The pump should be able to develop a pressure to overcome the resistance of the Index Circuit.
The other circuits should then have extra resistance added to ensure that all three subcircuits
have equal resistance.
This extra resistance is added at the Balancing Valves.
A Balancing Valve is manufactured so that small changes in resistance can be made by altering the
valve setting.
If the index circuit in the above diagram is subcircuit No.3, then the Balancing Valves of the other
two circuits will be closed down to give an equal resistance in all three circuits.
The photos below show typical balancing valves.
EXAMPLE 7
Size the pipework for the heating system shown below.
Determine which circuit is the Index Circuit.
Also determine the pressure drops in the three subcircuits.
The total lengths of the section are:
The Index Circuit is therefore the Circuit to the Hot Water Indirect Cylinder with a pressure drop
of 9918 Pa.
The system should be balanced by slightly closing the valve on the heating return pipe at the boiler.
EXAMPLE 6
Size the pipework for the heating system shown below. Also determine the pressure drops. The
total lengths of the section are:
Heater Battery
Output 45 kW
= 20
Boiler
Cast iron
5
Pipe
Size
40
6.75
51.75 51.75
/ 42
=
1.23
mm
dia.
6
7
8
9
10
Le Total Equivalent Tota Pres
TOTAL
ng length of Fittings
l
sure PRESSURE
th
Pipe drop
DROP
of
Len per
Col. 8 x 9
pi
m
gth metr
Pa
pe
Col.
e
6+7
m
Pa/
m
m
65 Heater battery 122. 220 26,928
4
= 20.0
Boiler
= 2.5
12 bends x0.5
= 6.0
6 valves x 0.25
= 1.5
Add div
valve
1 tee
= 0.2
= 30.2
TEL = 30.2 x
1.9 (le)
TEL = 57.38
metres
0.5 bar =
50,000 Pa
TOTAL
= 76,928 Pa
= 7.7 metres
head
EXAMPLE 1
Determine the smallest pipe which will carry 0.4 kg/s of water at 75oC using Copper, Table 'X'.
Consult the FLOW of WATER in PIPES TABLE (Copper pipe at 75oC).
The pipe diameters are written in bold type across the top of the table.
The pressure loss per unit length (Pa/m) and velocity (m/s) are written down the LHS of the table.
A red horizontal line is drawn across the table below 300 Pa/m.
This means that suitable pipe sizes will be found above this line.
The velocity follows a stepped line the lower blue line is the
1.0 m/s velocity line.
A 22 mm pipe will carry 0.4 kg/s but the pressure loss per unit length is below the red horizontal
line and outside the table.
The pressure loss is in fact (790 Pa/m) and is too high since the maximum should be 300 Pa/m.
The velocity is also too high at about 1.3 m/s, the optimum being 1.0 m/s.
If this is the case then look at the next pipe size up, at 28 mm.
The flow rates closest to 0.4 are 0.394 and 0.414 kg/s.
0.4 kg/s is in between these two flow rates.
A 28 mm pipe will carry 0.4 kg/s with a pressure loss of about 230 Pa/m and a velocity of 0.7 m/s.
This meets the design criteria and therefore 28 mm would be a suitable pipe size.
EXAMPLE 2
Determine a suitable pipe size for L.T.H.W. copper pipe for a flow rate of 1.0 kg/s.
Answer:
A 42 mm pipe gives a flow rate of 1.0 kg/s with a pressure loss of 160 Pa/m and velocity of about
0.9 m/s.
EXAMPLE 3
Choose a pipe diameter for a heating system (L.T.H.W.) with a heat output of 32 kW.
Answer:
A 35 mm pipe will give a flow rate of 0.76 kg/s with a pressure loss of 250 Pa/m and a velocity of
0.95 m/s.
EXAMPLE 4
Size the flow and return pipework to a 1.6 kW radiator.
A 15 mm pipe will give a flow rate of 0.038 kg/s with a pressure loss of 80 Pa/m and a velocity of
about 0.25 m/s.
H
Where;
4 . f . l . v2
2 .g . d
Where;
pl
f
l
d
v
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
(4. f .l)/d
( v2 . . g ) / 2 . g
or;
(4. f .l)/d
( v2 . ) / 2
(4. f .l)/d
( . . v2 )
( . . v2 )
Then
(4. f .l)/d
1.0
The length (l) is now called equivalent length (le) and by rearranging the above formula
we get;
1.0 x d
le
d / 4 .f
4 . f . le
Values of equivalent length are given in the FLOW of WATER in PIPES TABLE for water at
75 oC, see CIBSE guide C (2001) section 4 , Flow of Fluids in Pipes and Ducts, Tables 4.9 to 4.33
for various types of pipes.
These values should be corrected for each particular type of fitting.
The correction factors of Velocity pressure loss factors are called (Zeta) factors.
The resistance in a fitting is converted to equivalent straight lengths of pipe, e.g. a bend may have a
resistance equivalent to 1.2 metres of straight pipe.
The TOTAL EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF A FITTING = Equivalent Length x Pressure Loss
factor (Zeta).
TOTAL EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF A FITTING (m) = (le) x (Zeta factor).
See CIBSE guide C (2001) section 4.9 for more details of fittings zeta factors.
Index Circuit
The Index Circuit is the circuit with the highest resistance.
This only applies to systems where the circuits are divided.
The Index Circuit needs to be identified so that the pump can be sized.
Example 1
The system shown below is divided into two subcircuits A & B.
SubCircuit A
SubCircuit B
Heat Emitters
No.1
No.3
No.4
No.2
Pump
No.5
BOILER
A pipe sizing calculation would determine which of the two subcircuits had the most resistance
and therefore which was the Index Circuit.
The reason for finding the Index Circuit is to size the pump.
The pressure developed by the pump should be capable of overcoming the resistance in the Index
Circuit.
If the pump pressure can overcome the resistance in the Index Circuit, then it can overcome the
resistance in other circuits of lesser resistance.
If it was found that the Index Circuit was Circuit (B) in the above diagram then we would include
the flow of water through radiators No. 3, 4 and 5.
If we examine Circuit (B) then the Index Circuit flows past Radiator No.3 and No.4 and through
Radiator No.5. This would be the circuit with the highest resistance.
If the pump is capable of forcing water through the pipework to Radiator No.5 then there will be
enough pressure to force the water through Rads. No.3 & No.4 since they are closer to the pump.
This is the reason why only one radiator is included in the calculations for resistance in the Index
Circuit.
SubCircuit B is
Index Circuit
SubCircuit A
Heat Emitters
No.1
No.3
No.4
No.2
Pump
No.5
BOILER
Radiator No.5
Included in Index
Circuit
Example 2
A heating system is shown below.
There are seven radiators and seven pipe sections.
The pipe sections under the radiators are from tee to tee.
Radiator
Section 2
BOILER
Radiator
Radiator
Radiator
Radiator
Radiator
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Radiator
Section 1
Radiator
Radiator
Section 2 Section 3
BOILER
Radiator
Radiator
Radiator
Section 4
Section 5 Section 6
Radiator
Radiator
Section 7
Section 1
Index Circuit;
Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.
H
where
4 . f . l . v2
2 .g . d
The object of pipe sizing is to obtain the smallest diameter of pipe without too high a water
velocity or too high a pressure drop and therefore large pumps.
It is more convenient to use pipe sizing tables when sizing pipes rather than the D'Arcy equation.
This is because the water velocity and head loss (or pressure loss) are unknown at the time of pipe
sizing,
and the friction coefficient (f) varies with Reynolds number which in turn varies with velocity and
diameter.
A FLOW of WATER in PIPES TABLE is provided in these notes.
The CIBSE guide provide pipe sizing tables in sections C4.11 to C4.45.
EXAMPLE 5
Size the pipework for section (B) of a heating system shown below.
Section B is in red.
Also determine the pressure drop in section (B)
The total length of the section is 8 metres (includes flow and return)
Section B supplies hot water to Radiator No. 2 and No. 3.
The amount of heat to be transferred to radiators No. 2 & 3 is:
1.5 + 1.0 = 2.5 kW.
The downstream tees will be included in this section.
Sizing Example 9
WARM AIR HEATERS
Size the pipes to Circuit A and Circuit B and the pump for the system shown below.
Use mild steel pipe at average water temperature 75oC.
Length of run Section 1 =
26 metres (F & R)
Length of run Section 2 =
43 metres (F & R)
Length of run Section 3 =
50 metres (F & R)
3port
diverting
valve,
3port
diverting
valve,
Section 2
Section 3
Section 1
Section
Ref.
1
Heat
Output
in
section
2
Pipe
Heat
loss.
15% of
1.
3
Total
Heat
Col. 1+2
4
Water
Flow
Rate
5
Pipe
Size
6
Length
of pipe
kW
kg/s
mm
dia.
kW
7
Total
Equivalent
length of
Fittings
kW
132
19.8
8
Total
Pipe
Length
Col. 6+7
m
9
Pressure
drop per
metre
Pa/m
10
TOTAL
PRESSURE
DROP
Col. 8 x 9
Pa
151.8
3.61
65
26
le = 3.5
26 +
20.13
3Gate valves = 46.13
140
140 x 46.13
= 6,458
@ 0.15 =
0.45
1 NRV
= 2.0
1 Boiler
= 2.5
2 Elbows @
0.4
=
0.8
5.75
3.5 x 5.75
= 20.13 m
70
10.5
80.5
1.92
50
43
le = 2.5
3 Gate
valves @ 0.2
= 0.6
4 Elbows @
0.5
= 2.0
43 +
12.75
= 55.75
160
160 x 55.75
= 8,920
2 Tees @ 0.5
+ 0.5 + red.
Reduction
502 / 652
=
Ratio = 0.59
= 0.25
2Tees @
1.25
=
2.50
+ 19,620 +
8,100
= 36,640
5.1
2.5 x 5.1
= 12.75 m
62
9.3
71.3
1.70
50
50
le = 2.5
3 Gate
valves @ 0.2
= 0.6
8 Elbows @
0.5
= 4.0
2 Tees @ 0.5
+ 0.5 + red.
Reduction
502 / 652
=
Ratio = 0.59
= 0.25
2Tees @
1.25
=
2.50
7.1
2.5 x 7.1
= 17.75 m
50 +
17.75 =
67.75
130
130 x 67.75
= 8808
+ 19,620 +
7,200
= 35,628
Index circuit is therefore to Section 1 & 2 since this has the highest
resistance.
Resistance of Index Circuit = 6,458 + 36,640 = 43,088 Pa.
Pump to be capable of (Minimum) 3.61 kg/s (l/s) flow rate against a head of
4.31 metres or ( 43.1 kPa or 43.1 kN/m2.)
Length (F&R)
(Metres)
25
30
18
15
40
18
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Each 3port
diverting valve,
pressure drop =
3.6 metres head
Section
6
Section
3
Section
4
Section
Section
2
5
D.R.V.
D.R.V.
N.R.V.
Boiler
Cast
Iron
Section
1
Section
7
=
=
=
x g x H
1000 x 9.81 x 3.6 m
35,316 Pa
Radiant Panels
Powermatic Radiant Panels, type Aquamatic ARP (see
http://www.powrmatic.co.uk/)
Total emissions from catalogue , 75 MWT, 15oC ambient,
4 tubes horizontal  734 W per m run. (from Table 5)
Pipe length of each panel is; 40,000 Watts output / 734 W/m = 56
metres.
Mass flow rate for each panel is 40 kW / 42 = 0.95 kg/s.
For each tube mass flow rate is 0.95/4 = 0.25 kg/s + 15% heat loss =
0.28 kg/s
From hydraulic resistance graph (on website), resistance for each panel
= 38 Pa/m run
Total resistance for each panel
38
x 56 m
= 2128
Pa.
6,3
40
40
40
2
Pipe
Heat
loss.
15%
of 1.
(kW)
6
3
4
Total Water
Heat Flow
Col.
Rate
1+2
(kg/s)
(kW)
46
46
46
1.1
1.1
1.1
5
Pipe
Size
(mm
dia.)
40
40
40
6
Length
of pipe
7
Total Equivalent length of
Fittings
(m)
(m)
18
15
15
8
Total
Pipe
Length
Col. 6+7
(m)
9
Pressure
drop per
metre
(Pa/m)
18 +
3.15
= 21.15
180
15 +
4.59
=19.59
15 +
3.15
= 18.15
10
TOTAL
PRESSURE DROP
Col. 8 x 9
(Pa)
21.15 x 180
= 3807
+ panel 2128
+ 3 port valve =
35,316
= 41,251
180
19.59x 180
= 3526
+ panel 2128
+ 3 port valve =
35,316
= 40,970
180
18.15 x 180
= 3267
+ panel 2128
+ 3 port valve =
35,316
= 40,711
80
80
2
Pipe
Heat
loss.
15%
of 1.
(kW)
12
12
3
4
Total Water
Heat Flow
Col
Rate
1+2
(kg/s)
(kW)
92
92
2.19
2.19
5
Pipe
Size
(mm
dia.)
6
Length
of pipe
7
Total Equivalent length of Fittings
8
Total Pipe
Length
Col. 6+7
(m)
9
Pressure
drop per
metre
(Pa/m)
10
TOTAL
PRESSURE
DROP
Col. 8 x 9
(Pa)
le = 3.3
1 DRV 60ooblique = 2.0
2 Tees @ 0.5 + 0.3 + red.
Reduction 652 / 802 =
Ratio = 0.59 = 0.25
2 Tees @ 1.25
= 2.50
2 Tees @ 0.5 + 0.3 + red.
Reduction 402 / 652 =
Ratio = 0.38 = 0.40
2 Tees @ 1.20
= 2.40
Total = 6.90
T.E.L.= 6.90x 3.3 = 22.77m
30+ 22.77
= 52.77
55
55 x 52.77
le = 3.3
1 DRV 60ooblique = 2.0
4 elbows@ 0.3
= 1.20
2 Tees @ 0.5 + 0.3 + red.
Reduction 652 / 802 =
Ratio = 0.59 = 0.25
2 Tees @ 1.25
= 2.50
2 Tees @ 0.5 + 0.3 + red.
Reduction 402 / 652 =
Ratio = 0.38 = 0.40
2 Tees @ 1.20
= 2.40
Total = 8.10
T.E.L.= 8.1 x 3.3 = 26.73m
40 + 26.73
=
66.73
55
(m)
(m)
65
30
65
40
= 2,902
55 x 66.73
= 3,670
4
Water
Flow
Rate
(kg/s)
4.38
5
6
Pipe Length
Size of pipe
(mm
dia.)
(m)
80
25
7
Total
Equivalent
length of
Fittings
(m)
le = 4.2
3 Gate valves @
0.10 = 0.30
1 NRV
= 2.0
1 Boiler
= 2.5
2 Elbows @
0.3
= 0.6
8
9
10
Total Pressure
TOTAL
Pipe
drop
PRESSURE
Length
per
DROP
Col.
metre
Col. 8 x 9
6+7
(Pa/m)
(Pa)
(m)
25 +
92.5
= 4,410
22.68
=
47.68
Total = 5.4
T.E.L. = 4.2 x
5.4 = 22.68 m
Index Circuit
Sections
1,2,3
1,2,4
1,5,6
1,5,7
48,563
48,023
49,331
49,050
The circuit containing sections No. 1,5 & 6 have the highest resistance and are therefore the
index run with a 49,331 Pa pressure drop.
The pump should be capable of a minimum 4.38 kg/s (l/s) flow rate against a minimum head
of 4.93 metres or ( 49.3 kPa or 49.3 kN/m2.)
Allowance to pump size may be made for margin or inefficiencies.
Regulating Valves
A commissioning engineer would balance the system using double regulating valves (D.R.V.s)
or metering stations. This process is briefly outlined in BSE Notes Pipe Sizing section, page 9
entitled Balancing Circuits.
The drawing of the system for this example shows two D.R.V.s; one in section 2 and one in
section 5. Before these can be adjusted the subcircuits No.3 and No.4 must be balanced as well
as subcircuits No.6 and No.7. When these subcircuits are balanced then the D.R.V.s can be
regulated.
The amount of extra resistance needed in the D.R.V. in section 2 is;
Resistance in section 5 =
3670 Pa
Resistance in section 2 =
2902 Pa
Difference between these resistances =
3670  2902
=
768 Pa.
Therefore the D.R.V. in section 2 is to be turned down to give a resistance to flow of 768 Pa.
This means that the circuits are balanced.
Panel pipework
resistance = 2128 Pa
(from catalogue)
Isolating Gate
Valves
Flow
Radiant Panel
Bypass
D.R.V.
Return
Boiler Sizing
The boiler output is based on the total heat losses for the building plus hot water boiler power.
Other additional items that can be considered are; heater battery outputs and other equipment
that require heat.
For details of Boiler Power for Hot Water cylinder see Hot and Cold water section Hot water
generation & storage page 2.
Boiler output (kW) =
Boiler margin.
It is useful to add a margin to the previous figure for;
1.
2.
3.
4.
Recommendations
CIBSE guide F (2002) section 10.1.2.2 and BSRIA Guidance Note 12/97 Oversized Heating
Plant gives details of plant sizing.
As a guide to boiler capacity (heating load) the following yard sticks can be used; 90 W/m2 for
offices and industrial buildings, 110 W/m2 for retail, health care and education establishments.
Also for Hot Water calorifier sizing the following yard sticks can be used; 4 l/person for offices,
retail, education and restaurant establishments, 23 l/person for hotels, 33 l/person for health
care.
Other considerations for oversizing are;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
occupancy pattern.
preheat time.
thermal response of the building.
greater capital cost and maintenance cost.
stability of controls..
seasonal efficiency.
Pump Sizing
There are two items required to size a pump;
Fluid flow rate
Pressure to be developed.
g
H
=
=
P / x g
1000 x 9.81
9810
Therefore;
The flow rate of water that the pump delivers will be the flow rate in the section in which the
pump is installed.
A 20% margin may be added to this flow rate to allow for future extensions to the system.
A pump catalogue may be consulted to choose a suitable unit.
The operating point can be superimposed on the pump graph for pressure (head) against flow
rate in kg/s or l/s.
It is best to choose a pump with the operating point near the lower speeds or the bottom end of
the performance curve so that the pump will not be operating at its maximum capacity, thus
allowing little room for error or margin.
A typical pump sizing curve is shown below with a system operating point superimposed on the
curve.
Operating point
Pressure (Pa) (kPa) or
Head (m)
Pump graph or curve
System
Pressure or
head
System
flow
rate
Not all system operating points are directly on top of a pump graph or curve as shown below.
It would be best to choose a pump on the curve above the operating point, i.e. Pump B since the
output of both pressure and flow rate will be slightly above that required and not below.
Operating point
Pump A
Pump B
Pump C
System
flow
rate
Similarly if a pump has three speeds then three curves will be shown.
It would be best to operate a pump at a lower speed if possible to prolong the life of the pump
and bearings.
The diagram below shows a 3speed pump with the operating point between speed No.1 and
No.2.
The pump would then be installed to run at speed No.2; this means that if the system is
extended at a later date the pump speed may be increased to accommodate this increase in flow
rate and pressure.
Operating point
Speed 3
Speed 2
Speed 1
System
flow
rate
Example 1
Size a suitable inline glanded pump to deliver 10 litres/second of water against a head of 7
metres (70 kPa).
Use the information from the Smedegard pump curves shown below.
The pump should have a duty and standby facility, that is; a twin pump abbreviated (D).
Manufacturers Information
The pumps shown are 1400 and 900 rpm.
Each pump is given a 3 number reference; the first number is the pipe size in inches, the second
number is the impellor diameter, the third number is the number of motor pole pairs.
Answer
The operating point can be superimposed on the pump curves below for head (kPa) against
flow rate in l/s.
At first look at the pump curves the; 82004(D) pump is close to the operating point.
It is sometimes best to choose a pump with the operating point on the flat part of the pump
curve, this gives some antistall facility and means that if the volume flow rate fluctuates then
the pressure developed will not change.
So, a 102104(D) pump may be better suited to a load where the volume flow rate is not
steady.
This might happen in a circuit where control valves alter water flow rates.
Also the 102104(D) pump has more margin for pressure and flow rate above the duty given in
the question.
A commissioning engineer would have to regulate the flow of water through the pump with a
regulating valve to achieve the design flow rate.
To choose a pump the engineer has to be aware of the type of system to which it is connected
and choose accordingly.
The pressure that should be developed by the pump should equal the Pressure Drop in
the Index Circuit.
The Index Circuit is the part of the system with the highest pressure drop.
Therefore:
Pump pressure =
pressure drop in Index Circuit.
Add 20% margin to pump pressure to allow for future extensions and the system getting less efficient.
The designer must be careful when adding a margin to pump pressure since too much pressure can lead to pumping over in open
systems and other problems.
Some pump catalogues have units of head instead of pressure.
For conversion;
Pressure (Pa) = density of water x acceleration due to gravity x head (m)
Or
P =
x g x H
Where,
Density of water (
=
=
1000 kg/m3.
9.81 m/s2.
Therefore;
H
P / x
1000 x 9.81
9810
The flow rate of water that the pump delivers will be the flow rate in the section in which the pump is installed.
A 20% margin may be added to this flow rate to allow for future extensions to the system.
A pump catalogue may be consulted to choose a suitable unit.
Smaller pumps can be inline, that is installed in the pipeline.
Larger pumps may be seated on a concrete base, these tend to be end suction pumps where the water is sucked into the pump end
and comes out at 90 degrees at the outlet.
The operating point can be superimposed on the pump graph for pressure (head) against flow rate in kg/s or l/s.
It is best to choose a pump with the operating point near the lower speeds or the bottom end of the performance curve so that the
pump will not be operating at its maximum capacity, thus allowing little room for error or margin.
Gas Properties
The Table below lists some of the more useful properties in building services for natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG).
Properties
Natural Gas
41.6
53.3
38.7
95
as gas
25.5
as liquid
50
86
0.78
1.85
0.0416
650
20

0.512 kg/litre
512 kg/m3
or
510
37
3
3
274 m gas /m liquid or
0.274 m3 gas / litre liquid
0.54
First stage regulation at tank pressure is reduced from 6 bar to 0.7 bar.
Second stage regulation at building pressure is reduced to 50 mbar (0.05 bar)
At equipment and appliances 37 millibar (0.037 bar)
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Example 1
Determine the steel pipe size for a gas boiler if the boiler rating is 28 kW and the measured pipe run is 10.2 metres with 3 elbows.
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
Nominal
Pipe size
(mm)
3.0
15
0.00104
0.00072
0.00057
0.00050
20
0.00219
0.00149
0.00120
25
0.00409
0.00275
32
0.00826
40
0.01258
6.0
9.0
12.0
15.0
18.0
21.0
24.0
0.00044
0.00039
0.00036
0.00034
0.00102
0.00090
0.00083
0.00076
0.00071
0.00224
0.00193
0.00169
0.00153
0.00142
0.00134
0.00574
0.00464
0.00393
0.00346
0.00315
0.00291
0.00275
0.00865
0.00700
0.00598
0.00527
0.00480
0.00440
0.00417
Table 2 below is used for Copper Tube Table X or EN 1057 thin wall, half hard temper.
Nominal
Pipe size
(mm)
3.0
15
0.00079
0.00054
0.00043
0.00035
22
0.00244
0.00165
0.00126
28
0.00495
0.00330
0.00260
6.0
9.0
12.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
0.00032
0.00027
0.00025
0.00024
0.00102
0.00110
0.00079
0.00070
0.00063
0.00220
0.00197
0.00165
0.00142
0.00134
Table 3 below is used for Copper Tube Table Y or EN 1057 thick wall, half hard temper.
Nominal
Pipe size
(mm)
3.0
15
0.00071
0.00047
0.00037
0.00032
22
0.00220
0.00149
0.00118
28
0.00456
0.00307
0.00244
6.0
9.0
12.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
0.00028
0.00027
0.00024
0.00020
0.00094
0.00087
0.00072
0.00064
0.00057
0.00205
0.00181
0.00149
0.00134
0.00118
It must be remembered that the above method of pipe sizing is not as accurate as using the CIBSE guide method as detailed in page
3, but can be useful for checking pipe sizes quickly.
Section
Length
(metres)
8
4
13
5
4
1
2
3
4
5
Section 1
Gas Meter
Section 2
Section 5
Section 4
25 kW boiler
4 kW gas fire
Section 3
H / GCV
Where;
Q
=
H
=
GCV =
For example, in Pipe section 1 the Heat output to all appliances is 25 + 12 + 4 kW = 41 kW.
Flow rate Q
=
H / GCV
Q
=
41 x 103 (MW)
/
38.7 (MJ/m3) from Pipe Sizing Table.
Q
=
1.05943 x 103 m3/s
Q
=
0.00105943 m3/s
Q
=
approximately 0.00106 m3/s
GAS
Natural gas
38.7
L.P.G. ( Commercial
propane)
96
2
Flow
rate
m3/s
Pipe
Size
mm
dia
4
Length
of pipe
Total Equivalent
length of Fittings
6
Total
Pipe
Length
Col.
4+5
m
7
8
Pressure
TOTAL
drop
PRESSURE
per
DROP
metre
Col. 6 x 7
Pa
Pa/m
9
Pressure
atstartof
section
Pa
10
Pressure
atend
ofsection
Pa
41
16
25
12
0.00106
0.000413
0.000103
0.00065
0.00031
28
15
15
22
15
13
8 + 1.23
= 9.23
2.2
20.31
8.3
38.18
1.3
17.94
3.0
19.5
4.0
17.6
4 + 0.6
= 4.6
13 + 0.8
= 13.8
5 + 1.5
= 6.5
4 + 0.4
= 4.4
Gas pipe sizes and pressure drops can now be put on the drawing.
Section 1
(28mm)
20.31 Pa p.d.
Section 2
(15mm)
38.18 Pa p.d.
Section 4
(22mm)
19.50 Pa p.d.
Gas Meter
Section 3
(15mm)
17.94 Pa p.d.
Section 5
(15mm)
17.60 Pa p.d.
25 kW boiler
4 kW gas fire
Pressure drop
(Pa)
Pressure drop
(Pa)
20.31 + 19.50
39.81
1,2,5
76.09
1,2,3
76.43
The maximum pressure drop is in sections 1, 2 and 3 and amounts to 76.43 Pa.
This is less than the recommended maximum of 100 Pa; therefore the pipe sizes are appropriate.
If the pressure drop in sections 1, 2 and 3 and was too high then the pipe size in section 2 could have been increased to 22mm, and a
second calculation of pressure drop carried out.
GAS
Natural gas
L.P.G. ( Commercial propane)
Head Available
Water level in tank
Cold Water
Storage Tank
Water flow in pipe
Head
Available
Outlet
The Head Available develops water pressure and this water pressure is used up in overcoming the frictional resistance of the pipe
and in creating the velocity pressure for water flow at the outlet.
p1  p2
frictional resistance
+ velocity pressure
h1  h2
or,
where
p =
h =
pressure (N/m2)
head (m)
+ velocity head
In practice, to avoid additional velocity pressure calculations, it is usual to calculate the available pressure by considering the
difference in levels between the bottom of the storage tank and the height of the drawoff points.
The pressure losses in the system are frictional pipe losses and velocity pressure loss through sanitary fittings such as taps, cistern
ball valves and shower heads.
Velocity head loss through fittings is as follows :Pillar tap
1m
Shower head
1.5m
Ball valve
1m
In larger more complex buildings where many sanitary appliances are installed simultaneous demand should be considered from
tables CIBSE Guide B (1986) B4.20 and B4.21
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Determine pressure loss due to friction for pipe from CIBSE guide tables.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Notes:1.
Keep velocity below 2.0 m/s for noise reduction see Table 2.19 in CIBSE Guide G (2004) Public Health Engineering.
2.
An alternative method of pipe sizing is to use a nomogram.
This can be found in CIBSE Guide G (2004) Public Health Engineering Figure 2.21.
Example 1
Determine a suitable pipe size for the system shown below.
DATA
Fittings include the following; exit from tank or large vessel, 3No. bends, 1No. gate valve, 1No. 15mm tap,
Length of pipe run is 8 metres and copper pipe is to be used.
The flow rate for a 15mm Sink Tap from above Table is 0.2 l/s.
Cold Water
Storage Tank
2 metres
head
The pressure available to force the water through the pipework and tap comes from the head of water above the tap.
The formula below gives the relationship between pressure and head.
P
Where;
P
=
=
g
=
h
=
pressure (N/m2)
density (1000 kg/m3 for water)
acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)
head (m)
Therefore: P
19,620 N/m2
Example 2
Determine suitable pipe sizes for the system shown below.
The building is a threestorey Nursing Home.
DATA
Copper pipe is to be used.
Flow rates are to be obtained from above Table.
Cold Water
Storage Tank
3m
3m
A
5m
Bath
(Private)
3m
3m
D
Bath
(Private)
B
3m
3m
E
C
3m
Bath
(Private)
3m
4m
Answer:
From above Table the flow rate for a private bath is 0.3 l/s.
The pipe sizes, flow rates and pressures are indicated on the drawing below.
HOT AND COLD WATER PIPE SIZING TABLE
1
0.9
0.6
28
28
8.0
3.0
6
Length of
Pipe Equal to Resistances
(m)
10
Effective
Pipe
Pressure
Total
Pipe
Pressur Consumed Pressure
Length
e Loss Col. 7 x 8 Consume
Col . 5 + 6 (Pa/m)
(Pa)
d
(m)
(Pa)
8 + 2.09 =
10.09 m
3.0 + 0.45
= 3.45 m
1250
12,613
12,613
11
12
Pressure
Available at End of
Section
(Pa)
Final
Pipe
Size
(mm)
Static pressure =
28
3m x 9810 = 29,430
Press. Available =
29,430 12,613 =
16,817 Pa
600
2,070
12,613 +
2,070 =
14,683
Static pressure =
6m x 9810 = 58,860
Press. Available =
58,860 14,683 =
44,177 Pa
28
0.3
22
7.0
0.3
22
3.0
0.3
22
3.0
10
1No.Bend
= 1.0
1No. Angle valve bath tap = 5.0
Total 6.0
T.E.L. = Total x le
= 6.0 x 0.7
= 4.2 m
7.0 + 4.2
= 11.2 m
625
7,000
14,683 +
7,000 =
21,683
Static pressure =
9 m x 9810 = 88,290
Press. Available =
88,290 21,683 =
66,607 Pa
22
3.0 + 3.5
= 6.5 m
625
4,063
12,613 +
4,063 =
16,676
Static pressure =
22
3.0 + 3.5
= 6.5 m
625
4,063
4,063
41,880
41,880 +
14,683 =
56,563
11
12
3m x 9810 = 29,430
Press. Available =
29,430 16,676 =
12,754 Pa
Static pressure =
6m x 9810 = 58,860
Press. Available =
58,860 14,683 =
44,177 Pa 4,063 =
40,114 Pa
22
0.3
15
7.0
Static pressure =
9 m x 9810 = 88,290
Press. Available =
88,290 56,563 =
31,727 Pa
15
Cold Water
Storage Tank
28mm
0.9 l/s
12,754 Pa
16,817 Pa
Bath
22mm
0.3 l/s
44,177 Pa
28mm
0.6 l/s
40,114 Pa
D
B
Bath
22mm
0.3 l/s
31,727 Pa
15mm
0.3 l/s
Bath
Example 3
Determine suitable pipe sizes for the system shown below.
The building is a threestorey hotel.
DATA
Copper pipe is to be used.
Flow rates and simultaneous demand data are to be obtained from the
CIBSE guide.
Cold Water
Storage Tank
3m
5m
7m
WC WHB
1m
Bath
2m
Bath WHB
7m
7m
2
m
1m
3m
WC WHB
Bath
Bath WHB
WC WHB
Bath
Bath WHB
3m
WC
10
11
12
Final
Pipe
Size
(mm
)
2.
10
11
12
13
14
Final
Pipe
Size
(mm)
Example 1
Ref
Demand
Units if
required
Flow
Rate
(l/s)
10
11
12
13
14
none
0.8
22
50
none
50
3500
none
0.8
28
50
none
50
1000
28
10
11
12
13
14
2.
Calculate demand units or loading units from Tables in CIBSE
guide (attached). not required, see No.3 below.
3.
Estimate flow rates in each section. Keep velocity below 2 m/s. given
4.
Estimate pipe diameter from pipe sizing tables in CIBSE Guide C.
22mm (velocity too high at approx 2.4 m/s) or 28mm (velocity is 1.5
m/s).
5.
6.
7.
8.
Determine pressure loss due to friction from CIBSE Tables. See
Table 4.18 in Guide C (CD version).
9.
Calculate pressure consumed due to friction (Pa) = effective pipe
length (m) x pressure loss due to friction (Pa/m). Column 7 x 8 in Pipe
Sizing Table.
10. Calculate total pressure consumed = Friction loss + Static
pressure loss. There are no vertical pipe sections and therefore no static
pressure loss.
11.
Pa.
14. If the pressure available at the end of the section is more than or
equal to the pressure required at the end of the section then the pipe size
is correct.
28mm pipe is correct, 22mm is too small since there is not enough
pressure available at the end of the section and the water velocity is also
too high.
Example 2
10
11
12
13
none
0.5
22
14
1.6
15.6
1500
23,400
14
Final
Pipe
Size
(mm)
22
2.
Calculate demand units or loading units from Tables in CIBSE
guide (attached). not required
3.
Estimate flow rates in each section. Keep velocity below 2 m/s. given
4.
Estimate pipe diameter from pipe sizing tables in CIBSE Guide C.
22mm (velocity is 1.5 m/s).
5.
6.
7.
8.
Determine pressure loss due to friction from CIBSE Tables. See
Table 4.18 in Guide C (CD version).
9.
Calculate pressure consumed due to friction (Pa) = effective
pipe length (m) x pressure loss due to friction (Pa/m). Column 7 x 8 in
Pipe Sizing Table.
10.
Calculate total pressure consumed = Friction loss + Static
pressure loss. There are no vertical pipe sections and therefore no static
pressure loss.
11.
Determine pressure at start of section. Given in drawing as
120,000 Pa.
12.
Calculate pressure available at end of section = Pressure at start
of section  Total pressure consumed. 120,000 23,400 = 96,600 Pa.