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Chapter 3: Movement substance across Plasma

Membrane
The plasma membrane is a semi-permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells that
controls water and certain substances in and out of the cell.
Function of the Plasma Membrane


Protects the cell.
Separates the intracellular components from the extracellular environment.
Controls what enters and exits the cell

Necessities for the Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane



To transport nutrients into the cell.
For gases exchange
To excrete metabolic waste.
To maintain the pH value and ionic concentration of the cell.

Substances In and Out through the Membrane

Singer and Nicholson proposed the fluid mosaic model in 1972 to explain the structure of the plasma membrane .

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What is passive transport? Passive transport is the movement of substances across the cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.Passive transports can happen through three different channels. namely    lipid bilayer pore protein carrier protein What is diffusion? . hence no energy is required. substances move down their concentration gradient. During passive transport.

The Dynamic Equilibrium Diffusion will continue until the concentration in all region is the same. we say it has reached the dynamic equilibrium. No energy is needed and no membrane involves in diffusion.Diffusion is the movement of particles from a high density region to a low density region. When this happen. Factors Affecting the Rate of Diffusion Example of Diffusion .

What is Osmosis? .Between alveoli and blood capillaries in the lung during gases exchange.

without input of energy. . It is from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution. Important Points: It is the diffusion of water (normally) through a semi-permeable membrane.Osmosis is the diffusion of a water through a semi-permeable membrane. across a semi-permeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations. It is a physical process in which a solvent moves. from a solution of low solute concentration to a solution with high solute concentration.

What is Facilitated Diffusion? .

namely Channel Protein Carrier Protein Concentration Gradient Facilitated diffusion happens down a concentration gradient. . amino acids. Substances Pass through the Plasma Membrane through Facilitated Diffusion Particles undergo facilitated diffusion are the particles that cannot diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer such as Large particles such as glucose.Facilitated diffusion is the passive transport of substances across the plasma membrane with the help of transport proteins such as the channel protein and the carrier protein. proteins and nucleic acids Some ions such as the sodium ions and chloride ions 2 Types of Transport Protein Facilitated diffusion occurs through 2 types of transport protein.

.Similarities between Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion Down the concentration gradient (From high concentration to low concentration) No energy is required Differences between Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion What is Active Transport? Active transport is the movement of substances across the plasma membrane of cells against the concentration gradient (From lower concentration to higher concentration).

Since it is against the concentration gradient. energy is needed in the process. It supplies energy to the carrier protein to carry out the process. Examples of Active Transport Intake of mineral ions by the root hairs of a plant. . Basic Requirements in Active Transport Presence of the carrier protein Presence of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) Function of the ATP ATP is the source of energy in active transport. It is converted into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) after the reaction.

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water diffuses equally in & out of the cell -This is because the net flow is zero -Hence. the cell mass does not change When immersed in hypotonic region: . as the water flows out of the cell -Hence.When immersed in hypertonic region: -The solution is more concentrated than the cell sap -As a result. water diffuses from the cell sap into the solution -The net flow is negative. and flaccid/ crenation occurs When immersed in isotonic region: -The solution's concentration is similar to the cell sap -As a result. the cell mass decreases.

-The solution is more diluted than the cell sap -As a result. as the water flows into the cell -Hence. leading to haemolysis/ cell turgidity . the cell mass increases. water diffuses from the solution into the cell sap -The net flow is positive.