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Human Development Notes- Mod 1

Chapter 1- History, Theory, Research Strategies
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human development- what changes and what remains constant
throughout a humans life
theory- orderly, integrated set of statements that describe, explain, and
predict
basic conflicts in theory
o continuous or discontinuous development
o stages in development
o nature vs nurture
 nature- biological, genetic inheritance
 nurture- environment, physical and social influences
development as a dynamic system- ongoing process
o biological
o social
lifespan perspective—lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic,
multiple and interacting forces
periods of development- changing
o prenatal- conception to birth
o infancy and toddler- birth to 2
o early childhood- 2 to 6
o middle childhood- 6 to 11
o adolescence- 11 to 18
o early adulthood- 18 to 40
o middle adulthood- 40 to 65
o late adulthood- 65 to death
major domains of development- physical, cognitive, emotional and social
resilience- how one is able to adapt when they are threatened
o factors in resilience
 personal characteristics
 parental relationship
 social support
 community resources and opportunities
key principles of Darwin’s theory of evolution
o natural selection- species have characters that are adapted to their
environments
o survival of the fittest
early scientific study of development
o normative approach- Hall, Gesell
 measured large numbers of people
 age-related averages
o mental testing movement- Simon and binet
 created intelligence tests
 working with mentally disabled and intelligence
psychoanalytic perspective
o Freud and Erikson
 Freud- never really worked with children, just had people talk
about their childhoods, theories no longer considered
o Conflicts- biological drives and social expectations
o Freud’s 3 parts of the personality

beliefs. anal.largest portion of the mid.Id.individual  - - - - . rational part of the mind  Emerges in early infancy  Redirects id impulses  Super ego  The conscience  Develops form ages 3 to 6 with interactions from caregivers o Freud’s psychosexual stages. latency. 4 broad stages  Children actively construct knowledge  Adaptation to environment to achieve equilibrium o Information-processing theory  Human brain is symbol-manipulating system  Input is experiences  Output is behavioral response Developmental cognitive neuroscience o Study of relationships between  Changes in the brain  Development of cognition/ behavior o Brings together researchers from—psychology. med Ethology—study of adaptive value of behavior and its evo history o Critical period. present at birth.time when things are dramatic o Sensitive—body available to have changes Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory o Transmission of culture to a new generation—values. source of biological needs/ desires  Ego  Conscious. inferiority  Adolescence—identity v role confusion  Early adulthood—intimacy vs isolation  Generativity vs stagnation—middle adulthood  Late adulthood—integrity vs despair Behaviorism and social learning o Behaviorism—directly observable events study how people behaved in certain situations  Narrow view of influences  Too little emphasis on environment  Skinner o Cognitive-developmental theory  Piaget—looked at children. skills o Social interaction necessary  Cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society Ecological systems theoryo Microsystem. genital o Erikson’s psychosocial stages  Birth to 1 yr—basic trust v mistrust  1 to 3—autonomy v shame/ doubt  3 to 6—initiative v guilt  6 to 11—industry vs.oral. customs. neuro. unconscious. phallic. bio.

bring together wide range of info on one person  Interviews. manipulated  Dependent variable  Measured  Not manipulated  Expected to have an effect on the independent variable  Random assignment  Unbiased procedure to assign participants to treatment conditions  Increases chances that characteristics will be equally distributed  Development research designs  Longitudinal—same group studied at different time o Problems:  People drop out. conversational style o Probes for participants pov  Structured interview o Each participant is asked the same questions in the same way o May use questionnaires. natural environment where behavior happens  Structured—lab situation o Set up to evoke behave of interest o All participants have equal chance to display behav  Self-reports  Clinical interview o Flexible. move away  Cross-sectional—differing groups studied at the same time .overall plan  Permits the best test of research question  Correlational  Reveals relationships between variables  Not reveal cause and effect  Experimental  Allows for cause and effect statements  Lab experiments may not apply to the real world  Independent variable  Changes.nation= laws. test scores  Ethnographies o Design. group answer  Clinical/ case study. observations. customs Choosing a research strategy o Methods—basic approach to gathering info  Systematic observations  Naturalistic—in the field.- o Macrosystem.

haploid o Zygote.make up chromosomes and genes  Watson and Crick—discovered and described in 1962 o Mitosis—duplicate cells o Autosomes—22 chromosomes o Sex chromosomes.segments of DNA located along the chromosomes o DNA.sperm and ovum united. diploid o Twins  Fraternal/ dizygotic—two zygotes. determine sex o Gamete.two forms of the same gene.many genes influence single trait o Genomic imprinting  Chemical marker that activates fathers or mothers gene Chromosomal abnormalities o Down syndrome (21) o Sex chromosome abnormalities Reproductive technologies o Donor insemination o In vitro fertilization o Surrogate mother o New tech  Genetic counseling—assess chances of hereditary disorders  Choose best course of action—risk.biological and environmental foundations - - Genotype—genetic make up of an individual Phenotype—observable characteristics Genetic foundations o Chromosomes. one from each parent  Appear at the same place on both chromosomes in a pair  One inherited from each parent  Homozygous. fertilized ova  Identical/ monozygotic—one zygote that divides into two individuals o Alleles.23rd pair. - Sequential—several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal groups at varying times Rights of research participants o Protected from harm o Informed consent o Privacy o Knowledge of results o Beneficial treatment Chapter 2. family goals .sperm and ova.same allele  Heterozygous—different alleles o Dominant-recessive inheritance o Incomplete dominance  Both alleles of a single gene are expressed  Combined trait  Intermediate trait o X-linked dominance o Polygenetic inheritance.store and transmit genetic info o Genes.

cities .timing and duration of family life cycle  Values and expectations  Communication and discipline styles  Education.sample of amniotic fluid  Needle inserted in abdomen to placenta  Can test for genetic problems  Risk of miscarriage o Chorionic villus sampling  Needle inserted to villi  Risk of miscarriage o Fetoscopy o Ultrasound o Maternal blood analysis o Preimplantation genetic analysis Adoption o Trends—international adoption. women  Parents under 25 with children  Minorities  Women  Children  Poor nutrition  Poor education in poor neighborhoods  Homelessness—23% of homeless are families with children  Majority under 5  Poor school attendance  Health issues—poor nutrition  Developmental delays o Neighborhoods. status of women o Poverty  13% are poor  Elderly living alone. - - Recommended when: o Mother is over 35 o Having difficulties getting pregnant o Hereditary disease risk Prenatal diagnostic methods o Amniocentesis. developmental issues o May exhibit some difficulties Environmental contexts for development o Family  Direct. older children. job prestige. skill  Economic status. divorce. towns.income o Family functioning.two person relationship  Parent-child relationship  Indirect.years of education.third parties  Parents get along well  Adapting to change—changes from within and outside the family  Illness. travel o Socioeconomic status  Social status. death.

- - - - Cultural context of affluence Though that affluent children better life Often have unavailable patents—high pressure job.portion of individual differences attributable to genetics o Range of reaction o Genetic environment correlation  Passive—no way of picking environment. group goals over ind Indicators of children’s health and well beings Percentage of elderly living in poverty How much does heredity contribute to behavior o Heritability. depression Importance of regularly eating dinner as a family o Better outcome than those who do not Benefits of strong communities o Social interaction. personal goals needs o Group. children  Evocative Niche-picking. activity o Cooperation to provide safe environment o Participation in important tasks o Mutual assistant Extended families—three or more generations living together o Common in many minority cultures o Benefits  Reduces stress of poverty  Assistance form all generations  Emotional bonds support Individualist and collectivist society o Ind= define separate.actively involved in picking their environment  Epigenetic o Risks o o . out of town  Overscheduled  Demanding o Alcohol and drug use— o Anxiety.