension will appeal to those of you who wish to insert some algebra review.4 inches. for boxes with the same volume as the box on the student page but with diferent dimensions. it requires students to apply the Quadratic Formula.7 inches less than the first method.336 = 0 Using the Quadratic Formula. To find the width of a box wrapped using the first method. it's a good motivational or changeof-pace item. the second method uses 23. the dimensions of the box using this method are 2 inches. using both methods.4 or-20.._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . There are four 2-inch lengths of ribbon. Thus. Have students label all the dimensions on the unfolded box as shown below. 10 inches. Have students find the amount of ribbon needed.Teacher's Notes for This Wraps It Up _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ as follows: This investigation is an interesting and enjoyable problem-solving challenge. Cut a piece of heavy paper using the dimensions shown below for the flattened box. For example. Using the Pythagorean Theorem. the dimensions of the box are 2 inches. and 8 inches. students fmd AA' so . 10 inches. If the box is 1 inch deep and its length and width are each 8 inches. A store that wraps a lot of packages finds this a very large difference in the amount of ribbon it must use. (AK)2 + (A' K)2 = (AA')2 122 + 20 2 = (AA')2 144 + 400 = (AA')2 544 = (AA')2 AA' = y544 ~ 23. The lengths of AK and A' K are found directly from the figure: AK = 12 inches and A'K = 20 inches. 8. The first method uses 36 inches of ribbon and the second method uses 25. The only mathematical concepts needed for the main body of the investigation are addition and the Pythagorean Theorem.4 Since the box cannot have a negative length. and yet it should be within the reach of all your students. students must set up and solve the following equation: 4(2) + 2(10) + 2w = 44 8 + 20 + 2w = 44 2w = 16 w=8 Thus. . a cube 4 inches on a side also has a volume of 64 cubic inches.3 Thus.-. Thus. the total length of ribbon is 32 inches.3"4'4 A Bottom I I I I I Front 4" 8" Top Bottom I I I I I 8" 2" r ~__B_ac_k____~~~ w IL. Draw and label segment ABCDEFGHA' and fold up the box. _ Top_ _H_ _ I" K A' = = 2 -4 ± v'136O 2 = -2 ± 2V85 w = 16. The fIrst method again requires 32 inches of ribbon. its volume is still 64 cubic inches.3 inches of ribbon. Students must use the Pythagorean Theorem in the second method: (2 + 10 + 2 + 10)2 + (w + 2 + w + 2)2 = (44)2 (24)2 + (2w + 4)2 = (44)2 576 + 4w 2 + 16w + 16 = 1936 4w 2 + 16w .6 inches. and 16.

p n 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 5 5 3 (p . .2) <4 Both p and n must be greater than two because a polyhedron must have more than two faces at a vertex and a polygon must have more than two sides. What is the formula for the measure of an angle of a regular polygon of n sides? If there are p regular polygons at each vertex of the polyhedron.Regular Polyhedra You probably remember that a polyhedron is a solid bounded by plane polygons.~)180J < 360 or (p .2)(n .2) Name of Polyhedron Faces Number of Vertices Icosahedron Edges Look at the last three columns of the table. What will the sum of the measures of the angles at a vertex be? _ _ _ _ __ Is it possible to have a regular polyhedron with six equilateral triangles at a vertex? _ _ _ _ How many equilateral triangles can there be at a vertex of a regular polyhedron? _ _ _ _ _ _ How many squares can there be at a vertex of a regular polyhedron? regular pentagons can there be? Hexahedron (Cube) How many Are there any other regular polygons that can form the faces of a regular polyhedron? _ _ _ __ The five regular polyhedra are shown at the right. How many regular t'---L_71 I V polygons are there? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ How many regular polyhedra do you think there are? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Tetrahedron First consider regular polyhedra with equilateral triangles as faces. p~n . Write a formula relating the number of faces (F). vertices (V). How many faces does it have? _ _ How many edges? _ _ How many vertices? _ __ I n a regular polyhedron all the faces are congruent regular polygons and the same number of polygons meet at each vertex. There must be at least three polygons at a vertex of a polyhedron or it won't be a solid. The one shown at the right is a hexahedron. Using the table above determine which regular polyhedra can be inscribed in other regular polyhedra. Inc. and edges (£) of regular polyhedra: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Check to see if your formula works for nonregular polyhedra. what is the sum of the angle measures at each Dodecahedron vertex? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Since this sum must be less than 360°. Suppose there are six equilateral triangles at a vertex. EXTENSION! A regular tetrahedron can be inscribed in a larger regular tetrahedron. Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Complete the table below for the only possible values of p and n.2)(n . Each vertex of the inscribed one is at the center of each face of the larger one. Octahedron There is another way to show there can only be five regular polyhedra.

p > 2 and n > 2. the sum of three vertex angles will be 360° or greater and the polygon cannot be a face of a regular polyhedron.)180J Presenting the Investigation Models of the five regular polyhedra are very useful in presenting the investigation. one at the center of each face. and vertex of a polyhedron. Have students test the theorem on various other polyhedra. the sum of the angle measures at each vertex is [ (n . This investigation introduces the regular polyhedra and their properties and presents a complex.2) < 2n pn . More important. some students will think there are also an infinite number of regular polyhedra.2)(n . there are only five ways to form regular polyhedra. they illustrate many basic geometric concepts. Euler's Theorem is intuitively developed from the discussion of the regular polyhedra. If six equilateral triangles meet at a vertex. p and n must be whole numbers and the product (p .2p . p n . a dodecahedron can be inscribed in an icosahedron and an icosahedron in a dodecahedron. The next part of the investigation gives a more formal proof that only five regular polyhedra exist. These aesthetically pleasing figures are motivational by themselves. Similarly. many combinations of trapezoids and parallelograms will also work. Thus. This is Euler's Theorem and is true for all polyhedra. its inscribed polyhedron must have 6 vertices.2) < 4 (p . Students can use the figures on the student page or models of the regular polyhedra to complete the table. Emphasize that a regular polyhedron must have congruent faces and must have the same number of edges meeting at each vertex.2(n . Thus. yet satisfyingly clean proof that only five regular polyhedra can be formed. It's also helpful to have models of various nonregular polyhedra available. 12 edges. If a regular polygon has more than five sides. or 5 equilateral triangles at a vertex of a regular polyhedron. review them briefly using the figure at the top of the student page. There can only be 3.2)180J One of the unfortunate casualties of the decline of solid geometry's importance in the cu"iculum has been the consideration of regular polyhedra. Thus. If not. There are 6 faces.2)(n .2) .2)180 n If there are p regular polygons at each vertex of the polyhedron. and 8 vertices of the hexahedron shown. Extension Since a hexahedron has 6 faces.Teacher's Notes for Regular Polyhedra _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The measure of each angle of a regular polygon of n sides is (n .2n < 0 pn .2) must be less than 4. the sum of the measures of the angles at the vertex will be 360°. I . They are available commercially but it's also easy to make them using heavy paper and enlargements of the patterns at the bottom of this page. its vertex angle will be 120° or greater. Moreover. I Octahedron Icosahedron Hexahedron (Cube) Dodecahedron 52 . (As noted on the student page.2) < 360n pen . Since there are an infinite number of regular polygons.) The last three columns in the table give the formula F + V = E + 2. In the same way. a hexahedron can be inscribed in an octahedron.. In addition. there can be only 3 squares or 3 pentagons. . an octahedron can be inscribed in a hexahedron. p n (p-2)(n-2) Polyhedron 3 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 3 Tetrahedron Hexahedron Octahedron Dodecahedron Icosahedron 4 3 3 5 5 3 F 4 6 8 Number of V E 12 20 4 8 6 20 12 6 12 12 30 30 Ask students why the values of p and n given in the table are the only possible values they can have. Most of this investigation is devoted to showing there can be only five regular polyhedra. Point out that the quadrilateral faces need not be rectangles. Thus.2) < 4 p[(n .2n + 4 < 4 pen . edge. Thus. Students should be familiar with the definitions of a face. < 360 180p(n .2p . the vertex will "flatten out" and all six triangles will be in the same plane. 4. The completed table is shown below. Similarly. _ & Tetrahedron .

But surprisingly... A plane parallel to the given plane is passed through both solids. How do the volumes of the two solids compare? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The relation above is called Cavalieri's Principle and is stated as: Consider two solids and a plane. it can be used to find the volume of a sphere. What is the area of this circle? A = ___ What is the relation between t. what is true about the volumes of the two solids? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Using the formulas for the volume of a cylinder and a cone. . Then you push one stack to distort it as shown at the right. Let's consider the cross-sectional areas. and the inscribed cone of the cylinder? Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.. r. When a plane parallel to their bases is passed through both solids.. Then the two solids have the same volume. The figure at the right shows a sphere with radius r and a cylinder with radius r and altitude 2r. The cross section of the sphere is a circle with radius t. The cylinder has two cones removed. and s? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the area of the circle in terms of rand s? A = _______ The cross section of the cylinder with the cone removed is a ring. the inscribed sphere of the cylinder. each cone has radius r and altitude r..Cavalieri's Principle Suppose you have two neat stacks of pennies._ __ Now consider the two solids at the right. The solids have the same altitude and their bases lie in the same plane.. their cross sections always have the same area. twenty in each. what is the volumeofthesphere? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ EXTENSION! What is the relationship among the volumes of a cylinder. Cavalieri's Principle seems pretty obvious-no big deal about it. Suppose every plane parallel to the given plane that intersects one of the solids also intersects the other solid and the resulting cross sections have the same area. Inc. What is the radius of the larger circle? ___ What is the radius of the smaller circle? _ _ What is the area of the ring? A = _________ From Cavalieri's Principle. How do the volumes of the two stacks compare? _ _ _ _.

You may want to have students consider volumes of other solids made from stacks of 3" X 5" note cards. t 2 + s2 = r2. By the Pythagorean Theorem. students often find it difficult to remember the formulas. Similarly. with Cavalieri's Principle. This leads directly to Cavalieri's Principle. top. so t 2 = r2 . 2r i 1Tr3 Therefore. the cross-sectional areas are equal and by Cavalieri's Principle the two solids have the same volume. The formula for the volume of a sphere is a good example of this. The following figure may help.1Ts2. it must be considered asa postulate in high school geometry because the proof requires calculus. Therefore. Another advantage of Cavalieri's Principle is that it is graphically obvious. Point out that the altitude of the cone is same length as its radius. Thus. So the radius of smaller circle is s and the area of the ring is 1Tr2 - 1Ts2. By substituting for t 2. Students are thus easily able to grasp why the formula for the volume of a sphere is as it is. a cone inscribed in a cylinder will have the same base as the bottom of the cylinder and the vertex will touch the top of the cylinder. Thus. the volume of the cylinder is equal to the volume of the sphere plus the volume of the cone. .s2. Presenting the Investigation Students should easily see that the volumes of the two stacks of pennies are equal because the volume of every penny is the same. The radius of the smaller circle is the radius of the cone at a distance of s from the vertex of 11Tr3 t1Tr2. They should use figures similar to the ones below and the dimensions given on the figures. The volume of the cylinder is 2r • 1Tr2 and the volume of each cone is 1Tr2 . t Volume of sphere = 2r' 1Tr2 - = 21Tr3 = i3 1Tr3 2. Although Cavalieri's Principle can be proved. However. the the the the cone. the radius of cone with altitude s will be s. I h -- \ = 2r .Teacher's Notes for Cavalieri's Principle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Many mathematical formulas are presented to high school students with no explanation of why they are true. t 1Tr2 • r 1 1Tr3 3 Extension All your students should be able to do this Extension. This formula is usually presented to students without proof. The cross section of the cylinder with the cone removed may be more difficult for students to visualize. The cross-sectional area of the sphere should be easy for students to visualize. the radius of the cylinder. and bottom of the cylinder. Thus. the area of the circle is 1Tr2 . The volumes of the next two solids on the student page are also equal. r. The volumes of the three solids will be the following: Volume of cylinder = 2r' 1Tr2 = 21Tr3 Volume of sphere = Volume of cone = = The radius of the larger circle is r. The area of this circle is 1T t 2. h = 2r Point out that a sphere inscribed in a cylinder will touch the sides. the derivation of this formula is quite easy.

02 inches thick. A film of water covering an object is about 0. The cat is killed. How many pounds of water are covering the person? _ _ _ _ _ _ How many pounds are covering the fly? Compare the weight of the person to the weight of the water covering him and the weight of the fly to the weight of the water covering it. 2 Fly 0. Find the number of cubic inches of water it would take to cover the person and the fly. The weight. The giant is not only ten times as tall as the man. what is the cross-sectional area of the giant's leg bone? _ _ _ _ __ When the giant takes a step. If the man weighs 200 pounds. He is also ten times as wide and ten times as thick. and surface area for a person and a fly are shown in the table below. volume. The weight of the giant depends on his volume. 3 1500 in. First consider the surface area and volume of a solid. Inc.0006 in. . Why is a fly helpless when covered with water? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! A mouse falls down a 1000-yard mine shaft and is able to get up and walk away.The Jolly Green Giant? Can a giant 60 feet tall exist? Why can a fly walk on water but be helpless when covered with water? The answers to these questions depend on the volume and surface area of the giant and the fly. 3 0. If the distance between every pair of points in a solid is multiplied by n. what does the giant weigh? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Each time the man takes a step 200 pounds are supported by his leg bone. Weight Volume Su rface Area Person 150 pounds 5000 in.00002 pounds 0.04 pounds. what is the surface area of the solid multiplied by? What is the volume inultiplied by? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now compare a 60-foot giant to a 6-foot man. If the cross-sectional area of the man's leg bone is 1 square inch. Why? Copyright © 1982 by Add lsori-Wesley Publishing Com pany. 2 Water One cubic inch of water weighs ahout 0. how many pounds are supported by each square inch of his leg bone? What do you think will happen to the giant when he takes a step? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ How is an animal such as a hippopotamus able to support its weight? Now consider the fly.1 in. A cat chasing the mouse also falls down the shaft.

04 = 0. The person in the table will be covered by 30 cubic inches of water. The ratio of surface area to volume is one of the most important-if not the most important-determinants in the evolution of all animal life forms. when a fly is covered by water. students can easily verify this. The weight of the giant depends on his volume.002 cubic inches (1500 in.00008 pounds. The cross-sectional area of the giant's leg bone is only 100 times that of the man or 100 square inches. You may also want to point out to your students that the mouse survives the ordeal only if it gets out of the way before the cat hits. and the fly will be covered by 0. S6 . what happens to it depends on its surface area rather than its volume. the surface area is multiplied by n 2 and the volume by n 3• Using a cube with a side of a given length. the rhinoceros and hippotamus have short. The fly is of course carrying less water. Note that in the above discussion the phenomenon of surface tension has not been introduced.S. this is 4 times its body weight. 0.002 in. This is actually the more serious threat to the insect in water. it affects the more basic processes of respiration and metabolism. Thus. 2 X 0. Presenting the Investigation There are many biological applications of volume and surface area of solids.B. For example. If the giant takes a step he breaks his leg. then both would accelerate at the same rate and both would go splat at the bottom of the mine shaft. However. and this helps to support its weight. when the cat hits the bottom of the mine shaft.02 in. Professional basketball players today are much taller and heavier than their counterparts of a generation ago. A fly weighs such a small amount that it is supported by water. "On Being the Right Size. Some animals' legs have adapted in a way that has enabled them to become very large.3. only 0. but it doesn't bear on the concept we're trying to teach and would produce more confusion than clarification. This is only 0.002 X 0. this investigation offers a good pragmatic application and should be an especially attractive assignment for students who feel geometry is of interest only to mathematicians and civil engineers. The cat's cross section is about 10 or 20 times that of the mouse. J . 2 X 0. Haldane presents a variety of them in a delightful essay. more precisely.04 = 1. the stress on a player's feet and legs is sometimes enough to snap bones. It doesn't just affect structural stability and locomotion.008).008 of his weight (1. a fly's life is in danger every time it tries to get a drink of water. so his weight will be 1000 times the man's weight or 200. During a game. = 30 in.02 in. this is a matter of the ratio of area to weight or. Compare this to the ISO-pound person carrying 600 pounds of water. Thus.Teacher's Notes for The Jolly Green Giant? . = 0. Thus." on pages 952-957 in The World of Mathematics. every pound of weight still has Extension Again.1 in. 3 ). But in a resistive medium such as air.000 pounds. Thus. Thus. A hippotamus also lives primarily in water. but its weight is 100 or 200 times as great. Discuss how increased size has affected some professional athletes. the retarding force is directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the falling object-the principle on which parachutes operate. However. If the distance between every pair of points in a solid is multiplied by n._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ enough bone cross-section to support the animal. These additional applications can easily be discussed along with this investigation. Our giant has little to be jolly about. thick legs. Whales have adapted entirely to water and so can attain even larger size. for the giant. 2000 pounds are supported on each square inch of leg bone where only 200 pounds are supported on the man's leg bone.2 + 150 = 0. it is traveling at a much higher velocity. The person will be carrying 1. mass. If the cat and mouse were falling in a vacuum.2 pounds of water (30 X 0.2).

. Q P A IsARB' the shortest path between A and B'? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ P IsA to R to B' the same length asA to R to B? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Q Prove that AR + RB is the shortest path by selecting any other pointS on PQ and showing that AS + SB > AR + RB. . Locate R and Too the figure below. and Von PQ.) Now consider a billiard shot where ball A rebounds off cushions PQ and SQ before hitting ba1!P.Mathematics on a Billiard Table At the right is a top view of a billiard table. B' is called the reflected image of B in PQ. Suppose you want to rebound ball A from cushion PQ so that A will then hit ball B. Or does it? Look at the second figure at the right. Inc.S . This time reflect B into SQ to ~t image B'..ASB'. Then AB' is drawn intersecting PQ at R. Where AB" intersects PQ will determine R and where RB' intersects SQ will determine T. A. Mark a point R where you think ball A should hit on PQ for this to happen. You know that the shortest path between two points is a straight line. P~----------------------~Q Copyright©1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. respectively. SQ. but that doesn't seem to apply here.. path of ball A is AR ~ RT ~ TB. andSN (in order) before hitting ball B.SQ. which will allow ball A to rebound off cushionsPQ.B A. ~-----------------------. T. the desired -.B A. . N~ ______________________ ~S and SN. Thus. EXTENSION! Find points R. It turns out that point R should be located so that the path from A to R to B is the shortest path from A to PQ to B. then reflect B' into PQ to get B". P~----------------------~Q Find another way to locate Rand T by first reflecting A in PQ. (Use t. BB' is constructed perpendicular to PQ at C and BC ~ B'C.

and SB' as shown below. The second image (which in this case will appear a few inches to the left of B'. Presenting the Investigation There may be some disagreement among students as to the location of point R. This precisely locates point R.. . This investigation shows students how these paths are calculated. SB.... . Thus. PQ is the perpendicular bisector of BB'. .... The first is the previously found B'. students should select S on PQ and draw AS. Next students are shown how to locate R using geometric constructions.. .----Q~----~ ." That is. a direct reflection from B...... is slightly smaller than the angle of incidence. Now discuss the measures of angles ARP and BRQ.. and V are located as shown in this construction: N~--------nr~~~ A P~----~~--------~--~~ I t I S8 .. The only prerequisites are the basic constructions and the properties of perpendicular bisectors.. It follows that mLARP = mLBRQ. In practice the physical billiard balls do not rebound from the rails exactly as light does.. Since BB' 1 PQ and BC ~ B'C..) ~--------------~s A P~------~R~'~. and the diamonds or markers imbedded in the rails are there to assist in just this sort of calculation.Teacher's Notes for Mathematics on a Billiard Table ____________ the path of light is a good approximation. with the percentage difference between the two angles becoming greater as LARP becomes smaller. In 6ASB'. Now students should consider the problem of rebounding from two cushions (PQ then OS) before hitting B. the difference approaches zero.) is a reflection of B's reflection in QS.. Points R. Many mathematicians like pool and billiards because the paths of the balls can be calculated mathematically.. . The balls come off the rail a little "flat.. they would usually not realize that this is the shortest path from A to PQ to B. Since AB' = AR + RB'. AR + RB' < AS + SB' AR + RB < AS + SB Students may be interested in how a mirror could be used to locate R: Place a mirror along the cushion PQ and. ~--------------~S B Extension Since PQ is the perpendicular bisector of BB'. the angle of reflection. RB ~ RB' and SB ~ SB'. so mLB'RQ = mLARP. T. :I: I . have them explain how they would locate R. To prove that AR + RB is the shortest path. sight ball B in the mirror. Most pool players know that R is the point where mLARP = mLBRQ.. 6RBB' is isosceles and mLBRQ = mLB'RQ. ~B" You may wish to consider again how mirrors could be used to locate Rand T. Also LARP and LB'RQ are vertical angles. LARP... However... If there are any experienced pool or billiard players in the class. (Note that S can be on either side of R. as seen by the viewer.. The completed construction is shown below. The alternate construction would produce the following figure. Sighting from A into mirror PQ two images of B will appear.. AB' < AS + SB' (triangle inequality). Since RB ~ RB'.) Nevertheless. RB = RB' andAR + RB = AR + RB'. (As LARP approaches 90°.. LBRQ. which should be gratifying to the pool players in the class.. from position A.

Be sure to choose M so that k will not touch the mou ntain. one with endpoint P and one with endpoint Q. copy the mountain and SR. extending in opposite directions from the inacces. construct the line through H perpendicular to t. As the next step. Finally. What is true about 5 Rand k? _________________________________________ Construct line t perpendicular to kat G. Choose G so that t and 1 are on different sides ?f the mountain. Suppose you want to find the path for this new road using only straightedge and compass constructions. Using the figure below. EXTENSION! Copy the inaccessible region at the right with points P and Q. Try to solve the problem above using a construction involving an equilateral triangle. suppose you can't touch or reach over the mountain.P sible region. How would you construct the path ofthenewroad? ___________________________________________________________________ Let's consider one way to solve the problem. Find point H on t so that GH = MN. construct line 1 perpendicular to sR at any point N. they have constructed a road from one town (at point 5 in the figure at the right) to the mountain (point R). Copyright © 1982 by Addlson·Wesley Publishing Company I Inc. Using a separate sheet of paper. They want this road to be collinear with the existing road. In addition. For several years the townspeople have been planning to build a road connecting the towns with a tunnel through the mountain. they plan to construct a road from the other side of the mountain to the second town. Remember you can use only straightedge and compass and cannot touch or reach over the region. Construct two collinear line segments. They have been working in stages and plan to construct the tunnel last. Now construct line k perpendicular to 1 at point M.Bypassing an Inaccessible Region Two towns are separated by a mountain. What kind of figure is NMGH? ______________________________________ Have you found the path for the new road? ____________________ Another method for bypassing the inaccessible region uses an equilateral triangle. So far. .

so S. Review the basic constructions and encourage discussion of any solutions presented by the students. Thus. However. and at Q construct LTQM ~ LQTR. This perpendicular should not intersect the inaccessible region. and therefore are collinear. Extension The problem of constructing a straight line through an inaccessible region when only the two end points are given is a much more challenging problem. They have only to construct a triangle around the mountain that is similar to the separately drawn triangle. Point out that because they can't go over the mountain. as shown below. they are apt to be led to a creative activity.. The students have constructed a rectangle. students use only the basic constructions to solve a problem. Students simply construct an equilateral triangle as a separate figure.Teacher's Notes for Bypassing an Inaccessible Region _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Most geometry texts present straightedge and compass constructions purely as an exercise and rarely use the constructions for problem solving.. N -. NP and QM are extensions of side PQ of "parallelogram" PRTQ. to this last line drawn.. 60 . intersecting it at S. The completed figure is shown below.. Presenting the Investigation After students have read through the problem and studied the figure. Draw RT. to discover a correct method of solution requires some fairly creative thinking. This completes the required construction. " - .. and H must be collinear. An investigation similar to this one is "The Inaccessible Angle.. minus part of one side. Locate Ton QS so that PR = QT. At P construct LRPN ~ LPRT. However students elect to approach this problem. the investigation develops problem-solving skills as well as reinforcing construction techniques. they must go around it. Begin by drawing any convenient line segment from point P and construct a perpendicular line to it at a convenient point R... The next method uses an equilateral triangle. The fmished drawing should be similar to the figure below. Then they can copy a 60° angle on SR. In this investigation. Many involve constructing similar triangles in order to then construct the two required lines. Students should see that any triangle can be used.. Then have the students work through the construction presented on the student page. R. discuss how they might find a solution. There are many other methods of solving this problem.- ~-""'T Now construct a perpendicular from Q. Encourage students to think of other methods of solution that can be discussed and tested in class.

How can you construct the bisector of an angle you can't even touch? Study the figure at the right. Now let's make the problem even more difficult: You can use only a straightedge and compass.. Consider tlABP. The wire must be placed so that it will bisect an angle formed by two other wires.. draw any line that intersects the two given rays at points A and B.. Draw line MN. What must be true of the three angle bisectors of a triangle? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What point in tlABP is on the bisector of LAPB? _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now consider tlCDP.V W i r e Construct the bisectors of LPAB and LPBA. Using the figure below. What point is on the bisector of LCPD? _ _ __ Does MN bisect the inaccesible angle? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! The method above is just one way to construct the bisector of an inaccessible angle.. Call the vertex of the inaccessible angle P. and label their point of intersection M. Begin by assuming the angle exists..The Inaccessible Angle Suppose you wanted to erect a wire antenna in an open field adjacent to a lake. Unfortunately. Repeat this process for another line intersecting the given rays at C and D. ~_L-_ _. Copyright © 1982 by Add lson-Wesley Publishing Company. Find another method. Inc. .._ . Can you think of a solution to the problem? Given wire - Wire to b - ---~~cted There are actually many ways to solve this problem! Let's consider one of them... and cannot make any constructions in or over the lake. but draw no lines to or near it.. the vertex of the angle formed by the two given wires is in the middle of the lake. Label the point of intersection of these two angle bisectors N.

Thus. intersectingPT atB. the problem appears to be impossible. construct DE II PQ. so students are all required to think in the same way. the perpendicular bisector of AB bisects the inaccessible angle. where E is on PT. 62 . In the ~ure below. SinceSR II PT. the bisector of LP must pass throughM.ABP. and so. Students should be familiar with the basic geometric constructions and the angle bisector concurrence theorem. and intersecting the other ray at point A . The construction will produce a figure similar to the figure below. Pl5 can be constructed simply by bisecting LEDA or constructing the perpendicular bisector of EA.PAB is isosceles. LSAC ~ LCAQ ~ LPAB. C% Extension Two other solutions are presented below. Assure students that this is not the case and encourage them to think of a solution. Then construct a line liS parallel to the other ray of the inaccessible angle. In b. LPBA ~ LPAB. Free thinking should be encouraged to promote greater creativity. it is a rhombus. and b. Construct the bisector of LSAQ. RS is parallel to PT.LSAC ~ LPBA. Through D. respectively. The problem presented in this investigation has many solutions. However. Students have the opportunity to use the geometric relations they have learned in new and creative ways. the diagonal PD is the bisector of the inaccessible angle. the bisector of LP must pass through N.Teachers Notes for The Inaccessible Angle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ triangle also bisects the vertex angle. Then discuss the solution presented in the investigation. it allows for different ways of thinking. This type of creative thinking is essential in developing problem-solving skills. Solution 1: Begin by constructing a line parallel to one of the rays of the inaccessible angle. Thus. ~ Solution 2: Start by constructing a lineMN parallel to one of the rays of the inaccessible angle. Since PEDA is a parallelogram with two adjacent sides congruent (ED ~ AD). Since the perpendicular bisector of the base of an isosceles After presenting these solutions to your students. Some mathematical problems have only one solution. in b. Mark off a segment AD on AC that is the same length as BC. intersecting PT and tiN at points Band C. since the angle bisectors of a triangle are concurrent. other solutions created by the students should follow directly. ED = AD. Since EBCD is a parallelogram and ED = BC. T Presenting the Investigation At first glance. Similarly. Therefore. MN is the bisector of LP. and intersects PQ at point A.

where is the minimum distance point of a triangle? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Surprisingly. the point we want is not one of the more familiar interior points of a triangle. Where do you think the transmitter should be located? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A good point to try first as the minimum distance point is the point of intersection of the diagonals. Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Consider quadrilateral ABCD with the diagonals intersecting at point Q. Inc_ . The locations of the houses determine a quadrilateral as shown at the right. but not on the diagonals. Using a map of the town. It is the equiangular point or Napoleon point. InilAPC. they want to find a location for this transmitter that makes the sum of the distances to each of their houses a minimum.Minimizing Distances Four friends are planning to set up a special transmitting unit to service their CB receivers. _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! The sum of the distances from any point in the interior of an equilateral triangle to the sides of the triangle is constant. Now select any point P somewhere in the quadrilateral. such as the intersection of the medians or angle bisectors. How can you locate this point using a straightedge and compass? _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Is it possible to find the equiangular point of any triangle? Or should a restriction be placed on the angles of the triangle? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Explain your answer. BP + PD> or BP + PD > ___ + B .-f---+--""'~IC A _ __ Why isQA + QB + QC + QD<PA + PB + PC + PD? _ _ _ __ D Is the point of intersection of the diagonals the minimum distance point in a quadrilateral? Why or why not? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Suppose one of the four friends moves to another town. Now the locations of the houses determine a triangle. Use this to prove that the Napoleon point is the minimum distance point of a triangle. Where do you think the transmitter should be located now? That is.PA + PC> _ _ _ orPA + PC> _ _ _ + _ __ In ilBPD.

Have students locate the points of intersection of the medians. B A D Similarly.ABC = area b. These lines form equilateral b. and QP. If "Napoleon's Theorem" has been presented recently. The minimum distance point of a triangle is more difficult to locate.Teachers Notes for Minimizing Distances _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ This investigation is an extension of ''Napoleon's Theorem" and should follow it immediately. where mLAMB = mLBMC = mLAMC = 120°. and CM. ! Extension The proof that the Napoleon point is the minimum distance point uses the following figure. the sum of the distances from the point of intersection of the diagonals of a quadrilateral to the vertices is less than the sum of the distances from any other interior point of the quadrilateral to the vertices.ABC. area b. Then have them measure the distances from these points to the vertices of the triangle. By substitution. Therefore. One method of proving this uses the figure at the right. and perpendicular bisectors of the sides.) Let D be any other point in the interior of b. We must show that the sum of the distances from M to the vertices is less than the sum of the distances from D to the vertices. The proof is not difficult: AP + PC> AC or AP + PC> AQ + QC because the sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle is greater . angle bisectors. have them try to locate the equiangular point in an obtuse triangle with one angle of measure 150°. the area of b. The sum of the distances from any point in the interior of an equilateral triangle is constant. Therefore. (where DE. It is necessary to restrict the angles ofthe triangle to angles with measure less than 120°. This can be shown by considering. quadrilateral AMBR. DE + DF + DG < DA + DB + DC. you may want to present a proof of the statement A given in the Extension: The sum of the distances from any point in the interior of an equilateral triangle to the sides of the triangle is constant. students should quickly recall how to locate this point.CPA = ! (AB)(PS) + ! (BC)(PQ) + ! (AC)(PR). They should also try any other points they might consider possibilities. MA + MB + MC = DE + DF + DG. If time permits. and QP are drawn through A. Thus. P M is the point in the interior of b. and PC. Draw PA. PQ 1 BC.BPC + areab.ABC = (BC)(PS + PQ + PR). (To prove b. But the shortest distance from an external point to a line is the length of the perpendicular segment from the point to the line. The reason for the restriction should be obvious.APB + areab. and C perpendicular to AM. area b. 64 ! . Students can see by measuring that the equiangular point is the minimum distance point of the triangle.ABC. . In equilateral b. RP. respectively). Since AB = BC = AC. for example. MA + MB + MC < DA + DB + DC. B. PS + PQ + PR = AD. and DG are the perpendiculars to RQ. By addition. notice that each angle has measure 60°.ABC = (BC)(AD). PR 1 AC.than the length of the third side. The equiangular point developed in "Napoleon's Theorem" is proved in this investigation to also be the minimum distance point of a triangle-the point· for which the sum of the distances from the point to the vertices is a minimum. DF. However. PS 1 AB. PA + PB + PC + PD> QA + QB + QC + QD. Then have them consider the equiangular or Napoleon point. Since mLRAM = mLRBM = 90°. RP. a constant for the given triangle. PB. respectively. R~------~~r-----~Q Presenting the Investigation You can expect most students to guess that the point of intersection of the diagonals of the quadrilateral is the minimum distance point. BP + PD > BQ + QD. it followsthatmLARB = 60°. and AD 1 BC.PQR. So. BM. andmLAMB= 120°. If students don't understand why.ABC.PQR is equilateral. RQ.

You want to find the sum of the reciprocals of two numbers. They would then solve for one of the variables and substitute in the other equation to find x and y. AC ~ EF. Try it on the following proof. start out with the desired conclusion." In many cases. B Copyright © 1982 by Addison·Wesley Publishing Company. Given: AC II EF. and segment BDCF with BD ~ CF. the best place to start is at the end! Let's consider a simple algebra problem: If the sum of two numbers is 6. Prove: AB II DE. Try it and see. x+y=6 xy = 3 Now see what happens if you work backwards. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What congruent parts of triangles ABC and EDF are you given? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--'-_ _ _ _ _ __ What information can you use to prove LACB ~ LEFD? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Why? ______________________________________________________________________ Using the remaining given information. most people would use the two equations at the right. C . find the sum of the reciprocals of these two numbers.Problem Solving-A Reverse Strategy How often have you looked at a completed geometry proof and thought. what are they? of triangles might you be able to prove congruent that include these two angles? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Do you see where the reverse strategy is leading? Let's continue. "That's really easy-once you know where to start. or 1 + 1. List some of the ways you can establish congruence between two triangles. which pair of sides can you prove congruent? _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ Why? ____________________________________________________________________ What congruence theorem can you use to prove I1ABC ~ I1EDF? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now the analysis is complete. Write the proof in the proper sequence. How can you prove lines parallel? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A E ~ D B C F Which line is a transversal of AB and DE? Is there a pair of corresponding angles or alternate interior angles for AB and DE using Which pair this transversal? If so. EXTENSION! Given the figure atthe right with AB prove that DE ~ FE. This method results in a lot of work. To solve this problem. and the product of the same two numbers is 3. Then they would find the sum of the reciprocals. Inc. that is. x y What is the sum of these two fractions? -------:--------- What is the numerator and what is its value? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the denominator and what is its value? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---'"_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the answer to the problem? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ This reverse strategy is the key to geometry proofs. ~ AC and BE ~ CE.

. students will see that AB !:!!! AC. Presenting the Investigation A reverse strategy is certainly not new. Now students should consider which congruence theorem to use.. The only possibility seems to be AAS. This produces the answer.(6) . When they examine the given information. and LEBC !:!!! LECB. ~ B D F C Students should begin to see where the reverse strategy is leading. students can use the SAS congruence theorem to prove b. and b.. The sum of the fractions is \~y. By using BF as the transversal. In his book How to Solve It. LFEB!:!!! LDEC. which angles should they use? I + I = (3 . students should realize they usually need congruent angles. angles and triangles congruent until (if ever) the desired conclusion is reached. rather than providing students with a definite strategy. students should realize they usually need congruent triangles... If LABC were congruent to LEDF. The two original equations reveal the values of the numerator and the denominator of the fraction.[6 3 . immediately. students see that BD !:!!! DF. (3 . when the resulting solution becomes significantly more elegant. Now they can prove segments and angles congruent.ABC!:!!! b. The next series of questions on the student page leads students through an analysis of a geometric proof. because they are corresponding angles of parallel lines AC and EF.. It is obvious that for this particular problem a reverse strategy is superior to the more common approach. if they can prove b. By solving the first equation for y to get y = 6 . Therefore. To prove lines parallel. because then they would need DE !:!!! FE. This investigation shows how to think through a proof by beginning at the end and working backwards.ABC is isosceles. Thus.. Thus. Using synthesis reverses the process of analysis. geometry texts usually teach proofs by example. it retraces the "reverse" steps and puts things in the order the proof requires. proving segments.CDE. By retracing their steps in the opposite order.(6) 3 A Now stud~nts should consider a reverse strategy. The investigation should be presented as soon as possible after these concepts are learned. they will get x(6 .BFE can be proved congruent to b. they must prove b.[6 and the two numbers are 3 + . then AB would be parallel to DE.D.. Then x = 3 ±. and then substituting in the second equation.(6) + (3 + . Students can prove LABC!:!!! LEDF. Analysis is the reverse strategy presented here-beginning with the desired conclusion and working backwards until we reach something already known. but with an aim in sight. They can't use SAS.EBC is isosceles. B C By referring to the given information.CDE. and this is what they are trying to prove." 66 .Teacher's Notes for Problem Solving-A Reverse Strategy _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Most geometry students can write proofs once they have some idea where to begin.ABC !:!!! b.. ~. Students should be familiar with the congruence theorems and parallel lines. Analysis is essential to geometric proofs. they see they already have two sides of these triangles congruent. George Polya discusses a backward method of problem solving which is similar to the reverse strategy discussed in this investigation. Referring again to the given information. The reverse approach to solving a problem becomes dramatically stronger. by subtraction. Thus. LABC and LEDF are a pair of corresponding angles.[6 and 3 . Similarly.x.(6) = ~ 3 + . b. In Book VII of Pappus' Collection there is a thorough description of the methods of analysis and synthesis. Otherwise a student will consider the given information and proceed blindly. BE and CE. It was considered by Pappus of Alexandria about 320 A.EDF.. Since LFEB and LDEC are vertical angles.[6. However.6x + 3 = O. and LABC!:!!! LACB. LFBE!:!!! LDCE. if segment BC is drawn. b. Polya emphasizes the importance of the role of a teacher in presenting such methods to students when he states that "there is some sort of psychological repugnance to this reverse order which may prevent a quite able student from understanding the method it if is not presented carefully.EDF.x) = 3 or x 2 ..[6 (3 + . Now the sum of their reciprocals is Extension To prove segments congruent. students should be able to write the proof in the proper sequence. And LACB!:!!! LEFD. They are given AC !:!!! EF. so students can begin using a reverse strategy immediately. Students should work through the algebra problem on the student page using the first method discussed. so they have one pair of congruent sides..BFE !:!!! b.. But.

DG = FG and CD =CF. C 1.CDG ~ b.DAG ~ b... Then find the area of b." Find the sum of the areas of the right triangles and the rectangles. or 4 above? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Where are points D and F? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ What is wrong in the "proof"? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! The figure at the right is made up of four right triangles. (G is a point on the perpendicular bisector of AB. " N" I . AC =Be.F ~ ¥ G Figure 2 Figure 4 G Where's the error in this "proof"? Using a straightedge and a compass. Their intersection is G. (Corresponding sides of congruent triangles) 4. b. but read the following proof and see if you can find the fallacy. Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.. To Prove: That a scalene triangle is isosceles. What is the area of the "hole?" Find the fallacy and. 2..CFG. These meet the lines at points D and F.. M . Therefore. (Corresponding sides of congruent triangles) 7. very carefully make the constructions indicated in step 1 ofthe "proof..2. AG =BG. From G draw perpendiculars toAC and CB." How does your diagram compare to Figures 1. AL-----~~------~B '/ \\ E //-<:>. Draw the bisector of LC and the perpendicular bisector of AB.... (Hypotenuse-Leg) 6.3. four rectangles. DA = FB.Geometric Fallacies Can we prove something true that isn't true? Will Rogers said that politicians do it all the time. Inc.PQM. (AAS) 3... It's a little tougher to do this in geometry than in politics.FBG. (Addition) A~------~~----~B Figure 1 See if this proof will work with each of the following figures: C C C A~__~I-I-__~B Dlj. Therefore. b.) 5. using geometric means. Thus. and a "hole. show why it is false.

using some wishful thinking.P. they will need to be familiar with proofs of similar triangles. N. Therefore. Banks. LPNR is the complement of LRPN.sides are not proportional. in step 7. this is not the case because the .. and 4. 0. M Presenting the Investigation The proof is a relatively easy one and many students will probably be convinced they have "proved" that a scalene triangle is isosceles. Some discussion of the concept of betweenness should follow. Then ask your students to carefully make the constructions indicated in step 1. But. Since LNRP is a right angle. Van Nostrand Co. The fallacy occurs because the figure is not a triangle.S. You may want to use the following books to present other geometric fallacies to your class. the segments cannot be added or subtracted to get AC = BC. If points M.) At this point students will be quite disturbed. Posamentier. 3. and P are not collinear. Bannister. 242-244. The same argument holds for points M. b. since points M. J.) by A. This possibility is not shown.L. Otherwise the proofs are identical. while the other will not. and R. rather than addition. You may want to compare this investigation with ''Algebraic Fallacies. The figure should look like the one below.270-271. Ask the students to consider whether all the possibilities for the' figure are shown. Using the formula for the area of a triangle.H. Northrop. they may be careless in drawing the figure or.NPR. Fallacies in Mathematics by E. and P were collinear. This investigation shows students how an e"or in reasoning can occur if a figure is not constructed accurately. the area of the entire figure is also 416. they may rely on something that only appears to be true from the figure.MNT"'" b. Students must determine how the area with and without the "hole" can be the same. and Q. LPNR is the complement of LMNT. Maxwell. The point G must be outside the triangle. 1944) Geometry. 1977) pp. (McGraw-Hill.Teachers Notes for Geometric Fallacies _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ When geometry students begin to write their own proofs. one will meet a side between the vertices. They will find the proof also works for figures 2. When perpendiculars DG and FG meet the sides of the triangle. (D. Its Elements and Structure (2nd Ed. In order to work the Ex tension. Therefore. Some students will realize that one perpendicular can be inside the triangle and the other outside. They will find a subtle error in the figures: a. since LRNO is a right angle. and the formula we used for finding area is incorrect.A. (The reason for step 7 using figure 4 is subtraction. Extension Students will find the area of the eight regions (not including the "hole") is 416. Thus. They will wonder where the error was committed which permitted this fallacy to occur. the figure is a pentagon. N. 1963) Riddles in Mathematics by E. c 68 . (Cambridge University Press. " Students should know the various methods for proving triangles congruent. LMNT ~ LRPN and b.

Inc. Then construct the circumcircle of the triangle. This line is called the Euler Line. But there's a way to construct a nine-point circle that starts with a triangle. Y. you have found three points through which exactly one circle can be drawn. Where is their point of intersection? Copyright©1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. by constructing a triangle. construct altitudes AD. . Finding nine concyclic points seems impossible. and Z. Label these midpoints V. called the orthocenter. AC. Where is the center of the nine-point circle? How does the radius of the nine-point circle compare to the radius of the circumcircle? Draw the medians of the triangle. These three points are concyclic and the circle could be called a three-point circle. How many points will you locate using the Why? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ What happens if ~ABC is equilateral? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ EXTENSION! On a separate sheet of paper.BE. draw an acute.The Nine-Point Circle Every triangle is cyclic. H. V. Points 0. F. Y. and CH. X. BH. Suppose ~ABC method above? is isosceles. W. AH. scalene triangle and construct its nine-point circle. V. E. BC. To draw the circle you must find the center. Now construct the midpoints of segments AB. W. So. Using~ABC at the right. and CF. X. That is. Label their intersection. Why is this segment the diameter C of the nine-point circle? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A Bisect the diameter and draw the circle. there exists a circle that contains all of its vertices. Draw the segment connecting the midpoint of CH and the midpoint of AB. V. Draw the line segment connecting the circumcenter and the orthocenter. How could you construct a four-point circle? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What must be true about a quadrilateral for it to be cyclic? _ _ _ __ Finding five concyclic points would be more difficult. and Z are concyclic and determine a nine-point circle.

In right flBCF. c To prove the construction valid consider the figure at the right. UW = FV and UFVW is interesting figures in geometry. V. The intersection of the diagonals is the center of the circumscribed circle. Similarly. so A---~---"~. C Extension The Euler Line presents one of the most interesting relations in geometry. By using it to lead to a discussion of the Euler Line in the Extension. a triangle detennines a three-point circle. In an equilateral triangle. the center of the circle is at the orthocenter and the circle is inscribed in the triangle. Although the material in the investigation can be presented in one class period. Therefore. Similarly. Students should recall that a quadrilateral is cyclic if its opposite angles are supplementary. D and E are also on this circle. Similarly. joins the midpoints of AB and AC. N. Recall that mLAFC = 90°. centroid. you may wish to take two periods to thoroughly explore the topic and present verification for the construction of the ninepoint circle. (Note: Students will see the results easiest if the angles of the triangle are approximately 45°. First prove UFVW is an isosceles trapezoid: WV joins the midpoints of two sides of a triangle. This fact is used below in the justification of the construction of the ninepoint circle. but is also its midpoint. Have students try the construction with an obtuse triangle where the orthocenter is outside the triangle. and concurrent segments in triangles. This is the same circle established above. since three vertices (W. Presenting the Investigation Students know that any three points detennine a circle. 60°. so only six points are found. If flABC is isosceles. it must be inscribed in a semicircle. cyclic quadrilaterals. The investigation should be presented late in a geometry course since students must be familiar with the properties of circles. In this case. Therefore. The centroid trisects the Euler Line. Construction of the nine-point circle (shown below) should not be difficult for students. AD1BC. ! 70 . Since an isosceles trapezoid is cyclic. The intersection of the three medians (the centroid of the triangle) is also on the Euler Line. and F) are common with the six concyclic points. To construct a four-point circle students would construct a square (or a rectangle) and draw the diagonals.soWZ1WU and mLZWU = 90°. so UW = BC.B WV II AB and UFVW is a trapezoid. and 75°.Teacher's Notes for The Nine-Point Circle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The nine-point circle is in itself one of the most so FV = ! BC. and W. Thus. in flABC. the center of the nine-point circle. students find a truly fascinating relation between the circumcenter. Thus. Now consider this c figure. UW . not only lies on the Euler Line. U. X and Yare also on this circle. only eight points are found because the midpoint ofthe side opposite the vertex angle is the same point as the base of the altitude to that side. F is on the circle detennined by U. The radius of the nine-point circle is half the radius of the circumcircle. so WZ II AH. since its opposite angles are supplementary. WZ joins the mid points of two sides of flACH. WU II BC. quadrilateral ZWUF is cyclic. all three altitudes bisect the sides.) A~~--------~~--~~-----B UZ is a diameter of the circle because LZFU is a right angle. and the center of the nine-point circle. The Euler Line in the figure above is OH. FV is the median to the hypotenuse. orthocenter. isosceles.

Equicircles The circles at the right are the four equicirc/es of b. AN. and CM = CL. First. NN2 = __________ . . and AM. ? ______ The perimeter of b. circle 0. and N. and the lengths of the sides of b.ABC = AB + BC + AC = AB + BL. What is the perimeter of b. ° ° Let's derive some of the relations between a triangle and its equicircles.? Why? ______~--------------------------------------------------------What segment has the same length as BL. and AN2 found above. Inc.ABC. N2 = NN. .ABC and AN" AN. and N2 . if 5 is the semiperimeter of b. Copyright © '982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.? _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ Thus. So. ? As CL. What is true about AN. M. 5 = ! (AN + BL + BL + CL + CL + AN) = ! (2AN + 2BL + 2CL) = AN + BL + CL 5 = AN + a 5 AN =5 - a Using the method above. Circle is tangent at L. circle 02 is tangent at L 2 . Are there other seg- ments with lengths equal to s? If so. Find each of the following lengths: N. and N. the other three are the escribed circles of b.ABC. An escribed circle is outside the triangle and is tangent to all three of the lines that contain the sides of the triangle. = __________ EXTENSION! Use your results above to write four general statements describing the lengths of tangent segments in equicircles. Circle is the inscribed ci rcle. M 2 . BL = BN. what are they? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Many of the segments in the figure above can be written in terms of 5. you can find the lengths of the tangent segments of various inscribed and escribed circles. and c = AB. M3. b = AC. and N 3. + CL. BN. M.ABC. N3 = N. + AC.ABC. = s. wherea = BC. let's find AN: = ! (AN + BN + BL + CL + CM + AM) We know AM = AN. and circle 0 3 is tangent at L 3. what does BN equal? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now find AN2 : AN2 = AM2 = CM2 - AC = ________________________________________ Using the lengths of the sides of b. terms of AN.ABC in. . is tangent at L. the semi perimeter.

and (2) on algebraic manipulation. andMMl = a. This investigation concentrates on tangent segments that are formed. Many.(s .s + b =b NNI is the common external tangent segment of the inscribed circle and an escribed circle.c =2s-c=a+b+c-c =a+b NlN2 is the common internal tangent segment of two escribed circles. is the intersection of the bisectors of interior angle BAC and exterior angles NlBC and BCMl · The relations derived in this investigation are all based on (I) the theorem that two tangent segments from an external point to a circle are congruent. Have them describe the segment and then apply the appropriate relation.a) = s .AN2 = c . Ask students the lengths of other tangent segments in the figure. NNI = ANI . ANI = AMI by the theorem mentioned above. and AN2 in terms of a.AB = s + s . Now students are ready to find the lengths of tangent segments in terms of the lengths of the sides of !:::. The Extension gives students practice in one of the most important processes in mathematicswriting general statements from equations. b.(s . NN2 = AB . Presenting the Investigation Students are already familiar with the inscribed circle of a triangle and the position of the escribed circles should be clear from the figure on the student page.BN .ABC = AB + BLI + CL I + AC . perimeter !:::.c + 2b =b-a Thus.a . If necessary. NlN3 = ANI + BN3 .(s . discuss the first one or two relations and have students do the others on their own. NlN3 is the common external tangent segment of two escribed circles. it is possible to generalize from the four equations. ForNNl = a: The length ofthe common external tangent segment of an inscribed and escribed circle equals the length of the side that intersects it.) "Equicircles" reinforces identification of tangents and shows how algebraic methods can be used to solve geometric problems. The center of an escribed circle.b) . CL 2. They then know it equals the length ofthe side that intersects it. Students should be familiar with circles and tangents before this investigation is presented. NlN2 = ANI .s + a =a NN2 is the common internal tangent segment of the inscribed circle and an escribed circle.a: The length of a common internal tangent segment of an inscribed and escribed circle equals the difference between the lengths of the two sides not containing the tangent segment. For NlN3 = a + b: The length of the common external tangent segment of two escribed circles equals the sum of the lengths 'of the two sides that intersect it.b) = c . Ex. students must first find the lengths of AN.ABC. many relations can be developed from the study of equicircles. = AB + BNl + CMl + AC = ANI + AMI = 2ANl and ANI is one-half the perimeter of !:::. For NN2 = b . c. is the intersection of two exterior angle bisectors and one interior angle bisector. By substitution in the formula for the perimeter. to find the length of MM l .AN2 = S .center 01' for example.(a + b + c) + 2b = c . BN is found as follows: Extension It is extremely important for students to be able to generalize their results. Using the method on the student page.2s + 2b = c . Point out that the relations found above could be found for the other tangent segments in the figure by similar methods. students substitute s = CM2 and b = AC. (''More Equicircles" investigates properties of the radii of equicircles. Ask students to describe each segment 72 . BN. Thus.Teacher's Notes for Equicircles _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ before they fmd its length. For NlN2 = b: The length of a common internal tangent segment of two escribed circles equals the length of the side opposite the vertex contained in the tangent segment. Thus.AN = s . and CM2.ABC. BLI = BNl and CL I = CMl .b. BN3. ! (AN + BN + BL + CL + CM + AM) = ! (AM + BN + BN + CM + CM + AM) = ! (2BN + 2CM + 2AM) s= =BN+ CM +AM s = BN + b BN=s-b To fmd AN2 . and s. Therefore. the Extension should be done by all students.b) = s . The remainder of the investigation develops the relations between the lengths of tangent segments. an excenter. students should first identify it as a common external tangent of an inscribed and escribed circle. To find the lengths of various tangent segments.AN2 = S . For example.b .(s . Similarly. the lengths of all the tangent segments contained in the line that also contains c can be written in terms of a and b. The other segments with lengths equal to s are AMI' BL3.

and b.ABC is the sum of the areas of ~ABO.... it has length c._...ABO? _ _ _ _ _ _ What is the area of b..ABC.ACO? _ _ _ _ __ What is the area of b. Use the values of'.ABC = vs(s .. Thus.20)] = '1 [~ (0 + b + c) . and c.. That is. the lengths of the sides of b.ACO.ABC? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Now consider escribed circle 0 1 and the triangles formed by A 0 1 . the radius of escribed circle 0 1 equals the ratio of the area of b..ABC./ ~1 o r 1 tude to AB in b. What is the length of the alti- \ . Therefore.. and CO.b)(s . ·'1 ·'2 ·'3 = .ABO? _ __ Why? _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the area of b.\ /' 'I" ". '2' and '3 you found above to find this relation.. This ratio is true for any escribed circle...0] Area b.... (Area b. Area b.. Area b.\ //-:::.... in terms of the area and semiperimeter of b.Area b. and COl.ABC)2 = ___________________ and '·'1 ·'2 ·'3 = . There is also a relation between the radii of the equicircles and the area of b..BCO..AC01 .ABC to the difference between the semiperimeter and the length of the side to which 0 1 is tangent.'I. and '3 = . The area of b. First consider the radius of the inscribed circle and the tri-angles formed by A 0...~'1 a = '1 [~ (c + b .ABC = ____________________________ What is. b. B01... b.c)... If ABisthe base of b.ABC = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ So '1 = Are: ~~BC.ABO. .More Equicircles In "Equicircles" you found the lengths of various tangent segments in terms of 0.BC01 = ~'1 C + ~'1 b . BCO? _ _ _ _ __ Therefore. Copyrlght©1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.-_ __ What is the product of the radii of the equicircles? '2 = .. Inc.Recall Heron's Formula: Areab.EXTENSION! The reciprocals of the radii of equicircles are also related..ABC = Area b.0) ] = '1 [~( c + b + a .AB01 + Area b.o)(s .I. BO.

Therefore. BO. Then if they appear stymied.ABC .(a + b + c) Areat::. The areas of triangles AC01 and BC01 are found in a similar manner. (Area t::. r . "Equicircles" concentrates on the tangent segments formed. Very few topics in high school geometry present as many different relations as equicircles.CL) = (AB + A C) .ABC as a base and r1 as the altitude to that bas0'or example. Areat::. Then the area of t::.ABC Next.a. the area of t::.ABC _ 3s .ABC s Areat::. = Area t::. The length of the altitude to AB in t::.ABC and using the ratios on the student page to find " r1' r2' and '3· !- Area t::.ABC)2 = (Area t::. r3 = = (Area t::.a)(s .b) .ABC r1 Area t::. and c. !- .ABC and r = Area t::.a using lengths of segments as was done in "Equicircles. It's possible to show that ~ (c + b . in t::. For this reason.a Allow them to experiment with these values for awhile. the area of t::. 2a is subtracted. Students discovered in "Equicircles" that AN = s .a.) By the formula. and CO. b.ABC is easy to find as the sum of the areas of the smaller triangles.ABO = !-rc. This investigation explores relations between radii of equicircles. Similarly. .a). and c. B01. Thus.BN) + (AC .ABC 2 s-c s-b 3 Now students find the product of the radii equals Areat::. students should be familiar with both the usual formula for the area of a triangle and Heron's (Hero's) Formula.(BL + CL) AN + AM = c + b . Since the length of AB is c.a) = s .a) = s . so!-(c + b .AB0 1 is ~ cr1. the expression will simplify to 'l(s ." "More Equicircles" does assume a knowledge of what equicircles are.--.CM) = (AB ." This method is shown below in case you have the inclination and the time to discuss it.ABC '3 Area t::. (Note: Some texts refer to this as Hero's Formula. and .c + rb + ra =r[!-(a+b+c)] = rs and.BL) + (AC . Areat::.Teacher's Notes for More Equicirc/es _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ But AN = AM.c) !- !- = Area ~ABC. AN + AM = (AB . students find '1 in terms of measures of t::. suggest they try adding the reciprocals of the radii of the escribed circles: 1 + 1 + 1 = (s r1 74 r2 r3 a) + (s .a. and COl are drawn to form triangles. Be sure students understand which sides have length a.a and AN = (c + b .ABC s s-a s-c s-b or Presenting the Investigation r . r1 . Each triangle has one side of t::.c) + (s Area t::. This is merely a difference in translation.ABC .ABC = !-.. the area of t::.ABC)2 = s(s . so AN + AN = c + b .-----:~'----:- This appears to be a very complex expression until Heron's Formula for area is used. the area of t::. Areat::.ABC)4 (Area t::. Although the topics presented here do not rely on anything developed in "Equicircles. '1 is the altitude to base AB.ABC is found in terms of the areas of these triangles.. Extension Students should begin by finding the reciprocals of the radii: I s I s-a r Area t::.ACO = !-rb and the area of t::.ABC I r .ABC)4 s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) ----.b )(s . (Area t::. A01. r 123 It may be necessary to briefly review the definition of equicircles given in "Equicircles" and to discuss how the figure on the student page is drawn. Since the ratio described on the student page is true for any escribed circle. Notice in the fourth line of the equations. .ABO is r because the radius drawn to the point of contact of a tangent is perpendicular to the tangent.ABC) 2 Some students may wish to verify this relation using specific values of a. In addition. By drawing AO. They can do this by using Heron's Formula to find the area of t::.ABC . thus. b.ABC.BCO = .----'-----.a).ABC I s-c I s-b r2 Area t::. two investigations on this topic are included in this volume. '2 .AB0 1.

construct th is locus. that passes through a given point M. is point M? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ How many solutions will there be in this case? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Where is point M if d = o? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What must be true about Rand r for there to be a solution in this case? EXTENSION! In the cases listed above. Describe the locus of points in 1 above: _ _ _ __ M Using the figure at the right. Inc.) Sketch the situations that will give (1) two solutions.2r for each situation? Copyright © 1982 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. where = R + 2r. In the figure above. Suppose circle P and r stay the same. How does d compare to R + 2r? ___________________ Suppose circle P and r remain as in the figure above. In the problem above. The locus of centers of circles of radius r that are tangent to circle P. where d is the distance from M to P. and (3) no solution. and is tangent to a given circle P with radiusR. that satisfy a given condition is called a locus. how many circles can be r constructed satisfying the given conditions? _ _ __ The number of solutions to this problem depends on the relative positions of M and P and on the relative lengths of rand R. Sketch this case at the right. How many points of intersection of the two loci are For the figure at the right. How does d compare to R . and only those points. This problem requires finding two loci: 1. (M is in the interior of circle P. The intersection of the two loci above is the center of the circle to be constructed.Locus Methods How would you describe the set of all points in a plane at a distance x from point A at the right? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Construct the set of points above using the given value of x at the right. r < Rand d > R. . but d < R. . d = R. • Now describe the locus of points in 2 above: _ __ Construct this locus using the same figure. the locus of points x distance from A is a circle with center A and radius x. (2) one solution. 2. >R + 2r? _ _ Sketch this case. but d How many solutions will there be? How many solutions will there be if d If d = R. The locus of centers of circles of radius r that pass through M. x Now suppose you are to construct a circle of given radius r.A The set of all the points. d> R. how many there? solutions are there? That is. or d = o.

.. Extension The Extension completes the analysis for r < R.2r. The second locus consists of two circles concentric with circle P. the number of solutions is determined by the number of intersections of circles M and R . d > R: d < 2r . the circles for the second locus have radii r + Rand r .76 .2r. The following cases will result. Discuss the two loci for the problem. no solutions d = R: I solution d < R: no solutions For r > R. Emphasize that a locus must include all the points that satisfy the condition and every point on the locus must satisfy the condition. there are no solutions: --- .r. The two loci are shown below with dashed lines.) The first cases considered are those where d > R. I solution d > 3r. I solution d > 2r + R.. If d > R . --- / . If d = R + 2r. one with radius R + r and one with radius R . and then there will be infinitely many solutions....r. For r = R. 3 solutions d> 2r . If d <: R .2r. +2r. Thus.Teacher's Notes for Locus Methods If d Locus methods are often the best way to approach certain types of problems and constructions. there are two solutions. there are no solutions. These three cases are analogous to the three cases for d > R.. 2 solutions d = 3r. where the number of solutions was determined by the number of intersections of circles M and R + r. For d < R.R: d < 2r + R. Any student unable to complete this problem quickly and easily should not proceed with the investigation./ If d = R. the circle of radius R .. There is no solution unlessR = 2r.. M is on circle P... Every circle with radius r that is also tangent to circle P will have its center on one of these two circles. " . (Notice that radii R and r do not change.. 2 solutions d = 2r + R. C and C' are the points where the loci intersect and are the centers of the two circles of radius r that pass through M and are tangent to circle P. 4 solutions d = 2r . there is one solution: . there are two solutions for the given conditions..R.r reduces to point P and the solutions are: d > R: d < 3r. Presenting the Investigation The first problem on the student page is primarily for assessment. Analysis of a problem such as the one given in this investigation is almost impossible for a high school student unless locus methods are used. we have the situation above.R.R. If d = R . In these three cases d < R. "- '\ \ \ I I \ J / \ / \ '\. >R -.. Now students are asked to analyze what happens when the position of M changes.. M and P coincide and circles M and P are concentric. If d < R + 2r. The first locus is a circle of radius r with center at M... and M is in the interior of circle P. More advanced students may want to consider the cases when r ~ R. This analysis uses d as the distance from M to P and considers how the solu tions change as d changes. there are two solutions: When d = 0.. This investigation gives students a taste of how to analyze a mathematical problem so every possible case is considered-an extremely important area of more advanced mathematical proof and scientific experimentation. Every circle with radius r that also passes through M will have its center on this circle. there is one solution. no solutions d = R: 2 solutions d < R: no solutions Sketches of the figures will help with the analysis.

IS8N 0-20 ~-0 55 &3 .~ .