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**Program for statical and modal
**

analysis of spatial frames

MANUAL

Kühne BSB GmbH, DE 64295 Darmstadt, Mina-Rees-Straße 5A, Tel:+49-(0)6151/397690-0, Fax: -200

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

Contents

iii

Contents

1

KRASTA ............................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

2

LEGAL ISSUES.................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1

2.2

3

**POSSIBILITIES AND FIELDS OF USAGE OF KRASTA ............................................................................ 3
**

ND

CACLULATION ACCORDING TO THEORY 2 ORDER ............................................................................. 3

LOADS AND PREDISPLACEMENTS ...................................................................................................... 3

MASS DISTRIBUTION ........................................................................................................................ 3

PAS ................................................................................................................................................ 3

STAB88 / NODYA .......................................................................................................................... 3

LICENSE AGREEMENT ....................................................................................................................... 5

LIABILITY ......................................................................................................................................... 6

INSTALLATION.................................................................................................................................... 7

3.1

KRASTA ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3.1.1

Obtaining the latest KRASTA Version .................................................................................... 7

3.1.2

Start of Installation .................................................................................................................. 7

3.1.3

Determine directory for manager system and temporary files ............................................... 7

3.1.4

First start of KRASTA ............................................................................................................. 8

3.1.5

Closing KRASTA .................................................................................................................... 9

3.2

LICENCE FILES............................................................................................................................... 10

3.2.1

Naming extension and location of the Licence File .............................................................. 10

3.2.2

How to check your Licence File ........................................................................................... 10

3.2.3

Changes to the Licence File ................................................................................................. 10

3.2.4

Protection against misuse .................................................................................................... 10

4

**BASICS IN PROGRAM USAGE ........................................................................................................ 11
**

4.1

USER SETTING AND SETUP............................................................................................................. 13

4.1.1

The KRASTA-Manager ........................................................................................................ 13

4.1.2

The User Profile ................................................................................................................... 13

4.2

KRASTA BASICS .......................................................................................................................... 15

4.2.1

Main Window ........................................................................................................................ 15

4.2.2

Left mouse button ................................................................................................................. 18

4.2.3

Middle mouse button / mouse wheel .................................................................................... 18

4.2.4

Right mouse button .............................................................................................................. 18

4.2.5

Orbit-Mode ........................................................................................................................... 19

4.2.6

Hotkeys................................................................................................................................. 20

4.2.7

KRASTA Objects .................................................................................................................. 20

4.2.8

Single Object Selection ........................................................................................................ 21

4.2.9

Multiple Object Selection ...................................................................................................... 22

4.2.10 OK and Cancel ..................................................................................................................... 22

4.2.11 Saving of texts and pictures ................................................................................................. 22

4.2.12 Input Controls ....................................................................................................................... 22

4.3

HANDLING OF KRASTA SYSTEMS................................................................................................... 25

4.3.1

Purge System ....................................................................................................................... 25

4.3.2

KRASTA archives ................................................................................................................. 25

4.4

SELECTION OF BEAMS AND NODES ................................................................................................. 27

4.4.1

Current Selection .................................................................................................................. 27

4.4.2

Selection Mode ..................................................................................................................... 27

4.4.3

Changing the current selection, graphically interactive ........................................................ 27

4.4.4

Changing the current selection, in respect to beam or node properties .............................. 28

4.5

VIEW, DISPLAY, PROJECTION ......................................................................................................... 29

4.5.1

Display Subset ..................................................................................................................... 29

4.6

COLORS AND CAPTIONS ................................................................................................................. 31

4.6.1

Colors ................................................................................................................................... 31

4.6.2

Captions ............................................................................................................................... 31

4.6.3

Text and symbol sizes .......................................................................................................... 32

iv

Contents

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

4.7

PRINTING ....................................................................................................................................... 33

4.8

PAGE LAYOUT ................................................................................................................................ 34

4.9

OPTIONS........................................................................................................................................ 35

4.9.1

Units ...................................................................................................................................... 35

4.9.2

Languages ............................................................................................................................ 35

4.9.3

User ...................................................................................................................................... 35

4.9.4

Automatic save ..................................................................................................................... 35

5

MODELLING ....................................................................................................................................... 37

5.1

COORDINATE SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................. 39

5.1.1

Inertial System ...................................................................................................................... 39

5.1.2

Subsystem Coordinate System ............................................................................................ 39

5.1.3

Beam Coordinate System ..................................................................................................... 39

5.1.4

Principal Axes Coordinate System ....................................................................................... 40

5.2

BEAMS AND NODES ........................................................................................................................ 41

5.2.1

Beam and Node Name ......................................................................................................... 41

5.2.2

Beam Properties ................................................................................................................... 42

5.2.3

Node Properties .................................................................................................................... 45

5.3

CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 47

5.3.1

Split Beam ............................................................................................................................ 47

5.3.2

Reverse Beams .................................................................................................................... 48

5.3.3

Translation, Stretching, Copying and Mirroring .................................................................... 48

5.3.4

Rounding .............................................................................................................................. 49

5.3.5

Check for double beams or nodes ....................................................................................... 49

5.4

CROSS SECTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 51

5.4.1

Points for Proof of Stresses .................................................................................................. 51

5.4.2

Direct Input Cross Section .................................................................................................... 52

5.4.3

Partial Rigid Cross Sections ................................................................................................. 52

5.4.4

Thin-Walled Cross Sections ................................................................................................. 54

5.4.5

Parametric Cross Sections ................................................................................................... 55

5.4.6

Standard Cross Sections ...................................................................................................... 66

5.4.7

Import Cross Sections .......................................................................................................... 66

5.4.8

Plot Cross Sections .............................................................................................................. 66

5.4.9

Clean Up Cross Sections ..................................................................................................... 66

5.5

MATERIAL ...................................................................................................................................... 67

5.5.1

Clean Up Materials ............................................................................................................... 67

5.6

LISTS............................................................................................................................................. 69

5.6.1

Simple Beam or Node Lists .................................................................................................. 69

5.6.2

Other simple lists .................................................................................................................. 69

5.6.3

Composition Lists ................................................................................................................. 70

5.6.4

Filter Lists ............................................................................................................................. 70

5.6.5

Clean Up of Lists .................................................................................................................. 70

5.7

MASS CASES ................................................................................................................................. 71

5.7.1

Permanent Mass .................................................................................................................. 71

5.7.2

Basic Mass Cases (BMC) ..................................................................................................... 71

5.7.3

Combination Mass Cases (CMC) ......................................................................................... 74

5.7.4

Situation Dependent Mass Case (SMC) .............................................................................. 74

5.7.5

Sum of Masses ..................................................................................................................... 74

5.8

LOAD CASES .................................................................................................................................. 75

5.8.1

Basic Load Case (BLC) ........................................................................................................ 75

5.8.2

Combination Load Case (CLC) ............................................................................................ 80

5.8.3

Situation Dependent Load Case (SLC) ................................................................................ 80

nd

5.8.4

Load Case 2 Order Theory (TH2) ...................................................................................... 80

5.8.5

Geometrical nonlinear Load Case (S88) .............................................................................. 81

5.8.6

Logic Load Case (LLC) ......................................................................................................... 81

5.8.7

Nonlinear Logic Load Case .................................................................................................. 82

5.9

SITUATION DEPENDENT LOAD AND MASS CASES ............................................................................. 83

5.10

LOAD EVENTS ............................................................................................................................ 85

5.11

LOAD SEQUENCES ...................................................................................................................... 87

5.12

DESIGN SPECTRA ....................................................................................................................... 89

.............................5 Current Subsystem .2 Methods of calculation suites ............................4 Further possibilities to model kinematic displacements ................................13....3 Example: Constraint Conditions ....................................................................................1 Error/Warning Nr.........................................4 Geometrical Orientation of a Subsystem .................... 129 6 CALCULATION ..14 SUBSYSTEMS ..................................1........................................... 139 6.............................................................................................................................. 96 5.............................3 Orientation Modification...................................................................................... 120 5. 113 5..................... 102 5.....................................2 Means for the orientation of the structure ............ 101 5................... 133 6.......................................2 Import Subsystems..14...............................16 ORIENTATION ....... 119 5.....................................................................................................................6 CALCULATION LOG ............................KRASTA 9.................................................................................................. 111 5...............14.................................18.................................. 106 5.................18..................................................................2 CALCULATION ACCORDING 2 ORDER THEORY ............................4 Methods of orientation .14..........3 Example for a subsystem structure ........1 CALCULATION SUITE ............................................ 137 6......5 Assistant for Constraint Conditions ...................................16..........................................13................................ 147 .......................................................17.....8 Compatibility with KRASTA 9.............................................................7 PAS ERROR MESSAGES ................13................ 136 ND 6...................................5 PROCESS SOLVER INPUT FILES ...........6 Buffer for Constraint Conditions .......................14.......................6 Manual Contents v 5....................................... 112 5.............13........................................................................................ 117 5........................7 Error messages (Contact) during connection of subsystems ....13..........15............. 127 5.........................13......5 Notifications during the execution of orientations .............................4 Dialog: Calculation Suite ................................................... 109 5........4 Sensor degrees of freedom and “optimised coupling” ....1 Hierarchy............................................. 127 5..........6 Contact ...1 Available solvers and computation theories ..................... 118 5...................................... 137 nd 6..............................................4 Examples for Contacts ........ 123 5...... 141 6................................14................... 113 5.................................1 Types of Constraint Conditions .....................................15 CONNECTIONS AND CONTACTS ................................................................................. 91 5..17................16............... 105 5...................................................................................................... Modelling techniques .............................8 Split off Marked Nodes as New Subsystem ..............................16............... 91 5...............................2... 131 6................................ 117 5.................... 134 6.................6 Beams and Nodes of a Subsystem ........... 229 .............................................................15................................................................................................................................ 103 5........................................... 103 5........................1 Dialog: Kinematic ...........................3 The situation “$uncertain”....................................................................................................4 CONTENT OF THE RESULT FILE ............................. 147 6......................................... 145 6.........................................13 CONSTRAINT CONDITIONS ........3 SITUATION-INDEPENDENT CALCULATION .....................................................................................1.....2.....16............................................................................................................4 Create situations for orientations .......... 134 6........................................14.............................................................................. 105 5..................1 Basic Orientation ..................3 The default calculation suites „PAS linear“ and „PAS ThII” ......................... 126 5. 128 5..17........................................................15..................1 2 Order Theory.........3 and prior .7....5 Connection ................................................................................ 105 5.......... 115 5..................2 Relative Orientation ...............................................15........................................................................................ 143 6.........17 KINEMATICS ..............15.........................................................................................1............................................................................ 107 5........ 133 6............. Organization .....................14.........................9 Melt a subsystem ...14..........15........... Basics ..........................3 Example: (Kinematic) ...................................... 133 6....................................................... 115 5........18......................................................................................................................14......... 105 5...................16........1...........7 Error Bounds ..2 Th...18......................................................... II....2 Error messages (Kinematic) ................................................................................................................. 106 5.17...................... 102 5................................................................. 137 6.............. 98 5............................................7 Beams between subsystems ...........................5 Calculate specific Results ..................................................15..........................................................2 Consideration in Display and Results .............................................................................. 92 5...............................................................................................................................................2 Dialog “Situation” .. 105 5........................................................1 Structural Build-Up ........ 116 5............................ 107 5............................................1 Methods of situations ........................................ 128 5................................................................................................................................................................3 Simplified orientation after copy or import .................. 103 5......... 107 5.................................................13...................................1. 92 5.............................18 SITUATION ....................13......................................................................................................................................... 124 5.............................................................................

... 157 7.................. 228 8........... 220 7........................1 Beam Spring .... 232 8............................................... 193 7...............................................................8 MODAL ANALYSIS ................7 Proof of Fatigue according to EN 1993-1-9:2005 (EC 3) ......... 235 .....................................................................................................................................1.................................................................5 CROSS SECTION ................................3.......1................1....................................................................................... 215 7...................5 Details of Output ........................... 225 8.................................3...............1......... 147 6...........4 Evaluation Pattern .............................................................................. 181 7................................................................. 451 ................................................3 PROOF...................................................... 215 7.............................................................................6 Common information to proof of fatigue according to EN 13001-3 ...........................7..............................1 Support Conditions ..................................................................................................................................................................................4 Error/Warning Nr.....................3.............................................................................. DIN 18800:1990-11 ......... 455 .......... 167 7........2.....................................................3..................................................................5 Beam Buckling Data ................................................................................/ RESULT-CONTROL-SETS ..................................... 223 7.......................................................................................................................................2 Evaluation .........4 Force Conditions ... 221 7.................................................................................................................................................................................... 228 8..................7.................... 453 ............................... 197 7.................3........... 207 7..........2 Error/Warning Nr.......................1..........10 Proof of Fatigue according to DASt-Ri 011 .......................1..................................................................... 231 8..... 185 7.....1 PROOFS ................................... DIN 15018 ................................................................................. 234 9 INDEX ................................-el................2 RESULTS ..................1.... 152 6........... DIN 22261 .............................................2 Graphical Output ..................................................................................................................................7............................................... 228 8........2 Proof of Fatigue acc......... acc..........................3 PROPERTIES OF BEAMS ............9 SIGN DEFINITION OF INNER FORCES AND STRESSES....................11 Proof of Fatigue acc............................ 195 7.....................................5 PALETTES ......3...................................................................................................1 Delta Stress Results ...... 175 7.............................................1 GENERAL ....................................................................8 Proof of Fatigue acc........1 Textual Documentation ................................................................................................. 228 8.................................. 216 7.............................1............................. 223 7... 165 7.........1 Proof of fatigue based on damage accumulation . 209 7............................................. 211 7....................3.................. 225 8..3 Output ..........................................................................................3............................................................................................. 213 7.........................3.....5 Proof of Fatigue according to prEN 13001-3-1:2009 ...........................................................................................................................4........................ 226 8.......................................... Buckling acc.001 .....3............... 223 8 BRIEF INFORMATION FOR REVIEW ..........................................................................6...............13 Proof of Stresses......................................................... FEM 1..............6 SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION ......6 Manual 6......................................................7 LOAD CASES ......................... 161 7................. 228 8................................................................................................2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS ........................................... 228 8.............................................. 222 7......................... 234 8.9 Proof of Fatigue acc..................3 Material ..........................................................................3 Error/Warning Nr........................................ 150 6..... 155 7 ANALYSIS AND DOCUMENTATION .................................................. 159 7......................................................................vi Contents KRASTA 9....................................... 169 7.1 Options for search of extreme values .........3 Proof of Fatigue acc..4 PROPERTIES OF NODES .................................................2 Joints .........4 OUTPUT FORMAT ........................................... 229 8........................... 199 7........ AS 4100:1998 .......................... ISO 5049-1 . 228 8.............................................................8 RESULTS ...............................12 Proof of Stresses el........4 Proof of Fatigue according to DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005-03 .........................................................................................................1...........................1....................................... 216 7.....6 MASS CASES ..............................1.. 217 7................................................... 228 8..6.............................................1..........................................1................. DIN 4114-1:1952-07 (Omega-Method) ....

R. developed by the Lehrstuhl für Förderwesen of the TU München.and minicomputers.6 Manual KRASTA 1 1 KRASTA KRASTA is a program system for structural and modal analysis of spatial framework in the fields of material handling and general steel engineering.KRASTA 9. © 2013 Kühne BSB GmbH . Neugebauer. Dr. Since 1980 the program is used in the industry. Program authors: Holger Ackermann Georg Kohlhas Michael Kühne Alfried Lautermann Hans Lautner Frank Meier-Dörnberg Gerhard Wagner and others PAS III. The program has been developed at the institute in cooperation with the industry first of all for mainframe. respectively version PAS IV. Structures or parts of it can be moved in different configurations for calculation. The work has been supported by the Fachgemeinschaft Fördertechnik im VDMA (Verband Deutscher Maschinen. Ebel. can be used. The idea for KRASTA was born in 1973 at the Fachgebiet Fördertechnik und Lasthebemaschinen (Institute for Material Handling and lifting appliances) of the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt.-Ing. Wagner. Prof. As an alternative to PAS the program STAB88. In 1987 the program was ported to PC under DOS. Since 1990 the graphical-interactive in.und Anlagenbau e. The program system was ported to Windows in 1995. Since 1991 further development. Prof. Dr. The idea to this was brought in by the Lehrstuhl für Fördertechnik und Maschinenelemente of the RU Bochum. Prof. is used as solver.V.-Ing. Dr. G. maintenance and sale are done by Kühne BSB GmbH.and output was developed. enhanced by Kühne BSB. H. developed parallel to KRASTA at the Institut für Statik und Stahlbau of the TH Darmstadt.Ing.) and FKM (Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau). Results from several positions can be evaluated together.

.

Loads resulting from translational or rotational accelerations or rotational velocities are generated automatically on the base of the mass distribution. The results from different positions can be evaluated together. Elasticity equations for rigid values are replaced by equilibrium conditions. DIN 22261 and EN 1993-1-9 (EC3) incl. material handling and plant manufacturing. The calculation continues up to the proof of stresses and fatigue.2 Caclulation according to theory 2nd order For a calculation according to theory 2nd order. shear areas.and rope structures. The proof of stresses can be made independent of standards or according to DIN 18800. 1. 1. 1. the proof of fatigue can be made according several standards e.3 Loads and predisplacements Loads and predisplacements (concentrated.1 KRASTA 3 Possibilities and fields of usage of KRASTA KRASTA is a program system for structural and modal analysis in the fields of general steel engineering. Venant torsion theory. The buckling load (Eigen value) can be determined iteratively. . 1. As the inhomogeneous DES is solved loads and predisplacements can be placed inside the beams without definition of intermediate nodes.6 Manual 1. PAS contains a theory of small displacements which means that the plan of displacement is built linear. Partial rigid cross sections Each of the 6 cross section values (area. nd order. 1. For the single beam the differential equation system (DES) is solved according to the technical beam bending theory.6 STAB88 / NODYA The optional solver program STAB88 is a finite element program with geometrical nonlinear calculation of beam -. evenly distributed or trapezoidal) can act on parts of a beam or on the complete beam. The equilibrium is calculated in the deformed Theory 2nd order iterates over the normal force of the beam. bar . damage accumulation. partial safety coefficients and predisplacements can be considered.g. bending. The structural model is created graphical interactive by means of beam elements and nodes.and torsional inertia moments) can be set rigid or elastic. The nominal stresses are determined on the base of technical bending theory of the beam and the St. DIN 15018. st The calculation may be according to theory 1 or 2 state.5 PAS PAS theoretical foundation The program PAS°III or PAS°IV used as solver has the following theoretical foundation. Structures or parts of it can be brought to different positions for calculation.KRASTA 9. Structures that show great differences in elasticity or regions that cannot be modelled by beams. can be modelled in this way so that the global flow of forces can be determined correctly without numerical difficulties in solving the equations.4 Mass Distribution The mass distribution can be described exactly.

.

The program is property of the company Kühne BSB GmbH and it is protected by copyright. The license agreement exists between the end user as licensee and the company Kühne BSB GmbH. Concession of a license. The program must not be leased or hired. 5.1 License agreement 1. However there is the possibility to definitely transfer the license to a third party. The license agreement gives you the right to install and to use a copy of the program KRASTA on your computer (single user license). If the program is supplied with a dongle it may be installed on several computers. In case you have several licenses of KRASTA you are allowed to install it on as many computers as licenses exist. 2.6 Manual Legal Issues 5 2 Legal Issues 2.KRASTA 9. If a user wants to install a version that is not provided with a dongle on other computers for testing or does he want to copy the manual in parts or in total a written permission of the company Kühne BSB GmbH is required. All available program versions as well as all manuals have to be passed on to the new licensee. The license can be transferred only if this contract is accepted by the new licensee. .). If you have a network license there is no numerical limitation of computers on which the program is installed in one location. 4. The licensee is authorized to make a backup of the original data media for his own use (exception see 5. Decompilation and disassembly of the program is not allowed. 3. Copying of the program or the manual without written permission is prohibited. no copy is allowed to remain with the person who transfers the license.

AutoCAD is a registered US-trademark of Autodesk. Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. KRASTA and KRACAD are registered trademarks. Should you have any questions about this contract. Inc.6 2. The responsibility for the correctness of the results is exclusively up to the user. KRACAD.. please contact the company Kühne BSB GmbH at the following address: Kühne BSB GmbH Mina-Rees-Straße 5A DE 64295 Darmstadt Phone +49 (0) 6151 397690-0 Fax +49 (0) 6151 397690-200 Hotline +49 (0) 6151 397690-222 KRASTA. MS-DOS.6 Manual Liability The company Kühne BSB GmbH takes no liability for secondary damages which are caused by using the program.2 Legal Issues KRASTA 9. . KRAMOD Copyright 1991-2013 Kühne BSB GmbH.

The latest “Sentinel Driver” can be found on the manufacturer’s website.g.2 Start of Installation 1 The actual installation is done by running the installation program (e. There: "KRASTA 9.3 Determine directory for manager system and temporary files KRASTA automatically creates files to store the user settings. 3. The handling of the licence files is described in chapter "Licence Files (p.4240"). KRASTA is stored in a directory like “C:\Program Files\KUEHNE_BSB\KRASTA_9. Windows 7.6. 3.1 KRASTA KRASTA can be installed at present under the following different operating systems: Windows 8. you additionally may need a licence file and a dongle “Sentinel Driver”. .g. Windows XP Should any problems occur during the installation or later our hotline will be available for help.6 Manual Installation 7 3 Installation 3. After the confirmations of security warnings and the question of the installation language. the complete KRASTA version info is shown.krasta. By default. Please follow the instructions and questions. By default. 1 Respectively. 3.1 Obtaining the latest KRASTA Version KRASTA customers with an active maintenance agreement may access the “Customer’s area” under www. "krasta_960_full. Windows 2000.0. Windows Vista Windows NT.exe"). To use all licensed feature of KRASTA.6" runs the actual installation program. The licence file will usually be send via e-mail from our support if needed.6\". "KRASTA 9.10)". This directory is known as the "KRASTA root directory” Within this directory the executables are stored to subdirectory „BIN“.KRASTA 9. when installing from CD: Inserting the CD and automatically or manually run "start. these files are stored into the KRASTA root directory and are named with the prefix “MANAGER”.1.de after login with their credentials (Username and Password): In the customer’s area the latest KRASTA version and according release notes are available for download.1.exe". the cross section library to subdirectory „LIB“ and the program documentation to subdirectory „MANUAL“.1. (e.

too. it is possible to select another language at any time. Accept this once and change it afterwards to your preference. KRASTA will detect the fact that some information is still missing and will ask for it. KRASTA will select name “Anwender“ as the default (German) name for a user. Later (and for individual projects).4 First start of KRASTA When launched for the first time. KRASTA users must have write permission for this directory. A dialogue window will appear for the selection of the language.6 Manual You can however choose other locations and/or file names for those files in KRASTA. At the very first start. You can choose another position for this too. which should be used by KRASTA by default. Access to this directory should be as fast as possible. . KRASTA automatically stores temporary files within the actual windows temp directory in a separate subdirectory „KRASTA“. KRASTA Start Window In the first window to appear the name of the user has to be selected and possibly an according password entered. it should be located on the local hard drive and should be locally accessed.1.8 Installation KRASTA 9. KRASTA users must have write permission to this file. This allows for multiple user access to a shared manager system. therefore. 3.

by selecting a directory. 3. empty system automatically when started. which contains KRASTA systems. Installation 9 . You can select an existing system. test. The main window of KRASTA includes the following elements: Main menu Tool bar Status bar Working area Object tree Information window KRASTA generally opens a new.g. you can select a system (e.5 Closing KRASTA You can close KRASTA by using the submenu item „Close“ in the main menu item “File”.KRASTA 9.1.kr2). to open it click “Open” or double-click the system name. There.6 Manual KRASTA Main Window After the selection of a user the main window of KRASTA appears.

10 3.liz.”.2.g. In order to enable KRASTA to find the licence file it must be located in the same directory as the program executable (“KRASTA.3 Changes to the Licence File Changes to the license file.6\BIN” or similar. .EXE”). customers with network and/or customers with full version must have an appropriate Licence File. this then should be “C:\Program Files\Kuehne_BSB\KRASTA_9. e.3 some special program features (e.2.2 Installation KRASTA 9.2. further information to enable individual features of KRASTA are also contained in this file. Make sure that multiple Licence Files are not present at the same time.2 How to check your Licence File You are able to check your currently licensed KRASTA features at any time through the KRASTA menu item menu item “Info. 3.1 Naming extension and location of the Licence File The KRASTA Licence File has the file extension “*..g. The license files contain information in coded form.2.6 Manual Licence Files Starting with KRASTA 9. the individual identification used by KRASTA.. can be done by us at any time. If the appropriate default settings were assumed during the installation of KRASTA.de Phone: +49 (0) 6151 / 397690 – 222 Fax: +49 (0) 6151 / 397690 – 200 3. 3. Please contact our support: Email: support@krasta. regarding Network/Dongle or Basic/Fatigue/Full version) are activated by an individual Licence-File. In order to be able to use all licensed KRASTA features.4 Protection against misuse Secure the Licence File (in particular in network environments) against misuse and unauthorized third party access. Apart from an individual identification for the identification of the licensee. KRASTA will always analyze the first licence file found 3.

Items regarding configuration. basic usage concepts and some special controls are covered. .6 Manual Basics in Program Usage 11 4 Basics in Program Usage The following chapter describes usage of KRASTA itself and handling KRASTA systems.KRASTA 9.

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4. rev.and Output Language Texts for dialog and textual output are saved in a file and may be translated into other languages. which. mrad fraction : part. h temperature : centigrade. gon. Dyn. copied. that are only allowed for the "Manager". Users are data-technical "objects" and they can be generated.1. 4. A special user. The units used for in.and output language as well as the physical units can be set. t. lbs time : sec. Mp. daN. percent. . Fahrenheit angle : rad. edited and deleted.2.KRASTA 9. defines the dialog and output language of KRASTA.1. Every user has a user profile. The user profile is organized hierarchically: settings by the KRASTA-manager By this means settings with higher priority overwrite lower ones. 4.1 The KRASTA-Manager If functions are called.1. g. dm.1 In.2 The User Profile default settings by KRASTA In the user profile the dialog.. per mill increasing priority settings by the user fixed settings in the system temp. lbs. kN. min.and Output Units: length : m.1 Basics in Program Usage 13 User Setting and Setup KRASTA may be used by single users or work groups that are manager by KRASTA themselves.2. settings in the system In the database all data is saved in SI-units. among other preferences. mm.2 In. German and English language databases are delivered with the program system. Grad. The user can specify which languages he wants to use for dialog and output separately. cm. the manager. pond. the program asks for the manager password. kp. in. MN mass : kg. 4. ft force : N.and output can be changed at any time.1. After input of this password the user is authorized as Manager until the end of the current KRASTA session.6 Manual 4. is responsible for the organization of users and data.

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deformation and stresses as well as the selection of beams and nodes. Status Line. masses.gives the user access to all functions of the program. here you see the topical system name with path.6 Manual 4. Information Window. Main Menu . here information concerning the picture is displayed. Object Tree.2. inner forces. KRASTA Main Window . here you see different tools for information and display. Toolbar.1 Main Window The main screen of KRASTA provides the following items: Titlebar.2 Basics in Program Usage 15 KRASTA Basics In the following chapter. here all objects of the current model are displayed in a tree structure.In the working area you see the display of the entered structure. Working Area . here you see topical settings and prompts. loads. KRASTA basics and common usage pattern are covered.KRASTA 9. 4.

you can use the scroll-bars to scroll the view or use the toolbar to zoom or to vary the view direction stepwise.1. inner forces.2. masses. Viewing direction. loads. size and center can be changed directly by mouse in the so-called "Orbit-Mode (p.16 Basics in Program Usage KRASTA 9. deformation and stresses are displayed. Additionally.6 Manual 4. and nodes.1 Working Area In the working area the structure. Window: Working Area . beams.27) subsystems.19)”. cross sections. Using the mouse you can select (p.

mass cases and list are divided into sub topics.KRASTA 9. Dissolve Folder Removes the folder and reinsert the contained objects in superior object group.6 Manual Basics in Program Usage 17 4. it is possible to use user defined folder to further subdivide the object groups. further levels below this point can be displayed. Pressing the right mouse button in the tree view brings up a context menu that offers the options that are usually connected with that type of object. . inner forces) to the current load case. Beam or Node Lists are used as under the menu item "selection by list“ Cross Sections and Materials are assigned to the currently selected beams The dividing line between object tree and working area can be moved left or right. By the context menu of the respective object group. bending line. Window: Object Tree By clicking on the plus sign in front of the object name or by double clicking the name itself. By pressing the button Minimize Tree the tree is reduced to the main level. edited or dissolved: New Folder… Creates a new folder and opens the folder edit dialog. Each KRASTA object is represented exactly once in the object tree. user defined folder can be created. if such a display is active. For reasons of improved readability load cases. In addition it is possible for some types of objects to pull them via drag and drop onto the working area.2. else it turns on load display. Edit Folder… Opens the folder edit dialog of a already existent folder. never simultaneously in multiple folders. The results depend on the object type: Display and Projection Settings are applied to the current display Mass Cases turn on mass case display for the selected mass case Load Cases switch load dependent displays (load. User Defined Folder in Object Tree Below the most object types in the object tree.1.2 Object Tree On the left side of the screen all objects of the current system are displayed in a tree view.

If the mouse points to a beam or node additional menu items Edit Beam and Edit Node appear for the individual beams or nodes.2.3 Information Window In a window situated between working area and status line.19). 4. load and mass totals) is shown. Details can be found in Section “Selection of Beams and Nodes (p. 4.19)”.1.6 Manual 4.2. For operations which may take some time a progress bar is shown.18 Basics in Program Usage KRASTA 9. not the entire system. In the information window shown totals only consider the currently displayed subset.2. In case thereby the totals may incomplete. the view direction is changed. the model location under the mouse cursor stay fixed. to change the displayed Subset and to Copy the current view into the clipboard (in meta file and in bitmap format). Window: Information The dividing line between information window and working area can be moved up or. if not set otherwise in the orbit-settings (p.19)”. this is indicated by the note "partial summation". information concerning the currently displayed graphics (description of display. This may also be used to adjust the aspect ratio of the display for output.2 Left mouse button In the working area is possible to select or deselect beams and nodes by the left mouse button. not all loaded objects are currently displayed. i. If you click the right mouse button in the working area. Turning the mouse wheel. scaling factor for figures. 4. the view is rotated around the viewing axis.2. Additionally prompts for input in dialogs and information about the menu items are displayed.27)”. the view is moved (panned). By zooming by the mouse wheel.1.2. If the middle mouse button / mouse wheel is pressed down in “Orbit-Mode (p. . beam and node selection state and current time is displayed.3 Middle mouse button / mouse wheel In the working area a menu to control selection modes is opened by pressing the middle mouse button / the mouse wheel. 4.19)”. If the right mouse button is pressed down in “Orbit-Mode (p. the view size is changed (zoomend). If the left mouse button is pressed down in “Orbit-Mode (p.4 Items of the Status Line In the status line selected units. the menu contains items to Zoom the view.4 Right mouse button In the working area you can pop up a menu by clicking the right mouse button.e.

then the current center of rotation is displayed and a small orbit symbol is attached to the mouse cursor ( ). By this method the spatial center of the node points displayed near to the actual mouse position is used as center of rotation. Orbit . 4. Orbit .19).KRASTA 9. The (yet only available) type of determination of the center of rotation is “Mouse Position”. By this method the spatial center of the node points displayed near to the actual mouse position is used as center of rotation. The (yet only available) type of determination of center of rotation is “Mouse Position”. The sign switched the direction of the movement .1 Orbit-Settings Dialog: Orbit-Settings The menu item “Option | Orbit-Settings…” opens den configuration dialog shown above. Sensitivity / Direction These parameters are used to scale the speed of movement.2.2.5.6 Manual 4.Activations Available are the following methods of activation: Via Context menu: In the context menu of the working area a menu item “Orbit” is available. vertical axis (middle mouse button to rotate around view axis). view size (roll mouse wheel to zoom) or view center (right mouse button to pan).Center of Rotation The current center of rotation is determined at the time the Orbit-Mode is activated. Orbit – Center of Rotation The indication of the current center of rotation can be controlled. Therefore the usual context menu is unavailable in Orbit-Mode. Key for activation / deactivation: The Orbit Mode is activated by pressing down and deactiveted by releasing the chosen Key.5 Basics in Program Usage 19 Orbit-Mode In “Orbit-Mode” it is possible to quickly change view direction (left mouse button to roll around lateral axis). If the “Orbit-Mode” is active (p. By this type of activation the Orbit-Mode is deactivated by a click with the right mouse button.

Objects of most types may also be Imported from other systems and stored in Lists (p. to make the function of parts of the system clearer.7. Here further explanations may be specified.7. This data can be reviewed by clicking the button Information.7 KRASTA Objects The expression "object" as used in this text means things like beams. under which this object is managed. It consists of the standard name part for the type of object and a number. After selecting a load case and confirming by pressing OK or double clicking. load cases or cross sections as well as users.2. 4.g. a Name is used.7. the corresponding load case is opened for editing.4 Create an Object On creation of a new object KRASTA creates a standard object of the respective type with standard attributes and calls the relevant dialog to edit this type of object.3 Information For each object the system stores the date and the time of the creation and the date and time of the last modification.1 Name For all objects. cross sections. 4.2. KRASTA proposes a unique name for the new object consisting of the standard name of the specific object and a number.69). Using the relevant menu item the user can create such objects New. Copy existing ones or Delete them. a Comment and Information about creation and modification date.6 Manual Hotkeys Beside the standard windows behavior to select menu items via keyboard by pressing [ALT]-Key and an underlined letter of the menu item. nodes. The program proposes a standard name for a new object. 4.7. load cases. nodes. Example: Edit an Object After the selection of the menu item Edit in the main menu item load case.5 Edit an Object The menu item Edit calls the corresponding object dialog for the chosen object. etc. a selection box appears where all existing load cases are listed. In some cases the menu item New is followed by a submenu for the specification of the subtype of object to create. KRASTA offers the following short cut keys for common actions additionally: CTRL+N open new (empty) model CTRL+O open existing model CTRL+S save model CTRL+P print CTRL+R refresh display STRG+Q quit KRASTA 4.2. 4. that is automatically incremented. All such objects have a Name. A list is also an object. page layouts etc. .2.2.7.6 KRASTA 9. Edit them. beams.2. The name can consist of up to 16 letters and 4 figures.20 Basics in Program Usage 4.2.2 Comment For all objects a Comment can be entered in addition to the name. e. 4.

(p. In addition to Simple Lists of objects.2. By marking and clicking the button OK or by double clicking on the corresponding list entry an object can be selected. A selection box appears. On the right side the selected objects are shown.2. the corresponding load case is copied into a new load case.7. where all existing load cases are listed.6 Copy an Object The menu item Copy copies an object and calls the corresponding object dialog for the copy.9 Object Lists Object lists are used to manage a group of objects of one type. copied.8 Single Object Selection When it is necessary to select one object out of a list of objects this often can be done with the dialog Selection.7.2. They can be used for example to describe a list of nodes that carry a specific load. 4.7. 4. After selecting the desired load cases (bringing them to the right side) and confirming by clicking OK the load cases are deleted.7 Delete an Object With the menu item Delete you can delete an existing load case. 4.2. Example: Delete an Object After clicking Delete in the main menu item load case a multiple object selection appears.70) whose contents follow an individually defined rule. Example: Copy an Object Click main menu item load case and then Copy.KRASTA 9. where all existing load cases are listed on the left. Lists can be created new. cross section etc. Multiple object selections are usually used to edit simple object lists. If the names of imported objects conflict with already existing ones.70).7. In the next step the desired objects can be selected in a multiple object selection dialog.and Composition-Lists. edited or deleted. there are so-called Filter (p. on the left the unselected ones. Beam and node lists use special dialogs to graphically interactive select the object on the screen. 4. To import an object. Lists (p. This new load case is opened for edition.2. the number part of the name is automatically incremented for the imported objects. .69) are KRASTA objects and have a name and a comment. mass case.6 Manual Basics in Program Usage 21 4. in which individual objects are explicitly listed. After selecting a load case and confirming by pressing OK or by a double clicking. In most cases the dialog caption shows the purpose of the selection. If a list is no longer used. Usage of a list in other objects is registered. KRASTA asks the user if it should delete the specific list. the system from which to import has to be selected first.8 Import an Object Objects can be imported from other KRASTA systems.

. for simplified entering of points or vectors. A text or a plot file represents one or more output pages which may later be printed via the printing dialog (p. An object can be selected by marking on the left and clicking the button Add or by double clicking on the left.9 Basics in Program Usage KRASTA 9.12 Input Controls In KRASTA dialogs often have input controls with specialized properties e. By clicking the button Print the text is printed directly to the currently configured printer (p. 4.g. The available objects are listed on the left. KRASTA needs a page layout (p. 4.2. 4. Saving a text There are the same items for saving a text as for saving a plot except for the button Select Picture Details. The caption shows the purpose of this selection. Saving a plot file Besides Name and Comment a Position Number can be given to the text that is to be saved.6 Manual Multiple Object Selection Several objects out of a list of objects can be selected in the dialog object selection.33) without keeping a plot file.34).33) without keeping a text file. By clicking the button Print the picture is printed directly to the currently configured printer (p. KRASTA is choosing a minimal frame to plot the currently displayed picture. to autoamtically adjust values in regard of physical units or for “in place” calculation of simple math expressions. clicking Cancel leaves the object as is. The objects can be sorted alphabetical or according to other eligible criteria.2. By activated option “Automatic trimming”. clicking the button OK stores the input. The file name for the file can be input directly or selected by pressing Browse.33). Checking Minimal Text Only leads to a plot text that does not contain load. The button “All >“ moves all objects to the right. The button “< All” moves all objects to the left.22 4.11 Saving of texts and pictures Saving picture or text is done in similar manner. The selected objects are shown on the right.10 OK and Cancel All input dialogs can be shut down by OK or Cancel. An object can be removed by marking on the right and by clicking the button Delete or by double clicking in the right field. The button Select Picture Details allows to select a smaller frame of the picture to be saved. mass or support force sums.2.2.

.12.2. y. "*". z) and click a node afterward. one can use either decimal points or commas to divide the fraction from the integer part (required for input on the german numeric keypad).2. Input of point coordinates To select point coordinates graphically you can click the button Graphical Selection.KRASTA 9.12. The input can be made by setting the coordinates via keyboard into the corresponding input fields or by graphical selection. ")". 4. In addition calculations may be made on the input line.3 Input of numerical values While entering numerical values. This only copies the corresponding component of the vector. "cos" und "tan". the difference of the node coordinates is set as the vector. y. 4. Expressions can be used that contain "+". Trigonometric functions always expect degrees as input. "**"(exponentiation) "sqrt"(square root).2.1 Basics in Program Usage 23 Input of points and vectors It is necessary to define a point or a vector at several places in the program. z) of the vector and click two nodes afterwards. "/". "-". "sin".6 Manual 4. It is also possible to place the cursor in an input control of a component (x. This only copies the corresponding component of the node.12. Input of a vector To select a vector graphically you can click the button Graphical Selection. It is also possible to place the cursor in an input control of a component (x. "(". The output is displayed with a decimal point only. In the following you can to select two nodes in the working area. In the following you can select a node in the working area of which the coordinates are set as point coordinates.2 Display of physical units All numerical input lines have their current physical units displayed next to the input field.

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The KRASTA System is archived under its original name. calculation results. if so complete and unambiguous named. 4. the widely-used ZIP-format is used. a time stamp. the current changes of the KRASTA system are stored and the KRASTA system is archived. if necessary. one file with suffix “.g. save. The file names are made up of system name and different suffixes.145) Inner forces and node displacements (p.3 Basics in Program Usage 25 Handling of KRASTA systems The term “KRASTA system” refers to all data stored under a specific system name.1 Purge System KRASTA systems may purged in various steps to save disk space.KRASTA 9.143) Undo Files The selected files (or the files representing the selected data) will be deleted by clicking OK.3. By clicking the Browse button you can purge any other system instead. After choosing the archives in “Unpack and open” the compressed KRASTA-System is extracted and the system opened. proofs and plots. the name of the archive is individualized by e. All these data are stored in seperate files.2 KRASTA archives To save individual development stages of a KRASTA system.g.kr2” is used. Archive / Dearchive In “Save and archive” some details are queried in the dialog “Put KRASTA systems into archives”. construction. but in general. evaluation logic. It is compact. before. the menu items for these purposes you can find at the main menu item File. e. The files which store the selected data will be deleted. As archive format. As a kind of handle to all of these files. it is sufficient to create a so called KRASTA archive. or delete KRASTA systems.3. open. Dialog: Purge System The following options can be selected to purge: Solver log-file (p. additionally a list of recently edited systems is offered to open. With KRASTA you are able to create new. There. As usual. . 4.141) Textual output files Graphical output files Solver input data (p. To purge the current system is default. If necessary a further inquiry takes place whether an existing system of same name is to be overwritten or not.6 Manual 4.

In addition: Specifies the contents of the archive in addition to the actual core data of a KRASTA system. are stored into the archives. Each time the system is saved. some additional data can be selected for archiving.26 Basics in Program Usage KRASTA 9. This ensures that the most important information of a KRASTA system is stored compressed in a file.zip A special form of the KRASTA archive is an automated backup when saving.6 Manual Dialog: Put KRASTA System into archives put system into: Shows the name of the archive. . AutoBack. which is archived by default. Only the most crucial data. Zip File Name: Specifies the name and location of the archive. This file allows to handle a KRASTA system easily with conventional backup strategies and to save it completely and consistently in itself. The input shown in the dialog here corresponds to the default settings plus an add-on “V01” for the archiving of a KRASTA system named “Gantry Crane”. e. no computation results. the “Auto-Backup” will be created or overwritten. archives have clear individual and informative names. as it results from the specifications in the zip file. Thus.g. Time and an individual Add-On to the archive name. It is possible to add automatically Date.

graphically interactive The selection is done with the left mouse button by clicking single objects or by drawing a rectangular area. not the single beams or nodes are selected.1 Current Selection Basics in Program Usage 27 At any time a “Current Selection” exists of beams and. If subsystems are selected and according single beams or nodes are to be unselected.4. i.4. for selection in respect to properties and for selection of an existent list. as this selection state is adopted exactly in the list. independently from that. Always. subsystems and subsystem branches.e. selected be deselected and deselected be selected. 4. The selection of beams or nodes is modifiable in many ways. The current selection state is shown in a status line in the bottom right corner. another way by selecting existing lists or by selecting specific beam or node properties (menu item Selection) If a selection acts additive or subtractive to the current selection is controlled by the Selection Mode (p.6 Manual 4. the selection state of the subsystem is transferred to the single nodes and beams and then the subsystem and the single objects are unselected. subtracted from the selection. This difference is important for simple beam and node lists. Nodes and beams which are added to subsystems subsequently are automatically included in the beam list if the subsystem is included in the list. i.2 Selection Mode Single or multiple beams resp.4 Selection of Beams and Nodes 4. But by choice single beams or nodes.27). deselected. subsystems subsystem branches or all. When selecting "subsystems".e. On way is graphically interactive by selecting single or multiple beams or nodes by picking with the mouse. It is differentiated between beams and nodes in general and single beams or nodes. . but the entire subsystem. These selection modes are applied all same kind for graphical interactive. If a selection acts additive or subtractive to the current selection is controlled by the Selection Mode (p. There is no selection state "whole subsystem without beam <xyz>".27). be added to the selection. "subsystem branches" or "all".e. i.3 Changing the current selection. which contains the currently selected beams or nodes respectively. or inverted. 4. nodes can be selected.KRASTA 9. there are only beams or only nodes selected. of nodes.4.

4.6 Manual Changing the current selection. in respect to beam or node properties The current selection may change in respect to specific beam or node properties.4 Basics in Program Usage KRASTA 9.27). If a selection acts additive or subtractive to the current selection is controlled by the Selection Mode (p.28 4. KRASTA then offers a choice of all varieties present in the system. . At first a property type is chosen. All beams or nodes with the specified property are selected.

Unselected nodes of selected beams remain in the subset while unselected beams with selected nodes are removed from the subset. a diagonal view is available by default. KRASTA here distinguishes between projections and display settings. Display Everything The whole structure is displayed.5.1 Display Subset KRASTA is able to switch between displaying the whole structure or a subset of beams and nodes. Projection The way how structural details or results are shown can be controlled in detail in many aspects.KRASTA 9. In newly created KRASTA systems the display setting “Minimal” that shows beams and nodes is available by default. 4. Display.6 Manual 4. Hide Subset The currently selected nodes and beams are removed ffom the display subset. . Projection Settings Projection settings define from which spatial direction the model is shown.5 Basics in Program Usage 29 View. Expand Subset The subset is expanded at it edges by one beam and according node. which can be stored for a quick reuse later. Therefore four menu items below main menu item “View” and at the context menu of the plot area are available: Display Subset Only the currently selected nodes and beams are shown as a subset. Beams and nodes of the previous subset are selected. In newly created KRASTA systems the projections setting “Dimetrie”. Display Settings Defines extent and details of structural and result views.

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

4.6

Basics in Program Usage

31

Colors and Captions

The settings of screen colors and text sizes reside at the main menu item View

4.6.1

Colors

**The user (p.35) can set individual colors to be used by KRASTA.
**

You can reset the colors to default by the button Standard Colors.

Dialog: Colors

You find a button next to each color box for changing the color display.

4.6.2

Captions

You can define the header text of plot and text pages. Project Name, System Text and User Text can

be set by the user, the Company Text can only be changed by the manager.

Dialog: Captions

The Project Name, System Text and Comment (white) is stored by the system. The User Text (blue) is

stored individually for the current user. The Company Text is stored globally into the manager system

and common to all users.

32

Basics in Program Usage

4.6.3

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

Text and symbol sizes

Dialog: Text and Graphic Sizes

**In the dialog you can make the following settings:
**

The relative size of texts, node boxes, beam arrows and joints on the screen or printer resp. "1" is

about 1.5% of the picture diagonal.

The relative distance to the margin

The pick sensitivity radius in pixel

The thickness of lines [approximately in mm]

In multiplication to the above (common) text size factor the field Text Sizes provides particular text size

factors.

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

4.7

Basics in Program Usage

33

Printing

You can print out text and plot files with the menu item Print.

For printing, you can find and select your previously saved Text- and Plot-Files of this system in the

according list boxes. You can also print out (ANSI text) files, which are not created by KRASTA.

Dialog: Printing

For the selected text or plot files the page

layout is shown which was selected during

creation of the file.

Plots can be output in normal (position as

on the screen), rotated or optimal adapted

in the existing frame.

Text or plot files can be added to the

output files by clicking the button Add or

by double click.

A preview of the text or plot files can be

shown in an individual window by clicking

the button Display.

You can select text and plot files and

delete them by clicking the button Delete.

Selected files for printing can be marked

and removed from the list „Files to Print“

by clicking the button Remove.

For the files which are to be printed a Start

page number can be committed. Then the

files are printed continuously with page numbers in that order as they are in the list.

You can enter a chapter heading and/or number for the files which are to print at Chapter.

You can change the printer settings by clicking the button

Printer Setup.

The appropriate Windows standard dialog appears.

The distance to the margins always relate to the printable area. There is a different size of printable area on the sheet dependent on the used printer and printer driver. Bottom Margin Footer . The size of the head or bottom lines is dependent on the used font size (default: font size 10 point). where pictures or texts can be displayed. top and below in millimeters. Paper Size Page Partitioning The user can set the following parameters: Header Lines Number of header and footer lines Margins left. Additionally you can define header and/or footer lines within the frame. Left Margin Right Margin Dialog: Page Layout You can set the margins for left.6 Manual Page Layout You can define Page Layouts for text and plot prints. This number of lines is calculated by the program to fit within the margins. The number of lines and columns which can be displayed on the sheet (default: font size 10 point) are dependent on the used text font. right. considering the font size and number of header and footer lines and the currently set standard printer. right.34 4.8 Basics in Program Usage KRASTA 9. top and bottom Font size of header and footer lines Font size of text/plot area Width of the frame lines Printable Area Top Margin Frame Plot Area The sheet is partitioned as shown. The area. result from the frame minus the header and footer area.

13) can only be done by the KRASTA-manager.4 Automatic save KRASTA is able to automatically save or remind the user saving in certain intervals.KRASTA 9. Changing of the user setting (p. For current User (blue) and For current System (white) (see User Setting and Setup (p. The manager has to authorize before manipulating users by his Manager Password.3 User Users can be created. the language selected on the right is used. Dialog: Languages 4.25). 4. the dimension of the unit is taken over from the column which stands right beside it.9 Basics in Program Usage 35 Options In the main menu item “Option” different settings can be made. For further information see chapter KRASTA-Archives (p.6 Manual 4.2 Languages Languages can be set for the current system (white) and/or User (blue) separately for screen Dialogs and textual Output individually.1 Units The units can be set individually in Global (green).9. The Global unit settings are used if no other values are set.9. . copied or deleted. 4.9. If an arrow (->) is selected instead of a language.9. Setting an arrow (->) instead of the dimension. Dialog: Units 4. edited.13)).

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KRASTA 9. Modelling 37 .6 Manual 5 Modelling This chapter contains all topics in regard of the formulation of the physical model.

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1 Inertial System The inertial system (IN-CS) is the fixed global cartesian coordinate system. 5.39) Principal Axes Coordinate System (p.6 Manual 5. z0) is defined. in which the according objects are defined. 5. Cross sections are defined in the BM-CS. the end of the beam and an auxiliary vector. In the KRASTA-basic version the SS-CS is equivalent to the IN-CS.1.3 Beam Coordinate System For each beam a beam coordinate system (BM-CS) (x0.1.39) Beam Coordinate System (p. The positive local x0 axis and the auxiliary vector define the plane in which the local y0 axis lies.39) Subsystem Coordinate System (p. The SS-CS is defined by the start of the beam. y0.2 Subsystem Coordinate System Each subsystem has its own subsystem coordinate system (SS-CS).40) 5.1 Modelling 39 Coordinate Systems KRASTA provides 4 coordinate systems: Inertial System (p. . The x0 points from beam start to the beam end.KRASTA 9.1.

At the start of the beam positive inner forces point into negative coordinate directions (negative section bank).6 Manual The definition of the local beam coordinate system can be described as follows: The local x0-axis is defined by start and end node of the beam.or BM-CS. The cross product of z0 and x0 gives the local y0. Inner forces and beam deformations are given in principal axes.axis. During input of objects and attributes the user may choose among different coordinate systems. The cross product of x0 and auxiliary vector gives the local z0.1. At double or single symmetrical cross sections the PA-CS corresponds to the BM-CS. z0 plane. SS.40 Modelling KRASTA 9. is input to the set the other local axes.4 Principal Axes Coordinate System The principal axes coordinate system (PA-CS) is rotated by a principal axis angle against the BM-CS. Beam loads. .axis. may be input in IN-. Cross sections are described in the local y0. for example. Section banks are set according to the convention positive inner forces point into positive coordinate direction at the end of the beam (positive section bank). described in subsystem coordinates. 5. An auxiliary vector. the local beam axes are transformed into the principal axes for the solver input file. If cross sections have principal axis angles different to 0°.

Dialog: Name Assignment . The corresponding menu items can be found below the main menu item ”Property”. A beam is determined by a start and an end node. their subsystem. Additionally.1 Beam and Node Name The name is unique in the subsystem. Nodes are described in a spatial cartesian coordinate system. At one node several beams may start or end. most beam and node properties can be changed for all beams and nodes of the “Current Selection” at once. 5.6 Manual 5. They can transmit normal forces.71) or load cases (p. handling of subsystems (p. Beams and nodes. Beams and nodes are KRASTA objects (p.KRASTA 9. shear forces as well as bending and torsional moments. Beams and nodes are associated with just one.75) is given in further chapters. Beams and nodes can be given beam properties or node properties respectively.103).2 Modelling 41 Beams and Nodes The structure consists of beams. may be renamed at every time. mass cases (p.47). Beams are physically connected with each other by assignment of identical nodes. A global unique identifier is given with the combination with its subsystem name.20) and have a name and a comment. as well as all KRASTA objects. The beam and node properties can be edited individually for a certain beam or node by the appropriate edit dialog. The description of how to compose a structure (p.2. which have six degrees of freedom at each end. but possible repeated in another subsystem. In this chapter the individual properties of beams and nodes are described.

Beam joints are beam properties.2.42 Modelling 5. 5. can be formulated via Constraint Conditions (p. Caution: These elements can only be used with linear theory! .6 Manual Beam Properties Beams can have the following properties: Name (p.44) 5. Typical applications for such elements are ropes that only transmit tension.2. Joints at the beams 1 and 2 in the left part of the figure do not result in rotational degree of freedom around the dashed axis. but joints at the auxiliary beams 7 and 8 do.42) Force Conditions (p.2. across multiple beams.43) Beam Masses (p.43) Cross Sections (p. that only transmit pressure or hydraulic buffers that only transmit a limit force. wheels and legs.2. they are defined in the beam coordinate system of the beam.2 KRASTA 9.2.42) Joints (p. A more general form of force conditions.2. force conditions can be defined.41) and Comment Springs (p. e. They behave like an ideal elastic-plastic material. 5.1 Beam Springs The connection between beam and node is rigid by default.g.2 Joints Beam joints provide translational and rotational degrees of freedom between beam end and node.3 Force Conditions For elements that can only transmit forces that are higher or lower than a certain value.44) Beam Buckling Data (p.43) Beam Mass Factors (p.42) Auxiliary Vector (p.2.91). Springs may be used to define elasticity between beam and node.43) Material (p. If the beam coordinate system does not correspond with the desired directions of the joint axes a short (rigid) beam with the desired local axes can to be created.43) Section Points (p.

beam masses and node masses. can be modified by the input of a beam mass factor. 5. 5.6 Manual Modelling 43 5. all acceleration (inertia) loads (including dead weight) can be generated easily.2. The usage of the auxiliary vector is described in the chapter coordinate systems (p. 5.2.2.2.KRASTA 9. .2.39). With the mass distribution described in that way.2.2.2. calculated from the cross section area and material density.71) with the beams can be applied to any location on the beams.54) Direct Input Cross Sections (p.52) Standard Cross Sections (p. For proofs a material may need to be classified according to a standard. All components of the auxiliary vector are initially zero.4 Auxiliary Vector The auxiliary vector describes the orientation of the beam coordinate system.2.7 Beam Masses Concentrated or distributed beam masses which are stored as "Permanent Mass" (p. A beam can have several beam masses.66) Parametric Cross Sections (p. The overall mass distribution can be adapted to given material lists by the usage of beam mass factors.5 Material KRASTA allows the definition of different materials like steel or aluminum by the input of specific material properties. 5.6 Cross Sections KRASTA provides four different types of cross sections: Thin-Walled Cross Sections (p.8 Beam Mass Factors The "constant" beam net mass.2.55) Please refer to chapter Cross Sections (p. For the H-section girder in the following figure several possibilities for the position of the inertial coordinate system are represented together with the corresponding auxiliary vector definition.51) for details.

The beam length is defined as the distance between start and end node of a beam. .6 Manual 5. Therefore. 5. the beam length may differ from the net length of the buckling beam / of the buckling problem. They are used in proofs of buckling (e. DIN 4114 (Omega-Method)).10 Beam Buckling Data Beam Buckling Data define beam buckling properties of an individual beam.2.44 Modelling KRASTA 9. Slenderness If required.2. the following options to specify the beam buckling length are available: Specification of a buckling length coefficent Specification of a buckling length . KRASTA evaluates the actual beam slenderness for each principle axis separately. The values of buckling length and buckling length coefficent are both stored independently from each other. based on the directly or indirectly defined beam buckling length and cross section properties and or : √ ⁄ √ ⁄ For conical beams the smaller of the inertia radii associated to the end cross sections is used. the already associated beam buckling data is not shown in the dialog. acc. Dialog: Beam Buckling Data Separately for each principle axis.2. If beam buckling data is edited for multiple beams at once. In this case it is possible to keep the data unchanged or to delete the data separately for each axis. Additional section points can be defined in order to evaluate inner forces and stresses for specific locations along the beam.g.9 Section Points By default inner forces and beam displacements are calculated at the start and the end of beams only. seperately for each principle axis ( ).2. This results in a save upper approximation of the slenderness of a conical beam. If a buckling coefficient is specified for a principle axis then KRASTA determines the according buckling length based on the current beam length . The Beam Buckling Data is defined for each principle axis separately by the user.

KRASTA 9.2.6 Manual 5. 5. If limit displacements are specified.1 Node Masses Node masses can be assigned to the nodes.3.3 Displacement Conditions For nodes with displacement conditions.45) Support Conditions (Joints/Springs) (p.41) and Comment Node Masses (p.2. The following types are available: “Lower limit”. “Upper limit”. 5. Caution: Displacement conditions can only be used with linear theory! .2.3. KRASTA automatically determines the outer reaction forces necessary to meet the conditions. Dialog: Displacement Conditions Displacement Conditions are always defined in the global inertial coordinate system.2 Support Conditions (Joints/Springs) Each individual degree of freedom can be defined as rigid.3.45) Displacement Conditions (p. there is no reaction if the limit is already kept. These masses are stored as "permanent mass" with the nodes.3 Modelling 45 Node Properties Nodes can have the following properties: Name (p.2.45) 5. “Target” and “unchanged”. These reaction forces are displayed and documented as ordinary support forces. jointed or can be given a spring rate.

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The inertial system (p.3. Beams can be split in two or more beams at one or more (split-) points. editing or deleting nodes or beams. At Plane: The beam is divided at the intersection with a defined plane.39) may be selected to define a point and a normal vector. The new nodes and beams get node and beam properties automatically to form a statically equivalent system.6 Manual 5.1 Split Beam The splitting options defined in the dialog are applied to all currently selected beams. translation.3 Modelling 47 Construction The term “construction” refers to the various steps to create and modify the structure made of nodes and beams.39) or the subsystem coordinate system (p. stretching. the Coordinate System has to be selected first. where the beam is to be divided. These steps are creating. beginning at the start (or end) of the beam. is defined by a relative distance from the start (or end) of the beam.KRASTA 9. . Dialog: Split Beams To split beams at a plane. Beams can be split in different ways: Number of points: The beam is split into equidistant sections. Note: Loads and Masses may not be transformed in a proper way and may be adjusted manually. Single point relative: The section. is defined by an absolute distance from the start (or end) of the beam. copying and mirroring of nodes and enclosed beams spliting and reversing beams checking for double nodes and beams 5. Single point absolute: The section. For each point a new node and a new beam is created automatically. Equidistant: Sections with the given length are split off the beam. where the beam is to be divided. The last section may be shorter than the given length.

This vector can be entered via keyboard or by a Graphical Selection of two nodes.49)”). Dialog: Reverse Beam 5. A “stretch” is defined by an origin. Copying and Mirroring Translating.48 Modelling KRASTA 9.49)”). .3. are divided at the intersection points. 5. copiing or mirroring parts of the structure is done in a very similar manner.2 Reverse Beams Reversing Beams allows to change the beam orientation without changing the static properties. All selected beams. which is perpendicular to the plane. Objects in identical locations will be merged by deleting the newer object (refer “Merging (p. Then a normal vector is entered.6 Manual A point in the plane is to be defined. stretching. If coincident objects should be merged. The current selection of nodes specifies the substructure to be copied or to translated. The coordinates of the point can be entered via keyboard or by a Graphical Selection of a node. A mirror plane is defined by a locational point and a normal vector perpendicular to that plane. In this sense it is complete to swap begin and end node and swap all beam properties in regard to the new beam orientation as well. Objects in identical locations will be merged by deleting the newer object (refer “Merging (p.3 Translation. To handle nonsymmetric cross sections or cross sections with an angle of principle axes different from 0° the auxiliary vectors and cross sections have to be readjusted by the user properly. Stretching.3. a direction and a stretch factor. Move For moving a structure you may select If coincident objects should be merged. which are intersected by the defined plane. Copy For copiing a structure you may select If (and for which) nodes a new beam shall be created between master and copy. A rotation is defined by an axis and an angle. Geometrical Specifications A translation is defined by a distance vector.

Merging Merging is done in regard to structural interconnection. Which beam axis (for the purpose of right-handed coordinates) should not be mirrored. Beams or nodes at the same location are not connected in respect to the static system.3. KRASTA offers to select to which lists the copies shall be added. KRASTA can check for coincident beams and/or nodes. Consequently. . If the longitudinal beam axis is not mirrored.4 Rounding Allows to round the Coordinates and Aux. If found. Objects in identical locations will be merged by deleting the newer object (refer “Merging (p. Since the beam coordinate system must always remain right handed. this is similar to a beam reversal without switching start and end nodes. If the longitudinal beam axis is not mirrored but physical characteristics should be adapted. projected in the direction of stretch is scaled by the factor. KRASTA offers to merge coincident nodes and selects coincident beams. not all of the three beam axes can be mirrored. If coincident objects should be merged. if physical characteristics should be adapted. as long as this is not explicitly defined.49)”). Caution: By discarding nodes all mass and/or loads applied to them are omitted. but not in regard to masses or loads.6 Manual Modelling 49 Mirroring For copiing a structure you may select If (and for which) nodes a new beam shall be created between master and copy. Stretching The distance to the origin. mirroring and splitting a dialog “Insert new objects into lists” occurs if necessary.3.KRASTA 9.5 Check for double beams or nodes Multiple nodes and/or beams can be defined at the same location. three sequel stretches have to be done in each of the three spatial directions Insert new objects into lists After copying.-Vector components of currently selected nodes and beams to the defined precision. Scaling To scale a substructure by a certain factor. scaling by zero is Projecting the structure into the plane. Dialog: Rounding 5. 5. an additionally choice is available. KRASTA examines in which beam and/or node lists the master objects are included.

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-elast. 5.g. For direct input cross sections points for proof of stresses may be defined manually. Scope All attributes of points for proof of stresses (e. Example: Proof of Stresses elast.4 Modelling 51 Cross Sections In KRASTA four different types of cross sections are available: Direct Input (p.207). also Partial Rigid Cross Sections (p. a copy of the cross section can be used and modified as desired.55) Standard Cross Sections (p. If no thickness is specified KRASTA assumes the best case for thickness dependend values.52). for example. This information will be considered at proof of fatigue according DIN 15018. Structural Thickness For some proofs direct input cross sections require a thickness to be defined for the points for proof of stresses.66) Cross Sections can be provided in libraries from where they can be inported. These points are already defined for parametric and thin-walled cross sections. Only selected (active) points for proof of stresses are taken into account by proofs or results.52) Thin Walled Cross Sections (p. If on single points other attributes are to be used. Welding seams Points for proof of stresses can be specified to represent a longitudinal welding seam.54) Parametric Cross Sections (p. libraries are provided.165).KRASTA 9. For common standard cross sections. Selection Point for proof of stresses can be selected (active) or not selected (inactive). Example: Proof of fatigue according DIN 15018 (p. Classification Where appropriate. the stresses are taken into account according to specific proofs. Additional classifications according to standards may be required.4. according DIN 18800 (p. .6 Manual 5. notch cases) are effective for all beams with this cross section and at all section points of these beams.1 Points for Proof of Stresses Points for proof of stresses define locations within cross sections for which KRASTA calculates stresses.

. There are no warnings in this matter. zp) and their unit stresses.52).2 KRASTA 9.3 Partial Rigid Cross Sections (Partial) rigid cross sections are cross sections. Additionally the beams may have joints at the ends in order to transfer normal forces only. This can lead to a stiffness bandwidth within the structure that may result in numerical problems during calculation.4. which will be used in proof of stresses. A checkmark indicates the corresponding cross section property as rigid. Beams representing ropes usually have a partial rigid cross section with elastic cross sectional area only and rigid other cross section values.52 Modelling 5. see Partial Rigid Cross Sections (p.6 Manual Direct Input Cross Section Dialog: Cross Section . Note: Even rigid cross sections have a weight calculated by For example. fully rigid direct input cross sections can be used for auxiliary beams at excentric connections or to meet correct load and mass points. with one or more rigid cross section values. 5. It is possible to specify one or more section values as rigid.Direct Input Six cross section values can be input:: Ax Cross sectional area Ay Shear area Az Shear area Ix Polar area moment of inertia Iy area moment of inertia around y-axis Iz area moment of inertia around z-axis Optionally it is possible to specify points for proof of stresses (yp.4. Notes on using rigid cross sections When using (partial) rigid cross section be careful not to limit elastic deformations of adjacent elastic cross sections.

KRASTA 9. A symptom may be a significant difference between applied loads and according support reactions. Fig. „rigid bracing“ no distortion possible It is better to add joints that way that the angles within the rigid bracing can vary freely (Fig. „Cabin“ The rigid bracings prevent elastic deformation of adjacent elastic beams.: “joints”). Adjacent beams may distort and the inner forces are about the magnitude of applied loads. Fig. Cabin For this purpose a rigid set of beams is modelled at the platform consisting of a bracing in the platform and a rigid beam from the center of the bracing to the approprate height (Fig: “rigid bracing”). rigid bracing Fig. „joints“ possible distortion 53 . This region of very high stiffness may attract inner forces massively higher than the applied loads.6 Manual Modelling Example: Use of rigid cross sections The mass of a control cabin shall be applied in the correct location (Fig. In regions of “normal” stiffness the numerical percision may then some percent of the applied loads. “Cabin”).

The length of the parts can be input or calculated. The following basic cross section properties are calculated from the input: Areas and moments of inertia Center of gravity. if the start and end point of the part in question are defined by other parts.4 KRASTA 9. In this way rolled radii. The input of the parts is done in the beam coordinate system. .54 Modelling 5. The plate thickness and optionally a point area have to be given. For the point areas only the Steiner-parts only are taken into consideration for the determination of moments of inertia. The unit stresses are determined for any beam section points by interpolation of the existing cross section geometry. The number of cells is not limited.4. welds or stiffeners for example can be input as point areas. Dialog: Structural Input of thin-walled Cross Sections Point areas can be used to replace cross section parts which are small in comparison to the total dimension. shear and torsion in the plate centerline Unit warp coefficients and normal shear forces Shear forces per plate to carry partial inner forces It is possible to define conical beams by assignment of two geometric similar thin-walled cross sections to start and end of a beam. center of shear forces. The thin-walled cross section has to be decomposed into individual parts before input.6 Manual Thin-Walled Cross Sections For thin-walled cross sections the plate thickness has to be small in comparison to the dimension of the cross sections. principal axis angle Unit stresses as a result of bending.

6 Manual 5.4. Torsional Moment of Inertia .KRASTA 9. Shear Areas The shear areas are calculated using the factor .4. 5. The cross sectional area is used for the calculation of the cross sectional weight.5. Center of Shear Forces The center of shear forces is calculated relative to the input coordinate system.1 Calculation formulas Cross sectional area The area is directly calculated from the cross sectional dimension. The cross section values and the unit stresses are calculated as a function of the parameters. ∫( ) with Statical Moment ∫ ∫ Center of Gravity The center of gravity is calculated relative to the input coordinate system.5 Modelling 55 Parametric Cross Sections Parametric cross sections are described by a limited number of geometrical parameters.

. Vernant torsion is calculated according to the Bredt Formula. The exact value is shown in the description of the specific cross sections. More complicated cross sections are decomposed into partial cross sections. C and L-Sections) the Bredt Formula extends to: ∑ For determination of IT a correction factor is used for thin-walled sections. Moments of Inertia about the Principal Axes: The moments of inertia about the principal axes follow are determined as follows: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Torsional Moment of Resistance The torsional moment of resistance for St.56 Modelling KRASTA 9. Moments of Inertia The moments of inertia are calculated with the help of the Steiner Theorem. for which the individual moments of inertia are calculated and combined. Normal Stresses as a result of Normal Force The stresses as a result of normal force are calculated from the force acting in longitudinal direction of the beam and the cross sectional area. Principal Axis Angle: The principal axis angle defines the rotation of the principal axes against the beam coordinate system. st (1 Bredt Formula) For thin-walled sections ∑ Bending Moment of Resistance The bending moment of resistance is calculated from the moment of inertia and the distance of the section center line to the outmost edge. ∫ ∫ ∫ For asymmetric cross sections (L-Sections) the principal axis angle and the moments of inertia about the principal axes are calculated. radii are considered with their moment of inertia and the Steiner part.6 Manual nd (2 ∮ Bredt Formula) For thin-walled open cross sections (H.

Sign definition: At open cross sections the shear stresses resulting from torsion and shear forces are positive in positive beam coordinate direction. . the statical moment. Plastic Moment of Resistance The plastic moment of resistance is determined to the double of the statical moment. Torsional Shear Stresses The torsional shear stresses are calculated from the torsional moment and the torsional moment of resistance. at closed cross sections (tube and rectangular tube) in mathematical positive direction of rotation.6 Manual Modelling 57 Bending Stresses The bending stresses are calculated from the bending moment and the bending moment of resistance. the moment of inertia and the thickness according to the "Dowel" Formula. Shear Force induced Shear Stresses The shear force induced shear stresses are calculated from the shear force.KRASTA 9.

61) Rectangular Tube (p.60) L-Section (p.59) C-Section (p.65) KRASTA 9.58 Modelling 5.2 Types of Parametric Cross Sections In KRASTA at the following parametric cross sections are available: H-Section (p.64) Circular Tube (p.6 Manual .63) Round Section (p.5.4.62) Rectangle Section (p.

KRASTA 9. The torsional moment of inertia is calculated with the formula for St. The formula is extended with a factor for consideration of the radii. Venant torsion for thin-walled cross sections. . For the H-Section 11 points for proof of stresses are available. { . ( ( ) ) . The shear areas and are determined according to thin-walled theory.6 Manual Modelling 59 H-Section Input parameters for the H-Section: Width b Height h Flange thickness tg Web thickness ts Rounding radius r All cross sectional values except the shear areas and torsional moment of inertia are calculated exactly for the shown H-Section (equivalent to IPE or HE). The cross sectional values for "old-style" H-Sections (sloping flanges) can be approximately calculated with this model.

. ( ) For the C-Section 9 points for proof of stresses are available.60 Modelling KRASTA 9. The cross sectional values for simple C-Sections (sloping flanges) can be calculated approximately with this model. The torsional moment of inertia is calculated with the formula for St. The formula is extended with a factor for consideration of the radii. The shear areas and are determined according to thin-walled theory.6 Manual C-Section Input parameters for the C-Section: Width b Height h Flange thickness tg Web thickness ts Rounding radius r All cross sectional values except the shear areas and the torsional moment of inertia are calculated exactly for the shown C-Section (equivalent to UAP). Venant’s torsion for thin-walled composed cross sections.

6 Manual Modelling 61 L-Section Input parameters for the L-Section: Height a Width b Thickness s Rounding radius r1 Rounding radius r2 The shear areas for the L-Section are simplified determined to the area of the flanges. For the L-Section 3 points for proof of stresses are available. The values for the moments of inertia and the moments of resistance are output in the principal axes coordinate system.KRASTA 9. .

6 Manual Rectangular Tube Input parameters for the rectangular tube: Width b Height a Thickness t Rounding radius r The shear areas and are determined according to thin-walled theory. .62 Modelling KRASTA 9. For the rectangular tube 8 points for proof of stresses are available.

6 Manual Modelling 63 Rectangle Section Input parameters for the rectangle section: Width b Height h The shear areas are calculated from the cross sectional area using a correction factor. For the torsional moment of inertia and the torsional moment of resistance the following approximation equations are used: [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ] For the rectangle section 9 points for proof of stresses are available.KRASTA 9. .

6 Manual .64 Modelling Round Section Input parameter for the round section: Diameter d The shear area is calculated from the cross sectional area using a correction factor. The unit stresses resulting form shear force are calculated according to the formula: The number of points for proof of stresses is variable for the round section. KRASTA 9.

6 Manual Modelling Circular Tube Input parameters for the circular tube: Diameter d Wall thickness t The shear areas are calculated from the cross sectional area using a correction factor. with ( ) The number of points for proof of stresses on the tube is variable. 65 .KRASTA 9.

6 Modelling KRASTA 9. Additional values are calculated according to the corresponding parametric cross sections. as all other KRASTA Objects (p. A Multi-SelectionDialog (p. If the user selects Other KRASTA system. H.223)”. For each selected cross section.9 Clean Up Cross Sections A way to clean up the system of currently unused cross sections (or to list such) is available by the menu item “Cross Section | Clean up…”. a dialog appears to select the system to import from.33) cross section plots. listing all currently defined cross sections. The plot file contains the graphical representation and additionally common cross sections data as name.7 Import Cross Sections A cross section. listing all available cross sections on the left hand. the menu item “Cross Section | Plot…” is available. . all cross sections shown on the right hand will be imported.4. a multiple selection appears. 5.6 Manual Standard Cross Sections Standard cross sections like e. On confirmation.22) is opened. 5.4. A detailed list of all cross sections properties is available by “Text Documentations (p. L and C sections are standardized cross sections where cross sectional values are directly taken from manufacturers lists.4. listing all currently unused cross sections.22) is opened. a Plot-File is created.4.66 5.8 Plot Cross Sections To print (p. section values. 5. A Multi-Selection-Dialog (p. principle axis angle and center of shear forces.g.20) can be imported from other KRASTA systems or from KRASTA standard cross section libraries. If you open a system for import.

A material needs a classification according to each standard. A Multi-Selection-Dialog (p.1 Clean Up Materials A way to clean up the system of currently unused cross sections (or to list such) is available by the menu item “Material | Clean up…”. . Use the button Add > to add the current classification on the left hand to the list of Chosen classifications. with which it is to be used.KRASTA 9. The button < Remove to remove the selected one from the list.22) is opened.6 Manual 5.5 Modelling 67 Material KRASTA allows the definition of different materials like steel or aluminum by the input of specific material properties. The list of available classifications depends on the standard you have selected. listing all currently unused materials. 5. Dialog: Material The following material characteristics have to be entered in the current selected units: Elasticity Modulus Shear Modulus Density Thermal Expansion coefficient The following values are optional: Yield Point Tensile Strength Classification In the Classification field you can select a Classification in the scope of several Standards.5.

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6 Manual 5. proof result sets are computed one after the other in a specified order.6 Modelling 69 Lists Object lists are used to manage a group of objects (p.g. the selection specified by the list is made the “Current Selection” and the dialog edit beam or node lists is opened. the “Current Selection” (p. the result resp. Lists can be created new. which contain single objects. The textual output can be narrowed to the intrinsic result data (minimized output) or fully documented. Load Cases) already using this beam list. KRASTA knows some generic lists like “$all_nodes” or “$all_beams”. KRASTA asks the user if it should delete the specific list. 5. As pre selection. Lists are KRASTA Objects (p. List for other objects are located close to the menu items for these objects.216) from individual results and proofs are cumulated in single text output. there are composition lists. Additionally to user defined lists.215). Along with simple lists.6. edited or deleted. i. These lists are executable.e. Dialog: List If this dialog is present. copied.or node-lists can be found. In the example dialogue the situations are evaluated in the result set "In Service" in the sequence shown.6. i. . Below the main menu item “List”. 5. The textual output (p. and filter lists. changed.KRASTA 9. Use Select Model to select the objects of other list.1 Simple Beam or Node Lists Beam or Node Lists creation If a simple beam or node List is newly created. on the left the remaining ones. the dialog to edit beam or node lists is opened.27) represents the content of the just edited list.e. the commands to create beam. with which other lists can be related with operators. The „used by“-box contains the objects (e.20) and have a name and a comment. On the right side the selected objects are shown. [1] Lists of Results or Proofs It is possible to create lists of result and/or proof control sets (p. [2] The sequence [1] of lists can be explicitly set [2]. The selection can be edited. The sequence is important for executable lists in particular. where the content is created dynamically according to filter criteria. For example loads can be applied to a list of nodes or a list of beams can be set inactive for a solver run.27) will be taken over to edit.2 Other simple lists Multiple Object Selections (p. the “Current Selection” (p. If a list is no longer used. Beam or Node Lists editing By editing a simple beam or node list.22) are usually used to edit simple object Lists except node and beam lists.20) of one type.

every compostion step uses the result of previous steps. it is not just an assistance to generate a fixed list of single objects. The filtering is done every time the list is evaluated. accordingly. composition lists can be used in composition lists. The composition is performed according to the sequence shown. For names a few comparison options are available.22) is opened. "or" opens an alternative. In the above example the beam name has to “begin with” “Susp” and the beam cross-section have to be "HE M 280_" to let the beam be in the list. as it refers to the base name of objects only. An extension of a filter criterion by "and" adds a further restriction. It is not possible to put parantheses to influence the composition order.6 Manual Composition Lists Lists and single objects can be composed with composition lists. Pylon” will be catched. The criterion “Name” must be mentioned explicitely. The criteria are related using logical operators "and" and "or". 5. a Multi-Selection-Dialog (p. . The composition is done every time the list is evaluated.6. offering the according lists to delete. For example. objects will be found if the object name begins with the filter string. This should be considered when using operators "Subtract" and "Intersect". Instead. The following cases are handled separately: All empty Lists All unused Lists List which are empty and unused For each case. by a filter "Name" "begin with" "Susp" all objects with the base name "Suspension” as well as objects with the base name "Susp.70 Modelling 5.5 Clean Up of Lists A way to clean up the system of currently unused or empty lists (or to list such) is available by the menu item “List | Clean up Lists”. using the operators "Add".4 Filter Lists List contents can be created dynamically with filter lists according to up to three filter criteria. "Subtract" and "Intersect". 5.6.6.3 KRASTA 9. By comparison option "begin with". it is not just an assistance to generate a fixed list of single objects.

. This mass information is assigned to beam and node lists. On calculation of the mass the permanent mass (beam mass factors. electrical equipment and further parts are added.g.KRASTA 9. Additional individual masses are added.7. Connections. Example: Permanent Mass 5. To describe the mass distribution more exactly.2 Basic Mass Cases (BMC) Basic mass cases containing mass factors and individual masses can be defined for variable or moveable masses or to describe parts of a model that are to be accelerated Mass factors can be applied to the permanent mass where you can select whether it should be applied on the distributed mass (resulting from sectional area and density) and/or on the beam and node masses. variable or moveable masses placed on the structure. Mass distributions are usually composed of permanent available masses. node masses) of the given objects in the lists is then multiplied by the respective mass factor. transverse diaphragms.and beam masses (concentrated or distributed) can be defined. counter weight. pay load) and moveable masses (e. which are not included in the statical model.g. The net mass distribution of the construction is calculated as the product of cross sectional area and density.1 Permanent Mass The special basic mass case "Permanent Mass" comprises masses which are directly stored for beams and nodes and therefore remain with these objects if they are copied or imported with subsystems [OPTION]. For local mass concentrations node. Usually the real mass is larger than that.6 Manual 5. beam mass factors can be applied to represent evenly distributed additional masses. Masses can be applied to beams and nodes in the Property menu or in the beam or node dialog. 5. trolley positions). beam masses. masses variable in magnitude (e.7 Modelling 71 Mass Cases Mass cases can be used for modelling fixed.7.

20). have a name and a comment. Each of these mass items is assigned to an individual list of nodes or beams charged by this mass item. Beam Mass or Node Mass. . as well as all KRASTA Objects (p. Additionally.72 Modelling KRASTA 9.6 Manual Dialog: Basic Mass Case A basic mass case. it contains a list of individual mass components of type Mass Factor.

specified at beam.) ⏟ | is in general form: ) ⏟ ] resulting netto beam mass (additionally) mass. To calculate the assigned node mass of the bordering nodes.) or (conzentr. a list of beams can carry concentrated. Herein. Thus. Node masses of the end nodes of the beams in the beam list are applied with the factor. Dialog: Mass Factor Note: Mass items with type mass factor are assigned to a beam list.2 Beam Mass As a component of a basic mass case (p. and adjacent nodes. Basic Mass Case: Permanent Mass The basic mass case “$Permanent Mass” is defined internally as mass factor 1.2.6 Manual Modelling 73 5. node mass.2.0 applied to the beam and node mass of all beams and nodes. specified at node.7.7.1 Mass Factor The mass specified in a basic mass case by a mass factor [ ( ⏟ | mit: (distrib. mass factor. Dialog: Beam Mass . 5. the “permanent mass” is the sum of all masses which are assigned to beams and nodes directly. “Beam Mass” and “Node Mass” can be activated or deactivated individually.KRASTA 9. uniform or trapezoidal distributed (additionally) masses. the mass items “Mass Distribution”.71). the node masses are considered as equally distributed over the beams connecting there. specified at beam.

Basic or combination mass cases are used in description of inertia load cases and for the modal analysis. the mass case gets the current specified Factor as combination factor. the combination mass case can be displayed expanded. Dialog: Node Mass 5.7. Dialog: Combination Mass Case The assembly of a combination mass case is done analogue to that of combination load cases (p.7.5 Sum of Masses The Sum of Masses of a basic or combination load case is shown as a part of the information window (p. 5.7. Example: Sum of Masses .71).3 Combination Mass Cases (CMC) Basic mass cases can be supplied with factors and combined to combination mass cases. Individual masses or even individual mass factors can be taken into account for each situation in an explicit and centralized manner. Different mass distributions can easily be described by this means. “Situation Dependent Mass Cases” are similar to “Situation Dependent Load Cases”.2. The total mass and the center of gravity of the currently displayed subset is calculated. The combination factor can be reassigned to the currently selected mass case. To get an overview over all mass cases contained in a combination mass case. a list of nodes can carry concentrated (additionally) masses. With a consequently mass orientated input all inertia loads can be generated with ease.83)”.3 Node Mass As a component of a basic mass case (p. 5.18). during textual documentation (p.7.6 Manual 5. Combination mass cases are able to contain combination mass cases themselves.74 Modelling KRASTA 9. If selected.80).223) of mass cases or for individual mass cases with the menu item.4 Situation Dependent Mass Case (SMC) A “Situation Dependent Mass Case” allows to refer to different mass cases in respect to the currently evaluated situation. Both cases are described together in the chapter “Situation Dependent Mass and Load Cases (p.

The loads described below can be used with the solver PAS.8 Modelling 75 Load Cases In load cases the loads on the structure resulting from outer forces or predeformations acting on beams and/or nodes is defined. Temperature. It contains a list of individual load components of type Beam Load. as well as all KRASTA objects (p. . Rope. Acceleration.1 Basic Load Case (BLC) A basic load case can consist of directly input loads and/or generated loads. Wind. all beam loads are converted automatically into equivalent node loads Dialog: Basic Load Case Basic mass cases. For STAB88. have a name and a comment. 5. Linear Beam Predeformation. which supports node loads only.KRASTA 9.8.6 Manual 5. Parabolic Beam Predeformation Each of these load items is assigned to an individual list of nodes or beams charged by this load item.20). Node Load. Beam Predeformation.

If there are any principal axis angles. One node load can consist of up to 6 components. loads will automatically be transformed to the principal axes for solver input.1. 5. uniform or trapezoidal distributed beam loads or beam predeformations. “Load Projection”.8.1. Loads that are to be moved with a subsystem or beam. Loads with fixed directions can be described in the inertial (global) coordinate system. The program projects loads according to fig.1 Beam Loads and Beam Predeformation It is possible to define concentrated. . can be described in the subsystem or beam coordinate system.6 Manual 5. Loads distributed over a length can be projected for spatial beams if desired.8.2 Node Loads Node loads can be input in the according subsystem or in the inertial (global) coordinate system.76 Modelling KRASTA 9. where the force or the moment per unit of length is input in the inertial or subsystem coordinate system. The load is adjusted so that the resultant is constant.

Rotational Acceleration Load A rotational acceleration is defined by The Acceleration. The acceleration loads are generated from acceleration description and the mass distribution of a mass case. The Location of Rotation Axis (Pivot). which causes Example: Rotational Acceleration Load centrifugal by . The absolute value of this directional vector is irrelevant. The Direction of Rotation Axis (axis direction). where only the direction of action of the weight has to be given.8. which is the magnitude of the angular acceleration.3 Acceleration Loads The structure or parts of it can be accelerated translational or rotational and rotated (centrifugal forces). given Reference Point and Distance to that point. Translational Acceleration Load A translational acceleration is specified exactly like gravity acceleration. As a special case of translational acceleration the acceleration due to gravity is implemented. Dialog: Acceleration Load Here. Note: KRASTA is toggling the direction of the gravity load vector when switching between “Gravity” and “Translational” in order to keep the load direction. direction. forces. the rotational acceleration and/or the angular velocity are to be input. but it is possible to enter the acceleration magnitude. specification of type. Gravity Load The Directions of Gravity specifies the direction of the gravity load and the Coordinate System in which the direction is defined. The Angular Velocity. The specifications may differ depending on the type.1. magnitude and which mass to accelerate are made. For a translational acceleration the direction of acceleration and its magnitude have to be described.KRASTA 9.6 Manual Modelling 77 5. For a rotational acceleration the axis of rotation.

which the rope shall follow. The Pulley Factor.1.8. To specify a profile the direction of the profile and the wind pressure at each altitude range is needed. Wind Profile Different wind profiles can be defined. wind shadowing. Even it can be changed in each wind load subdialog. Wind resistance For the wind loads a factor with an according beam list is input. You have to input: Wind direction (IN-CS or SS-CS) Height ranges with according pressure Direction of the height range gradation Dialog: Windprofile If no distribution profile needs to be specified. This calculation is suitable for 1 order theory only. The default wind pressure is taken above as well as below individually specified altitude ranges. The route of the rope follows the order of the nodes. cross sectional height. And in case of a Free End of Rope exists: The Coordinate System. which multiplies the rope load for each part of rope specifically. is considered. as the course of the rope is modeled by forces with constant load directions. 5. so all wind loads of one basic load case use the same wind profile. The Rope Polygon defined by a sequence of nodes. To model a pulley the st rope force can be given a different factor between two nodes. Dialog: Rope Load A rope load is defined by the following items: The Rope Load. Dialog: Wind Wind load on beams is specified by the Start Value and End Value (for Conical beams) of the dimension (drag coeff. With this factor the resistance coefficient.8. have to be input. . by specifying the wind pressure distribution in a wind (velocity) profile and by specifying beamwise wind resistance coefficients. a Default Wind Pressure and the Vector of Wind Direction is sufficient. aerodynamic effective length etc.4 Wind Loads The definition of wind loads is split into two parts.78 Modelling KRASTA 9. You have to select them graphically. The wind profile is the same for all wind load items defined in one basic load case. in which the free end of rope is described The Rope Vector to define the direction of the free end.1.5 Rope Loads The rope force and a series of nodes. The wind profile is stored by the basic load case. * height) and a Wind Profil.6 Manual 5. Wind load on nodes is specified by a wind area .

Similar to the linear one the parabolic beam predeformation is also used to model imperfections. The temperatures and edge distances are used to determine the mean temperature(difference) plus the magnitude of the temperature gradient across the beam section. Via appropriate longitudinal expansion it is possible to locate the "apex" in the requested direction.6 Temperature Loads For temperature loads a steady and a different warming at beam upper side and beam underside is possible.1. For that purpose the angle and the axis of distortion is defined. Dialog: Temperature To edit temperature loads the corresponding dialog offers different sets of items.1. The linear beam predeformation internally consist of two beam predeformations at the start and the end of a beam.8. depending on the selected Temperature Profile along Beam Cross Section. 5. .8. the apex direction does not have to be perpendicular to the respective beam. Commonly available are Start and End distance of the temperature load along the beam in Absolute or Relative beam coordinates probably measured From End.1. The distance will be given in relation to the beam length by a fraction ⁄ . With regard to universal use. e. 5. In case of a Trapezoidal temperature profile the dialog offers the following description details: Temperature at Edge Distance of Upper Side and Lower Side measured across the cross section.8 Parabolic Beam Predeformation This type of load provides pre-curvature to particular beams. with ( ).6 Manual Modelling 79 5. substitute predeformations are applied. To define a parabolic beam predeformation the distance and the direction of the apex from the middle of the beam is used.g.8. From the coefficient of thermal expansion. which is saved in material data and the temperature details. to take into consideration corresponding imperfections. In case of a Uniform temperature profile additionally only one Temperature(difference) can be entered.KRASTA 9. The Direction of Cross Section Gradient to indicate in which direction the "upper side" is.7 Linear Beam Predeformation This type of load provides pre-distortion of particular beams. e. The gradient direction vector is an auxiliary vector to determine the gradient direction angle in the cross section plane.g.

137). 5.8. Individual loads and individual load factors can be taken into account for each situation in an explicit and centralized manner.80 5.8. if the denominator determination becomes zero. Example: Expanded Combination Load Case Combination load cases are able to contain combination load cases themselves. The equilibrium is formulated in a deformed condition. Buckling loads can be determined by iterative increments of the loads.4 Load Case 2nd Order Theory (TH2) Structures can be calculated according to 2nd order theory (p. the combination load case can be displayed expanded. Dialog: Combination Load Case The assembly of a combination load case is done analog to a multi select dialog with an additional factor. so that in the differential equation for bending.3 Situation Dependent Load Case (SLC) A “Situation Dependent Load Case” allows to refer to different load cases in respect to the currently evaluated situation. 5. “Situation Dependent Load Cases” are similar to “Situation Dependent Mass Cases”. The buckling condition is met.8. These combination load cases can be combined with other combination and basic load cases again. The solution of the equation system is iterated on the normal forces. The combination factor can also be reassigned to the currently selected load case. Both cases are described in chapter “Situation Dependent Mass and Load Cases (p. . The depth of combination levels is not limited.2 Modelling KRASTA 9. If added the load case gets the current specified Factor as combination factor. the term is considered. Single beam matrices are assembled geometrically linear (Williot plan of displacement). Venant theory. The torsion is considered according to St. To get an overview over all load cases contained in a combination load case.6 Manual Combination Load Case (CLC) Basic load cases can be combined with partial safety coefficients (factors).83)”.

127). After each load step the equilibrium between inner and outer forces is improved by an equilibrium iteration. Each load case can be given a factor and can possibly be defined to act in positive or negative direction.8. Dialog: Logic Load Case . "All" or "All Possible Combinations". which combination of loads leads to the highest stresses in one certain point.82) to ease building load patterns for finding of extreme values (p. Using this type of load case.6 Logic Load Case (LLC) In many cases . The depth of nested logic load cases is not limited. it is not safely possible to tell. 5.6 Manual Modelling 81 nd Load cases 2 order theory can be combined with "or" in nonlinear logic load cases (p.215) across all Situations (p. 5. The following parameters describe a logic load case: Of the load cases in the logical combination acts "Exactly One". Logic load cases can be defined for this purpose. "One or None".133) allows for geometrically nonlinear calculation of beam structures. especially when many acceleration loads are involved (as often used in material handling).KRASTA 9.5 Geometrical nonlinear Load Case (S88) The program STAB88/NODYA [OPTION] (p. provided with according time functions and combined to a geometrical nonlinear load case.8. Basic and combination load cases can be multiplied by factors. individual loads can be gradually applied according to a time function.

while hoisting unit and trolley drive operate. LLC trolley+hoisting]. "Exactly One" LLC trolley+hoisting = [±CLC trolley driving. LLC trolley+hoisting]. The nonlinear logic load case corresponds to the logic load case with the restrictions that the included load cases can only be considered with the factor 1. if hoisting unit and trolley drive are not in use. BLC crane driving. In the last logic load case the option "Exactly One" is replaced by "All": LLC movement = [±BLC crane driving. BLC lowering]. BLC lowering LLC hoisting unit = [BLC hoisting.7 Nonlinear Logic Load Case Nonlinear load cases can also be arranged in a logic load case. acting in positive direction only. LLC hoisting unit]. ± BLC wind_along]. CLC trolley driving. "All" LLC movement = [±BLC crane driving.82 Modelling KRASTA 9. Crane travelling only occurs. . and combined with "Exactly One" or "One or None". "One or None" Accelerations by drives Trolley drives and hoisting unit may operate simultaneously. "All" (Results in 8 possible combinations) 5.8. "Exactly One" (Results in 6 possible combinations) Variant: The crane can travel.6 Manual Example: Logic Load Case Wind Wind "In-operation" can occur in four directions (or may not act at all) LLC wind_in_operation = [± BLC wind_trans. BLC lifting.

In a situation dependent load case. If a matching entry exists. Because a listed case can refer to a situation and to a list of situations as well. Default Load or Mass Case The user can opt for three different policies.6 Manual 5. Nevertheless KRASTA always picks the first matching entry in the sequence of cases. "load case" is synonym to "load or mass case". Example: Situation Dependent Load or Mass Case A practical application is a luffing crane with a hoist load depending on the outreach. easier to maintain and expand for additional situations. Dialog: Situation Dependent Load or Mass Case Explicitly listed cases For each considered situation a “case” is defined by a triplet of “Situation or List of Situation”.KRASTA 9. but refers to another load case including an additional factor. The remaining evaluation pattern stays simple by including situation dependent load cases and remains unaffected by situation and load relations. KRASTA scans through the sequence of listed cases for an applicable entry for the currently evaluated situation. The whole load case pattern can be significantly laid out more clearly. One situation dependent mass case can list all hoist loads individual to the outreach situation. the correlation between load and situation can be described in an explicit and centralized manner without any impact to the remaining load case pattern. A load pattern can be clearly laid out and general structured on the one hand and individual for each situation on the other hand. “Factor” and „Load Case“ and added to the listed cases. eventually a certain situation is referred more than once in the whole list. All subsequent matching cases are ignored. if no applicable entry is defined in the list of cases: The evaluation is stopped with a warning message (default) A zero load case is used A defined load case is used .9 Modelling 83 Situation Dependent Load and Mass Cases Situation dependent load or mass cases allow to refer to different load or mass cases in respect to the currently evaluated situation.) A situation dependent load case does not define loads itself. While evaluating a situation dependent load case. the referred basic or combination load case multiplied by the load factor is used. (In the further reading.

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See “Calculate specific Results” for Details. Wherever in KRASTA pairs of load cases and situations are used.216).127) the currently selected situation or • edit. copied or deleted just like other KRASTA objects (p.20).75) in a particular Situation (p. .KRASTA 9. Delete Load Events can be newly created.127). Dialog: Load Event For new Load Events. • plot results or • document and describe relevant/decisive load events (p. Calculate Provide or (re)calculate result data for the specific Load Event. copy or show the currently selected load case. • calculate Results. the current Situation and (if applicable) the currently displayed load case is used as a preset. Methods of Load Events Create New Edit. The dialog to edit Load Events offer to • change the Situation or Load Case. Load Events are used to • define Evaluation Pattern (p. Execute The execution of load events can be initiated from the applicable menus or from the editing dialog or by drag’n’drop. Copy.10 Modelling 85 Load Events The term “load event” is used in KRASTA to refer a particular Load Case (p. The KRASTA object “Load Event” gives such a pair of load case and situation a name.87). The execution of a load event leads to execution of the associated situation (p. • execute (p.127) and (where applicable) display of the associated load case. edited.6 Manual 5. they can put together ad hoc or an already known Load Event object can be used.217) or Load Sequences (p.

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162) based proof fatigues. Load sequences may be assembled from other (partial) load sequences to create complex work cycles. When assembling load sequences it is possible to reuse already defined partial sequences to use repetitions and modify the sequence order to consider additional base loads Dialog: Load Sequence . It is used by damage accumulation (p.KRASTA 9.6 Manual 5. A certain order of load events is defined. logic load cases cannot be used.11 Modelling 87 Load sequences A load sequence is an ordered list of load events. which describes a working cycle or a part of it. Load sequences are regular KRASTA objects with a name and a comment.

"cycle 15t A<>D" represents a complete working cycle and is composed of partial sequences. "reverse": The partial sequence of events is used reversed order. The following sequence orders are available: "forward": The partial sequence of events is used in original order. It is possible to use a situation depended load (p. If the list includes partial sequences with their own base load. The loads can be provided with an individual factor and the partial sequence can be modified in respect due repetition and sequence order. Load Event: [Situation. Example: Load Sequence “cycle 15t A<>D” The load sequence. The loads can be provided with an individual factor. Base Load: The base load can be used to add a constant load.80) here. "forth & back": The partial sequence is extended by the reverse of the partial sequence.88 Modelling KRASTA 9. The load case remains the same. but the trolley is moving through multiple situations. only small repetitions counts (<10) should be used.6 Manual Load Sequence: The ordered list of load events may include the following: Load Event: Object This kind of load event refers to an existing load event object (p. It multiplies the number of load events to be evaluated.85). Thus. superimposed to all load events of the load sequence. The extra base load acts additive. Example: Load Sequence “PS 15t D->A” In the above dialog. Sequence: Already defined load sequences can be used as a partial sequence. The number of repetitions is considered for partial sequences. Factor * Load Case] This kind of load event is an ad-hoc combination of particular load case in a particular situation. . the load sequence "PS 15t D->A” represents a trolley movement under load. The last load of the original partial sequence of events is taken only once. The number of repetitions within a load sequence is not meant to indicate how often the load sequence will occur within the survival period. these base loads are not replaced. This is done by the weighting factor of the load sequence in the design spectrum.

KRASTA 9. With this design spectrum the operation during lifetime of the machine is described completely. Design spectra are regular KRASTA objects with a name and a comment. To perform damage accumulation based proofs in KRASTA a design spectrum has to be defined. They define load spectra for damage accumulation for proofs of fatigue (p.12 Modelling 89 Design Spectra A design spectrum is an unordered set of load sequences (p.87) weighted by the number life time occurrences.161).6 Manual 5.217) of “classic” proofs of fatigue. The design spectrum replaces load group and evaluation pattern (p. Dialog: Design Spectrum .

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Mz (inner forces) and Ux. When performing calculation according to theory 2 order (or when using solver Stab88 or NODYA) constraint conditions are ignored. Force conditions may have a limit or a target. Compensation loads are created automatically using predeformations in constraint degrees of freedom. These compensation loads have resulting loads that are displayed as support forces. Rotx. These types of constraint conditions may be defined in KRASTA in various ways. are already available. Combination factors are not dimensionless in general. For example pressure on a tension element can be compensated by shortening the tension element (predeformation load generating tension). Rotx. 5. Fy. As nodal degrees of freedom the displacements Ux. Automatically generated compensation load cases for displacements are single forces or moments in constraint degrees of freedom. Displacement conditions may have a limit or a target. Mx.1 Force Conditions Force Conditions are beam properties und can be applied to inner forces Fx. limits only when exceeded. Uz. Because of the method using superposition of results. Roty and Rotz.6 Manual 5. In earlier versions of KRASTA force conditions. Different degrees of freedom may have different units. Uy.13.13. limits only when exceeded. a limit or target value and eventually user defined compensation load cases. For each component a compensation load case can be generated automatically in its degree of freedom. Mx.3 General Constraint Conditions General constraint conditions contain one or more condition component. Targets will always be achieved. Roty. Roty and Rotz may be selected. These compensation load cases have resulting loads that are displayed as support forces. From version 9.KRASTA 9. Constraint conditions exceed the capabilities of force conditions. The user has to consider units during input of combination factors. My. it can only be use when superposition is allowed nd (linear calculations). limits only when exceeded. Targets will always be achieved. Automatically generated compensation load cases are single forces or moments in constraint degrees of freedom. . Uz. to displacements or any linear combination of both can be imposed to the calculation model. 5. My and Mz at begin and end of a beam.13. Uz. These compensation load cases have resulting loads that are displayed as load at the constraint degree of freedom.13. Rotz (displacements) at beam ends may be selected. a subset of constraint conditions. Targets will always be achieved.1. Fz. 5. Uy. Fy.2 Displacement Conditions Displacement Conditions are node properties und can be applied to nodal displacements Ux.1.13 Modelling 91 Constraint Conditions Static systems may have properties not regarded by linear calculation theories.4 on those properties can be modelled in KRASTA using constraint conditions. Predeformations are free of resulting loads having no effect on sums of loads or sums of support forces. Fz. In general constraint conditions the beam degrees of freedom Fx. 5. Predeformations are free of resulting loads thus having no effect on sums of loads or sums of support forces.1. Components consist of a beam or nodal degree of freedom and a combination factor. Constraint conditions are not regarded during a calculation run but afterwards by superposing correction loads with the user defined load pattern. The sum of components is restricted by a limit or target value. Rotx. Automatically generated compensation load cases for inner forces are predeformations in the constraint degree of freedom. bearing play or friction elements. now including displacement conditions on single beams and nodes and even coupling degrees of freedom. Compensation loads are created automatically using single forces or moments in constraint degrees of freedom. Uy.1 Types of Constraint Conditions Constraints in respect to forces. This could be tension elements failing at pressure.

. This component has to be added (use button “Add >”) to the list of defined components (3). 5. in the right selection box already selected only.13. some practical use cases are illustrated and according specifications by user explained. In the left selection box available load cases are displayed. Depending on consideration compensation loads are displayed as loads. Dialog: Constraint Conditions 1 2 3 5 4 6 In the group box ”component of constraint condition” (1) a single component is defined or edited. displacement and general constraint conditions) on display (graphical output of loads. alternative definitions are compared. In group box “constraint condition” (2) the constraint condition is displayed. The input data is permanently checked. In the group box “user defined compensation load cases” basic load cases can be selected to fulfill the condition. inner forces. support forces or are not displayed at all (see also chapter “types of constraint conditions”).6 Manual User defined compensation load cases are always displayed as loads. = considered) or the similar option in the dialog “display settings”. Compensation loads are included in sums of loads and sums of support forces when displayed.3 Example: Constraint Conditions On the basis of the following examples. 5. If the input data is not sufficient. support forces etc. The sum of defined condition components (3) is restricted by a limit or target value (4).92 Modelling KRASTA 9.) can be switched on and off as necessary.13. Constraint conditions are always considered in results and proofs. This can be done with the button “consider constraint conditions” ( = not considered. In the textual output of permutations at the end of results and proofs the compensation loads and the load factors are shown. Where applicable.2 Consideration in Display and Results Consideration of constraint conditions (force. a note is displayed in the status line (6).

Using force condition The maximum moment is defined positive as upper limit or negative as lower limit at the correct section of the beam (in example dialog: beam start. especially if you want to define many tension elements.KRASTA 9.1 Modelling 93 Tension element.6 Manual 5. the beam is shortened. The moment remains at its maximum during and after rotation.13. To avoid pressure forces. This can be done in a single step. Using force condition In dialog “force conditions” press button “Rope (N>0)” or adjust condition and limit force manually.3. When using general constraint conditions you have to define the conditions for each beam separately. As limit choose “>= 0 kN”. . rope A tension element cannot bear pressure forces.3. momentum about local y-Axis).2 Overload Clutch An overload clutch can bear a maximum moment. Comparison between force condition and general constraint condition The results from modelling a tension element using force condition or using general constraint condition are identical. Select a beam and add the component to the list of defined components. The modelling itself is much quicker using force conditions. Using general constraint condition In dialog “general constraint condition” input values in group box “component of condition” according to example dialogue shown below. Exceeding this moment will result in rotation of the clutch adverse the adjacent structure. 5.13.

5. With general constraint conditions limits can also be defined as absolute values (with limit “<=” only). the correct unit for the component and for the limit value has to be selected.13. Because of the limit being not zero. As limit choose “absolute value <= limit value unit”.94 Modelling KRASTA 9. Select a beam and add the component to the list of defined components. Comparison between force condition and general constraint condition Additionally to the remarks in the last chapter “tension element. rope” force conditions have a massive disadvantage for problems of the overload clutch type: only one limit can be defined (either an upper limit or a lower limit).3. Additionally the condition on the normal force (pressure only) is defined: . The inequation is split into two inequations. In beam structures the friction coefficient may be interpreted as maximum ratio between transferable shear force and normal force (pressure): | | where shear force at beam end section normal force at beam end section (negative value.6 Manual Using general constraint condition In dialog “general constraint condition” input values in group box “component of condition” according to example dialogue shown below. pressure) As a sum of degrees of freedom it is | | This inequation cannot be defined in one general constraint condition because single components cannot be defined as absolute (only the sum on components).3 Friction Element At contact points between structural members or between one structural member and its support friction may be important.

For the first two of them only general constraint conditions can be used because more than one degree of freedom (component) has to be considered. In both of these conditions a compensation load case must be generated in the shear degree of freedom (as a result only one compensation load case is created which is used in both conditions). With the following general constraint conditions have to be defined: Restriction of normal force (tension or pressure) is absolutely necessary to solve the constraint problem. you get | | | | Solution space for a positive normal force: . The inequation for an unconstraint normal force is as follows: | | | | Replace the absolute shear value.6 Manual Modelling 95 These three inequations can be modelled using constraint conditions.KRASTA 9.

These two friction elements can be pressure friction elements arranged as a nipper or one pressure element and one tension element arranged parallel. the resulting solution space is the intersection of the two solution spaces shown above. Various constraint conditions shall be applied on the support beams. V=0). support forces (red). At the end of the cantilever a single load is applied. Basic system without constraint condition No constraint condition is applied to the support beams.13. In any case.4 Sensor degrees of freedom and “optimised coupling” In which degrees of freedom compensation load cases are applied influences the results. Support forces and beam displacements are as follows: . two different beams must be used as friction elements.96 Modelling KRASTA 9. Two supports are modelled using additional support beams (Beams DGF1 and DGF2). it is important for compensation load cases to match the real structure that is to be calculated. 5. The intersection is reduced to a single point (N=0. Thus. A friction element capable of transmitting tension and pressure can be modelled using two friction elements with constraint normal forces. In the following example the displacements are considerably dependent on the compensation load cases. beam displacements (red and blue border line) and the beam name is displayed. In the graphical output the load (turquoise). The condition cannot be met for normal forces different from 0.6 Manual Solution space for a negative normal force: When positive and negative normal forces shall be considered and the condition shall be valid all in all. A double-span girder (Beams S and S1) with adjacent cantilever (Beam S2) is to be calculated.

a user defined compensation load case (predeformation. The plunger areas of both presses are the same size.6 Manual Modelling 97 Sensor and actuator. contraction) is applied to DGF1 . DGF1 is now the active degree of freedom with compensation load case. case 1 Support beam DGF1 is a sensor measuring normal force. case 2 Sensor and actuator of case 1 are interchanged. The normal force of DGF 2 is adjusted actively to match the normal force of DGF1.KRASTA 9. Two constraint conditions match that state: - equal normal forces of DGF1 and DGF2 with an automatically generated compensation load case in DGF2 - the sum of elongations of DGF1 and DGF2 is zero. In a matching constraint condition. Support beam DGF2 is a hydraulic press. no compensation load is applied to DGF1. Sensor and actuator. In DGF2 a compensation load case is generated automatically. the normal forces in both support beams are the same. DGF 2 is a sensor degree of freedom without a compensation load case Hydraulics with constant hydraulics volume Beams DGF1 and DGF2 are both hydraulic presses that share a constant hydraulics volume. At the end of the adjustment.

g. When changing input values of an assistant the managed constraint conditions are updated. For a number of n beams/nodes n-1 constraint conditions are generated. One constraint condition with automatically generated compensation load cases for both beams is created. General constraint conditions and compensation loads that are managed by an assistant cannot be altered manually.5 Assistant for Constraint Conditions For certain constraint problems there are assistants assisting input of constraint conditions. Assistants create and manage general constraint conditions. there is only one condition but two compensation load cases. The assistant will then be deleted. constant volume of hydraulics or the distinction into sensor and actuator).6 Manual Optimised coupling Support beams DGF1 and DGF2 have equal normal forces. Every constraint problem with more compensation load cases than conditions is solved using an optimisation algorithm and can therefore be called “optimised”.1 Assistant: Equality With an assistant “equality” any number of similar degrees of freedom of beams or nodes can be coupled. Compensation load cases for inner forces degrees of freedom of beams are predeformations.98 Modelling KRASTA 9. An optimised solution cannot be considered optimal meaning the best solution. No other condition is defined.13. 5. The need for optimising a solution can even mean that important conditions are defined falsely or are left (e. Theoretically there are infinite solutions for this problem. When choosing option “first beam is sensor only” there is no compensation load case applied to the first . An internal optimisation during solution of constraint conditions assures a unique and repeatable solution. Managed constraint conditions can be released from an assistant by breaking up an assistant. In each constraint condition the chosen degree of freedom of the first beam/node is coupled with the degree of freedom of an other beam/node.5. In this case.13. 5.

0*Fx(Beam S 0) = 1. For a number of n beams n-1 constraint conditions are generated. In the example it is Fx(Beam S 1) / 1. In each constraint condition the normal force of the first beam is coupled with the normal force of another beam. the normal force of beam S 0 is 1. The ratio of plunger areas equals the ratio of normal forces. As compensation load case for this condition a predeformation (contraction) is applied to the first beam in the list.5 times greater than the normal force in beam S 7 Inner forces and displacements of beams and displacements of nodes can be coupled. The plunger area weighted sum of all elongations results to zero. With this option there is no elastic elongation of any hydraulics beam.KRASTA 9. Caution: Pairwise forces on nodes may have a resulting moment. For the other beams compensation load cases are created automatically. In the example dialogue it is 1. The ratio of factors “plunger area” defines the ratio of the plunger areas of the hydraulic presses.6 Manual Modelling 99 beam in the list. it is compensated during solution.5*Fx(Beam S 7). 5. Pairwise forces on beams may even have resulting forces and moments. Beams and nodes cannot be mixed.5. Compensation load cases for displacement degrees of freedom of beams and nodes are pairwise forces or moments.0 = Fx(Beam S) / 2.2 Assistant: Hydraulics With the assistant “hydraulics” normal forces in beams can be coupled. With option “optimised compensation” compensation load cases are created for every beam. For the other beams compensation load cases are created automatically. . the normal stiffness of the beams is irrelevant. Thus. The ratio between the factors defines the ratio of constraint inner forces or displacements. The option “constant hydraulics volume” is equal to “first beam is sensor only” with an additional constraint condition on elongations of all beams. With option “optimised compensation” compensation load cases are created for every beam.0 which means that the normal force of beam S is twice the normal force of beam S 1. therefore there is no option “optimised compensation” for displacement degrees of freedom. There is one compensation load case per generated constraint condition. When choosing option “first beam is sensor only” there is no compensation load case applied to the first beam in the list.13.

For a number of n beams n-1 constraint conditions are generated. i.13.4 Assistant: Friction Element With the assistant “friction element” normal and shear force at one beam end are coupled. The ratio of factors “reevings” defines the ratio of the reevings of the rope beams.5. As compensation load case for this condition a predeformation (contraction) is applied to the first beam in the list. The ratio of reevings equals the ratio of normal forces. 5.6 Manual Assistant: Rope Polygon With the assistant “rope polygon” normal forces in beams can be coupled. Thus.e.100 5. The reevings weighted sum of all elongations results to zero. For a description of constraint conditions please see chapter Friction element (p. For the other beams compensation load cases are created automatically.13.5.0 = Fx(Beam S) / 2. .94).3 Modelling KRASTA 9. In each constraint condition the normal force of the first beam is coupled with the normal force of another beam. With this option there is no elastic elongation of any rope beam. it is compensated during solution.0 which means that the normal force of beam S is twice the normal force of beam S 1. When choosing option “first beam is sensor only” there is no compensation load case applied to the first beam in the list. The option “constant rope length” is equal to “first beam is sensor only” with an additional constraint condition on elongations of all beams. the normal stiffness of the beams is irrelevant. In the example it is Fx(Beam S 1) / 1. it is inverse to the pulley factor.

g. 5. edited or deleted a calculation suite is executed the buffered compensation loads are determined using older results than those actually available the load combination of any permutation has changed (e.13. The compensation load case consists of a single force or moment in each of the two degrees of freedom. For following evaluations of that permutation the compensation loads are taken from that buffer and are not determined again. The buffer for constraint conditions is cleared when force conditions are altered displacement conditions are altered beams with force conditions are deleted nodes with displacement conditions are deleted general constraint conditions are created. The coupled degree of freedom of beam 2 is determined automatically. the determined compensation loads are stored in a buffer for constraint conditions. Beam 2 must have a local beam axis that is parallel to the chosen degree of freedom of beam 1. In the coupled degree of freedom of beam one a joint is defined automatically which may not be changed by the user.KRASTA 9.13. after editing combination or logic load cases) KRASTA is restarted a different KRASTA model is opened Clearing the buffer is reported in the log window. The two coupled beams must share a node.5. The total tolerance is cut into halves for the positive and the negative direction. .6 Buffer for Constraint Conditions When a load permutation is evaluated for the first time.5 Modelling 101 Assistant: Slotted Hole With the assistant “Slotted Hole” displacements at two beam ends are coupled. Repeated evaluations of the same load permutation are significantly faster. The compensation load case has no resulting load.6 Manual 5.

8 Compatibility with KRASTA 9. displacement conditions and general constraint conditions are ignored by versions 9. The tolerance is that small that is has no relevant influence on the results.6 Manual 5. Due to different solution algorithms minor differences may occur between solutions of KRASTA 9. Force conditions with target values (equality).3 and prior Force conditions with limits (inequalities) are absolutely compatible with every version that supports force conditions. 5.4 and prior versions.7 Error Bounds The solution algorithm permits minor exceedance of limits and minor differences to target values. When selecting beams according to beam value “force condition” and during textual documentation of beams target values are interpreted as lower limits.13.x and older.13. .102 Modelling KRASTA 9.3.

Further.1.1 Hierarchy. subsystems can be newly created. . the parts of a tower crane. If subsystems are to be geometrically oriented or kinematic adjustments several rules have to be followed (see kinematic adjustments of subsystems).1. from which to import.14.1 Delete Subsystems This menu item allows deleting a subsystem. connections and contacts using these connections are deleted too. The program retains the name of this subsystem until the next Paste command and then copies the subsystem. Nodes.14. 5. The program retains the name of this subsystem until the next Paste command and then moves the subsystem. The depth of the subsystem tree is not limited. In this hierarchy we talk about parent and child subsystems. copied. beams.1. After selecting the model.g. 5. 5. Each subsystem can be composed of other subsystems and/or beams. 5. Furthermore. The tree hierarchy is independent from the topologigal arrangement of the subsystems in the model strcuture.14. the subsystem is copied or moved under the current subsystem. This enables the user to create a construction kit of substructures. edited.2 Import Subsystems This menu item allows importing one or more subsystems into the current model. Depending on the previous command Cut or Copy.14 Modelling 103 Subsystems KRASTA allows for the subdivision of a structure. But since the hierarchically structure of subsystems has to been taken into account.3 Copy Subsystems This menu item initializes copying of a subsystem inside the tree.KRASTA 9. this is partly done in a special way. 5. The position of subsystems in the tree is independent of their topographical position.4 Paste Subsystems This menu item completes a copy or move command. adjustable kinematic systems such as polar kinematics or linear guides in different situations can then be represented as one KRASTA system and can be evaluated across all situations (see section “Situations”). deleted etc. 5.14. As well as all KRASTA objects.14.2 Cut Subsystems This menu item initializes moving of a subsystem inside the tree. as e.1. which can be assembled into different construction phases.14. Organization The topological arrangement of subsystems is hierarchical and forms a tree structure. a second tree view appears. showing the subsystems of the other model. it is helpful for the general overview to orient the tree structure according to the model structure.6 Manual 5.

6 Manual Dialog: Subsystem Import After selecting a subsystem in this second tree view an pressing the button Add.104 Modelling KRASTA 9. the corresponding subsystem is copied into the current system as a child of the subsystem that was the current subsystem when initializing the import function. .

5.14. This is independent from the current selection of beams and nodes.4 Geometrical Orientation of a Subsystem The topmost subsystem is orientated in the inertial system.KRASTA 9.7 Beams between subsystems A beam cannot be drawn between two nodes in different subsystems.3 Simplified orientation after copy or import After copying or importing a subsystem.14. The outline of the new subsystem is shown in reverse color in the working area.14. 5. If this offer is accepted.5 Current Subsystem There is always a current subsystem (shown in the right hand combo box control in the button bar). Screen after copying a subsystem The subsystem can now be moved by pressing the left mouse button inside this area and moving the mouse while holding the button down. Newly created beams will belong to the subsystem of it’s end nodes. If a connection is found and the number of nodes in the two connections is equal. These values as well as the proposed name "root" can be modified. . Each subsystem has its own coordinate system (SS-CS) and it is orientated in his parent subsystem by means of a vector and a rotary matrix (Euler angles). KRASTA offers to connect them. This can be used to bring the subsystem into a more convenient position for further work. KRASTA automatically brings up the subsystem dialog that allows positioning the new subsystem.6 Manual Modelling 105 5. so that this subsystem coordinate system corresponds to the IN-CS. Those orientations are created in several ways (see below).6 Beams and Nodes of a Subsystem Newly created nodes always belong to the current subsystem and there is no off-hand way to transfer them into another subsystem. One has to either create a new node in one subsystem and connect this one by a new connection to the other subsystem or create a new subsystem which contains this beam only. 5. the program creates a new contact and saves this subsystem with the option "oriented by vector and angles" set.14. It can be changed by the combo box control or by selecting a subsystem from the tree structure.14. On the other hand KRASTA recognizes if the connection nodes of the moved subsystem get near connection nodes of another subsystem when the mouse button is released. 5. The displacement and the rotation are initially zero by default.

the system inquires automatically whether it is to put in a new subsystem and create the appropriate connections and contacts. .g.9 Melt a subsystem Melting a subsystem means to delete a subsystem while moving its contents. since the system assumes that the new beam will change its length in different situations (e. If the default name is acceptable it is sufficient just to press “next” severeal times. Example: Suspension between tower and boom 5. Connections and contacts are created automatically. suspension.14. As a result. Only nodes from the same subsystem can be selected for splitting off at a time. Beams. The end node of the new beam is automatically set a “free node”.8 Split off Marked Nodes as New Subsystem An existing model can be split into subsystems.14. Contacts refering to that subsystem are deleted. Wizard: Beam as Subsystem With a set of dialogs the names of the new objects can be set. nodes and connections are transferred to the parent subsystem.6 Manual If one tries to create a beam between two nodes which are in different subsystems. 5.). hydraulic cylinder etc.106 Modelling KRASTA 9. the selected nodes are moved into a new subsystem which is a child of the current subsystem.

5. one auxiliary vector is needed.111)). the connection nodes are not displayed on top of each other. A connection is a set of nodes within one subsystem. If the contact consists of nodes in a straight line. For this purpose all the nodes (including the future connection nodes) that are to be included into the new subsystem have to be selected. By this. When executing the separation the necessary contacts and contact are automatically generated and the connection nodes duplicated. If the relative position of two subsystems is not clear by the two contacts alone. The new subsystem can then be geometrically oriented after its import. If the subsystem’s connections match with already existing connections of other subsystems KRASTA offers to create a new contact and orientate the new subsystem by contacts. KRASTA rotates the child subsystem to match the auxiliary vectors of the connections. This can be done by using the function “separate marked nodes as subsystems”.6 Manual 5. . For each connection the auxiliary vectors are defined in the individual subsystem coordinate system. If the contact consists of one node only.15. Orientation by “Contact” Subsystems are positioned relatively to other subsystems by one or more contacts. If existing connections and contacts are involved they will be split accordingly. For the user.KRASTA 9. In some cases empty connections may be generated which should be deleted manually.103). there is an option “subsystem factor” in the dialog “display settings”. As it is the case for other objects it is recommended to define meaningful names for the overview and final documentation.2 Means for the orientation of the structure The spatial orientation of a subsystem is defined in regard to the superior (parental) subsystem. The vector and the rotation matrix is then calculated in order to be able to transform coordinates from one coordinate system to another. This information is stored internally by a distance vector and a rotation transformation matrix. This specification is usually not entered by the user explicitly. 5. two auxiliary vectors are needed. This can be achieved by either entering the coordinates directly or dragging the subsystem to its desired location. three ways to specify the subsystem orientation are available: Orientation by “Vector and Angles“ A subsystem is oriented in the parent subsystem by the input of a distance vector and three Euler angles.15. If the factor is smaller 1. contacts and connections (if present) may no interfere with this geometry.15 Modelling 107 Connections and Contacts The objects "connection" and "contact" are used to describe the physical contact of subsystems (p. Another method is generating the structure as a whole and then subdividing it into subsystems. A contact connects two compatible connections in two different subsystems. but separated. Helpful display setting to view subsystem organization To get a view of the structure separated into their subsystems. To avoid warnings. KRASTA gives a warning if a distorting transformation matrix results from the geometry of the connections. then the individual subsystems are shrinked towards their geometrical center. Subsystems from other KRASTA systems can be imported into the current system.1 Structural Build-Up A structure can be build up by modelling individual subsystems or by creating individual KRASTA systems and eventually compose them (see further down for the example of a tower crane). one or two auxiliary vectors can be defined for each contact (see below and examples (p.

More details are available in the chapter “Orientation (p.108 Modelling KRASTA 9.115)”. the subsystem orientation will be set to “Connection and Angles” automatically. The vector is defined by the contacts while the angles have to be entered for the subsystem. . Each individual configuration of orientations and contacts can be stored in the KRASTA object “Orientation” an may be reused in evaluation and documentation thereafter. the other angles have to meet the orientation defined by the contact. If a kinematic is used.6 Manual Orientation by “Contact and Angles” A subsystem is oriented against the parent subsystem by a contact and three Euler angles. If the contact allows rotation about one axis only.

15.KRASTA 9. Simple model of a tower crane (total system) tow er crane First level subsystems pinnacle bracing counter w eight jib sw ivel joint jib tow er tow er base nd level are tower crane tower base tower tower part 1 tower part 2 tower part 3 tower part 4 tower part 5 swivel joint sj bottom sj top pinnacle jib jib base jib part 1 jib part 2 jib part 3 jib part 4 jib end counter weight jib bracing brc counter weight brc jib .3 Example for a subsystem structure A subsystem tree for a tower crane may look as follows: st The total system and the subsystems of the 1 and the 2 shown on the next pages.6 Manual Modelling 109 5.

6 Manual Second level subsystems brc counter w eight brc jib jib base sj top sj bottom jib part 1 jib end jib part 2 jib part 3 tow er part 5 tow er part 4 tow er part 3 tow er part 2 tow er part 1 jib part 4 .110 Modelling KRASTA 9.

. luffing of the jib) can be done by modifying the auxiliary vector of the connection.6 Manual Modelling 111 5. which differ in the number of required auxiliary vectors.KRASTA 9. If the orientation is determined by such auxiliary vectors.4 Examples for Contacts In the following.15. Contact without auxiliary vectors: jib base . three types of contacts are shown.SJ bottom: Simple kinematical movements (twisting of the crane.jib part 1: Contact with one auxiliary vector: Pinnacle-jib base: ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅̅̅ → Luffing of the jib Contact with two auxiliary vectors: SJ top . simple kinematical movements (twisting of the crane. luffing of the jib) can be done by modifying the auxiliary vector in the description of the connection.

6 Manual 5. Display of Connections Connections are represented on screen by their name in geometric center. Dialog: Connection The nodes of the connection are selected graphically.15. up to two auxiliary vectors may be defined. Therefore the cursor is to be set into the list box below Graphical Selection. lines to the nodes as well as the ordinal number of the node in the connection. If required. Then the nodes can be selected in the desired order. By pressing Delete Node the selected node can be removed from the connection. .5 Connection A connection consists of a group of nodes and is used to connect two subsystems physically. Insert Node makes room for a new node.112 Modelling KRASTA 9. which can be input afterwards.

If a subsystem is to be oriented by a single contact. The second condition has to be checked by the user himself. The order of the nodes and their position in the connections must coincide. "Subsystem Vector/Matrix not calculable!" Meaning: The specific subsystem is meant to be oriented by contacts. "Subsystem globally inaccessible!" Meaning: The specific subsystem is neither oriented by vector and angles. so its position cannot be calculated. While trying to do so the program may produce the following error messages: "Number of nodes/vectors in connections not equal" Meaning: Two connections connected by a contact do not have the same number of nodes or vectors. the used connections must alternatively consist of at least: Three nodes.7 Error messages (Contact) during connection of subsystems On completion of the dialogs Subsystem and Contact or upon users request the program tries to recalculate the positions of the different subsystems.15. that do not fit to their corresponding counterparts. but the current number of nodes and/or auxiliary vectors is insufficient. nor does it have connections. 5.6 Contact A contact connects two connections to a physical contact.6 Manual Modelling 113 5.15. the OK button remains inactive.KRASTA 9. Additionally further connections (or nodes in a connection) exist. The first two conditions are checked by the program. as long as the number of nodes and/or auxiliary vectors is different. "Beam Vector Component does not fit locally! Probably subsystem oriented and connected" Meaning: A subsystem is oriented by vector and angles or by connection. that do not lie on a line Two nodes and one auxiliary vector not parallel to the connection between the two nodes One node and two non parallel auxiliary vectors . Dialog: Contact The two connections need to have the same number of nodes and auxiliary vectors (if any).

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113)) in order to describe the geometrical position of a subsystem and its referred connections. Subsystems that have been redefined from “orientation by contact” to “orientation by vector and angle” or vice versa will be transferred back into their old state. The geometrical arrangement of these subsystems (p.42) / contacts (p. The reproduction of orientations states of all subsystems can only be successful. Orientations can be accessed through: The tree structure on the left hand side of the screen The menu “Subsystem | Orientation“ Three different types of orientation are available. Newly created subsystems will retain their current position relative to the parent subsystem within the subsystem hierarchy. „Relative Orientation“ A certain orientation based on a basic orientaion with additional orientational changes. The orientation is a regular KRASTA object with a name and a comment. depending on their purpose: „Basic Orientation“ A snapshot of the structure to easily reproduce a certain orientation.103) in relation to each other is subject of the KRASTA object “orientation” which will be described in the following. if subsequent changes to system are not contrary to the orientation object.16. In contrast to the multiple execution of kinematics (such as a “Relative Orientation”) the situation will always be reproduced numerically exact.1 Basic Orientation A basic orientation includes all subsystem orientational information (subsystem (p. Deleted subsystems cannot be reproduced. It is able to fully describe and reproduce an orientation state. Orientations are used to store.103) / joints (p. „Orientation Modification“ A named sequence of orientational changes. modify and re-establish the state of spatial orientation of a structure which consists of subsystems. .16 Modelling 115 Orientation Structures can be divided into subsystems.KRASTA 9. It is just a snapshot of the orientation state at a certain time. 5. The basic orientation does not contain any information about the modelling history of an orientation state.6 Manual 5.

A relative orientation is more flexible to deal with changed basic data (e.113).115)” or “relative orientation”. 3] is oriented relatively to the subsystem [in Col. If the subsystem is oriented by contact then one contact has to be sufficient to define the position of the subsystem coordination system. longer subsystems) than a basic orientation. nd 2 Col. 4].116 Modelling KRASTA 9.g. A saved „orientation modification” The relative orientation allows execution of kinematics automatically without the need to consider further parts of the subsystem structure. If the subsystem is oriented by vector and angle then both information have to concur. Contacts can include information of geometrical positions of subsystems relative to each other. The model is changed to reflect the basic orientation.103) orientation state. st 1 Col. An exclamation mark warns of problems within the orientation information. 6]. Refresh The orientation item chosen in the window (marked blue) will be newly read from the current state. i. Execute Wherever possible. Delete The orientation item chosen in the window (marked blue) will be deleted from the basic orientation.6 Manual Dialog: Basic Orientation Read actual Orientation Data The information stored within an orientation will be replace by those of the current state. 3] connects connection [in Col. New information will be added and obsolete information deleted. If there is no target value defined in the orientation.2 Relative Orientation The relative orientation is capable (as the basic orientation) to fully rearrange a subsystems (p. . connecting a new set of connections. Change of a contact (p.119) that includes or excludes the information about the target value. all orientation items are applied to the corresponding structural parts. i.16. the call of a kinematic (p. Contact: The contact [in Col. 5] and connection [in Col. 5. the target value of the kinematic will be used.: Concurrence The equal sign shows that the represented orientation information coincides with the current model conditions. Such steps could be: A „kinematical adjustment“. Based on that start orientation several steps changing the orientation state are defined in the “relative orientation”.e.e. A relative orientation refers to a start orientation of the type “basic orientation (p.: Type of the orientation item There are different types of orientation information: Subsystem: The subsystem [in Col.

[Down] [Delete] The selected (highlighted) entry of the sequence can be moved or deleted.KRASTA 9. [Add] The add buttons attaches the chosen modification item information to the end of the sequence.4 Methods of orientation . 5. Kinematic Executes a polar kinematic with a defined objective value. Orientation Modification Executes an already defined sequence of orientation changes. It can be used as part of change sequence within a relative orientation. [Execute] Saves and executes the modification sequence. The basic orientation will be reproduced first and then the modification sequence will be executed step by step. 5. Modification Sequence A sequence of different types of orientation changes.16. Contact Creates or changes defined contacts.6 Manual Modelling 117 Dialog: Relative Orientation Start Orientation Defines a start orientation. Dialog: Orientation Modification As dialog „Relative Orientation“ without start orientation.16. [Up].3 Orientation Modification A „change of orientation“ is basically a relative orientation without a basic orientation and therefore can not reproduce a subsystem orientation state in total. [Edit] The [Edit] buttons open a short menu including the most important aspects for the editing of the relevant object.

6 Manual Create New Edit Copy Delete Orientations can be newly created. Execute Orientations can be executed. Execution of an orientation modification means that starting from the current state a sequence of orientational changes is executed. the position of the subsystem ‚SUB’ was defined solely by the contact (subsystem orientation by contact). "unknown orientation type 'yy' in Execute_BasicOrientation()" The type the subsystems are arranged relatively to each other is not known in this KRASTA version. 5.5 Notifications during the execution of orientations For the execution of kinematic ‚KIN’ subsystem ‚SUB’ will be changed to orientation by ‘contact and angle’ So far.20). Execution of a relative orientation means that a certain system orientation is reproduced from a start orientation and subsequent executions of orientation changes.118 Modelling KRASTA 9. This needs to be changed changed. copied or deleted just like other KRASTA objects (p. This information can not be considered. Usually this will not lead to a certain system orientation. . The execution of orientations can be initiated from the applicable menus or from the editing dialog or by drag’n’drop. The position of the angle will be calculated and determined by the kinematic (now the subsystem definition is ‘orientation by contact and angle’) „unknown Orientation subtype XX“ The type of the orientation ‚XX’ is not known in this KRASTA version. The orientation can not be executed. Execution of a basic orientation means that a certain system orientation is reproduced.16. The subsystem ‚SUB’ uses the contact only to determine its coordinate origin. edited.

The different substructures have to be assigned to the same level within the subsystem hierarchy beneath the parent subsystem.g. allowing for different combinations of subsystem movements. Interaction of multiple kinematics Any number of kinematic objects can be generated.g. angle. static flexibility The rotational movability of substructures only exists for kinematics. which connect the substructures. angle. such as cylinders. a section which has been of variable length in one kinematic can be moved as a rigid body in another one. coordinate difference). The normal vector of this plane is then automatically the axis of rotation of the individual substructures. This process will be stopped if substructures are “clamped” (shut position) or a given number of iterations is exceeded. Subsystems which are “child” of a substructure will be kinematically moved with those as being rigidly connected. and Z-X plane) of any subsystem coordinate system. the so-called ground plane. Auxiliary substructures. The increments may be lessened closer to the objective in order to attain a certain accuracy. to model actuators. I. The sole exemption is made if the connection nodes of the other subsystem have “free coordinates”. spindles. The objective (coordinates. This subsystem containing the coordinate system must not be a part of the kinematic substructure. or control shafts which have alternating lengths throughout the movement process.e. Since this kind of “free” contacts can partly be used to orientate subsystems the contacts have to be explicitly defined to be free in specific kinematics. etc. The orientation of the subsystems relative to the superior (parental) subsystem may be automatically changed from “Distance and Angle” to “Contact and Angles”. two parts which are jointed together can be regarded as rigidly connected bodies. Modelling with kinematics In KRASTA the substructures of kinematics have to be individual subsystems. This will be repeated until a certain objective is achieved (node coordinates. For every kinematic the leading kinematic part has to be connected to a fixed point (relatively to the individual kinematic). The leading kinematic part has to be a subsystem with a (direct or indirect) connection to the ground plane. is being moved in small increments.KRASTA 9.17 Modelling 119 Kinematics Kinematics are capable of performing planar kinematic movements consisting of any number of substructures which must not have more than one degree of freedom. The contacts in between the subsystems. The joints necessary for the static calculations are not influenced by kinematics in any case and have to be defined as beam attributes. Kinematic movability vs. are adjusted afterwards.) is defined in the same coordinate systems as the kinematic plane. Kinematic plane The definition of the plane within which the kinematic movent is done can be a principal plane (X-Y.6 Manual 5. This allows e. E. Likewise. the so-called leading kinematic part. have to be capable to rotate around this axis. . Therefore. which have to be made of two substructures. the nodes of a connection consisting of several nodes have to be located on the same axis parallel to the axis of rotation. a predefined substructure. Modelling of actuators Contacts of subsystems to other subsystems which are not part of a kinematic are regarded as a contact to the ground plane (unchanging basic rotation points) for the concerned subsystem. Y-Z.

1 Dialog: Kinematic General information A kinematic has a name and – optionally – a comment like every other KRASTA object 5. the revolving platform of a tower crane will be the frame of reference for the displacement of the boom subsystem. . The subsystem will be displaced until the node has reached the defined coordinate within the chosen frame of reference. More about orientation. Node Coordinate A node located within one of the substructures has to be chosen. This situation depends on the quadrant in which the structure in its initial position was located.g. This has to be done only if changes at the structure have been generated. It is possible that the target coordinate difference can yield two results. 5. The subsystem will be displaced until the vector from the first to the second node has reached an angle relatively to the chosen axis which is equivalent to the defined in a mathematical positive sense. Target The target that describes the goal of the displacement can be defined in the third section.6 Manual Structural parts that are not kinematically dependent but still have to be moved in a certain relation towards each other can be modelled using several kinematic displacements that have to be executed one after the other. The chosen subsystem must not be a child system of the subsystems which will be moved later on. Here subsystems will be reduced in size relative to their geometrical center and hence the contact nodes and connections will diverge. Such a sequence can be defined through a “relative orientation”.17.1 Target Settings Plane and Reference System The frame of reference and the plane in which the kinematic is located in has to be defined in the second section. In order to achieve a certain solution the structure possibly has to be rotated into the proper quadrant with another kinematic by changing the angles. Any position or orientation that has to be available for calculation purposes has to be generated by hand only once and then can be saved and later recalled as an orientation object. situation and calculation suite can be found in the according chapter. The subsystems. e. The frame of reference itself can admittedly be displaced during another kinematic.1.120 Modelling KRASTA 9. The following options are available for the target definition: Angle to Axis Two nodes have to be chosen of which at least one has to be located on the subsystem which will be displaced. contacts and connections can be displayed similar to the display dialog through an “explosion” view.17.

Angle of three Points Three nodes ( have to be chosen of which at least one has to be located on the subsystem which will be displaced. The subsystem will be displaced until the distance from the second to the first node has reached the defined value in the chosen coordinate direction. They can be deleted by choosing a substructure and pressing remove. . Switch: Best possible This switch allows the kinematic to be executed even if the target cannot be reached with the predefined accuracy (to be defined under options). The subsystem will be displaced until the angular between the legs ̅̅̅̅̅ and ̅̅̅̅̅ has reached the defined value in the chosen value. The selection of the leading kinematic part can occur by selecting the substructure in the drop down menu or by pressing the button graphical selection and the subsequent selection of the substructure in the view. This can be used to adjust two independently modelled structures which are supposed to be joined within a bi-polar system by repeated executions of two kinematics. 5. The system will remain in its current position if any errors should occur. Projected Coordinate Difference Two nodes have to be chosen of which at least one has to be located on the subsystem which will be displaced. The button Clear Kinematic Trace can be used to delete any display of the displacement process from the view. If this is successful the system will be displayed in its new position. The subsystem will be displaced until the distance between the two nodes has reached the defined value. Pressing the button Options allows for the definition of parameters for the kinematic algorithms. The program will try to execute the displacement after pressing the button execute.1.17. The positive and negative value of the number will be observed. Other kinematic parts Other kinematic parts can be added through the drop down menu and by pressing the button add. the smallest possible value is sought and the substructure adjusted to this value if the distance is given as zero and the switch “best possible” is ticked. The predefined values should usually suffice.6 Manual Modelling 121 Coordinate Difference Two nodes have to be chosen of which at least one has to be located on the subsystem which will be displaced. so that the connections will finally be as close as possible and can then be connected to each other via a connection. Kinematically free connections Those contacts that have free nodes and are to be defined as free themselves within this kinematic have to be chosen (moved to the right hand window) in the section kinematically free connections. Leading kinematic part The option for the leading kinematic part can be found right on top of the section. The positive and negative value of the number will be observed.2 Substructures of a kinematic The substructures of the displacement are defined on the right hand side of the dialog box.KRASTA 9.g. E.

1 ).3 Modelling KRASTA 9. the target precision which has to be reached (standard: 1e-5 m). the maximum number of iterations after which the kinematic will be stopped (standard: 10 000).1.17.6 Manual Options (Kinematic) Options are the starting step with which the leading kinematic part will be moved with (standard: 0. Dialog: Parameters of Kinematic .122 5. and the number of steps that will be displayed for the optical control (standard: 0 = none).

2 Error messages (Kinematic) During input.6 Manual Modelling 123 5. Connection nodes are not in direction of Several contacts may exist between two substructures which are not located rotation axis! on the common axis of rotation. therefore the target can never be reached. Either the number of allowed iterations is too small.17. while saving or during executing of a kinematic. warning and/or error messages can occur. this can only be due to light numerical inaccuracies. In order to help finding the reason the last situation is displayed graphically. coordinate difference) only one has been selected. Below. No second target node selected! For a function where two nodes are necessary (angle.17. Too many iterations. during the execution of a polar kinematic Reference subsystem is part of kinematic part! The frame of reference is identical with the child subsystem of one of the kinematic subsystems. relatively to the given kinematic). In order to help finding the reason the last situation is displayed graphically.1 Error messages (Kinematic). possible KRASTA error messages concerning kinematics are listed.2. Leading kinematic part has no contact to ground! The leading kinematic part is not directly connected to the ground plane (the fixed part. or the target precision too high. If necessary the nodes of one subsystem (preferably of the fixed subsystem) can be forced into a straight line by manually entering the exact coordinates and the connection nodes of the second subsystem can then be relocated graphically. No leading kinematic part selected! At least one structure that has to be displaced has to be chosen. during the input Please select subsystem first! “Add” was pressed without having chosen a substructure first. No target node on kinematic part! None of the nodes used to define the target are located on the moving part of the structure. 5.17. Disconnected kinematic parts! The substructures are not connected with the leading kinematic part.17. Connection nodes are not in direction of In a contact with multiple nodes between two subsystems of different rotation axis! substructures not all of the nodes are located on the common axis of rotation. with each other or are “free” at one end and not on the ground plane or another kinematic part. 5.2.2.KRASTA 9. Subsystem already in list! A subsystem which is already chosen was to be added to the list. This can only be due to numerical inaccuracies. No target node selected! The node necessary to define the target was not selected.3 Error messages (Kinematic). Number of other kinematic parts has to be even! The number of other kinematic parts always has to be even because of the explanations in the chapter General. abort! The program aborts the calculation due to exceeding the maximum number of iterations. or an unknown error inhibits a proper solution. while saving the object No reference subsystem selected! The rotary plane and the frame of reference for the target have to be defined. Unreachable target! The program cannot execute any further displacements (clamping).2 Error messages (Kinematic). . Again. 5.

tension bar. The node at the end of the hydraulic actuator will be defined as “free”. .120)). Boom. hence it will be chosen. coupler bar. The chosen leading kinematic part will be the actuator. tension bar. actuator bar. First the existing system will be subdivided into the subsystems boom. which will be moved kinematically.6 Manual 5. counter weight. The program will offer a contact (cylinder DL) containing free nodes. and base using the function “split off marked nodes as new subsystem”. coupler bar.17.124 Modelling KRASTA 9. This contact is supposed to be free within the kinematic.3 Example: (Kinematic) For example we will look at a double jointed crane. Secondary member 1 Boom Tension bar Secondary member 2 actuator (leading kinematic part) Counter weight Coupler bar Base Now it is possible to describe a kinematic object (see Dialog: Kinematic (p. and counter weight (the order is of no matter here) will be the other kinematic parts. The subsystem base will be defined as the reference subsystem with its X-Y plane as the plane of displacement.

After pushing the button “execute” the boom will be moved into its new position. Another possibility to describe the target could be the length of the actuator. The figure above shows such an example.6 Manual Modelling 125 The user can now choose a target.KRASTA 9. In this example it will be the X coordinate of the node at the tip of the boom. The “free” node on the other side will only be displaced later during the reassessment of all coordinates. . otherwise no change in length can be achieved. Pay attention to the selection of the two nodes. One of both (in this case [Drucklenker] DL 8) has to be part of a kinematic substructure. The actuator will be moved into a position where its length will be 3500mm. which will be moved to the position x=-26500mm.

17.g. they can be used to display kinematic displacements too by directly editing the orientation of a subsystem and subsequently saving this object as a new orientation. Free nodes. Thus. a rotation assembly sluing wreath). Thus. The rotating assembly of a rotating substructure can alternatively be represented by a polygon. contacts will be used on the other side. substructures can be displaced linearly (e. one side of the connection or one contact usually remains unchanged. Usually it is sufficient to alternate one of the contacts used in a connection to generate a new orientation of the whole structure. Modified angles within the subsystem The coordinates and angles in a subsystem oriented through vector and angle or contact and angle will be saved within the orientation.126 Modelling KRASTA 9. only the different angles of the substructures relative to each other will be changed via the orientation vectors of the contacts. will be displaced automatically. though similar. attached to the displaced structure. I. The respective alternative contacts can be generated through a copy of an exemplar contact. Different angles of rotation can then be generated through within the separation by relatively shifting the sequence of assigned contacts. whereas alternative. . a travelling trolley of a bridge crane) or rotated (e. Afterwards.g.e. the connection of this contact will be transferred to the new contact (edit connection) and the new orientation can be saved. In contrast to the kinematics of multiple substructures described above. where only the individual orientation vectors have to be changed.4 Further possibilities to model kinematic displacements Alternating connections In order to display different orientations a subsystem can be connected to different connections so that it can be oriented in a different way relative to its connection mate.6 Manual 5.

115). The results shown match with the current situation.1 Methods of situations Create New Edit. Now.KRASTA 9.18 Modelling 127 Situation Situations are used to reproduce and calculate certain states of a system repeatedly (e. Copy. Calculate Provide or (re)calculate result data for the specific Situation. edited. Internally a position number will be used for the PAS calculations sequence which coincides with the internal sorting number of the situation. construction or operating states of a structure) with their specific system definitions.20). bearing conditions and load cases.128) will instead be automatically entered and used. If calculation results are represented graphically KRASTA can reproduce the relevant situation. A situation includes an orientation (p. a list of associated load cases and a list of members to be inactivated.115). Situation can be accessed via: The tree structure on the left-hand side of the screen The menu „Calculation | Situation“ If no user defined situations are present for KRASTA system the program will simplify input and output accordingly. The execution of orientations can be initiated from the applicable menus or from the editing dialog or by drag’n’drop. Delete Situations can be newly created.18. copied or deleted just like other KRASTA objects (p. The situation includes the formerly known “position” and additionally incorporates administrative tools that had to be executed manually within older KRASTA versions. . See “Calculate specific Results” for Details.g. Execute Orientations can be executed. An internal situation “$uncertain” (p. The execution of a situation leads to execution of an associated orientation (p. orientations. The descriptor “position” will therefore be omitted in future to account for the technical nature of a situation and to avoid any confusion with the tasks of the object type orientation. 5. For further description of a calculation result. a reference to a situation object will appear instead of a position number.6 Manual 5. the name of the situation will appear on the surface instead of a number.

e.2 Dialog “Situation” Orientation Refers to an orientation. all load cases and all members are active.18.18. not even in the solver result file. KRASTA does not ask for situations in dialogs and shows no certain situation in outputs. calculations and evaluations show no releation to a certain situation. the static system is used in its current state. . compensation load cases for constraint conditions are calculated. Calculate Compensation If ticked. The situation “$uncertain” cannot be edited and only calculation suites can access this situation. NOTE: Loads and masses of inactive beams are not considered. the chosen orientation will be reproduced. KRASTA implies the “uncertain” state. Load Cases [Edit] The [Edit] buttons open a short menu with the most important topics for editing of the relevant object.6 Manual 5.127). The content of that list is shown as additional information.3 The situation “$uncertain” For systems without user defined situations (p. In this case.128 Modelling KRASTA 9. [Execute] Saves and executes a situation. Inactive Beams Specifies which beams will not be considered during calculation for this situation. I. A list of load cases can be selected. No information about orientations is available in the model. The content of that list is show as additional information. A list of beams can be selected. calculations can be done without having to define orientations. Nevertheless. internally the situation “$uncertain” is used in all cases. Active Load Cases Specifies which load cases will be calculated for the situation. Referring to the situation “$uncertain” means: When creating solver input sets: No (certain) situation is set before. Thus. 5. as long as no explicitly defined situation can be found in the system. situations and calculation suites first.

6 Manual Modelling 129 When evaluating result sets: There is no (certain) situation associated with the individual result. 5. If multiple situations shall be created the menu item "[Situation] Create for Orientations.18. there is assistance in creating situation for existing orientations.KRASTA 9. maybe different. The newly created situations share the base name of the orientation and the orientation is referred to in the situation. KRASTA cannot determine that situation." in the main menu "calculation" can be used.. The result is shown in the current. which leads to the result. situation.4 Create situations for orientations Apart from creating situations "manually".. For single orientations this can be done by right-clicking on an orientation in the object tree and selecting "Create Situation". . Situations can be created automatically for specified orientations.

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KRASTA 9. such as calculation suite.6 Manual Calculation 131 6 Calculation The following chapter describes components of KRASTA involved solving the statically problem. result and log files. Error and warning messages that can occur during a PAS solver run are listed as well. core solver. .

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1.1.1. it considers bearing rigidity and mass cases. Apart from a list of situations it contains information about the chosen solver.1. calculates natural frequencies and natural modes.1.1. considers mass load cases. 6.128). 6. knows (semi-)rigid and/or conical cross sections.127). 1 “$uncertain” (p. st and 2 nd order theory with the situation Standard calculation suite can be edited. Execute Calculation suites can be executed. edited. capable of nonlinear calculations for both geometry and material.KRASTA 9.4 STAB88 / NODYA [OPTION] st nd Calculation of a spatial framework according to 1 and 2 order theory.1 Calculation 133 Calculation Suite A calculation suite is used for the repeatable calculation of a list of situations (p. It is shipped with the KRASTA package.3 MOD (modal analysis) The modal analysis of spatial frameworks.1. copied or deletedjst like other KRASTA objects. Copies can be made and edited in order to copy the default settings.1.6 Manual 6. 6. STAB88 / NODYA is a third party solver and is not shipped with the KRASTA package.1 Available solvers and computation theories KRASTA supports several the following solver: 6. . It is shipped with the KRASTA package. 6.1. The execution of calculation suites can be initiated from the applicable menus or from the editing dialog or through the menu “Calculation | Execute >”.1.1 PAS III st nd Calculation of a spatial framework according to 1 and 2 order theory. Two standard calculation suites are available for PAS. Calculation suite can be accessed via: The tree structure on the left-hand side of the screen The menu „Calculation | Calculation suite“ 6.2 Methods of calculation suites Create New Edit Copy Delete Calculation suites can be newly created.2 PAS IV The same capabilities as PAS III with accelerated calculation core. the method of calculation and further solver settings. The execution of a calculation suite means the reproduction and calculation of predefined situations.

6 Manual The default calculation suites „PAS linear“ and „PAS ThII” The calculation suites "PAS linear" and „PAS ThII“ are available by default.134 6. The program starts the solver PAS IV when executing these calculations suites in order to calculate all basic or ThII load cases. 6.128) instead of any defined situation. Clear results before All results are deleted before. This does also include results for situations which are not to be calculated with this calculation suite. The results are assigned to the situation “$uncertain” (p. Clear calc log before The log file with messages from previous calculations is deleted before.1. The solver may be started for these input files manually. Solver Specifies which solver and which theory will be used.1. [Solver settings] Opens a dialog with detailed solver settings when available (see below). Available The list in the left window shows which situations are available to solve.4 Dialog: Calculation Suite Calculate immediately ticked: Solver input files are created and sent to the solver. Calculate The list in the right window shows which situations are to be solved. unticked: Solver input files are created but are not sent to the solver. All members are considered active and all compensation load cases are calculated if necessary. No setting details are required for PAS III and PAS IV.3 Calculation KRASTA 9. The calculation suites "PAS Linear" and „PAS ThII“ can be edited and deleted. .

6.1. .KRASTA 9.2 Dialog: Solver Options NODYA“ Register: General For descriptions of the individual entries refer to the NODYA documentation.4.1. Number of natural modes The number of the natural modes and frequencies to be determined.1 Dialog: Solver Options Modal Analysis“ Mass load case The mass case for which natural modes and frequencies are to be determined.6 Manual Calculation 135 6.4.

127)s or Load Event (p. 6. . The following context menu items (right mouse button) are available for situations and situation lists: Calculate with PAS linear Calculate with PAS THII Available for load Events is the context menu item: Calculate with PAS. In case of Situations.5 Calculate specific Results The KRASTA object tree provides a quick way to calculate or update results (internal forces. displacements and support reactions) for specific Situation (p. In case of Load Events. The default settings for calculations with PAS are used.1. only the particular associated result set is (re)calculated and the actual load case type determines the method of calculation theory.85)s.136 Calculation KRASTA 9.6 Manual Register: Nonlinear Calculation For descriptions of the individual entries refer to the NODYA documentation. results to all individually active load cases are (re)calculated.

2 Calculation according 2nd Order Theory 6. Modelling techniques The count of the equilibrium iteration steps needed depends on the nature of the system. Criterion to check is the determinant dominators rate of change. See also: Load Case 2nd Order (p. Geometrical effects due to inner beam deflection or shortening are neglected in general.1 2nd Order Theory. Loads applied at the start node of beam (L=0) are considered for the beam itself. the stiffness matrices for beams with conical cross section is determined numerically with a tolerance of approx.. one should create intermediate nodes to be able to distribute beams loads and masses concentrated to these nodes. 6.KRASTA 9.-H. that in spatial frames the differential equations for bending of both cross section axes are decoupled. If this seems to be not appropriate this can be corrected by creating additional nodes along the beam. both for strain and for torsion. especially if the load steps are not too wide. The solution of the equation system is iterated over the normal forces. The equilibrium is formulated in a deformed condition in order to consider term is considered for bending: The stiffness matrices for beams with constant cross section is determined analytically. Heft 9.80) Brief Information for Review (p. affected beams should be split up to appropriate shorter beams parts.2. If needed. K. Völkel. Literature: 2 nd Order Theory [1] Möller. one equilibrium iteration step is sufficient. This influence is only taken into account correctly if the loads are applied at begin or end of the beams.225) . Relevant steps in normal forces should only be present at beam ends. . The torsion is considered according to St. In [1] prerequisite conditions to this decoupling are discussed and shown. H. Basics The following theory is implemented for 2 nd 137 order calculation of PAS: For the single beam the differential equation system (DES) is solved according to the technical bending theory. Load components in beam direction may have an influence on the beam stiffness.2. Venant theory. at nodes. Loads and predeformations are considered in undistorted working direction but with a relocated working point. Mörchen. Single beam matrices are assembled geometrically linear (Williot plan of displacement). 1 0/00. II.e. further loads (L>0) are considered at the start of the next beam. 1970. Using wider beam lengths or relevant non-constant normal forces.2 Th. This is done by iterative increaments of the loads up to the factor when the stiffness matrices’ determinant denominator becomes zero (or negative). In which conditions these can prerequisite can be seen as fulfilled is shown in [1]. It is possible to determine the ideal bifurcation load (ideal buckling load). i. st Beam loads and beam predeformations are already considered to calculate inner forces in the 1 load step. nd For 2 Order theory calculations the equilibrium is formulated for the deformed framework. Inner forces refer to axes of the deformed beams. nd A prerequisite of 2 order calculation is. Zur Berechnung ebener und räumlicher Stabwerke – Theoretische Grundlagen zu PAS – (mit weiteren Literaturangaben) Veröffentlichungen des Institutes für Statik und Stahlbau der TH Darmstadt.6 Manual Calculation 6. Often. G.

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loosely specified at the time of solver execution.6 Manual 6.KRASTA 9.3 Calculation 139 Situation-independent calculation Using the menu item “Situation independent calculation” KRASTA allows to create solver input (resp. Please use the more modern and flexible calculation suite introduced with version 9. No means were available to automatically recreate the static situation referred to by the position number. For favor of the more general “situations” the usage of “position numbers” has become obsolete.3 instead. The user was able to identify result data. the idiom “position” was used. The user had to track position numbers and according structural system himself.2 and older. That way to specify a “position” is obsolete and should not be used anymore. The “Situation independent calculation” is equivalent to the solver interface of version 9. Since KRASTA 9. .3 the concept of “Situations” allows switch between different static situations in a systematic and comfortable manner.2 and older. result) sets indcated by “position numbers”. Obsolete Idiom “Position” In KRASTA 9.

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51).80) are stored into the result file.127). Only the results of basic load cases (p.45) of nodes. If the result file already contains inner forces for a given load and a certain situation these results are overwritten.4 Calculation 141 Content of the result file The result file contains inner forces of beams at particular sections points (p. . resulting from certain load cases (p.KRASTA 9. Stresses are newly determined referring the actual cross sections (p.75) and (if any) TH II load cases (p.6 Manual 6.44) and support forces (p. Load combinations are always superposed according to their actual definition.75) in certain situations (p.

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141) for later analysis (p.6 Manual 6. calculation suites may just create solver input files without starting the solver.133). Such suspended input files may be sent to the solver with the menu item “Calculate solver input file”. Input files are created by calculation suites (p.KRASTA 9. . The results are stored in the Result File (p. However.133).5 Calculation 143 Process Solver Input Files A solver input file is a self consistent calculation order for a specific solver (p. Usually the according solver is started to process the solver input file.216).

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start and end time. The calculation log can be reviewed after the solver finishes through menu item “Show Log-File”. .137) calculation may be used to determine the maximum stable load factor (Euler buckling).147)). A 2nd order theory (p. available disk space.g.143).133).6 Manual 6.KRASTA 9. PAS error messages (p.6 Calculation 145 Calculation Log The calculation log stores messages. In this case an error 455 indicates unstable load factors. storing places etc. Even if the solver finishes the solution errors and warnings may have occurred (refer to e. as well as all output of the solver (p. The solver may fail to solve a problem due to numerical problems or an insufficiently constraint model. e. which occur during the execution of a solver input file (p.g.

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451 : The structure or parts of are kinematically underdetermined Cause There is a closed structure of (partially) rigid beams (example #1) There is a open structure of (partially) rigid beams but rigidly supported (example #2) Finding the culprit Mark all beams with rigid and/or partly rigid cross sections (menu item “Selection | Beam property | Cross Section”) and display all support conditions. in which several (partly) rigid beams are present.6 Manual 6. Usually different options to eliminate the source of error are available for the desired static system. Assistance and suggestion are given to eliminate the errors.1 Error/Warning Nr. .2 Error/Warning Nr. the structure is not supported. 6. their causes and methods to identify the sources of error. must be examined for closed and/or rigidly supported beam chains.KRASTA 9.7 Calculation 147 PAS error messages This chapter describes the most frequent PAS error messages/warnings.7. 229 Error message Fehler oder Warnung (229) aufgetreten! Cause No support conditions were defined. Places.7. 451 Error message Fehler oder Warnung (451) aufgetreten! Warnung Nr. 451 : DAS TRAGWERK ODER TEILE DAVON SIND KINEMATISCH UEBERBESTIMMT. 6.

#1 A massive structural element in your structure is modeled using rigid beams.6 Manual . The rigid beams and their rigid connection remain a rigid and distortionless structure. Since the casting is quite rigid and not in the scope of your calculation anyway. KRASTA 9.148 Calculation Example: Error/Warning Nr. Fault repair Open the ring by deleting one segment of the beam chain. 451. 451 during the calculation. This could be a casting with several beams of the structure attached. The closed ring causes an error Nr. you have decided to model the outline shape of the casting with rigid beams. The individual rigid beams are connected rigidly to each other.

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

**Example: Error/Warning Nr. 451, #2
**

Next to supports you model a shear panel with the help of rigid

beams. Therefore, you introduce a bracing with a coupling node at

the intersection of the bracings. All four rigid beams use this node as

an end node.

Rigid beams and rigid support together, achieve a rigid structure

(Fig. “rigid Support”, dashed line) and cause an error Nr. 451.

Fault repair:

Here, several possibilities are available to remove the fault. You have

to decide which one is compatible with the needs of your static

system.

Release a support in direction of the connection line between

the support nodes (Fig. “Release Support”).

Apply a joint condition to three of the four beams to enable a

cross angle change (Fig. “with Joint”).

Please also consider chapter “Notes on using rigid cross sections”

Calculation

149

150

6.7.3

Calculation

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

Error/Warning Nr. 453

Error message

Fehler oder Warnung (453) aufgetreten!

Warnung Nr.

453 : DAS TRAGWERK ODER TEILE DAVON SIND BEWEGLICH.

453 : The structure or parts of are free to move.

Cause

Joint and/or support conditions allow a part of the structure to move/rotate without resistance. The

movable part can be an underconstraint node, a rotating beam as well as a larger kinematic part of the

structure.

Modelling faults, which cause warning 453, fall into two categories: “real movability” and “rotating

objects”.

Fault finding

Looking for the fault, the knowledge of the linkage between nodes and beams as well as between nodes

and inertial system (fixed base, earth) is necessary

fixed base

support cond.

beam

joint cond.

node

Fig. „Degrees of Freedom“

The linkage between beam and nodes is determined by joint conditions of the beam (beam property), the

linkage between nodes and fixed base by support conditions (node property). In each case, six degrees

of freedom are available, three translational and three rotational (Fig. “Degrees of Freedom”).

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

Calculation

151

6.7.3.1 Real Movability

Generally real movability can be sought out easily by examining the bending line. Uncommonly large

deflections indicate the movability.

If there is no load in the direction of the movability, it may necessary, to introduce additional loads in this

direction (e.g. additional load cases with horizontal acceleration).

Approach:

Display a selected bending line and show the whole system (fully zoomed out).

**If no extra ordinary deformation is shown then either the load case is unappropriate or there is no real
**

movability.

If the display looks like fig. “huge deformation”, select the beams with the huge deformation (in mode

“beam selection” click the bending line with left mouse button and select all offered beams).

Choose the display setting “minimal” and show the whole system (fully zoomed out). The selected beams

indicate the area of movability (fig. “area of movability”).

6.7.3.2 Rotating Objects

In order to find this error, the KRASTA model must be scanned for usual error patterns. Here all joint and

support conditions should be displayed.

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KRASTA 9.6 Manual

In large systems it can be helpful to cut the model into smaller parts. Eventually delete a part of the

model, supporting the remaining part if necessary and evaluate again. If the error still occurs then the

error is part of the remaining structure otherwise of the deleted part. Keep attention of not producing

further errors by dividing the model.

Node can rotate

Type of Fault: At a bearing support in the model both a support condition

(ball bearings) and a joint condition (ball joint) is defined as shown in fig.

„rot. node #1“. The node is neither rotational linked with the fixed base

system nor with the beam, thus it can rotate freely.

Proposal: Modelling bearing condition, one should always use support

condition wherever possible. Connect the beam rigidly to the support node

and apply the desired support conditions to the node.

If this is not applicable, because the desired support condition cannot be

defined in the node coordinate system, fix the node in all degrees of freedom

and apply the joint conditions to the beam.

Type of Fault: All beams are connected to a node with joints

(Fig. “rot. node #2”). The node is rotational connected with none of the

beams, thus it can rotate freely.

Proposal: Connect one of the beams rigidly with the node.

**Beam (chain) can rotate
**

Type of Fault: A beam or a beam chain is not fixed against rotation about the center line (Fig. “rot. beam

#1”, Fig. “rot. beam #2”, Fig. “rot. beam #3”).

Proposal: Define support conditions, joint conditions of the beam (chain) or adjoinded beams in a way to

fix the rotation.

6.7.4

Error/Warning Nr. 455

Error message

Fehler oder Warnung (455) aufgetreten!

Warnung Nr.

455 : DIE BELASTUNG LIEGT ÜBER DER NIEDRIGSTEN VERZWEIGUNGSLAST

455 : THE LOAD LIES OVER THE LOWEST BIFURCATION LOAD

Cause

st

Calculation according 1 order theory:

The bending line of the 2 order results just below the buckling load may be evaluated to get an idea of the failing members or substructure.KRASTA 9. nd Calculation according 2 order theory: nd In 2 order calculations this error message occurs if a beam or a structural part exceeds the ideal buckling load (bifurcation load). . Eliminating warning 453 eliminates error 455. is a system fault not caused by single beams. Buckling. Note: Unfortunately there is no way to spot out the affected beam(s).6 Manual Calculation 153 In 1st order calculations error 455 usually occurs in combination with warning 453. in the sense of applied nd theory.

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6 Manual 6. . Eigenvectors can be displayed and animated in a user defined scale by the menu item “View | Eigen Vector”. Rigid. partially rigid or conical cross sections have to be replaced with elastic or constant cross sections. A modal analysis requires the selection of a mass case (usually the "Permanent Mass") and a maximum number of natural frequencies to calculate.KRASTA 9. The results of the analysis can be output in textual form for further computations.8 Calculation 155 Modal Analysis KRASTA supports the calculation of natural frequencies and according Eigen vectors (modes) of elastic systems.

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evaluate and document KRASTA systems.KRASTA 9. .6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 157 7 Analysis and Documentation The following chapter describes the possibilities to analyse.

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the type of evaluation. a classification can be something like this: “The material named ‘StE 355’ is in terms of DIN 15018 to be classified as ‘St 52’” .67).1 Analysis and Documentation 159 Proofs Proofs and results (p. E. Classifications To determine permissible values according to a standard it is usually necessary to provide additional information. In both cases. extremation and textual output are specified. the evaluation pattern. e.g.KRASTA 9./ Result-Control-Sets (p. for materials (p. In contrast to result controls sets proof controls sets compare a result value to a permissible value according to a standard leading to a utilization.6 Manual 7.g.211) are handled by KRASTA in similar manner (see Proof. Usually this information is a so called “classification”.215)).

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KRASTA performs a rainflow analysis to determine the stress ranges and associated number of occurrence.175) EN 1993-1-9:2005 (EC 3) (p.6 Manual 7. The fatigue damage analysis is done according the linear damage accumulation hypothesis by Palmgren-Miner as described below. the operation is summarized in form of particular load sequences and design spectra.1.KRASTA 9.169) resp.1 Analysis and Documentation 161 Proof of fatigue based on damage accumulation Modern proofs of fatigue are based on damage accumulation to evaluate the operating characteristics in detail. Load sequences result in unique stress time histories at every point in the structure.185) The specification of a design spectrum replaces the specification of a S class (or similar) as well as the load evaluation pattern. . Therefore. The current KRASTA version offers the following proofs of fatigue based on damage accumulation: DIN 13001-3-1:2005-03 (p. The partial damages are evaluated in respect to S-N curves and safety factors according to individual standards. prEN 13003-1-1:2009 (p. The analysis results in a “total sum of damage” which is often reformulated to damage equivalence factors or effective stress history parameters.

1. (Damage summation according Palmgren-Miner rule) (e. no additional factors according to standards are considered.1 Linear damage accumulation according to Palmgren-Miner The following description is kept standards independent. .4. with stress range Number of stress cycles to failure (constant) amplitude . for periodic stress range with { The “partial damage” for a given stress range cycles to the number of stress cycles to failure ∑ ∑ The proof is fulfilled if is the ratio of actual number of stress .. Diagram: Linear damage accumulation acc.162 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9.: lt.1.g. cut-off limit stress range ⁄ ( ) ( ) acc. Inverse slope of S-N curve below fatigue limit [StK].6 Manual 7.Appendix A) Some standards allow values different from 1.2. [EC 3].Chap.0 for the total damage. characteristic stress range √ ⁄ .1. Linear accumulation of partial damages gives the total damage. actual number . one S-N (Wöhler) curve from [EC 3] is shown. Palmgren-Miner As an example. and above cut-off limit number of stress cycles . whereas: stress range . fatigue limit stress range √ .1. Inverse slope of S-N curve above fatigue limit according to notch case.

5.-Ing.1. 4 13. Root Abs pg.KRASTA 9. 15 15. 18 16. 0 x 100000. 336 -> . pnt W ds c m si g s si g max si g l pS mi n si g l ps 47.2 Result values of a damage accumulation Additionally to the result items commonly used in KRASTA proof of fatigues (notch case. Thus.. 0 8.11. 39 1 4 1 . 043 12. 932 . 351 . 443 .6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 163 The linear damage accumulation hypothesis according to Palmgren-Miner assumes that partial damages are independent from each other. 79 2.. 0 x 40000.1. 0 3.. 71 . 043 . as well as the damage Literature: Damage Accumulation [EC 3] EN 1993-1-9:2005 Ausgabe: 2005-07 Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten Teil 1-9: Ermüdung [StK] Stahlbaukalender. 308 b . 043 b 6 3 11. Ulrike Kuhlmann Abschnitt 2: Grundlagen und Erläuterungen der neuen Ermüdungsnachweise nach Eurocode 3 Dr. 75 7 -1 7 8. 675 . 047 . 44 .7. 05 15. 856 .0 1 2 8.. tolerable stress range and utilization) there are items specific to damage accumulation such as stress collective values and sum of damage. 81 b . 45 . 44 15 14.0 -1 8. HT 15 Spec t r al Component s Number / Wei gt hi ng x 7500.. 627 b . 0 . 0 x 100000. For the point of proof of stresses showing the highest utilization the textual output additionally lists the partial damages (see example below). 3E+03 . 0 . 0 3. Alain Nussbauer. 78 16. 65 4 2.. 08 29 15 15 5. Dr.-Ing. 01 -> .1. 021 b .. 92 . 78 14. 82 29 15 1. maximum stress range. 0 3. 29 11. 0 3. 57 ..-Ing. 087 b . 88 . 0 3. HT 14 HT 15 HT 16 . Hans-Peter Günther are . 0 x .. they are independent from the earlier stress history. 0 8.. 094 . 15 4. 71 4 Load Sequenc e unl oad 55t B<>D unl oad 45t A<>F unl oad 25t A<>F unl oad 15t C<>F 3. linear damage accumulation allows to evaluate and document normal and shear stress damage separately associate a partial damage to a particular working cycle 7. Herausgegeben von Prof. 277 . 0 3.. Dr. 87 14 .. 2 3 8.11. 191 ds Sd ds Rd ut i si g D si g O 5. 43 . Example: Textual Output in case of Damage Accumulation beam sect i on Pi v ot Fr ame . 059 . 0 8. 18 . 5 . 059 2. 0 Damage: . DIN 13001-3-1: For each point an individual stress history parameter It is possible to show the stress utilization For the point of proof of stresses with the maximum utilization the partial damages ∑ shown for each component (working cycle) of the design spectrum ( ).> D_si g -> .0 . Jahrgang. Therefore.0 421. 19 16. is determined and listed.6. U 109 . 273 -> . 2006 8. 69 13. 0 . 94 13. The nonlinearities of the S-N curve are already included in each partial damage. 091 . 65 2. 81 a Example of a textual output of a proof acc. 932 . 4 Abs pg. 0 .

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1 (DIN 15018. for combined stresses along the resulting comparison value of the two utilizations. These three possibilities can also be used together. The proof of combined stresses can either be done "simplified" by combining the two maxima of normal and shear stress without consideration of their coincidence or as proposed by the standard.2 Analysis and Documentation 165 Proof of Fatigue acc. 7.KRASTA 9. it is possible to output the worst case only. Table 19). If more than one subtype of proof is carried out simultaneously. | | | | . DIN 15018 A proof of fatigue according to DIN 15018 requires the classification of the used materials and the classification of the points for proof of stresses into notch conditions. It can be selected whether the permissible shall be calculated according to the formula for structural elements or welded joints (DIN 15018.4.5).6 Manual 7. Proof: DIN 15018 Def. only points with classified notch conditions are considered for the proof. The loading group may be determined for every individual proof. may be supplied with a default notch condition.1. In the case of normal and shear stresses the search for extreme values is carried out along the utilization of the permissible stresses. The worst case is the one with highest utilization. shear stresses only or combined stresses. Part 1. If no default is selected. . Table 18 (DIN 15018) Equations for permissible upper stresses depend on . according to Table 17 and (tension) (alternating domain) (pressure) (tension) ( ) ( ) (swelling domain) (pressure) Furthermore is considered: (yield point acc. that is to be compared to 1. that have not been given a notch case. (tensile strength) according to the classification of the material. classification of the material). Part 1. For each subtype of proof an individual output format has to be selected.: | | | | . Points for proof of stresses. The proof may be applied to normal stresses only.

K0) √ proof of normal stresses: proof of shear stresses: combined proof: ( ) ( ) For non simplified combined proofs. They are combined later. Materials: DIN 15018 St 37 St 52-3 Notch Cases: DIN 15018 W0 W1 W2 K0 K1 K2 K3 K4 Loading Groups: DIN 15018 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 . W0) √ (acc.6 Manual for structural elements and welding. For simplified combined proofs the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress utilization are evaluated first.166 Analysis and Documentation Table 19 (DIN 15018) Permissible stress Structural Elements Welding KRASTA 9. the sum shown above is maximized. (acc.

3 Analysis and Documentation 167 Proof of Fatigue acc.0 Proof: DIN 22261 Consideration of fatigue factor : Conditions of the proof of fatigue: The stresses are signed.2)* ) 10. K7 K8.0 14. K5 K6.6 5. Def. may be supplied with a default notch case for the proof.0 7. . Table 20 (DIN 22261) Notch case adm . that have not been given a notch case. 66 and Cond.0 8.0 14.6 Manual 7.KRASTA 9. K6 18.5 (11. to output the worst case only. DIN 22261 A proof of Fatigue according to DIN 22261 requires the classification of the points for proof of stresses into notch cases.0 22. Points for proof of stresses.0 14. The worst case is the one with highest utilization. K8 K9. it is possible.0 18.0 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 18.0 16. [kN/cm²] K1 K2 K3 K4 K5. 67). K12 9. These two proofs can also be used together. Extreme values are searched for the utilization of the admissible stress differences (Cond.1. If both subtypes of proof are carried out simultaneously.0 16.0 16.0 12. K9 K10. The proof may be applied to normal stresses or shear stresses. Notch case: DIN 22261 Notch cases for DIN 22261 are: Table 17 (DIN 22261) Notch case adm [kN/cm²] Notch case adm [kN/cm²] *) G0 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 25.: .0 Notch case G5 is not specified in Table 17 explicitly and is added here analogous to K5 .5 11.4 20. K10 K11. K11 K12.0 K7.3 5.1 6. The fatigue factor can be specified.0 12. [kN/cm²] Notch case adm .2 10. If no default is selected only classified points are considered for the proof.

) Parts beyond zones of welded joints: normal stress : 1.3) shear stress Cond.2) .66: ( Row 7 ) 2.3) The -condition in universal form is: The utilization is calculated by: At small stress differences at a high pressure stress level.66: ( Row 8 ) Cond. .168 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9.1) Cond.4) Cond. 1.67: ( Row 9 ) shear stress : 2.) (Welds) and Parts within zones of welded joints: normal stress : 2.2) Cond.66: Cond.67: ( Row 4 ) 2.6 Manual Table 10 (DIN 22261) 1.66: ( Row 1 ) √ 1. it is possible to calculate negative utilization values. These values satisfy the proof. Cond.66: ( Row 2 ) √ √ ( Row 3 ) : 1.1) .

accessibility and hazards for persons a fatigue strength specific resistance factor is used according to [13001-3-1:2005].6 Manual 7. a guidance for empiric selection of S-classes is given in [13001-3-1:2005].3. Chap. a characteristic stress range or and the inverse slope of the /N-curve is determined. the implementation in KRASTA and used calculation formula are shown. output formats and value tables are described. Finally according program dialogs. weld characteristics and (partly) material and structural part thickness.4. After that. Resistance factor : To consider fail-safe or non fail-save components. table 10: Inspection and access Fail-safe components Non fail-save components without hazards for persons with hazards for persons Periodic inspection and maintenance Accessible joint detail Periodic inspection and maintenance Poor accessibility Stress history parameter : Each load cycle causes individual nominal stress cycles in every location and therfore individual stress spectra.4) also. Notch cases consider connection geometry. a slope between (material in welded connections) and (flat material or shear in longitudinal welds) can be taken into account by the proof. DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005. Chap. 12) respectively. The workflow in detail is as follows: Operating method: In general. permissible stress ranges are determined and compared against characteristic stress ranges. 6. Annex B.4 Analysis and Documentation 169 Proof of Fatigue according to DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005-03 In the following the concept of the proof is explained first. Method of Proof Based on the operating method. Annex A and E).1. by a certain load spectrum. S-Classes: The S-class is derived from a load spectrum considering further parameters like the class of load spectrum factors Q0 to Q5 (see [13001-3-1:2005]. i. Thus. 11 and Tab. Characteristic stress range and slope can be determined by fatigue testing (see [13001-3-1:2005].KRASTA 9. With the classification of a certain notch case. . Alternatively. Notch cases are specified individually for normal and for shear stresses. the operating method is specified by a range of load working cycles of which each is weighted with a relative frequency. For each stress component (normal or shear stress) a unique stress history parameter is associated.2. Tab 4) and the S-class S0 to S9 (see [13001-31:2005]. notch case and accessibility. Based on the shape of the stress spectra and the slope values specified by the notch case individual stress history parameters are calculated according to [13001-3-1:2005]. Notch cases: Structural details are covered by classification of notch cases (see [13001-3-1:2005]. 4.e. Tab.

This allows a save approximation of permissible stress range independent from the actual stress spectrum.063 0.016 0.172) is using as a substitute.032 0. Because of √ and according to it is: mit The stress spectrum shape is covered by the ratio parameter from the stress spectrum.5. 4. To each stress component an utilization is calculated by comparison of permissible to design stress range.3.004 is defined as follows: S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 0.125 0. 6. the design stress range is the difference between maximum and minimum stress component present in the stress spectrum.5 1. as mentioned in DIN-Chap.008 0. √ . A proof following the simplified procedure (p.0 *) The table is expanded by the S-Classes “S02“ and “S01“ according [13001-3-1:2009]. All other parameters are independent Analyzing the stress spectrum shape is done for a proof based on damage accumulation (p.6 Manual Permissible stress ranges: The permissible (limit) stress range is calculated for each stress component separately as follows: √ The dependency between S-classes and Class S02 *) 0. Design stress ranges: In general. . See “Types of proof” below. Additionally a combined utilization may be determined.0 2.25 0.173). For thermally stress relieved or non-welded structural members the compression portion of the stress range may be reduced to 60%.4.170 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9.0 4.3.4.002 S01 *) 0. Utilizations: For different stress components the proof shall be executed separately. The formulation may be transformed using stress spectrum factors [DIN 13001-3-1] Chap.

10 Thus. The combined specification of characteristic stress range and inverse slope is called “notch case” in the following. The worst case is the proof with highest utilization.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 171 DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005. If no default notch case is specified only classified points for proof of Stresses are proven. But proofs can be combined into lists to be evaluated together. Consideration of material and part thickness by the user: When selecting the notch cases in the scope of [13001-3-1:2005] tables A.2 the user himself has to consider part thickness or the yield stress of the material.1 and A.51)” in regard to: characteristic stress ranges inverse slope of /N-curve For or The slopes and and . The notch case to be taken into account is determined for normal and for shear stresses independently.174)): Either a design spectrum or a s-Class according to DIN Tab. Welding thicknesses have to be considered by the user. Implementation in KRASTA Classification of notch cases: A proof of fatigue according to DIN 13001 requires the classification of the “Points for Proof of Stresses (p. Types of proof: The proof can be done separately for normal stresses. or can be chosen in a range of 3. Proof Control Sets: For each proof the following is specified (see Dialog: Proof of fatigue according to DIN 13001-3 (p.183)). for shear stresses combined It is also possible to do all three types simultaneously. For each of these proofs a specialized output format is available. If more than one type of proof is done simultaneously it is possible to output the worst case only. compression stress evaluation and (if any) default notch cases. specific resistance factors. For a point for proof of stresses individual notch cases for normal and for shear stresses are assigned (see Dialog: Classification of Points for proof of Stresses according to DIN 13001-3 (p. according to DIN-Tab.0 to 5.183)) A fatigue specific resistance factor If the compression portion of the stress range shall be reduced to 60% Optionally default notch cases for unclassified points for proof of Stresses. If no classification is given the point is not taken into account. the proofs have to be formulated separately for different S-Classes.181)). . 12 or Appendix B (see Loading Groups: DIN 13001-3 (p. 11 and DIN Tab. values out of a given list are available (see Chapter Notch Cases 13001-3 (p.0.KRASTA 9.

KRASTA assumes Def.4 Simplified method for slope (see: DIN 13001-3. For each stress difference the according utilizations are computed. with: according to [13001-3-1:2005] Tab. The cases which result in highest utilizations are documented. according to Proof Control Set.*) Type of Proof Utilization Proof of normal stresses: Proof of shear stresses: √( Combined proof: with *) ) ( and ) *) save approximated .6 Manual Proof: DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005 (simplified procedure) Stress History Parameter: In the simplified procedure.5. is given by the specified S-class Evaluation pattern: The evaluation pattern is a list of load events consisting of load case and situation.3. KRASTA is using KRASTA . : √ : √ √ . given by DIN Chap. 6.169)). save approx. Extremation: KRASTA determines stress differences or design stress ranges for every possible combination of two load cases out of the evaluation pattern. the stress history parameter according to [13001-3-1:2005] Tab. bzw. it implies a certain load spectrum. . optionally.13 for an S-class according to proof control set.: for the simplified method.172 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. 13. or whereas compression portions are reduced to 60%. Method of Proof. √ according to individual classification of the points for proof of Stresses. The S-class (see above) is used as an indication on load ranges and frequencies within the evaluation pattern. Permissible stress ranges (p.

: and relative total number . ̂ ∑ √ . according to Proof Control Set.KRASTA 9. The design stress range is the difference between maximum and minimum across all load events present in the design spectrum. ̂ ̂ relative total number of cycles. determined for each point for proof of stresses individually. with: √ according to individual classification of the points for proof of stresses. DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1 uses a simplified S-N curve with a constant slope parameter consideration of fatigue limit and cut off stress ranges. is listed in bzw. whereas compression portions are reduced to 60%. ∑( ̂ with: with ̂ ) ∑( ̂ ̂ ̂ Analog to the simplified procedure. optionally. according to design spectrum.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 173 Proof: DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005 (damage accumulation procedure) Design Spectrum: The design spectrum completely specifies the mode of operation with load sequences and their frequencies. Def. ) bzw. The result of the analysis. Type of Proof Utilization stress related value damage related value Proof of normal stresses: ( ) Proof of shear stresses: ) √( ) ( Combined proof: with ) . given in form of collective coefficient combined form as the time history parameter . Time History Parameter: The time history parameter is determined by a damage analysis according to the hypothesis of linear damage accumulation (Palmgren-Miner rule) of stress histories specified by design spectra.

Teil 3-1: Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von Stahltragwerken Deutsche Fassung CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 Cranes – General Design – Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel structure German Version CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 [13001-3-1:2009] prEN 13001-3-1:2009 Ausgabe: 2009-10 Krane. Literature: DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005-03 [DIN 13001-3-1] DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1: Ausgabe: März 2005 Krane. design spectrum or S-Class (“Loading Group”). Default notch cases enable proof for points for proof of stresses without individual classifications according to DIN 13001. the textual output can be limited to the worst case. The stress components for the proof can be selectable independently from each other. If desired. Konstruktion allgemein. For each stress component a specialized Output Format (p. Konstruktion allgemein.182) is available.6 Manual Dialog: Proof of Fatigue according to DIN 13001-3 If specifying a design spectrum (damage accumulation procedure) If specifying a S-Class (simplified procedure) In the “Proof of” area of the dialog.174 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. specific resistance factor and the kind of consideration of compression portion are specified. Teil 3-1: Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von Stahltragwerken Cranes – General Design – Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel structure .

4). Characteristic stress range and slope can be determined by fatigue testing (see [13001-31:2009] chapter 6. prEN 13001-3-1:2009. Resistance factor : To consider fail-safe or non fail-save components. weld characteristics and (partly) material and structural part thickness. 9: Inspection and access Fail-safe components Non fail-save components without hazards for persons with hazards for persons Periodic inspection and maintenance Accessible joint detail Periodic inspection and maintenance Poor accessibility Stress history parameter : Each load cycle causes individual nominal stress cycles in every location and therefore individual stress spectra. Thus. For each stress component (normal or shear stress) a unique stress history parameter is associated. Based on the shape of the stress spectra and the slope value specified by the notch case individual stress history parameters are calculated according [13001-3-1:2009] chapter 6.3) also. Notch cases are specified individually for normal and for shear stresses. the implementation in KRASTA and used calculation formula are shown. i. accessibility and hazards for persons a fatigue strength specific resistance factor is used according [13001-3-1:2009] tab. Alternatively. 6.1. Notch cases: Structural details are covered by classification of notch cases (see [13001-3-1:2009].5 Analysis and Documentation 175 Proof of Fatigue according to prEN 13001-3-1:2009 In the following the concept of the proof is explained first. a slope between (material in welded connections) and (flat material or shear in longitudinal welds) can be taken into account by the proof. [13001-3-1:2009] Chap. With the classification of a certain notch case. by a certain load spectrum.e.3.6 Manual 7. Anhang D und H). output formats and value tables are described.3.3. notch case and accessibility. a characteristic stress range or and the inverse slope of /N-curve is determined. Notch cases consider connection geometry. S-Classes: The stress history parameter is derived from the total damage considering further parameter. Finally according program dialogs. Method of Proof Based on the operating method.KRASTA 9.2. The workflow in detail is as follows: Operating method: In general. the damage equivalence factor may be specified by selecting a certain S-Class S0 to S9 (s. After that. the operating method is specified by a range of load working cycles of which each is weighted with a relative frequency. . permissible stress ranges are determined and compared against characteristic stress ranges.

25 0. Utilizations: For different stress components the proof shall be executed separately. the design stress range is the difference between maximum and minimum stress component present in the stress spectrum.6 Manual Permissible stress ranges: The permissible (limit) stress range is calculated for each stress component separately as follows: √ The dependency between S-classes and Class is defined as follows: S02 S01 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 0.016 0.5 1.3.3.002 0.063 0.008 0. . For each stress component the utilization is calculated by comparing permissible to design stress range. Additionally a combined utilization may be determined.4. A proof following the simplified procedure is using as a substitute.5.0 The formulation may be transformed using stress spectrum factors [13001-3-1:2009] Chap.176 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9.032 0.5.0 4. See “Types of proof” below.004 0.125 0. For thermally stress relieved or non-welded structural members the compression portion of the stress range may be reduced to 60%.0 2. Design stress ranges: In general. All other parameters are independent Analyzing the stress spectrum shape is done for a proof based on damage accumulation. 6. Because of √ and according to it is: mit The stress spectrum shape is covered by the ratio parameter from the stress spectrum. This allows a save approximation of permissible stress range independent from the actual stress spectrum. √ .3. 6. as mentioned in [13001-3-1:2009] Chap.

For a point for proof of stresses individual notch cases for normal and for shear stresses are assigned (see Dialog: Classification of Points of Proof of Stresses according to DIN 13001-3 (p. Welding thicknesses have to be considered by the user. For each of these proofs a specialized output format is available. specific resistance factors. 9 Thus.0. The notch case to be taken into account is determined for normal and for shear stresses independently. Implementation in KRASTA Classification of notch cases: A proof of fatigue according to prEN 13001-3-1:2009 requires the classification of the “Points for Proof of Stresses (p. or can be chosen in a range of 3. If more than one type of proof is done simultaneously it is possible to output the worst case only. Consideration of material and part thickness by the user: When selecting the notch cases in the scope of [13001-3-1:2009] Tables D. Proof Control Sets: For each proof the following is specified (see Dialog: Proof of fatigue according to DIN 13001-3 (p. The combined specification of characteristic stress range and inverse slope is called “notch case” in the following.183)) A fatigue specific resistance factor If the compression portion of the stress range shall be reduced to 60% Optionally default notch cases for unclassified points of proof of stresses according to [13001-3-1:2009] Tab.181)). Types of proof: The proof can be done separately for normal stresses for shear stresses combined It is also possible to do all three types simultaneously.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 177 prEN 13001-3-1:2009.2 the user himself has to consider part thickness or the yield stress of the material. If no classification is given the point is not taken into account. The worst case is the proof with highest utilization.KRASTA 9. 10 (see Loading Groups: DIN 13001-3 (p. If no default notch case is specified only classified points of proof of stresses are proven. compression stress evaluation and (if any) default notch cases. . But proofs can be combined into lists to be evaluated together. values out of a given list are available (see chapter Notch Cases 13001-3 (p.174)): Either a design spectrum or a S-Class according to [13001-3-1:2009] Tab.51)” in regard to: characteristic stress ranges inverse slope of /N-curve For or The slopes and and .1 and D.0 to 5.183)). the proofs have to be formulated separately for different S-Classes.

bzw.*) Type of Proof Utilization Proof of normal stresses: Proof of shear stresses: √( Combined proof: with *) ) ( and ) *) save approximated . KRASTA is using KRASTA . Extremation: KRASTA determines stress differences or design stress ranges for every possible combination of two load cases out of the evaluation pattern. is given by the specified S-class according Evaluation pattern: The evaluation pattern is a list of load events consisting of load case and situation. according to proof control set. it implies a certain load spectrum. 10 for an S-class according to proof control set.: for the simplified method. For each stress difference the according utilizations are computed. The cases which result in highest utilizations are documented. √ according to individual classification of the points of proof of stresses. : √ : √ √ . 10. save approx. The S-class (see above) is used as an indication on load ranges and frequencies within the evaluation pattern. given by [13001-3-1:2009] Chap. with: according to [13001-3-1:2009] Tab. Permissible stress ranges (p. or whereas compression portions are reduced to 60%. . KRASTA assumes Def. 6.175)).5. Method of Proof. optionally.3.178 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9.6 Manual Proof: prEN 13001-3-1:2009 (simplified procedure) Stress History Parameter: In the simplified procedure the stress history parameter to [13001-3-1:2009] Tab.4 Simplified method for slope (see: DIN 13001-3.

The design stress range is the difference between maximum and minimum across all load events present in the design spectrum.KRASTA 9. according to design spectrum. determined for each point for proof of stresses individually. whereas compression portions are reduced to 60%. with: √ according to individual classification of the points of proof of stresses. Type of Proof Utilization stress related value damage related value Proof of normal stresses: ( ) Proof of shear stresses: ) ( ) ( ) Combined proof: ( ) . is shown in combined bzw. ̂ ∑ √ .: and relative total number . Def. ∑( ̂ with: with ̂ ) ∑( ̂ ̂ Analog to the simplified procedure. DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1 is using a simplified S-N curve with a constant slope parameter consideration of fatigue limit and cut off stress ranges. The result of the analysis. ̂ ̂ relative total number of cycles. Time History Parameter: The time history parameter is determined by a damage analysis according to the hypothesis of linear damage accumulation (Palmgren-Miner rule of stress histories specified by design spectra.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 179 Proof: prEN 13001-3-1:2009 (damage accumulation procedure) Design Spectrum: The design spectrum completely specifies the mode of operation with load sequences and their frequencies. optionally. ) ̂ bzw. according to Proof Control Set. the collective coefficient form as the time history parameter .

specific resistance factor and the kind of consideration of compression portion are specified. If desired. Literature: prEN 13001-3-1:2009 [13001-3-1:2009] prEN 13001-3-1:2009 Ausgabe: 2009-10 Krane. For each stress component a specialized Output Format (p.182) is available. Konstruktion allgemein. Default notch cases enable proof for points of proof of stresses without individual classifications according to DIN 13001. design spectrum or S-Class (“Loading Group”). Teil 3-1: Grenzzustände und Sicherheitsnachweis von Stahltragwerken Cranes – General Design – Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel structure .6 Manual Dialog: Proof of Fatigue according to EN 13001-3-1 If specifying a design spectrum (damage accumulation procedure) If specifying a S-Class (simplified procedure) In the “Proof of” area of the dialog. The stress components for the proof can be selectable independently from each other.180 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. the textual output can be limited to the worst case.

Dialog: Classification of Points for proof of stresses according to DIN 13001-3 Classification of points for proof of stresses according to DIN 13001-3 is done by specifying characteristic stress ranges and and associated inverse slope of /N-curve and .6 Analysis and Documentation 181 Common information to proof of fatigue according to EN 13001-3 This chapter describes common dialogs. output formats and load groups available in KRASTA for proofs of fatigue according to EN 13001-3.1. Details of the individual proof and their implementation in KRASTA are given in the chapter “Proof of Fatigue according to prEN 13001-3-1:2009 (p.177)“. see below.6 Manual 7.KRASTA 9. Specification of a specific resistance factor control sets.169)”. see „Implementation in KRASTA (p.175)” and “Proof of Fatigue according to DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005-03 (p. as well as a reduced compression portion is done by proof .

if reduced compressive portion is to be considered. . ds Sd dt Sd design stress range (may be reduced). m(s) m(t) inverse slope of the /N-curve . gamma Mf fatigue specific resistance factor 60% information. To build up or edit output formats the following items are available: General data (e.g. origin of extremes or if proof(-portion) is satisfied) Specific items of the individual proof (e. wide page. contains shear stress proof values. contains normal stress proof values.g. . causing stress ranges. wide page.g. Combined Proof: DIN 13001-3 res three lines. ds Rd dt Rd permissible stress range. sectional point. available in the output format: Symbols Tab. wide page. ds c dt_c characteristic stress ranges .-Head Value . beam.182 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. parameter of the proof. Prepared Output Formats Type of Proof Format Proof of normal stresses: DIN 13001-3 sig one line.221) can be defined freely. contains both groups from above and the res. section point. comparison value „comp res“. intermediated results or utilizations) Specific items. .6 Manual Output Formats: DIN13001-3 The layout of an Output Format (p. sig sig tau tau max min max min stress components. KRASTA does not distinguish resulting utilization and comparison value. load case or stresses) Proof data (e. uti sig normal stress utilization uti tau shear stress utilization uti res resulting utilization comp res resulting comparison value part of proof fulfilled if: *) In the scope of DIN 13001-3. Proof of shear stresses: DIN 13001-3 tau one line. .

6 Manual Notch Cases: DIN 13001-3 Standard sequence with a ratio of 1. S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 Analysis and Documentation 183 . 355 N/mm² 315 N/mm² 280 N/mm² .0 N/mm² 7.125. Method of Proof (p.3 N/mm² Loading Groups: DIN 13001-3 (S-Classes) See also section “DIN 13001-3. Method of Proof (p. . .1 N/mm² 6. 8.KRASTA 9. See also section “DIN 13001-3.177)”.175)”.

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1. weighted by their relative frequencies. Finally according program dialogs.8]).2. Method of Proof Based on the operating method. Alternatively. permissible stress ranges are determined and compared against characteristic stress ranges.7 Analysis and Documentation 185 Proof of Fatigue according to EN 1993-1-9:2005 (EC 3) In the following the concept of the proof is explained first. the implementation in KRASTA and used calculation formula are shown. weld characteristics and (partly) material and structural part thickness. Notch cases consider connection geometry.162). by a certain load spectrum.1: Safety Concept Consequence of failure low high Damage tolerance concept Safe life concept Design stress ranges: In general.KRASTA 9. EN 1993-1-9:2005. the damage equivalence factor may be specified by selecting a certain S-Class S0 to S9 (see [EC 1] Tab. These individual damages parts are. output formats and value tables are described. With the classification of a certain notch case.e.12). For thermally stress relieved or non-welded structural members the compressin portion of the stress range may be reduced to 60%. a characteristic stress range or and the inverse slope of /N-curve is determined. After that. . i. Notch cases are specified individually for normal and for shear stresses. 3.6 Manual 7. The workflow in detail is as follows: Operating method: In general. notch case and accessibility. Resistance factor : To consider the safety concept and consequences of failure a partial safety factor for fatigue strength is used according to [EC 3] tab. Damage Accumulation: The damage parts of each working cycle defined in the load spectrum are calculated based on the Palmgren-Miner rule (p. the design stress range is the difference between the maximum and the minimum stress present in the stress spectrum. accumulated to a total sum of damage S-Class: Damage equivalence factors and are derived from the total damage considering further parameter. the operating method is specified by a range of load working cycles of which each is weighted with a relative frequency. Notch cases: Structural details are covered by classification of notch cases (see [EC 3] Tab.

794 1.6 Manual Damage equivalence factor : Each load sequences cause individual nominal stress range collectives for each location. See “Types of proof” below.159 0.260 1.660 0.436 0.630 0.126 0. Use them is not compliant with the standard. .320 m=5 The S-Classes ”S02” and “S01” are not natively known by this standard.2.871 1.397 0.186 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9.500 0.575 0.379 0.000 1.250 0. If a S-class is specified for the structural part S-Class *) S02 *) S01 *) is given by [EC 1]. Additionally a combined utilization may be determined.16. They are additionally available following EN 13001 ( ) √ √ Equivalent constant amplitude stress range The equivalent stress range related to factor or and design stress range or cycles is determined based on damage equivalence ̂ or ̂: ̂ and ̂ Utilization: For the stress components the proof shall be executed separately.289 0.331 0.000 1.315 0.149 1. For each stress component an utilization is calculated by comparison of equivalent stress range to characteristic stress range. Based on the shape of this stress range collectives and the S-N curve specified by the notch case the damage equivalence factor is determined according to [EC 1] Eqn.Tab.2. An individual damage equivalence factor is determined for each stress component (normal or shear stress).198 0.500 0.758 0.587 m=3 0.12: S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 0.

51)” in regard to: characteristic stress ranges inverse slope of /N-curve For and The slopes and and . But proofs can be combined into lists to be evaluated together. Welding thicknesses (p. specific resistance factors.2. The combined specification of characteristic stress range and inverse slope is called “notch case” in the following. If no classification is given. For a point of proof of stresses individual notch cases for normal and shear stresses are assigned (see Dialog: Classification of Points of Proof of Stresses according to EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) (p. If more than one type of proof is done simultaneously it is possible to output the worst case only.51) have to be considered by the user. The worst case is the proof with highest utilization.0.0 to 5. only classified points of proof of stresses are proven. Implementation in KRASTA Classification of notch cases: A proof of fatigue according to to EN 1993-1-9:2005 requires the classification of the “Points for Proof of Stresses (p. an can be chosen in a range of 3.12 (see S-Classes: EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3)) A fatigue specific resistance factor If the compressive portion of the stress range shall be reduced to 60% Optionally a default notch cases for unclassified points of proof of stresses according to [EC 3] Tab. values out of a given list are available (see chapter Notch Cases EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3)). Proof Control Sets: For each proof the following is specified (see Dialog: Proof of fatigue according to EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3)): Either a design spectrum or a S-class according to [EC 1] Tab. the proofs have to be formulated separately for different design spectra or S-classes.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 187 EN 1993-1-9:2005. the point is not taken into account.181)). Consideration of material and part thickness by the user: When selecting notch cases in the scope of [EC 3] Tab. compression stress evaluation and (if any) default notch cases. If no default notch case is specified.3. Types pf proof: The proof can be done separately for normal stresses for shear stresses combined It is also possible to do all three types simultaneously.1 Thus. For each of these proofs a specialized output format is available.8 the user himself has to consider part thickness or the yield stress of the material. . The notch case to be taken into account is determined for normal and for shear stresses independently.KRASTA 9.

optionally. Type of Proof Utilization stress related value Proof of normal stresses: ⁄ Proof of shear stresses: ⁄ Combined proof: Currently. ̂ The design stress range is the difference between maximum and minimum across all load events present in the evaluation pattern.6 Manual Proof: EN 1993-1-9:2005 (simplified procedure) Damage Equivalence Factors: In the simplified procedure.: bzw. whereas compressive portions are reduced to 60%. For each stress difference the according utilizations are computed. All load safety factors have to be already considered at the load . KRASTA uses definition. The S-class (see above) is used as an indication on load ranges and frequencies within the evaluation pattern.188 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. The cases which result in highest utilizations are documented.2. or are given by the specified S-Class Evaluation Pattern: The evaluation pattern is a list of load events consisting of load case and situation. the damage equivalence factors according to [EC 1] Tab.12 for an S-Class according to proof control set. ̂ ̂ mit: ̂ .2. Def. ( for the purpose of comparison recalculated as damage related value ) . According to [EC 1] Tab.12. it implies a certain load spectrum. Extremation: KRASTA determines stress differences or design stress ranges for every possible combination of two load cases out of the evaluation pattern.

whereas compressive portions are reduced to 60%. All load safety factors have to be already considered at the load definition. Type of Proof Utilization stress related value Proof of normal stresses: ⁄ Proof of shear stresses: ⁄ Combined proof: Currently.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 189 Proof: EN 1993-1-9:2005 (damage accumulation procedure) Design Spectrum: The design spectrum completely specifies the mode of operation with load sequences and their frequencies. ̂ According to the design spectrum. determined for each point for proof of stresses individually. the coefficient or form as the damage equivalence factor . is shown in combined bzw. optionally. . ∑( ̂ with: and relative total number ) ∑( ̂ ̂ ) ̂ ̂ √ √ ̂ Analog to the simplified procedure. KRASTA uses ( damage related value ) .: or . ̂ ̂ ̂ ∑ Total number of stress cycles ( Reference number of stress ranges ̂ with: . The design stress range is the difference between maximum and minimum across all load events present in the design spectrum. Damage Equivalence Factors: The damage equivalence factors or are determined by a damage analysis according to the hypothesis of linear damage accumulation (Palmgren-Miner rule) of stress histories specified by design spectra. Def. The result of the analysis.KRASTA 9.

Dialog: Classification of Points for Proof of Stresses according to EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) Classification (p. Where needed. KRASTA is using the loads specified by the evaluation pattern or the design spectrum without any further factors. The stress components for the proof can be selectable independently from each other. For each stress component a specialized output format is available.187)“. see below. If desired. see „Implementation in KRASTA (p.6 Manual Dialog: Proof of Fatigue according to EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) If specifying a design spectrum (damage accumulation procedure) If specifying a S-Class (simplified procedure) In the “Proof of” area of the dialog.192) of points for proof of stresses according to EN 1993-19 (EC 3) is done by specifying characteristic stress ranges or and associated inverse slope of the /N-curve or . the textual output can be limited to the worst case. It is not possible to enter a safety coefficient for loads or stresses. Specification of a specific resistance factor as well as a reduced compression portion is done by proof control sets. Default notch cases enable proofs for points for proof of stresses without individual classifications according to EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) (p.89) or a S-Class (p. either a Design Spectrum (p. specific resistance factor and the kind of consideration of compression portions are specified.190 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. safety factors can be considered at definition of the loads.192).192) (“Loading Group”). .

KRASTA does not distinguish between resulting utilization and comparison value. contains normal stress proof values. Proof of shear stresses: EN 1993-1-9 tau one line. wide page. sectional point.g. contains shear stress proof values. . ds c dt c characteristic stress ranges . origin of extremes or if proof(-portion) is satisfied) Specific items of the individual proof (e. Ausn ges resulting utilization Verg ges resulting comparison value *) In the scope of EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3).-Head Value . To build up or edit output formats the following items are available: General data (e. wide page. . Prepared Output Formats Type of Proof Format Proof of normal stresses: EN 1993-1-9 sig one line.g.g.KRASTA 9. . Combined Proof: EN 1993-1-9 res three lines. contains both groups from above and the res. wide page. section point. ds Sd dt Sd design stress range (may be reduced). m sig m tau inverse slope of the /N-curve sig sig tau tau stress components. . beam. max min max min gamma Mf fatigue specific resistance factor 60% information if reduced compressive portion is to be considered.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 191 Output Formats: EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) The layout of an Output Format (p. comparison value „comp res“. A tau D tau shear stress utilization bzw. . ds E2 dt E2 equivalent stress range part of proof fulfilled if: *) . load case or stresses) Proof data (e. A sig D sig normal stress utilization bzw. parameter of the proof. causing stress ranges.221) can be defined freely. intermediated results or utilizations) Specific items. . available in the output format: Symbols Tab.

(m=3) . 2006 8.149 S9 1. Use is not compliant with this standard.379 S1 0.320 The S-Classes “S02” and “S01” are not known by the standard. .6 Manual .794 0.500 S3 0.0 N/mm² 7.758 S6 0. Herausgegeben von Prof.660 S5 0. 8. Hans-Peter Günther KRASTA 9.630 0. They are additionally available following EN 13001 ( ) √ √ Literature: EN 1993-1-9:2005 [EC 1] prEN 1991-3:2002 Ausgabe: 2002-09 Eurocode 1: Einwirkung auf Tragwerke Teil 3: Einwirkungen infolge von Kranen und Maschinen [EC 3] EN 1993-1-9:2005 Ausgabe: 2005-07 Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten Teil 1-9: Ermüdung [StK] Stahlbaukalender. . 355 N/mm² 315 N/mm² 280 N/mm² . Dr. Jahrgang.-Ing.000 1.250 0.126 0.192 Analysis and Documentation Notch Cases: EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) Standard sequence with a ratio of 1.000 S8 1.-Ing.159 0.3 N/mm² Loading Groups: EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) (S-Classes) Damage Equivalence Factor S-Class *) .315 0.125.331 S0 0.500 0.260 1. (m=5) *) S02 0. Alain Nussbauer.-Ing. Dr.289 *) S01 0.587 1.436 S2 0.1 N/mm² 6. Ulrike Kuhlmann Abschnitt 2: Grundlagen und Erläuterungen der neuen Ermüdungsnachweise nach Eurocode 3 Dr.198 0.575 S4 0.871 S7 1.397 0.

Equations for permissibl upper stresses.8 Analysis and Documentation 193 Proof of Fatigue acc.6 Manual 7.1 and (tensile strength) according to classification of the material. K0) √ proof of normal stresses: proof of shear stresses: combined proof: √( ) ( ) For non simplified combined proofs. the sum shown above is maximized. 3. Structural Elements Welding (acc. | | | | .6.001 Def. (tension) (alternating domain) (pressure) (tension) ( (swelling domain) ) (pressure) Furthermore is considered: Permissible stress (yield point acc.A. Specification of a loading group (called “structural element group” in FEM). FEM 1. Proof: FEM 1.KRASTA 9. W0) √ (acc. Classification of points for proof of stresses in notch cases (or specifying a default notch case). for structural elements and welding.001 The proceeding is analog to DIN 15018.1. They are combined later. . Classification of materials. For simplified combined proofs the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress utilization are evaluated first. according to Table T.: | | | | . depend on . classification of the material).

001 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 KRASTA 9.194 Analysis and Documentation Materials: FEM 1.6 Manual .001 St 37 St 44 St 52-3 Notch Cases: FEM 1.001 W0 W1 W2 K0 K1 K2 K3 K4 Loading Groups: FEM 1.

Proof: ISO 5049-1 Def. depend on . √ (acc.9 Analysis and Documentation 195 Proof of Fatigue acc. the sum shown above is maximized. Since in ISO 5049-1 the values for the permissible fatigue strength are given only in graphic form. .6 Manual 7. Structural Elements Welding The values for (yield point acc. have been taken over from FEM (tension) (alternating domain) (pressure) (tension) ( (swelling domain) ) (pressure) Furthermore is considered: Permissible stress for structural elements and welding. Classification of materials. Equations for permissible upper stresses.KRASTA 9. ISO 5049-1 The proceeding is analogous to DIN 15018. They are combined later. | | | | . Specification of a loading group (called “cycle classes” in ISO). K0) proof of normal stresses: proof of shear stresses: combined proof: √( ) ( ) For non simplified combined proofs. classification of the material). the arithmetic values had to be determined by measuring several points. 20 und 21 of the standard! (acc. For simplified combined proofs the maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress utilization are evaluated first. Classification of points for proof of stresses in notch cases (or specifying a default notch case).1.: | | | | . W0) √ are measured from tables 19.

6 Manual .196 Analysis and Documentation Materials: ISO 5049 Fe 360 Fe 430 Fe 510 Notch Cases: ISO 5049 W0 W1 W2 K0 K1 K2 K3 K4 Loading Groups: ISO 5049 A B C KRASTA 9.

Table 12 acc. For simplified combined proof the maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress utilization are determined separately and combined later. notch case K0 for B0 und B7 added analogous. (alternating domain) (swelling domain) notch cases W0 and K0 other notch cases (tension) ⁄ (pressure) Furthermore is considered: Rows 8-9: Tolerable stress Structural Elements Welding (yield point acc. √ proof of normal stresses: proof of shear stresses: combined proof: ( ) ( ) For non-simplified combined proof the sum above is maximized. | | | | . for structural elements and welding.10 Proof of Fatigue according to DASt-Ri 011 Proof: DASt-Ri 011 Def. (acc. “other notch cases” with acc. depend on . Col. DIN15018: Material St52-3.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 197 7. .1.KRASTA 9. W0) √ acc.: | | | | . acc. classification of the material. classification of the material). Table 12 (DASt-Ri 011) Rows 4-7: Equations for tolerable upper stresses.

6 Manual .198 Analysis and Documentation Materials: DASt-Ri 011 StE 460 StE 690 Notch Cases: DASt-Ri 011 W0 W1 W2 K0 K1 K2 K3 K3/4 K4 Loading Groups: DASt-Ri 011 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 KRASTA 9.

11. Chap.5. AS 4100. With the classification of a certain notch case the reference stress range or is determined.2. Damage Accumulation: For each load oscillation event a partial damage is determined and accumulated according to its individual number of stress cycles (ref. each of them weighted with own relative frequency.3. 11. notch cases and accessibility. Stress range weighting: For hollow sections. AS 4100.8. After that. permissible stress ranges are determined and compared against characteristic stress ranges. S-N Curve: The inverse slope of the S-N Curve normal stress: is a function of the number of stress cycles. Method of Proof Based on the operation method.1. Tab. the implementation in KRASTA and used calculation formula are shown.KRASTA 9. 11. effective number of load cycles are given in chapter 11. { shear stress: Uncorrected fatigue strength: The uncorrected fatigue strength is determined by reference stress range and number of stress cycles: √ normal stress: { shear stress: √ √ . by specifying of a certain load spectrum.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 199 7. The workflow in detail is as follows: Operation method: In general. Hints on how to determine a single.e. other cross sections and connections the stress ranges are multiplied by a factor between 1. Finally according program dialogs. AS 4100:1998 In the following the concept of the proof is explained first.2).11 Proof of Fatigue acc.3. the operation method to analyze is specified by a list of load working cycles. Notch cases: Detail categories are covered by classification of notch cases (ref.1). Tab.0 (ref. material and material thickness. i. Notch cases are specified individually for normal and for shear stresses. AS 4100. output formats and value tables are described.0 and 2. The notch case accounts for stress concentration.1). AS 4100.

51)” in regard to: Reference fatigue strength For reference fatigue strength values out of a given list are available (see Chapter Notch Cases AS 4100 (p. Intermediate values are covered safely by specifying the next smaller value available. to AS 4100 requires the classification of the “Points for Proof of Stresses (p. This is not applicable for combined proofs.1. Especially for non-redundant load paths a capacity factor has to be chosen.1 for a certain number of load cycles .6 Manual Thickness effect A material thicknesses correction factor strength as follows: { with ( is taken into account to determine the corrected fatique ) Comparison fatigue strength determined by capacity factor: The proof is made by comparing of design stress range by the capacity factor .1. . Damage Accumulation: The proof is done acc. According to accessibility. the weighting factor can be considered by the user by an attenuated capacity factor (see below). The reference fatigue strength for shear stresses is fixed in KRASTA to .3. For each stress component the utilization is calculated by comparing the design stress range with the comparison fatigue range.3. assigned to different stress ranges (damage accumulation) is not implemented in KRASTA for proofs according to AS 4100.8. Implementation in KRASTA Stress range weighting: No stress range weighting according to table 11.6 AS 4100.1 is done by KRASTA. Classification of notch cases: A proof of fatigue acc.b as: ) ( ) with defined in chap. Individual number of load cycles . regularity of stress cycles and redundancy of the load path even smaller. 11. (proof of constant stress ranges) A combined proof ( is defined according to AS 4100-Suppl-1999 Section C11.200 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. AS 4100.0. 11. chap. By this. The comparison fatigue strength is against a corrected fatigue strength scaled . type of stress determination. If required. The maximum capacity factor is 1. Utilizations: For different stress components the proof shall be executed separately. the maximum stress range is considered as constant stress range in the sense of the standard.205)).

Proof Control Sets: For each proof the following is specified (see Dialog: Proof of fatigue acc. If no default notch case is specified. it is possible to output the worst case only. Thus. Analyzing load spectra is not implemented in KRASTA. Evaluation pattern: The evaluation pattern is a list of load events consisting of situations and loadcases. there is no information in regard of frequency of load cycles associated. The cases which result in highest individual utilizations are documented. specialized output format is available. AS 4100 (p. For each stress difference the according utilizations are computed.5. the point is not taken into account. for shear stresses combined It is also possible to do all three types simultaneously. The worst case is the one with the highest utilization. But proofs can be combined into lists to be evaluated together. only classified points of proof of stresses are proven.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 201 Consideration of material and part thickness by the user: When selecting the notch cases in the scope of AS table 11. At present. an individual. Types of Proof: The proof can be done separately for normal stresses. Welding thicknesses have to be considered by the user. . For each of these proofs. Extremation: KRASTA determines stress differences and design stress ranges for every possible combination of two load cases out of the evaluation pattern. If more than one type of proof is done simultaneously. If no classification is given.203)): A number of load cycles A capacity factor Optionally a default notch case for unclassified points of proof of stresses. the proofs have to be formulated separately for different number of load cycles.1(2) the user himself has to take into account the according part thickness of the material.KRASTA 9. The notch case to be taken into account is determined for normal and for shear stresses independently. specific capacity factors and (if any) default notch cases.

please consider the different power law of single and combined stress utilization.: √ √ √ { ( with: ) according to individual classification of the points of proof of stresses.202 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9.3. according to proof control set.or over-utilizations. Type of Proof Utilization Proof of normal stresses: Proof of shear stresses: *) ( Combined proof : ) ( ) *) The definition of the combined proof in AS 4100-Supplement-1999. Therefore KRASTA offers a combined proof in an analog sense but not in a form defined by the standard. ̂ Note: To interpret under.1 use non defined parameter and .6 Manual Proof: AS 4100 Def. . C11. For that purpose KRASTA includes the following assumptions: ̂ resp.

number of load cycles and the capacity factor are specified.KRASTA 9. see below. . AS 4100 In the “Proof of” area of the dialog. AS 4100 Classification of point for proof of stresses according to AS 4100 is done by specifying a reference fatigue strength for normal stress . For each type of proof. a specialized Output Format (p. The stress componets to proove are selectable independently. Default notch cases enable proove of points for proof of stresses without individual classifications according to AS 4100. If desired. Dialog: Proof of Fatigue acc.204) is available.200)“. see „Implementation in KRASTA (p. Specification of a specific capacity factor is done in proof control sets.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 203 Dialog: Classification of Points of Proof of Stresses acc. the textual output can be limited to the worst case.

max sig min sig max tau min tau stress components. . fr_s reference fatigue strengths (notch cases) beta thickness correction factor fc_n. fa_tau admissible comparison fatigue strength .221) can be defined freely. contains normal stress proof values. intermediated results or utilizations) Specific items. Prepared Output Formats Type of Proof Format Proof of normal stresses: AS 4100 sig one line. fc_s corrected fatigue strength fa_sig. parameter of the proof. Value part of proof fulfilled if: *) A sig normal stress utilization A tau shear stress utilization Ausn ges resulting utilization Verg ges resulting comparison value In the scope of AS 4100 KRASTA does not distinguish resulting utilization and comparison value.g. beam. wide page. wide page.g.204 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. load case or stresses) Proof data (e.g. delta s delta t design stress ranges fr_n. . To build up or edit output formats the following items are available: General data (e. causing stress ranges. available in the output format: Symbols Tab. comparison value „comp res“.6 Manual Output Formats: AS 4100 The layout of an Output Format (p. wide page. Proof of shear stresses: AS 4100 tau one line. contains both groups from above and the res. sectional point. section point.-Head . contains shear stress proof values. Combined Proof: AS 4100 res three lines. origin of extreme values or if proof(-portion) is satisfied) Specific items for the individual proof (e.

180 N/mm² 160 N/mm² 140 N/mm² .6 Manual Notch Cases: AS 4100 See also section “AS 4100. .199)”.KRASTA 9. . 45 N/mm² 40 N/mm² 36 N/mm² Analysis and Documentation 205 . Method of Proof (p.

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the normal or shear stress utilization is lower than 0. 33 . 34): or the combined value in detail (Cond. acc. Materials: DIN 18800 Materials may be classified for DIN 18800 as: St 37 St 52-3 StE 355 GS-52 GS-20 Mn 5 C 35 N Element Thickness: DIN 18800 Structural element thickness for DIN 18800: Steel Thickness [mm] Yield Point [N/mm²] Tensile Strength [N/mm²] St 37 St 52-3 For the points for proof of stresses to be considered in the proof the according part thickness must be defined. It can be selected for the proof to consider normal stress utilization only (Cond. Points for proof of stresses that have no according thickness are considered to fall into the class with the least thickness.35): (Cond. 35): and and √ with Extreme values are searched for the utilization of the permissible stresses.1.12 Proof of Stresses el.67) as well as the input of the according material thickness at every point for proof of stresses.-el. parametric and thin-walled cross sections these are known from cross sections geometry. If.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 207 7.el. .5 the higher one of the two is used a combined utilization. DIN 18800:1990-11 A proof of stresses elastic-elastic according to DIN 18800. For direct input cross sections the user has to enter a thickness for every point for proof of stresses. element (747) requires the classification of the used materials (p. 33): or the shear stress utilization (Cond. Proof: DIN 18800 el. in the case of a combined proof.KRASTA 9. For standard.

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The normal stress coefficient ( ) is determined in respect to the slenderness of the actual axis: . Implementation in KRASTA KRASTA evaluates the mono-axial defined proof separately for both principal axes. material and security concept.1. There is no classification of materials or cross sections in respect to the omega method in KRASTA. DIN 4114-1:1952-07 (Omega-Method) In the following the concept of the proof is explained first. Finally according program dialogs.6 Manual Analysis and Documentation 209 7. Therefore. Dialog: Proof of Stresses Buckling DIN 4114 (Omega-Method) The extremation can be chosen to cover the maximum utilization one particular axis or . or to cover only the utilization of Only results of that chosen utilization are shown in text or plots. The permissible stress is to be chosen according the applied standards. The available classifications cover tables according to [DIN 4114] (Steel) and additionally tables according to [DIN 4113] (Aluminium).KRASTA 9. The proof to satisfy is: DIN 4114 Buckling (Omega-Method). output formats and value tables are described. Buckling acc. The classification is part of the proof control set and has to be done by individually for each proof control set. resp. Proof: DIN 4114 Buckling (Omega-Method) As a function of beam slenderness . KRASTA allows taking into account bending stress components. The proofs are: ( ) ( ) The associated utilizations are defined as: . After that. material and cross section the coefficient is determined based on the tables. the normal use case will be to perform an extremation of . According to [DIN 4114] bending stress components will be weighted uniformly with . .13 Proof of Stresses. the implementation in KRASTA and used calculation formula are shown.

) or slenderness) and Specific items for the individual proof (e. Proof data (e. Literature: DIN 4114 Buckling (Omega-Method) [DIN 4114] DIN 4114-1:1952-07 Ausgabe: Juli 1952 DIN 4114: Stahlbau Blatt 1: Stabilitätsfälle (Knicken. contains proof values regarding y-axis.g. contains proof values regarding z-axis. -table -stress for proofs of y. z-axis part of proof fulfilled if: a_max maximum of both utilizations Prepared Output Formats Type of Proof Format Proof of y-axis: Omega-Verf. z-axis: ( ( ) )⁄ ( ( ) )⁄ ) utilization for proofs of y. b(M)y a_y. Value normal stress coefficients acc. sectional point. buckling length (coeff. Beulen).resp. s_om_z .resp. wide page.resp. beam. contains proof values regarding both axes. b(M)y. wide page.g. available in the output format: Symbols Tab.-Head om_y. a_z . wide page. Combined Proof: Omega-Verfahren one line. To build up or edit output formats the following items are available: General data (e. section point. Berechnung und bauliche Durchbildung . and maximum utilization. z-axis ( Effective coefficient of resulting moment for proofs of y.(y) one line. intermediated results or utilizations) Specific items. load case or stresses). Vorschriften [DIN 4113] DIN 4113-1:1980-05 Ausgabe: Mai 1980 DIN 4113: Aluminiumkonstruktionen Teil 1: Aluminiumkonstruktionen unter vorwiegend ruhender Belastung. Berechnungsgrundlagen. om_z .(z) one line. effective coeff. origin of extremes or if proof(-portion) is satisfied).221) can be defined freely.210 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9.g.6 Manual Output Formats: DIN 4114 Buckling (Omega-Method) The layout of an Output Format (p. s_om_y. Proof of z-axis: Omega-Verf. Kippung. parameter of the proof. Beam Buckling data (e. beam length.g.

the type of evaluation.2 Analysis and Documentation 211 Results Proofs (p. spring forces and support forces. node displacements.KRASTA 9. stresses. beam displacements.215)).213).159) and results are handled by KRASTA in a similar manner (see Proof. delta stresses (p. In both cases. The following result control sets are available: inner forces. extremation and textual output are specified.6 Manual 7. . the evaluation pattern./ Result-Control-Sets (p.

.

1 Analysis and Documentation 213 Delta Stress Results The result control set “Delta Stresses” allows to search and document maximum normal stress ranges or shear stress ranges respectively. The extremation can be done for structural elements or welded joints separately. For each type of proof a specialized Output Format (p. Extremation: KRASTA determines stress differences for every possible combination of two load cases out of the evaluation pattern. Types of extremation: “sigma” : delta of normal stresses caused by normal forces and bending “tau” : delta of shear stresses caused by lateral forces and torsion Dialog: Extremation of delta stresses In the “Extremation of” area of the dialog. the type of delta stress to be evaluated is specified.2.KRASTA 9. . The cases with highest delta stresses are documented.221) is available.6 Manual 7.

normal stress difference Prepared Output Formats Type of Extremation Format delta normal stresses: Delta Normal-St. . t min dt max acc. contains normal stress extremation values. Extremation data (e. one line. extreme and according stress components) Specific items. wide page. one line. sectional point. building the normal stress range maximum normal stress range t(smax).g. t(smin) dt(dsmax) t max. wide page.g. shear stress difference shear stress components. available in the output format: Tab-Head s max. shear stress components acc. delta shear stresses: Delta Shear-St. building the shear stress range maximum shear stress range s(tmax). wide page. section point. origin of extremes or if proof(-portion) is satisfied) and Specific items for the individual extremation (e. contains shear stress extremation values.214 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. contains both groups from above. beam. s(tmin) ds(dtmax) acc. Delta Stresses three lines. s min ds max Item normal stress components.6 Manual Output Formats: Delta Stresses The layout of an output format can be defined freely. normal stress components acc. To build up or edit output formats the following items are available: General data (e. load case or stresses).g.

“Evaluation”. the type of evaluation. √ √ √ √ . extremation and output have to be described. resulting bending moment. shear force y or z torsional moment x.6 Manual 7. bending moment y or z./ Result-Control-Sets Proofs and results are treated in a similar way by KRASTA. “Eval. Dialog: For Proofs and Results The information to be specified by the user is grouped into four groups “Options for search of extreme values”. in case of inner forces: normal force x. Extreme values of which type. In contrast to a result a proof considers permissible values depending on certain standards to calculate utilizations.3. resulting section force resulting section moment.1 Options for search of extreme values Whether you want to search extreme values indicated by the check box.g. e. In both cases the load cases to be evaluated. Pattern” and “Output” 7.KRASTA 9.3 Analysis and Documentation 215 Proof. resulting shear force.

2 Evaluation It is possible to do the evaluation for all section points. 7.3. The filtering is done before any extremation. Therefore. With the option Filter. Dialog: Filter 7. generally: maximum minimum maximum magnitude minimum magnitude The extend of the Output of extreme values: extreme value of all beams (1 value). the extend of result output can be limited.3.220)” gives a description of the available options. For the textual output of results and proofs default output formats are available. how they are arranged in a result table and what a format is to be used. extreme value per point for proof of stresses (if applicable). all values. extreme value per beam (1 value per beam).1 Textual Output Output formats define which result items are listed. Additionally. Section “Details of Output (p. .3 Output At the output area of the dialog the way to show the results is specified. added or imported. The amount of the textual output can be specified in more detail by the “Details”-Button. at the start. Textual Output Format An output format for the results is to be select here. Several conditions can be combined via "and" or "or". extreme value per section.3.216 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. at the end or at start and end of beams and for following Beams referred to in a list of beams.6 Manual The Type of Extremum. the extreme values of the already pre-filtered data set are shown. It is possible to output only values which are greater (or smaller) than a selectable value. 7.3. output formats can be modified.

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217

**7.3.3.2 Creation of load event objects according relevant load events
**

Sometimes it is required to further analyse a load event that has been relevant for a certain point (e.g. a

certain Permutation of a Logic Load Case (LLC)). For this purpose the context menu (right mouse button)

offer individual for each relevant load event:

**To create an according load event object using the related situation and according created
**

nd

Combination (CLC) or 2 Order (THII) Load Case.

**To create an according Combination (CLC) or 2
**

certain situation).

nd

Order (THII) Load Case (without relation to a

7.3.3.3 Border Lines

A Border Line is used to display extreme values graphically by border lines with a certain numbering

style and an adjustable view factor.

7.3.3.4 Color Gradation

A Color Graduation is used to display extreme values as colored gravity axis using an adjustable color

palette. Color palettes are defined in specific physical dimensions, palettes using “unit” can be adapted to

the range of result values by using the button Adaption. Use Remove to remove them.

7.3.4

Evaluation Pattern

The Evaluation Pattern is used to select the load cases in corresponding situations for which results are

to be evaluated.

Using List of Situations

Especially in systems with some structural degrees of freedom many different orientations and/or

situations have to be considered. To simplify the handling of these sets of situations so-called “Lists of

Situations” exist.

“Lists of Situations” can be used for a clear definition of evaluation patterns, as they are found in the

KRASTA result and proof control dialogs.

218

Analysis and Documentation

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

**Example: Evaluation Pattern
**

The number of situation/load case couples

to be analyzed (the evaluation pattern)

may be extensive.

**The list of situations „0° bis 90° e+a“
**

contains the required situations [1]

defined in a correct order [2],

[1]

[2]

**Using a list of situations the same
**

evaluation pattern can be formulated in a

substantially simpler fashion.

**The list of situations is a replacement for its expanded content. To analyze a given evaluation pattern
**

all used lists of situations will be expanded internally to a simple linear list of situation / load case

couples.

“Wvaluate each line separately” means that each line of the expanded simple list is evaluated

independently. This, there will no evaluation across different situations if lists of situations are used.

The list of situations

can also be used in

calculation suits:

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219

**Example: Adopt existing evaluation pattern (automatically)
**

Longer lists of individual situation / load case couples may be required for an evaluation pattern. The

same evaluation pattern may be needed for different result and/or proof controls. For this purpose, it is

possible to adopt evaluation patterns from other result or proof control sets.

The evaluation pattern does not have to be defined locally (“as defined here”), but can be copied from

any other result control.

The local evaluation pattern copy is updated automatically every time the result control set is evaluated

(used) or edited. The template evaluation pattern (e.g. the evaluation pattern of the result control

“SigmaV”) is copied to the local evaluation pattern again.

Even if the template result control set is deleted the evaluation pattern remains accessible locally. The

evaluation pattern is redefined “as defined here”.

220

7.3.5

Analysis and Documentation

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

Details of Output

The amount of the textual descriptions can be specified in detail separately for the pure textual list of

results (“text output”) and the text description of plots (“plot output”).

Dialog: Details

**The following options are available:
**

**Description of Options: A detailed description of the proof. If not wanted, only the name of the proof
**

is listed.

**Description of Evaluation Pattern: Each load event to evaluate is listed. If not wanted, only the
**

statistical summary is listed.

**Expand Lists of Objects: The content of the lists of beams or nodes to proof are listed. If not
**

selected, only the name of the list is listed.

**Description of Tables as well as Bounds: The parts of the table (of the format) and (if any)
**

specified limits to regard small values as zero are described in detail. If not selected, nothing in this

regard is listed. In particular, this can be reasonable, if several results are listed in series and this

type of information is redundant.

**Description of Load Events (p.85): The composition of the decisive load events mentioned in the
**

result table. If not selected no description is given.

**In the Description of Load Events, can be listed including Compensation Load Cases (p.92) and
**

with individual Timestamps of associated Calculation Results. If no individual Timestamps are

wanted, only a summary of the timestamps is listed at the end of the text block.

Warnings: If any.

Description of Filter (p.216)

KRASTA 9.6 Manual

7.4

Analysis and Documentation

221

Output Format

Output formats define which result data are to be output at which line and column in which length and

precision.

Standard formats are supplied for every type of proof/result. Individual formats can be defined by the

user.

Dialog: Output Format

The list of items “Text and Results” summarizes the layout of the output format. Additionally, a preview is

available (see below). The items can be arranged in the table layout at fixed columns (as shown here) or

relative to each other with given spacing. It is easier to (re-)arrange new topics in relative mode. It is

possible to toggle between the absolute and the relative mode at any time.

A specific item is created or edited in the edit pane “Topic Layout”. The “Topic” selection box lists all

available items in regard of the actual output format. In a format for inner forces, utilization items will not

be available. The extend of item layout specification depends on the item type. Common to all types of

items is the positioning part.

All Columns: Column positions can be set absolute or relative manner. If set absolutely (as in the

example dialog above), the number is used as column position, if set relatively, the position is determined

by the prior position and width plus the number as gap in between. The default number is 0, i.e. without

gap.

All Widths: The widths of individual items can be set explicitly, by a width number > 0 (as in the example

dialog above) or as automatic; by a width number = 0. An item width set to automatic, is replaced by the

actual default width at the time of usage.

The current Text Output Layout is displayed in an extra window:

Preview: Text Output Layout

After pressing the buttons Values or Colors a column of buttons appears next to the values. Each dimensionless palette has a default adaption (preset to 0=minimum. 0 and 1) are related to the corresponding absolute values in the adequate unit (e.6 Manual Palettes A color gradation palette defines according colors for ranges of values. The Number of Colors and the border values can be determined by user.g.g. For values with dimensions these values are the border values. It is certainly possible to adapt the palette for proofs or results individually. 1=maximum) so it can be used without changes. . Interpolation may be used for your convenience. angle and fraction) or may be dimensionless. For values outside the defined color range black is used as a fallback. The reference values may be generic (e. This may be avoided by very large upper and very low lower limits.g.222 7. force. 0 N/mm² and 180 N/mm²).5 Analysis and Documentation KRASTA 9. adjusted to the values or the colors. Adaption of a Palette When adapting a dimensionless palette for values with a dimension. For dimensionless palettes have to be scaled to fit the displayed values. length. The border values must have an increasing order from bottom to top. minimum or maximum of values to display). the dimensionless values (e. The border values of the color sections may have dimensions (stress. The dialog to edit a Palette offers the following items: Dialog: Palettes The dimension of the Value needs to be specified. As soon as two buttons are pressed the colors or values in between are interpolated. moment.

1 Textual Documentation The textual documentation is controlled by output controls that contain information on which attributes of which objects are to be output. inner forces).6. The system tracks which files were created and allows printing in user defined orders with consecutive page numbering.6 Analysis and Documentation 223 System Documentation All textual and graphical output is stored in files. all data of one beam together) or attribute oriented (e. loads.g.KRASTA 9.6 Manual 7.6. 7. All plots may be created with hidden lines.g. 7. Additionally it can be selected whether the output should be object oriented (e.2 Graphical Output The structure can be output with different properties or results displayed (e. cross sections on beams. . Plots of thin walled or parametric cross sections can also be produced.g. each type of beam attribute in table form).

.

8. acc. DIN 4114) and fatigue incl. KRASTA is a program system for beam statical and modal analysis of spatial structures in the fields of general steel construction. damage accumulation (e.and torsional inertia moments) can be set rigid or elastic.g. can be modelled in this way so that the global flow of forces can be determined correctly without numerical difficulties in solving the equations. acc.6 Manual Brief Information for Review 225 8 Brief Information for Review In this short information you find the essential information and definitions about the program system KRASTA. shear areas. For the single beam the differential equation system (DES) is solved according to the technical beam bending theory. DIN 13001.de The structural model is created graphical interactive by means of beam elements and nodes. DIN 18800 or Omega-Method acc. AS 4001.KRASTA 9. material handling and plant manufacturing. Further information are available by: Kühne BSB GmbH Mina-Rees-Straße 5A DE 64295 Darmstadt Phone +49 (0) 6151 397690-0 Fax +49 (0) 6151 397690-200 Hotline +49 (0) 6151 397690-222 Web www. Theory 2nd order iterates over the normal force of the beam. Loads are increased step by step according to a time function. Results can be evaluated across positions. The nominal stresses are determined on the base of technical bending theory of the beam and the St. After each step of load the equilibrium between inner and outer forces is improved by a iteration of equilibrium. For a calculation according to theory 2 considered. The buckling load (eigen value) can be determined iteratively. The program PAS III used as solver has the following theoretical foundation. PAS III contains a theory of small displacements which means that the plan of displacement is built linear. KRASTA and KRACAD are registered trademarks. Each of the 6 cross section values (area. st nd The calculation may be according to theory 1 or 2 order.1 General The calculation continues up to the proof of stresses (e. Structures that show great differences in elasticity or regions that cannot be modelled by beams.de Email support@krasta. Elasticity equations for rigid are replaced by equilibrium conditions. nd order partial safety coefficients and predeformations can be Input and output of data can be done in German and English. DIN 15018.krasta.g. The equilibrium is calculated in the deformed state. ISO 5049-1. DIN 22261. KRASTA has been developed at the Fachbereich Fördertechnik und Lasthebemaschinen der TH Darmstadt (Institute of Lifting Appliances at the Technical University of Darmstadt ) in cooperation with the industry. KRASTA is used in material handling. bar . Structures or parts of structures can be moved in different positions for calculation. mechanical and structural steel engineering. As the inhomogeneous DES is solved the loads and predisplacements can be placed inside the beams without definition of intermediate nodes. EN 1993-1-9 (EC3) and other).and rope structures. Venant torsion theory. . The work has been supported by the Fachgemeinschaft Fördertechnik im VDMA (Verband Deutscher Maschinen und Anlagenbau) and FKM (Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau) The program KRASTA/PAS III is maintained and purchased by Kühne BSB GmbH since 1991 and will be further developed in cooperation with universities and industry. bending. The program system has been ported on Windows and other operating systems since 1995. The optional solver program STAB88 is a finite element program with geometrical nonlinear calculation of beam -.

the position of the local beam coordinate system is defined in the subsystem or in the inertial system respectively. is input to the set the other local axes.and y0-axis form a semi plane.2 Brief Information for Review KRASTA 9.axis. For each beam a Beam Coordinate System (BM-CS) (x0.226 8.and end node. described in global coordinates. In the KRASTA-basic version the SS-CS is equivalent to the IN-CS. y0.). z0) is defined.axis. The cross sections are described in the BM-CS. in which the according objects are described. The other two axes are defined by input of an auxiliary vector like this: The positive local x0. By input of an auxiliary vector (H) in this semi plane.direction. Each subsystem has its own Subsystem Coordinate System (SS-CS). The cross product of x0 and aux.axis. . The definition of the local beam coordinate system can be described as follows: The local x0-axis is known by input of the start.-vector (H). The longitudinal axis shows into the x0. results in the local z0. end of beam and an auxiliary vector (Aux. whose relative position to the SS-CS is described by start of beam.6 Manual Coordinate Systems KRASTA provides 4 coordinate systems: Inertial System Subsystem Coordinate System Beam Coordinate System Principal Axes Coordinate System The Inertial System (IN-CS) is a space fixed cartesian coordinate system. An aux. The direction of the longitudinal axis runs from the start node to the end node. From the cross product z0 with x0 follows the local y0. It defines the x0.

-Vectors (H): The Principal Axes Coordinate System (PA-CS) is rotated by a principal axis angle against the BMCS. .or single symmetrical cross sections the PA-CS corresponds to the BM-CS.6 Manual Brief Information for Review 227 Example: Input of Aux.KRASTA 9. Inner forces and beam deformations are described in principal axes. At double.

3.3. 8. They behave like an ideal elastic-plastic material. DIN 4114 (Omega-Method)). √ ⁄ In case of conical beams the minor of both inertia radii associated to the end cross sections is taken ( ). If the beam coordinate system does not correspond with the desired directions of the joint axes a short (rigid) beam with the desired local axes has to be created. This is results in a save upper approximation of the slenderness of a conical beam. additionally mass and specifications of end hinges and springs resp.3.228 8. After the elastostatic calculation the force conditions are met by superposition of the unit predeformations multiplied by factors. Each individual degree of freedom can be defined as rigid. To represent elasticity between beam and node. jointed or can be given a spring rate.3 Brief Information for Review KRASTA 9. which only transmit pressure or hydraulic buffers. force conditions can be defined. 8. 8. These force conditions work only in connection with linear theory and cannot be used with nonlinear nd theory or 2 order theory. Beam springs are described in the local beam coordinate system. : √ ⁄ resp. Each load combination is calculated first without consideration of the force conditions.3.4.2 Joints Beam joints provide translational and rotational degrees of freedom between beam end and node. jointed or elastic.g.6 Manual Properties of Beams In KRASTA. the actual beam slenderness is evaluated based on the directly or indirectly defined beam buckling length and cross section properties and resp. a material. which only transmit tension. At each force condition a unit beam predeformation is applied at the affected degree of freedom.3 Material KRASTA allows the definition of different materials like steel or aluminium by the input of specific material properties. .4 Properties of Nodes 8.3. Typical applications for such elements are ropes. Beam joints are beam properties. an opt.4 Force Conditions For elements that can only transmit forces that are higher or lower than a certain value. They are used in proof of beam buckling (e. acc. The factors are calculated by iterative solution of an equation system. 8. the cross section geometry and orientation. Slenderness For each principal axis separately. 8. they are described in the beam coordinate system of the beam.1 Beam Spring The connection between beam and node is rigid by default. which only transmit a limit force. beams are defined statically by the location of the end nodes. 8. wheels and legs.1 Support Conditions Support nodes can be defined as rigid.5 Beam Buckling Data Beam Buckling Data define beam buckling properties of each individual beam. springs can be defined.

) For the inertia moments only the Steiner-parts of the point area are considered. Shear stresses are positive in arrow direction. Torsional Moment of Inertia nd (2 Bredt Formula) ∮ For thin-walled open cross sections (H. The input of the parts takes place in the beam coordinate system. C and L-Sections) the Bredt Formula extends to: ∑ For determination of IT a corrective factor is used at thin-walled sections. The exact value is shown at the description of the specific cross sections. Statical Moment ∫ ∫ The Center of Gravity is calculated relative to the input system. which are small compared to the total dimensions (rolled radius. Point areas can be used to substitute parts. thin-walled input cross sections. ∫ ∫ ∫ For asymmetric cross sections (L-Sections) the principal axis angle and the moments of inertia round the principal axes are calculated. Examples for the use of rigid cross sections are offsets as used for the modelling of eccentric connections or points of application of load. The cell distribution is determined independently. etc. The weight of the cross section is calculated from the magnitude of the cross sectional area A x. More complicated cross sections are decomposed in partial cross sections. . from the The center of shear forces is calculated relative to the input system. The number of the cells is not limited. For the usual standardized cross sections libraries are delivered.6 Manual 8. All other cross section values are set rigid.0) are calculated. Moments of Inertia The moments of inertia for the individual cross sections are calculated with the help of the Steiner Theorem. positive signs mean part end. welds. Individual (or even all) cross section values may be set rigid by input of a negative number in the specific field. Negative point numbers mean part start. Thin-Walled Cross Sections can be described individually.5 Brief Information for Review 229 Cross Section Cross sections differ in standardized cross sections. For each plate part the unit stresses at start and end point (stresses as a result of inner forces = 1.KRASTA 9. With the Direct Input Cross Sections the six cross section values have to be input. radii are considered with their moment of inertia and the Steiner part. parametrical cross sections and directly input cross sections. Ropes are usually defined with the cross sectional area A x only. For Parametrical Cross Sections the shear areas are calculated by means of a shear factor cross section. for which the individual moments of inertia are calculated and combined.

Plastic Moment of Resistance The plastic moment of resistance is determined from the double statical moment round the area bisectric. the moment of inertia and the thickness according to the "Dowel" Formula. At open cross sections the shear stresses resulting from torsion and shear forces are positive in positive beam coordinate direction.6 Manual Moments of Resistance The torsional moment of resistance for St. Stresses Stresses as a result of normal forces are calculated out of the force acting in longitudinal direction of the beam and the cross sectional area. the statical moment. . at closed cross sections (tube and rectangle tube) in mathematical positive direction of rotation. Venant torsion is calculated according to the Bredt Formula. Bending stresses are calculated from the bending moment and the bending moment of resistance. Shearing force shear stresses are calculated out of the shear force. Torsional shear stresses are calculated from the torsional moment and the torsional moment of resistance. st (1 Bredt Formula) For thin-walled sections ∑ The bending moment of resistance is calculated out of the moment of inertia and the distance of the section center line to the outer fibre.230 Brief Information for Review KRASTA 9.

g. Connections. This mass information is assigned to beam. For local mass concentrations node. masses variable in magnitude (e. On calculation of the mass the permanent mass (beam mass factors. To describe the mass distribution more exactly. counter weight. With a consequently mass orientated input all inertia loads can be generated with ease. beam masses. Different mass distributions can easily be described by this means. variable or moveable masses placed on the structure.or combination mass cases are used in description of inertia load cases and for the modal analysis. Basic.and node lists. as occurring in practice. Basic mass cases can be supplied with factors and combined to Combination Mass Cases. which are not included in the statical model.KRASTA 9.and beam masses (concentrated or distributed) can be defined. g. Mass distributions. transverse diaphragms. node masses) of the given objects in the lists is then multiplied by the respective mass factors.and node masses. beam mass factors can be applied to represent evenly distributed additional masses. Basic Mass Cases containing mass factors and individual masses can be defined for variable or moveable masses or to describe parts of a model that are to be accelerated Mass factors can be applied to the permanent mass where you can select whether it should be applied on the distributed mass (resulting from sectional area and density) only or also on the beam. In KRASTA three kinds of mass cases are distinguished: Mass case "Permanent Mass" Basic mass cases Combination mass cases Permanent Mass comprises masses which are directly stored with the objects beam and node and therefore are carried with these objects if they are copied or imported with subsystems [OPTION].6 Manual 8. . are composed of permanent available masses. trolley positions). Usually the real mass is greater.6 Brief Information for Review 231 Mass Cases Mass cases are useful for modelling fixed. pay load) and moveable masses (e. The net mass distribution of the construction is calculated from product of cross sectional area and density. electrical equipment and further parts are added. Additional individual masses are added.

aerodynamic effective length etc.or subsystem coordinate system. have to be input. For a translational acceleration the direction of acceleration and its magnitude has to be described.and basic load cases again. Out of the coefficient of thermal expansion. This kind of load case corresponds to the current standardization (CEN.or beam coordinate system. To model a pulley the rope force can be given a different factor between each two nodes. can be described in the subsystem. loads that are to be moved with a subsystem or beam. cross sectional height. wind shadowing. The number of combination levels is not limited. the height range with according pressure and the direction of the height range gradation is input. Only the wind direction. where the force or the moment per unit of length is input in the inertial. Effects as resistance coefficient. . Node Loads can be input in the according subsystem. The load is adjusted so that the resultant is constant. which the rope shall touch. substitute predeformations are determined. uniformly or trapezoidal distributed beam loads or beam predeformations. For a rotational movement the axis of rotation. loads will automatically be transformed to the principal axes at creation of solver input file. where the direction of action of the weight has to be given only. These Combination Load Cases can be combined with other combination. the rotational acceleration and/or the angular velocity are to be input. which is saved in material data and the temperature details. For STAB88.232 8. which intends the working with partial safety coefficients according to the method of limit states. all beam loads are automatically converted into equivalent node loads On beams it is possible to define any concentrated. As a special case of translational acceleration the acceleration due to gravity is implemented. The acceleration loads are generated from acceleration description and the mass distribution described by a mass case. This st calculation is suitable for 1 order theory only. as the course of the rope is modelled by constantdirected forces.6 Manual Load Cases In load cases the loads on the structure resulting from outer forces or predeformations acting on beams and/or nodes is described. In KRASTA different types of load cases can be defined: Basic load cases Combination load cases Logic load cases Load cases for 2nd order theory (PAS III) Load cases for geometrical nonlinear calculation with STAB88 Nonlinear logic load cases A Basic Load Case can consist of directly input loads and/or generated loads. ISO) as well as DIN 15018. The program carries out a load projection.) can be considered by input of one factor per beam At Rope Loads the rope force and a series of nodes. The complete structure or parts of it can be accelerated translational or rotational and rotated (centrifugal forces).7 Brief Information for Review KRASTA 9. Basic load cases can be provided and combined with partial safety coefficients (factors). which supports node loads only. One node load can consist of up to 6 components. The loads described below can be used with the solver PAS III. Different Wind Profiles can be defined. Loads with constant directions can be described in the inertial system.or in the inertial system. part 3. The following described loads can be used in connection with PAS III: Distributed Loads can be projected for spatial beams if desired. With Temperature Loads a steady and a different heating at beam upper side or beam underside is intended. If there are any principal axis angles.

Then they are connected with „or“. Single beam matrices are assembled geometrically linear (Williot plan of displacement). Basic. the term is considered. "One or None". The solution of the equation system is made by iteration of normal forces. Buckling loads can be determined by iterative increase of the loads. The condition is. After each load step the equilibrium between inner and outer forces is improved by an equilibrium iteration. provided with according time functions and combined to a geometrical nonlinear load case. That is why logic load cases can be defined.KRASTA 9. Venant theory. . that the denominator determination becomes zero. The equilibrium is formulated in a deformed condition. which combination of loads leads to the biggest stresses in one certain point. especially such where many acceleration loads are involved (as often used in material handling). The following parameters describe a logic load case: Of the load cases in the logical combination acts "Exactly One". The torsion is considered according to St. so that in the differential equation for bending.6 Manual Brief Information for Review 233 In many cases. The level of logic load cases is not restricted. nd Structures can be calculated according to theory 2 order. "All" or "All Possible Combinations".and combination load cases can be multiplied by factors. individual loads can be gradually applied according to a time function. it is not always possible to tell in advance. The program STAB88/NODYA [OPTION] allows the Geometrical Nonlinear Calculation of beam structures. Geometrically nonlinear load cases can be comprised to a Nonlinear Logic Load Case. Using this type of load case. Each load case can be given a factor Each load case can possibly be defined to act in positive or negative direction.

Different positions of the systems can be considered. In both cases the load cases to evaluate. extremation and output have to be described. the shear stress hypothesis (SH) or the Normal stress hypothesis (NH). In contrast to a result a proof considers permissible strain values. Section banks are set according to the convention that at the end of beam positive inner forces show into positive coordinate direction (positive section bank).234 8. depending on certain standards to calculate utilizations. torsion and shearing force can be output individually each or in combination. In addition the combined stress can be output according to the theory of v. Proofs and Results are treated in a similar way by KRASTA. bending.6 Manual Results Solver input files can be created for different kinds of calculation. . Calculations according to theory 1st or 2nd order or nonlinear calculations respectively are possible. The following categories of results of calculations can be output inner forces stresses delta stresses (stress ranges) beam displacements node displacements spring forces support forces. the type of evaluation. At the start of beam positive inner forces show into negative coordinate direction (negative section bank). Mises (GEH). 8.8 Brief Information for Review KRASTA 9. The input can be made for the calculation programs PAS III and STAB88 [OPTION].9 Sign definition of inner forces and stresses Inner forces and beam deformations are output in the local principal axis system. Stresses as a result of normal force.

..................................................... 91 Composition list .......................................................................... 39...... 199 Assistant: Equality . 100 Assistant: Hydraulics .............................. 71 Mass Factor ............................. 78 Basic Mass Case (BMC) ...................... 43...................... 74 Comment .......................................... 94 Compensation loads .............................. 120 Archive / Dearchive .................. 77 Beam Load .............. 69 Beam Springs ..................................................................................... 44 beam length... 49 Displacement ....6 Manual 9 Index $ $uncertain............................................................................................................. 26 auxiliary beams ................................................................ Method of Proof ........... 56 Bending Stresses ................ 112 Consideration of constraint conditions .......................................... 107................................................................ 133 Default ...................................................................................... 57 BLC 75 Border Lines ......................................................... 209 C Calculation formulas .............. 67 Material ........................... Situation ........ 77 Acceleration Loads .................. 69 Beam Loads and Beam Predeformation .................................................... 49 Predeformation ................. 76 Beam Mass ............................................................................... 100 ............................... 98 Friction Element ............. 65 Classification .......................................................................................................... 42 Bending Moment of Resistance .............. 78 Angle of three Points ............. 67 Classifications ........... 112 Alternation............................... 222 Colors ..................... 17 Beam or Node Lists creation ................ 217...... 20 Comparison between force condition and general constraint condition ........................ 42 Beam (chain) can rotate ................................... 39..... 134 Methods .................................................................................................................................... 70 Connection .............................................................. 66 Lists ....... 93.............................. Implementation in KRASTA ................................... 47................... 76 Beam Predeformation .....zip ............................. 49 Spring .... 56 Brief Information ........ 76 Rope Load ............................................ 222 Alternating connections ................ 55 center of rotation ..................... 31 Combination Mass Case (CMC) ................ 73 Beam Mass......... 44 Joints ........................................................................................................................ 44 Beam list........................... 133 Center of Gravity .......................................................................... 44................................... 73 Node Mass ..... 78 Temperature Load . 18 Basic Load Case (BLC) Acceleration ....................... 51......................................................................................... 76 Mass ................................ 101 AutoBack...................................... 121 Angle to Axis .......... 43................ 126 Display .................................................................................................................................... 79 Wind Load .................... 43 Copy .. 52 AS 4100 ...................................................................... 48 Split .................................. 98 Assistant: Friction Element .................. 55 Circular Tube ..................... 77 Adaption of a Palette .......... 73 Beam Mass Factors .................... 73 Mass Factor ...................... 159 Clean Up Cross Sections......................................................... 128 2 nd 2 Order Theory ....... 70 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 52 Auxiliary Vector ............................................ 48 on top of each other .... 80 A Acceleration ... 100 Assistant: Slotted Hole ...................... 19 Center of Shear Forces .................................................................................................. 225 Buckling ..... 55 Calculation Suite ......................... 199 AS 4100... 71 $Permanent Mass ......................................... 96 Beam Coordinate System ....... 42 Load ..........KRASTA 9...................... 92 Constraint Conditions Assistant Equality .................................. 76 Reverse ......................................... 55...................................................................................................................................... 49 Index 235 Move ................................ 43 Beam Masses........................ 67 Color Gradation ......................................................... 200 AS 4100................................................................ 43 Beam or Node Lists Drag'n'Drop ................................ 99 Assistant: Rope Polygon .............. 43 Mirror ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 152 Beam Buckling Data .......... 25 Area Moments of Intertia ... 74 Basic system without constraint condition ..................................................................................................................... 76 Node Load ....................................................................................... 217 Bredt Formula............................. 69 Beam or Node Lists editing ................ 105......... 48..................................... 126 altitude range ............... 111 B Balance / Total ...............................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Contact ............................... 69 Dialog: Load Event ................................................ 102 Consideration ....................................... 101 Buffer ....................................................... 52.................... 35 Dialog: List ..... 99 Rope Polygon .............. 74 Dialog: Orbit-Settings .......... 94 Dialog: Kinematic ..... AS 4100 .............................. 103 Cycle Classes ...................................................................................................................................................................... 217 Cross Section Conical .. 155 Direct Input ............. 66 Thin-Walled ................................................ 103 Create an Object .............................. 105...................................................................................................................... 67 Dialog: Name Assignment ........................................................................................................... 43 Default Wind Pressure ....... 39 Inertial ...................................................... 111 context menu ........................................... 19 Dialog: Orientation Modification .. 215 Dialog: Force Conditions ................. 92 Error bounds for ............................ 93......... 93 General ...... 73 Dialog: Captions .................... 66 C-Section ..................................................... 75 Dialog: Basic Mass Case........................................................................................ 60 Current Selection Changing by beam or node prop.................................................................................................... 89 Details ............... Rope .............. 190 ................................................................................................. 111 Contact with two auxiliary vectors: ...................................... 197 dead weight ............. 190 Dialog: Classification of Points of Proof of Stresses acc......... 21 Copy Subsystems ................... 216 Diagram: Linear damage accumulation acc....................................................... 222 Dialog: Parameters of Kinematic ... 41 Dialog: Node Mass ...................................................................................................................... 111 Error Messages ... 107.................... 220 Dialog: Displacement Conditions ................................ 100 Slotted Hole ...................................................... 174 Dialog: Proof of Fatigue according to EN 130013-1 ........................... 113 Dialog: Cross Section .. 87 Dialog: Logic Load Case .......................................... 34 Dialog: Palettes ............. 74 Dialog: Connection ..................................................... 21 Delete Subsystems........................... 120 Dialog: Languages ..... 80 Dialog: Combination Mass Case .............. 93 Tension element............................... 203 Dialog: Proof of Fatigue according to DIN 13001-3 ... 94 Overload Clutch .................. 216 Dialog: For Proofs and Results ...... 72 Dialog: Basic Orientation .6 Manual Delete an Object ........................ 112 Dialog: Constraint Conditions .......... 78 KRASTA 9............................................................................ 52 Parametric ................................. 45 Dialog: Extremation of delta stresses ....................... 195 D Damage Accumulation ........................ 162 Dialog: Acceleration Load ....... 119 Contact with one auxiliary vector: .............................. 203 Dialog: Colors ....... 27 current subsystem .. 181 Dialog: Classification of Points for Proof of Stresses according to EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) ...................................................................................... 180 Dialog: Proof of Fatigue according to EN 19931-9 (EC 3) ..................................................... 121 Coordinate System Beam................................ 66 Plot ............................236 Index Hydraulics ............................................. 44 Dialog: Beam Mass .................................................................................................... 101 compatibility . 31 Dialog: Combination Load Case ................................ 81 Dialog: Mass Factor ...... 89 Dialog: Details .......... 185 Damage equivalence factor ........................................................................................................................ 31 Dialog: Classification of Points for proof of stresses according to DIN 13001-3 ........................................... 213 Dialog: Filter ........... 52 Standard ................................................... 66 Drag'n'Drop . 43 Clean Up . 55 Rigid ................... 92 Dialog: Contact ................................................................. 39 Copy ........................... 117 Dialog: Output Format ................................................................................................................. 221 Dialog: Page Layout ............................................................................................ 52 Dialog: Design Spectrum ..................................... 113 Examples ................ 54 Cross sectional area . 111 Contact and Angles . 102 Example Friction Element ......................................................... 116 Dialog: Beam Buckling Data ..............................................................................Direct Input ........................................................................... 73 Dialog: Material ....................................... 108...... 39 Subsystem ......................... 93 Dialog: General Constraint Condition ...................................... 77 Dialog: Basic Load Case ............. 85 Dialog: Load Sequence ... 105 Cut Subsystems ............ ....................... 17 Import ....................................................................................... AS 4100 .......... 113 Auxiliary Vector ............................................... 48 Copy an Object ............. 20 Creation of load event objects according relevant load events ......................................................................................................... 122 Dialog: Printing ........ 213 Design Spectrum ..... 217 Coordinate Difference ....................... 111 Contact without auxiliary vectors: .............................. 103 Delta Stresses .............................. 55 Cross Sections .... 185 DASt-Ri 011 ............................................................... 28 Changing graphical interactive ......... Palmgren-Miner ....................................... 33 Dialog: Proof of Fatigue acc......................

....... 123 Error messages (Kinematic)............................................ 117 Projection Setting ................................................................................................................. 32 Dialog: Units ....................................... 221 ................................................... 35 Dialog: Wind ...... 17 Display Setting..................... 451.................... 91 Display Everything .................. 78 Dimetrie .................... 209 Dialog: Purge System ................................................ 163 Example: Use of rigid cross sections ................................................................................................... 187 EN 1993-1-9:2005................. 42.......................... Implementation in KRASTA ..........................-el......................... 47 Dialog: Structural Input of thin-walled Cross Sections .............. 71 Example: Rotational Acceleration Load ............................... 219 Example: Constraint Conditions ........................... 20 Eigen Vectors .......... Implementation in KRASTA ................ 17 Load Case ............................................................................. 54 Dialog: Subsystem Import ............................................................................................................................. 119 Drag'n'Drop Beam or Node Lists .............................. 17 Display Subset ............... 117 Expand Subset ...... 185 Edit an Object ..................... 127 Index 237 E EC 3 .................. 109 Example: Sum of Masses ...................................................... 133 Load Event............. 165 DIN 18800 Materials .................. 209 DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005.................................................................................... 123 Error messages (Kinematic)... 104 Dialog: Temperature ........................................................ 175 Types of proof.................... Implementation in KRASTA .................... 92 Example: Contacts ........ 227 Example: Load Sequence "cycle 15t A<>D" ................... 45.................................. 29 DIN 13001 ............ 29 Extreme Values ....................................... 17 Material .................. 217 Example: Acceleration by drives ............... 218 Example: Expanded Combination Load Case 80 Example: Input of Aux......................... 169................. 48 Dialog: Rope Load ................... 53 Execute Calculation Suite ................ 187 EN 1993-1-9:2005.......... 209 DIN 4114 Buckling (Omega-Method)...................................... 207 Thickness ......................... 106 Example: Textual Output in case of Damage Accumulation ........................ 135 Dialog: Split Beams ............................. 23 Display Settings ..................... Method of Proof .................................................. 77 Example: Situation Dependent Load or Mass Case ................................................................................ 29 Distance and Angle .............................. while saving the object .................... 171 DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005.......................................................... 78 Dialog: Rounding...... 25 Dialog: Put KRASTA System into archives .............................................. 451......................................................... 149 Example: Evaluation Pattern ....................... 185 Error messages (Kinematic).......................... 111 Example: Copy an Object ..... 112 Display of physical units .....-Vectors (H): ..................................................... 155 Element Thickness: DIN 18800.......................... 83 Example: Subsystem Structure ................................ 21 Example: Edit an Object .................... 78 Dialog: Windprofile ...................................................................................................................................... #1 ............................. 79 Dialog: Text and Graphic Sizes ...................... 123 Evaluation Pattern ...................................................... 17 Force Conditions ............................................................................ 82 Example: Adopt existing evaluation pattern (automatically) ...... 207 EN 13001 ........................................ 175 EN 1993 (EC 3) ......001 ................... 171........................... 17 Orientation .... 177 DIN 15018 Proof of Fatigue ............. 32............................ 193 Filter list ..... 91 Format ...........6 Manual Dialog: Proof of Stresses Buckling DIN 4114 (Omega-Method) .......................... 109 Folder ...... 175 DIN 13001-3 Permissible stress ranges ..... 26 Dialog: Relative Orientation ...................................................... 88 Example: Logic Load Case ............................... 29 Display of Connections ................. 215 F FEM 1................................................................................................ Method of Proof ........ 88 Example: Load Sequence "PS 15t D->A" ............................. 207 DIN 22261 Proof of Fatigue ..........................................................KRASTA 9..... during the input ............................................................... 167 DIN 4114 .......... 49 Dialog: Situation Dependent Load or Mass Case ............... 52 Displacement Conditions ......................................................... 17 Cross Sections ................................... 117 Dialog: Reverse Beam ........................... 92 Drag'n'Drop ............. 29.... 135 Dialog: Solver Options NODYA" ............................................................... 207 Proof of Stresses el........................................... 169..... 17 Mass Case........... 85 Orientation ............................................................................................ 85....................... 148 Example: Error/Warning Nr. #2 ..................................................... 82 Example: Permanent Mass .................................... 185 EN 1993-1-3 (EC 3) Types of proof . 83 Dialog: Solver Options Modal Analysis" .......... 169 Direct Input Cross Section ............................................ ..... 20 Example: Error/Warning Nr......................... during the execution of a polar kinematic .... 17 Situation . 74 Example: Suspension between tower and boom .......................................... 70 First level subsystems ................................

81 L-Section .......................................................................................................and Output Language ............. 70 proof list ................... 71.............................................................................................. 220 governing / relevant .................... 75 Combination ................................. 77 H Height ranges ................238 Index Friction Element ............ 66 In.............. 162 List 69 Clean Up .. 8 L Language ..... 80 Drag'n'Drop .................. 155 Basic ..................................... 10 H-Section ..................................................................... 79 KRASTA 9............................... 217 Load Event Object .................. 35 Mase Case Sum of ......................................................... 20 Information Window........................................................................................ 25 Graphical Selection ....6 Manual Linear damage accumulation according to Palmgren-Miner ................... 221 Leading kinematic part ............................................................................ 166 Loading Groups: EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) (SClasses) .............. 18 J Joints .................and Output Units: .. 195 Items of the Status Line................................... 210 Literature: DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005-03 ................................................................................ 27 Lifetime .................................... 121 KRASTA Main Window ........... 70 composition list .................................................................................................................................................................. 94............................................. 137 Literature: Damage Accumulation ... 174 Literature: EN 1993-1-9:2005 ............................. 82 Situation Dependent ........ 79 Load Case Basic ........ 217 Literature: 2nd Order Theory ....................................................................................................................................................................... 15 KRASTA Main Window/ ....... 15.................................... 78 Temperature ............ 217 Methods ............................................................................. 81 Nonlinear Logic ............................... 77 Gravity Load .............. 69 simple node list ........................ 15 Manager ..................................................... 70 filter list ............................................................................................ 87 Loading Groups: DASt-Ri 011 .................. 119 Kinematic plane ........................................................... 180 Load Rope.......... 97 I Import an Object ....................... 74 .................... 119 ISO 5049-1 ............... 217 Logic Load Case (LLC).................................................................... static flexibility ........................................... 71 Sum of ...... 194 Loading Groups: ISO 5049 ....................................................................................... 39 Information ..... 13............ 61 M Main Menu .................. 17 Logic................................................................................................ 71 Combination ............................................................ 74 Mass Case ........001 ............................................................. 44 Input of numerical values ......................... 20 Hotline .... 78 Helpful display setting to view subsystem organization ................... 85 Load Sequence ........................... 69 Lists of Objects ............................................................................................... 23 Gravity ........................... 107 Hide Subset ............... 69 simple object list... 21 Lists of Situations ....... 119 Kinematically free connections ...................................................... 13 Inertial Coordinate System ................................... 13 In............................. 9 KRASTA Objects ................................ 74 Mass Permanent ........................................... 42 K Kinematic movability vs.................................................................................................. 69 simple beam list ..................................... 192 Loading Groups: FEM 1..... 80 load event ............................................. 35 Layout .......... 20 KRASTA Start Window... 91 General information ...................................................... 69 result list ........... 163 Literature: DIN 4114 Buckling (Omega-Method) ...... 29 Hotkeys................. 85................ 59 Hydraulics with constant hydraulics volume. 89 Linear Beam Predeformation ...................................................................................................................... 81 Nonlinear ............................. 100 G General Constraint Conditions ............................................................ 49 Interaction of multiple kinematics ..... 18 Inner Forces .............................................................................................................................. 21................................................................................. 23 Input of points and vectors .................................................................................................................... 85............. 15 Main Window .... 23 Insert new objects into lists . 183 Loading Groups: DIN 15018 ............................................. 120 Geometrical Specifications ............... 13..................................... 48 Graphical Output ....................................................................... 196 Logic Load Case ............................................................................. 198 Loading Groups: DIN 13001-3 (S-Classes). 192 Literature: prEN 13001-3-1:2009 ........................... 121 Left Mouse Button .

................................................................................. 56................. 17 OK and Cancel ...................... 119 Modelling with kinematics ............................................................................. 85 Minimal ..... 139 File .................... 207 Materials: FEM 1........................................................................... 21 Information ......................................................................................... 56 Notch case: DIN 22261 ........................................... 117 ................. 126 Moments of Inertia ....................................................... 31. 196 Notes on using rigid cross sections ........................................................................................................................ 22 N Name.....................Activations ............ 19 Orientation ..................... 166 Materials: DIN 18800 ..... 69 Node Loads ................. 22 Name ....... 133 MOD (modal analysis) ................................................................................................... 20 Natural Frequencies ............ 74 Node Masses ....... 185 Notch Cases: AS 4100 ........................................................ 74 Mass Factor ................................................ 96........................... 71 Merging ............................. 205 Notch Cases: DASt-Ri 011............................................................... 48.......................... 167 Notch cases......................KRASTA 9............. 17...................................................................................................................................... 29........ 120 Node list ....Center of Rotation ....................... 155 net length ........... 20 Comment ... 91 Nonlinear Load Case ................................... 71........................... 21 Object list.......................................... 213 Normal Stresses as a result of Normal Force ...................... 27 Sum of Masses .................................................................................................... 74 View ........... 41 Selection ......................................................................................... 49 Mirror ................. 198 Materials: DIN 15018 ............... 133 Modelling of actuators ............ 192 Notch Cases: FEM 1..................... 108 by Vector and Angles ........................... 45 Node can rotate .... 45 Load ...... 48 Multiple Object Selection ................... 165....... 209 Operating method ...................................................................................... 21 Object Tree.......................................................................... 43 Mass of Node ..... 49 Methods of Load Events ..................... 45 Masses........... 122 Orbit ... 152 Node Coordinate ........... 10 List ................. 45....................... 67 Drag'n'Drop ................. 74 Material ................... 145 Situation indipendet calculation ............................... 20 Copy .... 20 Single Selection ....................................... 22 Omega-Method ........................................................................................................................................................................... 67 Clean Up ................................................................................................................................ 183 Notch Cases: DIN 15018 ......................................................................... 20 Node Copy .. 19 Orbit ...................................... 98 Options (Kinematic) ........ 69 Option ................................................ 230 Mouse Left Button .... 67 Classification ........... 56 Moments of Resistance ................................................................................. 43.................. 133 Modal Analysis ........ 105....................... 69 Object Lists........................ Sum of ............................. 48 on top of each other . 198 Notch Cases: DIN 13001-3 ...................... 35 Property .......................................................................................... 76 Mass ................................ 73 Situation Dependent ............................................................. 17 Materials: DASt-Ri 011 ....................................................................... 52 O Object ........................................... 133 NODYA / STAB88 [OPTION] ............... 44 New Object.............................................................................. 49 MOD ................................................................. 73 Mass of Beam .............................................................. 19 Orbit-Settings ..................... 21 Delete ............... 20 New.................................................. 17 Permanent ......................... 29 Minimal Text Only .......... 119 Modified angles within the subsystem .............................................. 81 Nonlinear Logic Load Case ............................... 22 Mirroring ............ 21 Edit .... 107 by Contact and Angles ........................................................................................ 107 by Contact..................................... 105 Right Button .............................................................................. 107 Drag'n'Drop .. 143 Show Log-File ................................... 18 Move ......................................................................................................................... 15............................................................................... 185 optimised coupling ............................................................................................ 126 Index 239 Joint ............................................. 76 Node Mass ...................................... 194 Notch Cases: ISO 5049 ........ 10 Info ....................................... 229 Moments of Inertia about the Principal Axes: ..................... 49 Free ............ 25 Help .......................................................................................... 194 Materials: ISO 5049 ........................................................ 166 Notch Cases: EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) ............ 155 Merging ........................ 27................................ 196 Melt a Subsystem.............. 20 Multiple Selection ................................. 49 Spring ............................. 106 Menu item Calculation Calculate solver input file ....6 Manual Drag'n'Drop .................... 45 NODYA ...................................................................................................001 ................001 ........................................ 49 Move ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 82 Normal Stress Ranges ................. 20 Import....

.... 22 Minimal Text ................................... 189 Proof: EN 1993-1-9:2005 (simplified procedure) ......... 167 Proof: DIN 4114 Buckling (Omega-Method) ........................................ 22 Point for Proof of Stresses .......................................... 222 Parabolic Beam Predeformation .................................................................. 209 el......................... 191 Overload Clutch ...................... 126 Orientation Modification.......................................... 69 Proof of Fatigue acc DIN 15018 ......................................... 179 Proof: prEN 13001-3-1:2009 (simplified procedure) . 207 Proof: AS 4100 ... 204 Output Formats: Delta Stresses .................... 185 Proof of Stresses Buckling acc DIN 4114 (Omega-Method) ......................... 34 Palettes.......... acc.............................. AS 4100 ...... ISO 5049-1 ...................................................... oboslete idiom ................................... 209 Proof: DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005 (damage accumulation procedure) ........... 116 Modification Sequence ............ 195 Proof: prEN 13001-3-1:2009 (damage accumulation procedure) ......... 167 acc.. Implementation in KRASTA ..... 163 Results ............................001 .................................................... 22......................................................................................... 62 Reeving ................... 299............................................................................ ................................... 225 Right Mouse Button ... DASt-Ri 011 ........... 29 Drag'n'Drop .......................................................................... 210 Output Formats: DIN13001-3 ...................................................... 133 PAS linear ........... 56 Printer Settings .................................................. 55 Partial Rigid Cross Sections .... 169.................. 100 R Real Movability ............... Method of Proof .. 25... 117 Modified Subsystem Angles .................. 172 Proof: EN 1993-1-9:2005 (damage accumulation procedure) .................... 221 Palettes .............. 221 Output Format ............................ 139 Predeformation Linear ......................................................................................................... 51..... 18 Rigid............................................................ 178 Pulley Factor ..................................... 173 Proof: DIN CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005 (simplified procedure) . 52 rope 52 ...... 22 Print.................................................... DIN 22261 ...................................... 116 Other kinematic parts ............................................................... 193 Proof: ISO 5049-1... 134 Paste Subsystems................. 177 prEN 13001-3-1:2009.................................... 71..............................................001 ..................................................................................................... 3 PAS III ................................................................. 165 acc......................... 197 acc.............. 207 Proof: DIN 22261 ........................................-el............................... 175 Proof of Fatigue according to EN 1993 (EC 3) ... 453................................... 221 Output Formats: AS 4100............................. 165 Position....................... 188 Proof: FEM 1...................................................el..................... 197 Proof: DIN 15018 .......................................................... 79 Parabolic ................ 222 Layout ........................................ 230 Plots....... 17 Proof list ............................................................ 222 Plots ................. 221 Principal Axes ................ 69 Result values of a damage accumulation.......................... 40 Principal Axis Angle: ............................................................................... 151 Rectangle Section .........240 Index Execute ................................................................................................................... 22 Plane and Reference System ...................... 103 Permanent Mass .................................................. 147 Error/Warning Nr.................................................................................................. 217 Picture .............. 150 Error/Warning Nr. 165 Proof: DIN 18800 el. 3 Theoretical foundation .......................................................... 193 acc......................................... 135 Register: Nonlinear Calculation .. 79 Parametric Cross Section. 18 PAS Error/Warning Nr...................... 79 prEN 13001-3-1:2009................................................................ 100 Register: General ............................ 155 Partial Summation ........ 155 Permutation ................................................................................................................ 199 acc.................. 93 P Page Layout .................................................................. 133 PAS IV ................................................................................... 121 Output Border Lines . 152 Partial rigid cross section ....................... 120 Plastic Moment of Resistance ......................... 185 Result list ........................................................................................................................ 451.................................... 78........................................ 214 Output Formats: DIN 4114 Buckling (OmegaMethod) ..........6 Manual Pressure ....... 217 Color Gradation .................................. DIN 18800 ...... 78 Preview: Text Output Layout ..................................................................... 211 Review ........... 202 Proof: DASt-Ri 011 ........................................ 117 Modification . FEM 1....................... 73................................................................ 455......................................... 52.................... 22 Save ......... 147 Error/Warning Nr. 121 Projection Settings ...................... 195 according to DIN 13001 ............. 25 Details ......................... 175 KRASTA 9. 25 Text ..................... 63 Rectangular Tube .............. 34 Page Partitioning ..................... 182 Output Formats: EN 1993-1-9 (EC 3) ....................................................... 136 Resistance factor ................................................... 217............................. 57........................... 32 Projected Coordinate Difference ....................

.................................................................................................................................... 120 Temperature Loads .... 209........ 127 Methods ............................... 127 Execute ...................... 167 Table 18 (DIN 15018) ........................... 52.................... 49 Structural Thickness ..................................................................................... 74 solver input file ...................................................................... 69 Simple object list ........................... 22 Text Output Layout .... 106 Orientation ............................ 78 Rotating Objects................................................................................................................................... 103 Delete ............................................................................ 15 Toolbar .... Paste ................................. 49 Substructures of a kinematic ............. 93 Text 25 Print .. 55 Shear Force induced Shear Stresses ........... 49 Stretch ... 216 Textual Output Format . 127 SLC 80 Slenderness ..................... 228 Slotted Hole......................................................... 230 Stretching ....................................... 44 Select Picture Details .................... 129 Drag'n'Drop ................................................................................................................................ 62 Round .................................................................................... 19 Sensor and actuator.................................... 39 Support ................. Copy............................................................................. 10............................ 103 Error Messages ..................................................... 121 Subsystem....................6 Manual Rope Loads ..................................................... 97 Sensor degrees of freedom ...... 113 Hierarchy ....... 185 Scope ... 49 Move ...................... 15.... 77 Trimming picture ................................................. 103 Melting .......... 18 tower crane.... 96 Shear Areas .............................. 21 Sensitivity / Direction ........... Venant torsion..................................................... 167 Target ............................ 229 Status Line ..... 51 Screen after copying a subsystem ....... 85..... 65 Rectangular ................. 57 Shear Stress Ranges ..... 128 create for orientations ................................................................ 165 Table 19 (DIN 15018) .... 18 Stress Differences ....................... 63 Rectangular Tube ........................ 69 Simple model of a tower crane (total system)109 Simple node list ....... 42 St........................................................... 126 Splitting .............................................. 45 Support Conditions (Joints/Springs) ................................................................. 79 Tension element.................................................................. 213 Simple beam list .. rope ......... 97 Sensor and actuator................................ 81.............................................................................................................. 56 Torsional Shear Stresses ..................... 133 STAB88 / NODYA [OPTION] ............................ 127................................... 77 Round Section............................................ 185 Scaling ........................................................................................... 110 Section C 60 Circular Tube .................... 22 Save ............... 49 Scale .......... 107....................................... 185 Stresses ............... 15 Torsional Moment of Inertia .................................................................. 168 Table 12 (DASt-Ri 011) ..................... 229 Torsional Moment of Resistance................................................................................................ 166 Table 20 (DIN 22261) ...................... 44.... 45 Switch: Best possible ..... 223 Textual Output .......................................................................................... 105 Screen Settings ................... 51 Substructure Copy ................................................................................. 59....... 25................................................................................. 21 Situation .... 22 Selection ........ 120 Target Settings ............ 103 Cut.................................................................................... 221 Textual Documentation ................... 121 T Table 10 (DIN 22261) ........................................... 109 Translational Acceleration Load ................................ 151 Rotational Acceleration Load ... 57 Total / Balance . 22 Tube Circular .................................................................................................................................................. 197 Table 17 (DIN 22261) ......................................................... 91...................................... 22 Single Object ...................................... 103 Import..... 55..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 51 Graphical ....................... 216 TH2 \b........................ 32 Second level subsystems ........................................... 105.............................. 64 S safety factor for fatigue strength ............................ case 1 ............................. 64 Section Points .............................................................................................. case 2 ....... 58 ............................. 80 Thin-Walled Cross Section ............ 55.................................... 49 S-Class ....................................... 106 Subsystem Coordinate System ................. 23 Multiple Objects ..... 217 $uncertain ............................... 69 Single Object Selection ......................................................................................................... 66 Statical Moment ............................................. 133 Standard Cross Section ............................................... 80 STAB88 .................................................... 213 Stress Range Index 241 Design Value ............................. 48 Project...... 101 SMC ........................... 143 Spring .................KRASTA 9........ 54 Titlebar .......... 62 Types of Parametric Cross Sections .. 65 H 59 L 61 Rectangle .......................................................... 48 Mirror .....

.............................................................................. 15................................ 25 Units .............. 217 V Vector and Angles ..................... 107 W Welding seams .......... 93 Using general constraint condition ....... 25 redo/undo ............................. 18 Window: Object Tree ..... 78 Wind resistance ......................242 Index U uncertain... 128 undo/redo ..... 17 Window: Working Area ......................... 78 Window: Information............... 78 Wind Profile ......... 35 User Defined Folder in Object Tree .......................................... 16....................... 105............................. 106 Working Area ...... 94 Using List of Situations .. 23 KRASTA 9........................ 18.............................. 93............................................................. 16 Wizard: Beam as Subsystem ................................ 80 Wind direction ... 78 Wind Loads ................................................................................6 Manual ...................... 13..................... Situation ............ 35 User 13........ 18.......... 51 Williot plan of displacement .................................................................................................................. 17 Using force condition .....

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