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Food Quality and Preference 21 (2010) 394–401

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Food Quality and Preference
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodqual

The application of check-all-that-apply (CATA) consumer profiling to
preference mapping of vanilla ice cream and its comparison to classical
external preference mapping
Lauren Dooley, Young-seung Lee, Jean-François Meullenet *
Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 N. Young Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72704, United States

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 19 January 2009
Received in revised form 27 August 2009
Accepted 11 October 2009
Available online 21 October 2009
Keywords:
Check-all-that-apply
Preference mapping
Vanilla ice cream
Multiple factor analysis

a b s t r a c t
This study was conducted to evaluate the use and efficacy of check-all-that-apply (CATA) data for the creation of preference maps, and to compare these maps to classical external maps generated from traditional sensory profiles. Ten commercial vanilla ice cream products were presented to 80 consumers.
Consumers answered an overall liking question using the 9-point hedonic scale and a CATA question with
13 attributes which described the sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream. A trained descriptive panel
of 17 individuals developed a profile of 23 attributes for the vanilla ice cream products. Preference maps
created by CATA counts were compared to those by descriptive profiles via multiple factor analysis
(MFA). The characterization of the products by both sensory methods showed very good agreement
between the methods. The MFA of map configurations showed fair agreement between the techniques
used to produce the preference maps, indicating that CATA data applied to preference mapping gave similar results to external preference mapping.
Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions regarding consumerperceived product attributes have been used in consumer studies
to determine what sensory attributes may be characteristic of a
specific product (Lancaster & Foley, 2007). Some researchers already advocate the use of consumer sensory profiling to lead product development as an alternative to classical sensory profiling
(Punter, 2008; Worch, Lê, & Punter, 2008). The format of the CATA
question allows consumers to choose all potential attributes from
the given lists to describe the test products. This is different from
scaling in the sense that no intensities are given to the attributes.
In addition, the descriptors are not constrained to product sensory
attributes, but could also be related to product usage or concept fit.
This type of methodology has the advantage of gathering information on perceived product attributes without requiring scaling,
allowing for a slightly less contrived description of the main sensory properties of the product tested (depending on how the terms
are created).
The actual generation of CATA terms can be performed in many
ways: the consumers can choose words to describe the product
during the test (modified free choice profiling), terms can be given

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 7853418710.
E-mail address: jfmeull@uark.edu (J.-F. Meullenet).
0950-3293/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2009.10.002

by a trained panel, or terms can be generated by consumers not
testing the product (i.e. a focus group). Free choice profiling allows
consumers to use as many or as few words as necessary to describe
the product and evaluate the intensities of the chosen attributes,
resulting in a less expensive and more accurate view of consumer
perception and acceptance (Deliza, Macfie, & Hedderley, 2005;
Gonzáles-Tomás & Costell, 2006; González Viñas, Garrido, & Wittig
de Penna, 2001; Williams & Langron, 1984). However, if each consumer selects his/her own terms, the analysis becomes cumbersome since each term must be subjectively interpreted and
combined with similar terms (Meilgaard, Civille, & Carr, 2007).
Seo, Lee, and Hwang (2009) used consumers to describe sensory
characteristics of coffee. Verification of the terms was then conducted by other consumers to confirm that the terms were appropriate and understandable. While this is an effective method, the
time required is to complete the test is extensive.
Terms generated by a trained panel have the benefit of being
more comprehensive and better described, though they may be
too complex for the average consumer to understand and could require simplification. Altering the terms in this manner is difficult to
do while retaining the correct term description and definition.
However, it has been shown that differences in sensory evaluations
between trained and untrained (naïve consumers) are minimal
(Benedito, Cárcel, & Mulet, 2001; Guerrero, Gou, & Arnau, 1997;
Husson & Pagés, 2003; Lelievre, Chollet, Abdi, & Valentin, 2008),
so using less obscure terms by a descriptive panel could be a

Among the various product optimization mapping methods. 2007). Marshall. CATA provides information on which attributes are detectable according to consumers and how that may relate to their overall liking and acceptance. Louis. Lovely. Li. as described in Tables 2 and 3. Descriptive analysis The 10 vanilla ice creams were evaluated for taste. proposed by Danzart. Preliminary screening of texture and flavor attributes eliminated five samples due to brand replication and fat content. and the use of natural or artificial vanilla flavor. . 2007).. The flavor attribute testing for all 10 products was Table 1 A list of 10 commercial vanilla ice cream products. The lexicons consisted of 23 total attributes specific to vanilla ice cream and definitions of each sensory attribute with associated references. Unsalted crackers and water were provided for panelists to clean and rinse their palate between samples. 2007). The CATA method requires minimal instruction. One scoop of each product was placed individually into a lidded white plastic container (45 mm diameter) coded with a three-digit random number. a popular indicator of ice cream quality. it is crucial for ice cream manufacturers to understand the strong and weak points of their products. The 2 min increment was determined to be the most appropriate tempering time by observing the condition of the ice cream as a function of time at room temperature. an extension of Multidimensional Preference Mapping (MDPREF). the Response Surface Model (RSM). 2007). these responses could be utilized as supplemental data to maximize acceptance of the targeted products by consumers. it could be a more practical approach than intensity scaling from the standpoint of consumer-led product development. Since CATA responses are directly linked to consumers’ perception of product characteristics. All samples were tempered for 2 min at room temperature prior to serving for both descriptive analysis and consumer testing. it is the researcher’s decision as to which method is most appropriate. To investigate the efficacy of CATA scales within the sensory environment. is based on external preference mapping (Danzart. Brand Code Name/description Fat content (%) Flavor Blue Bell Blue Bunny Ben and Jerry’s Best Choice Breyers Edy’s ‘‘Grand” Great Value Guilt Free Haagen-Dazs Yarnell’s A B C D E F G H I J Homemade vanilla Premium all natural vanilla Vanilla Vanilla Natural vanilla Rich and creamy vanilla Vanilla Vanilla Vanilla Homemade vanilla 13 10 24 11 12 5 11 4 28 15 Natural and Natural and Natural Artificial Natural Natural Artificial Natural and Natural Natural and Manufacturer artificial artificial artificial artificial Blue Bell Creameries Wells’ Dairy. & Trout.. 2. Xiong. & Striegler. The US ice cream market continues to grow and is expected to be valued at over $10 billion by 2012 (Datamonitor.. / Food Quality and Preference 21 (2010) 394–401 beneficial tool for creating a CATA list. respectively. True Manufacturing Co. and the serving temperature ( 12 + 2 °C) was strictly monitored to maintain consistency (Bower & Baxter. 395 The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the use of CATA attribute responses for 10 commercial vanilla ice creams as an alternative to consumer attribute intensity ratings.. USA) at 18 °C for at least 24 h prior to testing to ensure sample consistency. aromatic. six products with moderate fat content and two low-fat products. Sieffermann. 2003. USA). Tobias. The 10 remaining products. Ben and Jerry’s Homemade Holdings. Inc. Furthermore. is relatively easy to perform and is completed quickly (Lancaster & Foley. as failure to obtain correct information about the sensory attributes may lead to fast disappearance of the new products from the marketplace (Stone & Sidel. (Unilever) Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Samples and sample preparation Fifteen commercially-available ice creams were initially selected from local supermarkets for testing. Multidimensional representation of sensory stimuli is first created by sensory (i. Threlfall. 2007). external) data. Inc. consisting of two high-fat products. Ultimately. and texture attributes by a descriptive panel of 17 individuals trained by the SpectrumÒ method (Sensory Spectrum Inc. Samples were stored in a commercial-grade freezer (TS-49. Vanilla is the most popular ice cream flavor in the US and accounts for almost half of all ice cream sales (Bodyfelt. Ice cream is one of the most popular frozen desserts in the United States.1. There are many companies producing and commercializing ice cream in the US. Morris. 1997). Samples were presented in a sequential monadic order to panelists according to a complete randomized block design. Yarnell Ice Cream Co. Understanding sensory characteristics in the process of new product development is of great importance. Panelists quantified all attributes on a line scale from 0 to 15 (Meilgaard et al. Unilever Nestle Wal-Mart Stores Inc. St. Dooley et al. Chatham. the Euclidian Distance Ideal Point Mapping (EDIPM). this study used ice cream as the testing medium.L. 1999). & Fernando. 1988). NJ. Panelists have over 100 h of training and an average of 1000 h of testing experience. 2. Preference mapping is a widely used group of multivariate statistical techniques designed to optimize products by understanding the structure between consumer preference and sensory data to identify drivers of liking (Faye et al. & Findlay. In this approach. Two orientation sessions were conducted to familiarize the panelists with the samples. Another optimization mapping technique. the ideal point of individual consumers is the point which minimizes the correlation between Euclidian distances to the products and hedonic scores. Greenhoff & MacFie. Heymann. The consumer data for individual consumers is then regressed against the product coordinates in the sensory space to determine ideal points for both the individuals and the group (Meullenet. preference mapping is a useful method. Flavor and texture lexicons were developed in four sessions. are detailed in Table 1.2. & Delarue. 2004).e. MO. and (2) compare CATA-generated preference maps to classical external maps generated from traditional sensory profiles. 2008). Nestle Yarnell Ice Cream Co. Ice creams were selected so that various combinations of these quality factors were represented in the study. 2006. To understand the relationship between consumer and sensory data. In order to compete in this highly competitive market. and how consumers’ attitudes and preference patterns affect their products. and a 10 min break helped prevent fatigue. is a new approach based on a density analysis of individual consumer ideal product placements in the product configuration space (Meullenet. flavor. Materials and methods 2.

2.396 L. color.7–15.05–2. Since the descriptive profiles and CATA counts were scaled differently. (2004) using either the descriptive sensory profiles or CATA counts to determine a group ideal point (Meullenet et al. The area of maximum density was regarded as the ideal point solution for this method. sweetness. with most consumers finishing within 20 min.2–2. perceived on the tongue. stimulated by acids. stimulated by substances such as quinine.01%) (2) tea in 1000 ml spring water for 5 min Soda note (soda cracker 3.e.0 Sour The basic taste. tinny or iron (2) a flat feeling factor stimulated on the tongue by metal The feeling factor on the tongue or other skin surfaces of the mouth described as puckering or drying 0. 1949).05–2. vanilla flavor.5% 0. Each consumer tested five samples the first day and tested the remaining five the second day. perceived on the tongue. melting in the bowl and hardness of each product were evaluated using the 5-point ‘‘Just About Right” (JAR) scale (data not shown or used in this study). cardboardy A sweet aromatic characteristic of browned sugars and other carbohydrates The aromatics associated with slightly oxidized fats and oils The aromatic associated with dry fresh cut wood. orange hit (orange juice 10. heated to the scalding point The aromatic associated with skim or whole milk products or milk derived products The aromatic associated with fresh butterfat.4. .0% 0. To determine the area of the map maximizing the number of consumers satisfied. balsamic or bark-like (1) The aromatic associated with metals.0% 0. The attributes of scoopability. the data matrix had products in columns and attributes in rows.0% 0. and the area of acceptability for each consumer was identified (i. Dooley et al. AR). principal component analysis was performed on mean sensory profiles while correspondence analysis was performed on the CATA counts. perceived on the tongue.35–5. The data was standardized by columns so that the mean was zero and the variance was one. The test was sequential monadic and sample presentation orders were balanced in each serving position using the Williams Latin Square design (Williams.08–5. The CATA counts were totaled for each product (Table 5) and the resulting contingency table was used in subsequent analyses. Term Basic taste Sweet Salt Reference Intensity The basic taste.0% 0. First. conducted on two consecutive days.0% Universal scalea Heavy whipping Cream Cream cheese Universal scalea (1) Alum solution (0.0). such as citric acid Solutions of citric acid in spring water Bitter The basic taste.0% 0.0% 16–15. Though not used in these analyses.0).0). flavor and texture attributes of each sample on a 9-point hedonic scale (1 = ‘‘dislike extremely”.0% 5–5. perceived on the tongue.0% 0. Both analyses are considered here as external because the product configurations were obtained from data other than liking. Consumers were asked to evaluate overall liking. stimulated by sugars and high potency sweeteners Solutions of sucrose in spring water 2–2. since this JAR data was collected.0). and certain other alkaloids Solutions of caffeine in spring water Aromatics Vanillin Cooked milk Milky Buttery/fat Flavor Non fat dry milk Caramelized Oxidized Woody/stick Metallic Feeling factors Astringent a Definition The sweet.0 Alum –6.55–10. External preference mapping was performed according to Danzart et al.20–15. Statistical analyses Eighty consumers were recruited to participate in the vanilla ice cream test at the University of Arkansas Sensory Service Center (Fayetteville. the two data sets were standardized across all products prior to external preference mapping to minimize differences inherent to the scaling. vanilla-like aromatic characteristic of ethyl vanillin or imitation vanillas The aromatic associated with the flavor of milk. sweet cream The aromatic associated with boxed.15–10. 9 = ‘‘like extremely”). melting in the mouth.0). 2008).15–10.3. / Food Quality and Preference 21 (2010) 394–401 Table 2 Flavor lexicon for vanilla ice cream. The final question of the survey listed common ice cream attributes and asked the consumers to check all attributes that applied to the given sample (Table 4).0% 0. nonfat dry milk or milk reconstituted from dry milk solids.0 Tea –9.0% Whole milk 1/2 and 1/2 Heavy whip cream 4. cinnamon hit (chewing gum 16.5 9. The sessions were divided into 30 min increments. cooked apple note (applesauce 7. area of the map where the hedonic score was predicted above the mean score for each consumer). followed by two consecutive days for texture attribute testing. a quadratic model was constructed (i. especially sodium chloride Solutions of sodium chloride in spring water 10–10. To standardize the data.0% The basic taste. Consumer testing 2. stimulated by sodium salt. Qualification criteria included adults over 18 years of age and vanilla ice cream product consumption at least one to two times per week. creamy flavor.08–5. cooked grape note (grape juice 14. appearance.e.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 6.0% 0. the authors felt it necessary to mention.20–15. smoothness. regressing hedonic scores against the principal component scores).5–8. caffeine..

5 Nougat Plastic spoon 4.2. / Food Quality and Preference 21 (2010) 394–401 Table 3 Texture lexicon for vanilla ice cream.0 Cool whip Plastic spoon 14. MFA is a useful statistical technique to analyze the similarity of a set of observations explained by several different groups of variables on comparable or contradictory scales (Abdi & Valentin. can compare multiple data sets.5 Ritz Pringles Mayo 2.0 Cream cheese Plastic spoon 9. 1). Evaluate the amount of particles perceived in the sample (not smooth– smooth) Peanut butter 5.2. 2 min The amount of air or fluffiness perceived in the sample. The comparison seems appropriate since the CATA-based external preference can be considered as a hybrid method.0 9. Meullenet et al. 4 min only Place 1/2 tsp of sample in mouth and evaluate the rate in which the sample melts (slow–fast) Expectorate the sample and feel the surface of the mouth with the tongue to evaluate (none–much) Stick spoon in the sample and pull out. Comparison of product descriptions by CATA and descriptive analysis Individual product maps were created by MFA using descriptive sensory profiles and consumer CATA counts (Fig.0 Peanut butter 4.0 Soy ice cream 5. Check all attributes that describe this sample: h Buttery h Sweet h Milk/dairy flavor h Custard/eggy flavor h Corn syrup h Artificial vanilla h Natural vanilla h Creamy flavor h Soft h Hard h Gummy h Icy h Creamy/smooth Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was conducted using FactoMineR in R (v. MFA comparing the characterization of the products by both profiles showed agreement between the two methods. & Husson. 2 min Manipulate the sample three times with tongue. Euclidian Distance Ideal Point Mapping (EDIPM. 2007). Evaluate the force required to fully compress the sample (soft–hard) Compress through sample one time with tongue.0 Rate of melt Mouth coat Elasticity The rate in which the ice cream changes forms from a solid to a liquid. MFA is able to balance the influence of each variable.0 Frosting Three pulls Plastic Spoon 10. 2008) to examine the similarities first between the descriptive profiles and CATA counts (Figs. 2008). 1 and 2) and second between the multivariate product configurations obtained from the three preference mapping techniques employed.0 Smoothness The amount of particles perceived in the sample during the chew.1. Dooley et al. although only 51% . 2 and 4 min Evaluate the force required to remove one/spoonful of sample from the cup (soft–hard) Peanut butter 4.0 Hardness-oral Denseness The force required to compress the sample between the tongue and mouth roof. 2 min Compress through sample one time with tongue.6. Results and discussion Internal preference mapping was also conducted as a point of comparison for descriptive analysis and CATA-based external preference mapping. Morand & Pagès. 2008. Term Definition Reference Intensity Scoopability/ manual firmness The force required to cut the sample with your spoon.0 Blue Bunny Plastic spoon 9. The product configuration in the space was derived from principal component analysis of the centered overall liking data. After three pulls evaluate the amount of sample pulled up by the spoon (none– much) Table 4 An example of check-all-that-apply (CATA) question. the coordinates of the ideal points in the maps were estimated and used in the MFA analysis as illustrative data. Evaluate the amount of air perceived in the sample (airy–compact) Degree of ice The amount of ice crystals felt in the mouth during the chew. 2 min The amount and degree of residue felt by the tongue when moved over the surface of the mouth. Pagês. Overall.5 5. and can demonstrate patterns of attribute correlation (Lê. Nestrud & Lawless. 2008) was used for internal preference mapping. 2005. 3.397 L.0 Cream cheese Metal spoon sample and references 8. Evaluate the amount of ice crystals perceived in the sample (no ice–much ice) Sherbet Plastic spoon 3. 2 min The degree to which the samples appears to have an elastic/doughy impression. 2 min Compress 1/2 tsp of the sample. For each preference mapping technique..0 Saltine 0.0 Marshmallow cream 2. 3.

2 shows the variable correlation circle obtained by MFA comparing descriptive analysis profiles and CATA counts. Preference mapping results and group ideal point locations Each of the three preference mapping techniques employed (external mapping on descriptive data and CATA and internal preference mapping) allow the identification of a group ideal product location in the maps. Dooley et al. A and J showed the largest variance between the two methods. highest loadings) were found to be sweet. and smoothness for descriptive sensory profiles. Ideally. between degree of ice (d) and icy (c).e. Fig. For example. in CATA terms. Products E and G were more characterized by CATA counts for the first dimension. while bitter (d) had negative correlation with salt (d) despite its low loading. Brand Soft Hard Gummy Icy Creamy/ smooth Buttery Sweet Milk/dairy flavor Custard/eggy flavor Corn syrup Natural vanilla Artificial vanilla Creamy flavor Blue Bell Blue Bunny Ben and Jerry’s Best Choice Breyers Edy’s ‘‘Grand” Great Value Guilt Free Haagen-Dazs Yarnell’s 42 37 21 29 8 25 51 34 17 43 20 20 31 29 43 38 11 22 32 16 5 7 7 4 7 4 12 3 7 4 37 16 22 28 61 20 8 29 14 14 31 45 34 37 10 35 59 35 40 51 44 46 29 43 17 39 38 30 30 21 58 53 53 61 57 61 46 52 61 60 60 58 50 62 52 59 58 57 52 54 45 35 28 32 25 26 21 22 35 22 10 13 16 13 11 16 12 23 21 15 25 28 27 34 37 28 27 19 19 24 39 33 29 33 37 43 31 45 49 42 45 51 44 54 24 53 52 35 43 47 Fig. . bitter. respectively. elasticity. of the variability was explained by the first two MFA dimensions. natural vanilla flavor. with CATA counts (c) perceived soft. The vectors showed a strong correlation for descriptive (d) mouth coat. is the location in the map maximizing the percentage of consumers who would be satisfied by a product placed at that location. degree of ice. natural vanilla. H. Multiple factor analysis variable correlation circle obtained using descriptive analysis and CATA terms. This point. As discussed by Pagès (2004). If a line is drawn from the end of the descriptive and CATA vector for each of these products to the x-axis.2. smoothness and rate of melt. Refer to Tables 2–4 for complete attribute descriptions. / Food Quality and Preference 21 (2010) 394–401 Table 5 Total counts of check-all-that-apply attributes for each product. and between caramelized (d) and corn syrup (c). ‘CS_c’ and ‘Cflavor_c’ represent creamy/smooth and creamy flavor. the three methods would give approximately the same answer and this is what we seek to assess here. vanillin. creamy flavor and creamy/smooth. elasticity (d) and gummy (c). The most influential attributes (i. and gummy (c). and J were more characterized for the first dimension by descriptive analysis profiles than CATA counts. Icy. Fig. largely due to the disagreement between the descriptive and consumer (CATA) maps for these two products (not shown). based on absolute scores of partial lines on each product for the first dimension.398 L. The opposite vector directions for some CATA and descriptive descriptors with opposite meanings also show agreement between the two methods. Product codes are listed in Table 1. creamy flavor and artificial vanilla attributes for CATA consumer profiles played a relatively more important role in determining product locations in the map. 2. or between milky (d) and butterfat (d). and artificial vanilla opposite to Fig. descriptive analysis rates higher on the first dimension. 3. I. hardness (c) was opposite to softness (c). 1 indicates that products B. creamy/smooth. Descriptive sensory profiles did not show any correlation between bitter (d) and sweet (d) taste in the vanilla ice cream products. No correlations were observed between hard (c) and icy (c). in all three cases. 1. Multiple factor analysis individual product plots using descriptive sensory profiles (D) and CATA counts (C).

Other product codes are listed in Table 1. Other product codes are as in Table 1. 3. 4.L. The virtual product labeled ‘‘Opt” represents the location in the map maximizing the percentage of consumers satisfied (Danzart et al. . 2004).. Values in parenthesis represent mean overall liking values. Meullenet et al. The virtual product labeled ‘‘Opt” represents the location in the map maximizing the percentage of consumers satisfied (Euclidian Distance Ideal Point Mapping (EDIPM). 2007). / Food Quality and Preference 21 (2010) 394–401 399 Fig. Values in parenthesis represent mean overall liking values. Results of internal preference mapping.. Fig. Dooley et al. Results of external preference mapping using (a) descriptive analysis profiles (DD) and (b) CATA term counts (DC).

the products’ spatial representation on the first two dimensions seemed to differ. This is not surprising since this product space was derived from the CATA data. respectively. but was located in the far right upper quadrant in the EDIPM map (see Figs. 5. ticularly for product F. Overall. / Food Quality and Preference 21 (2010) 394–401 The results of external preference mapping using descriptive sensory data (DD) and CATA counts (DC). For internal preference mapping. Other product codes are listed in Table 1. As shown in Fig. least liked by consumers. including the optimal product. Multiple factor analysis individual product plots of the product configurations (first two dimensions) determined for external preference mapping using descriptive analysis data (DD) and CATA counts (DC) and internal preference mapping (EDIPM).5).6).5) was furthest from the remaining products and the ideal product. particularly natural vanilla. there is a need to determine the sensory characteristics that should be exhibited by the group ideal products. EDIPM placed the ideal point closest to products A and D and furthest from product E (Fig. showing agreement with the DD map. creamy/smooth. 3. 3 and 4).7).e.8). Overall. 3b) placed the group ideal point near products A (OL = 6. while product E was located on the far left of the map by itself.2% and 59. One key result of this analysis is that optimal product location showed little variation between the three maps.3. the ideal product CATA profiles were predicted. To more finely compare the level of agreement/disagreement between the three maps. Product D.400 L. MFA was employed using the first two dimensions of the three maps created.61) (data not shown). the CATA attributes were not as well fitted Fig. the CATA counts were regressed against the first two dimensions of the product spaces created using descriptive analysis data. This is also known as reverse regression. Product E (OL = 5. The average individual consumer fit was similar for the DD map (R2 = 0. The DC map (Fig. This could be explained by the fact that product F was near the origin in both DD and DC maps. 6a gives the fit of the CATA attributes for the three mapping methods employed. If the three methods are in agreement.0% of the variance in descriptive profiles and CATA counts. individual factor map) determined for each of the three types of preference mapping on the first two MFA factors. CATA data and internal preference mapping. Overall. However. soft and hard attributes (R2 > 0. MFA of the three product maps showed fair agreement between the approaches employed. which was most liked by consumers. The virtual product labeled ‘‘Opt” represents the optimal product derived from the three mapping methods employed. The product coordinates used to regress individual overall liking scores for the external maps were obtained from two different data sources and the disagreement is not too surprising. The first two dimensions of the maps explained 50. For the DD map (Fig. 4).59) and the DC map (R2 = 0. was furthest from the other products. Ideal vanilla ice cream profiles according to descriptive. while the internal map showed dissimilarities to DD and DC. Dooley et al. D (OL = 6.3) and D (OL = 6. CATA and EDIPM data using (a) CATA attribute fit (R2) and (b) normalized ideal CATA counts. we would expect the sensory profiles of the group ideals to be fairly similar. Fig. while E (OL = 5.3).8). To determine the level of agreement between the preference mapping methods employed to determine the group ideals in the three maps. This finding was similar to that of the DC map. 5 represents the locations of the 10 commercial vanilla ice cream products and the ideal product (i. 5. Overall. Ideal product profiles Although the location of the group ideals in the three preference maps was reported to be fairly invariable. Fig. and F (OL = 6. and internal preference mapping are graphically shown in Figs. creamy flavor. the DD map was contrary to the other two methods for products A and J. the ideal product was closest to product F (OL = 6. 3a). From these models. the CATA attributes were better fitted in the CATA space. par- Fig. 3 and 4.7). . followed by product D (OL = 6. was in closest proximity with the group ideal point for both maps.8). 6. the optimal product was in close proximity with products A (OL = 6.

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(1997). the characterization of the 10 commercial vanilla ice cream products shows good agreement between descriptive sensory profiles and consumer-perceived CATA profiles. J. González Viñas. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. / Food Quality and Preference 21 (2010) 394–401 in the product/preference space derived from internal preference mapping while the quality of the fit was somewhere in between for the product space created from descriptive analysis data. Lê. Further studies may include the assessment of the effects of order and number of terms CATA questions on attribute selection. E.. For these attributes. H. 210–219. The sensory evaluation of dairy products (pp. Trout (Eds. & Nicod. & G. there was disagreement for natural vanilla. In N. M. Germany.. Gou.. I.. Food Quality and Preference. A. 239–248. 166–226). (2008).-F. E. B. many questions remain unanswered. Journal of Sensory Studies. F. 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