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The internship at LARSEN & TOUBRO at their
prestigious DMRC CC-28 project, helped in my
learning stage, towards the threshold of
working in Industries. I have got an intense
knowledge on the design, construction,
consultancy and safety activities which are
carrying out in the construction site.
First of all I would like to thank my mentor Mr.
S.Sundar Rajan (Project Manager) whose keen
interest, sheer motivation and proper
guidance helped me in completing my
I also thank the following people for showing
keen interest towards completion of my
internship Mr. Yasir Khan(planning), Mr.Viraj
Gupta(Designing), Mr.Praveen Roy(Safety in
charge), Mr. Sandeep De (Stretch ‘B’),
Mr.R.K.Sharma (P.C. Yard) and Mr.Vikas
(Erection)for guiding me throughout the

1. Preface
2. Introduction
▪ Project CC-28
◦ Brief Contract Details
◦ Network
◦ Need for a metro
3. Safety, Health and Environmental Plan
4. Planning
▪ Daily Progress Report (DPR)
▪ Work program
▪ General Alignment Drawing (GAD)
▪ Project Quality Plan (PQP)
▪ Contract Agreement
5. Design
▪ Reference IS Codes

▪ Design Basis Report (DBR)
▪ Detailed Drawings
▪ Piling
▪ Pile Cap
▪ Pier
▪ Pier Cap
7. Casting Yard
▪ Casting Segment
▪ Tests on cement consistency
▪ Batching Plant
8. Erection
▪ Introduction
▪ Steps involved for erection
▪ Risk involved & Precautions
9. Conclusion
10. References

It is further split up into sub-sections which provide insight into the construction of piles. piers. pile cap. The report has been presented in different parts as follows: The first part of the report provides an insight into the Larsen & Toubro Limited giving us an introduction about the Project CC-28. pier cap. Also providing the necessary precaution and care to be taken. casting of segment and erection. The second part of the report deals with the on-site activities.PREFACE This report discusses various activities that were undertaken in various departments as a part of the training at Larsen & Toubro. . Project CC28 to be precise.

its exquisite buildings. this has metamorphosed into one of India’s biggest success stories. who built a world class organization that is professionally managed an d a leader in India’s engineering and construction industry. India. The business of L&T Construction is organized in six business sectors which will primarily be responsible for Technology Development. and electrical and instrumentation engineering and services extend to large industrial and infrastructure projects from concept to commissioning. In overseas it has offices in Gulf and other overseas locations. Together. They arrived on Indian shore as representatives of the Danish engineering firm F L Smidth & Co in connection with the merger of cement companies that later grouped into the Associated Cement Companies. and highest viaducts . 1946. longest flyover. Larsen & Toubro Construction is India’s largest construction organization. mechanical. Holck-Larsen and Toubro. Toubro into India. L&T Construction has the resources to execute projects of large magnitude and technological complexity in any part of the world. which was converted into a limited company on February 7.K. In India. largest industrial projects. electrical and instrumentation.Leading-edge capabilities cover every discipline of construction: civil. International Tendering and work as Investment Centers. Business Development. tallest structures.INTRODUCTION Larsen & Toubro Limited: Larsen & Toubro Limited is the biggest legacy of two Danish Engineers. 7 Regional Offices and over 250 project sites.have been built by it . Today. Many of the country’s prized landmarks . It was the business of cement that brought the young Henning Holck -Larsen and S. The company has grown from humble origins to a large conglomerate spanning engineering and construction. L&T Construction’s cutting edge capabilities cover every discipline of construction – civil. Headquarters in Chennai. mechanical. founded the partnership firm of L&T in 1938. L&T Construction has played a prominent role in India’s industrial and .

. For ease of operations and better project management. in-depth technology and business development as well as to focus attention on domestic and international project execution.infrastructure development by executing several projects across length and breadth of the country and abroad. entire operation of L&T Construction is structured into four Independent Companies.





CUSTOMER: Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited CONTRACTER/ORGANISATION: Infrastructure Independent Company Larsen & Toubro Limited CONTRACT AGREEMENT Number AND DATE: DMRC/20/lll-058/2012 & 30. ● Visitors can enter the site after EHS Induction with the visitor pass. . HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN(SHE) RULES & REGULATIONS: ● No workmen below 18 years and above 58 years of age shall be engaged for a job. ● No one is allowed to enter into workplace and work at site without adequate foot protection (including female worker). Chinstrap of safety helmet shall be always on. He should be provided Safety helmet & safety Shoes.2012 CONTRACT DURATION: 30 MONTHS SAFETY. ● Usage of eye protection equipment shall be ensured. ● Smoking is strictly prohibited at workplace. ● Nobody is allowed to enter the site without wearing safety helmet.8.

● Erection zone and dismantling zone shall be barricaded and nobody will be allowed to stand under the suspended loads. . fire extinguisher. ● No children shall be allowed to enter the workplace. ● Debris. ▪ SAFETY APPLIANCES The requirement of sufficient number of safety appliances are planned well in advance and made available at stores. ● Material shall not be thrown from the height. minor accidents near misses and unhygienic conditions must be reported. ● Adequate illumination at workplace shall be ensured before starting the job at night. ● Safety signs and notices must be displayed and followed. and barrication shall be maintained till the backfilling is done. ● All major. emergency assembly point and emergency siren. Proper arrangement of Debris Chute can be installed. Safe approach is to be ensured into every excavation.● Rigid barrication must be provided around the excavated pits. ● All the dangerous moving parts of the portable/fixed machinery being used shall be adequately guarded. ● Consumption of alcohol and drugs is prohibited. ● Must be aware about the locations of the first aid canter. scrap and other material to be cleared then and there from the work place and at the time of closing of work every day.

A good construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule for work. It involves the choice of technology.▪HEAD PROTECTION Every individual entering the site must wear safety helmet. To protect ears use ear plugs/ear muff as suitable. ▪FOOT AND LEG PROTECTION Safety footwear with steel toe is essential on site to prevent crush injuries to our toes and injury due to striking against the object. and the identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. PLANNING Planning is a fundamental and challenging activity in the management and execution of construction projects. confirming to IS: 2925-1984 with the chinstrap fixed to the chin. the estimation of the required resources and duration for individual tasks. the definition of work tasks. Mainly the Planning Department works under the following sub-heads: ▪ Cost Estimation ▪ Mobilization ▪ Contract Management ▪ Subcontractor Billing ▪ Client Billing ▪ Documentatio . ▪HEARING PROTECTION Excessive noise causes damage to the inner ear and permanent loss of hearing.

It also shows if that hindrance has been removed or sorted out or not.Daily Progress Report The Daily Progress Report Dated: 22-12-2013 is shown in the image below. It is prepared before the commencement of project.As it can be easily described from the image that DPR gives us the preliminary idea of the Weather of the day . WorkProgram Work program is a document of the progress of the project datewise. The Start date and the Finish date of every minor to major work of the project is mentioned in this. The work has to be carried out as per the dates so that it can be easily finished before the dead- DAILY PROGRESS REPORT . It is not prepared on the daily or weekly basis. Planned and achieved work up to that day and Hindrances occurred during the work that day. Staff and Labor working on that day . Equipment deployed on the same day .

Horizontal Alignment in elevation. Some basic information about chainage which is given in GAD is as follows: ◦ Rail level ◦ Pier cap top level ◦ Lowest ground level in pile cap zone . Actually it gives the idea about Vertical Alignment in elevation. survey of the site. The image which is shown in general alignment drawing is the detailed GPS image of that part. it is the alignment drawing of the project part wise.g. are mentioned In this. The geometrical layout in plan of a particular part of the site which constitutes different pier numbers along with a specific mention of the left and right span of every pier is mentioned in alignment drawing. reconnisance etc. The required number of days for a particular type of work for e. General Alignment Drawing As it is clearly specified from the name itself.line. Also known as Alignment Plan and Span Arrangement Drawing.

◦ Pile cap top level ◦ Minimum pile length ◦ Pier type ◦ Reference drawing number ◦ Relevant bore hole Project Quality Plan ◦Definition: .

.An apex level document at project site specifying which procedure and associated resources shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project. product. internal audit. quality includes customer satisfaction. ◦ Management Responsibility: . rules. CONTRACT AGREEMENT The contract agreement is the agreement between the client and the contractor which has to be followed by the contractor during the working of the project. It includes various includes general requirement and documentation requirement of contract. purpose.It includes quality objective. terms and definitions. It is mainly divided into following parts: ◦ General :. responsibility. corrective and preventive measures.scope. authority and communication. and measurement of processes. references to the IS codes. ◦ Resource Management ◦ Product Realization ◦ Measurement. ◦ Quality Management System: . and different agreement acceptance from the contractor. quality policy. improvement. Analysis and Improvement: . ◦Purpose: Management summary of quality related activities required to meet terms of contract. process or contract.

Some of the sub-headings of contract agreement are as follows: ● Volume-1 ▪ NIT (Notice Inviting Tenders) ▪ ITT (Instructions to tenders) ▪ FOT (Form of tender) ● Volume-2 ▪ GCC (General Condition of contract) ▪ SCC (Special Condition of contract) ● Volume-3 Employer’s Requirements ● Volume-4 Design Basis Report ● Volume-5 Technical Specifications DESIGN REFERENCE IS CODES IS 456-2000 Plain and Reinforced Concrete .Code of Practice is an Indian Standard code of practice for general structural use of plain and reinforced concrete. .

Inspection and Testing ● Section 3: General Design Considerations ● Section 4: Special Design Requirements for Structural Members and Systems ● Section 5: Structural Design (Limit State Method) IS-1893(Part 1):2002 CRITERIA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES PART 1 General provisions and Buildings This standard contains provisions that are general in nature and applicable to all structures. main attributes of buildings. Workmanship. It covers general principles and design criteria.The latest revision of this standard was done in year 2000. dynamic analysis. design spectrum. it contains provisions that are specific to buildings only. It contains five sections and eight annexures: ● Section 1: General ● Section 2: Materials. apart from seismic zoning map and seismic coefficients of important towns. This code uses the limit state design approach. combinations. It gives extensive information on the various aspects of concrete. map showing tectonic features and lithological map of India. Also. map showing epicenters. It is written for use in India. reaffirmed 2005. IS 456 is considered as the Bible for Civil Engineers in India. SP-34 .

including storage. As a result of the introduction of limit state method ‘of design for reinforced concrete structures and the concept of development length. . This Handbook is expected to guide the designer in detailing which include correct positioning of bare for a particular type of structural element and preparation of bar bending schedule. assembly. Precast and/or prestressed concrete members may be used only if they can provide the same level of ductility as that of a monolithic reinforced concrete construction during or after an earthquake. IS 13920:1993 INDIAN STANDARD DUCTILE DETAILING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO SEISMIC FORCES — CODE OF PRACTICE ● This standard covers the requirements for designing and detailing of monolithic reinforced concrete buildings so as to give them adequate toughness and ductility to resist severe earthquake shocks without collapse. ● Provisions of this code shall be adopted in all reinforced concrete structures which are located in seismic zone III.HANDBOOK ON CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND DETAILING ▪This Handbook provides information on properties of reinforcing steel and detailing requirements. ● The provisions for reinforced concrete construction given herein apply specifically to monolithic reinforced concrete construction. detailing has become extremely important as many of the design requirements are to be’ met through detailing. fabrication. welding and placing of reinforcement in accordance with IS : 456-1978. IV or V.

the various values of various parameters are fixed so as the design will be the best for serviceability and strength criteria. for example.5 . ● This standard does not cover the use of driven cast in-situ piles for any other purpose. various types of loading applicable on them . It mainly deals with the structural issues viz design of substructure . elevated station defines the structure design assumption of elevated station from foundation to top.IS 2911-1984 INDIAN STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PILE FOUNDATIONS PART I CONCRETE PILES Section I Driven Cast in-Situ Concrete Piles ● This standard covers the design and construction of reinforced concrete driven cast in-situ load-bearing piles which transmit the load of a structure to the soil by resistance developed at the toe of the piles by end bearing or by friction along their surface or by both. In it. temporary or permanent retaining structure. load combination etc. etc. DESIGN BASIS REPORT The Design Basis Report of a particular part of construction. for example. ● STRUCTURAL ISSUES ▪ CONCRETE ◦ Young’s modulus is given by the formula Ec =5000(fck). design of super structure.

Hollow steel which can be either rectangular or circular .Tensile strength = 450 MPa . ▪ STRUCTURAL STEEL ◦ It is used for roof portals. ◦ For Hollow steel . foot bridges. ◦ Poisson’s ratio is to be taken as 0. coverings etc.15. ◦ Two types of steel are used . ◦ The density is to be taken as 25 KN per m3 for reinforced concrete And 24 KN per m3 for plain concrete.5 KN per m3 . purlins.Yield strength = 310 MPa ◦ For Structural Steel . railing.17 X 10 -5 per ◦C.3 ◦ The coefficient of thermal expansion is to be 1.Steel for concrete structure purpose ◦ The Young’s modulus for structural steel is equal to 2 X 10 5 MPa ◦ The density is equal to 78. steel staircase. ◦ Poisson ratio for structural steel is 0.◦ Modular ratio is to be taken as 10.Yield strength = 250 MPa t<20 240 MPa 20<t<40 230 MPa t>40 .Tensile strength = 410 MPa . supporting utilities.2 X 10 -3 per ◦C. ◦ The coefficient of thermal expansion is to be 1.

5 KN per m3 . ◦ Top of rail to top of platform is 1.09m. the value of A will not be taken less than Z/2 whatever be the value of I/R Where . ● HORIZONTAL CLEARANCE ◦ The distance between center of the track and platform is 1670mm. ◦ The standard diameter of bars varies from 8 to 36mm. ● CLEARANCE FOR PASSENGERS ◦ 3. ◦ The characteristic strength is 500 MPa. ◦ Center to center distance between two tracks is 4100mm.19m.▪ REINFORCED BARS ◦ Grade of the steel is Fe500 D. ◦ The density is equal to 78. ◦ Young’s modulus for reinforced bars is equal to 2 X 10 5 MPa. ● DESIGN LOADS The design horizontal seismic coefficient Ah for a structure shall be determined by the following expression: Ah = ZISa/2Rg Provided that for any structure with T <0.1 s.30m of clear height is to be provided on concourse level. ◦ Top of rail to top of plinth is 2. ● VERTICAL CLEARANCE ◦ Minimum plinth thickness is 195mm.

the following load combinations shall be accounted for: 1) 1. depending on the perceived seismic damage performance of the structure. The factor 2 in the denominator of Z is used so as to reduce the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) zone factor to the factor for Design Basis Earthquake (DBE). Sa/g = Average response acceleration coefficient. depending upon the functional use of the structures. and fast progress of the project. R = Response reduction factor.3(DL+ IL ± EL) DETAILED DRAWING The designing section also works on detailed drawing of pile foundation. characterized by ductile or brittle deformations. is for the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) and service life of structure in a zone. These drawing also includes notes which gives us . pile cap. However. or economic importance. ● BASIC LOAD COMBINATION Load factors for plastic design of steel structures In the plastic design of steel structures.Z = Zone factor. is based on appropriate natural periods and damping of the structure. post-earthquake functional needs. I = Importance factor.0.7(DL+ IL) 2) 1. characterized by Hazardous consequences of its failure. These curves represent free field ground motion. pier. These detailed drawing helps in easy. historical value. the ratio (I/R) shall not be greater than 1.7(DL± EL) 3) 1. systemic.

Some of the examples of drawing are as under:- ● REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF PIER P94 TO P95 . These drawing are drawn using the software like AUTOCAD.the idea about the authenticity of the drawing as these notes are directly linked to the IS codes which are the sole authentic documents for any design of structures.



Rajouri Garden and E.STRETCH ‘B’ One Elevated Ramp and Three Elevated stations namely Mayapuri.S.I Hospital in the Mukundpur-Yamuna Vihar Corridor PILING .

hexagonal. friction. which is driven or installed into ground by suitable means. REQUIREMENTS AS PER CONTRACT CC. Piles are sometimes used to resist uplift loads and thus are in tension. TYPES OF PILES Piles are classified using different criteria: ▪ Material of construction: timber. inclined loads and moments. abutments and wharves.28 . vibrated. Piles are also used to resist horizontal loads as in the case of foundations for retaining walls. They are also used to avoid damage due to the possible scouring of the soil immediately below the foundation. jetted etc. cast in situ etc. The piles are usually driven in groups to provide foundation for structure. In case of large lateral loads piles are also driven at angles. concrete composite piles. ▪ Cross-section: circular. horizontal loads or a combination of vertical and horizontal loads. under reamed etc. The pile groups may be subjected to vertical loads. tapered. Piles are useful in transferring load through poor soil or water to a suitable bearing stratum. bridges. square. H-section. tension etc. ▪ Mode of load transfer: bearing. Piles may be required to increase the stability of tall structures. where the foundations are subjected to large eccentric loads. ▪ Method of installation: driven. bored. I-section etc. pre-stressed. ▪ Method of forming: precast. steel. Piles can also be used to provide anchorage against horizontal pull.A pile is relatively small diameter shaft. ▪ Shape: cylindrical.

▪Minimum Lap Length Shall be 47. . ▪Clear cover to outermost reinforcement should be 75mm. The contract specifications for this have been discussed as follows. ▪There are two types of concrete piles: ◦ Precast Piles ◦ Cast-in Situ Piles: Only cast-in piles were provided at the site. ▪Lap shall be suitably staggered and minimum c/c distance between adjacent laps shall be 1.3 times lap length.5 times the dia. When an enlarged base is provided.TOLERANCE ▪For the pile. of smaller bar. REINFORCEMENT ▪ should be pre-assembled and wired into position by using bending wire. samples should be taken and sent to the lab for testing or in-situ tests should be carried out ▪ Dimension of the pile should not be less than that specified. it should be concentric. Displacement from center should not exceed 10mm or one tenth the diameter of the pile whichever is lesser ▪Maximum allowable misplacement is 15mm ▪Surface irregularity should be less than 5mm ▪Variation of top point should be less than 25mm CONCRETE PILES The piles should be cast as per IS2911 provisions with minimum reinforcement as per code unless specified. CAST IN SITU PILES ▪ During the boring.

Polymer is used as opposed to bentonite slurry as specified in the contract document. It should be backfilled if rapid loss of drilling fluid occurs. DRILLING FLUID On the site. Results in a neat and clean concrete surface iii. ▪At all times. The temporary casing should be free from projections and distortion during concreting. With Polymud only top 20cm of concrete is wasted as opposed to 1m concrete wasted if bentonite slurry is used. CONCRETING ▪The workability of the concrete should be such that a continuous monolith shaft of full cross-sections formed. ▪ After concreting of the pile.Hopper and pile of the tremmie should be clean and watertight. Eco-Friendly ii. The calcium present in concrete kills the Polymud this reducing the contamination of the concrete. Some of the benefits of this polymer is: i. No contamination of concrete is allowed ▪It should be ensured that mix and placing of concrete does not result in arching ▪Concrete under water or drilling fluid should be poured through tremmie as per IS 2911. Size of aggregate 20mm. . ▪Internal diameter of the pipe should not be less than 200mm for concrete with max. tremmie should penetrate the previously prepared concrete so as to prevent contact with the drilling fluid. the empty bore hole should be backfilled.▪ Adequate temporary casing can be provided for ensuring stability near the ground. Sufficient quantity of concrete should be maintained in the pipe so that pressure exceeds that of the fluid.

PILE TESTING Pile should be tested as per IS: 2911-Part IV. Check of the eccentricity of the borehole after installation of casing. . iii. Checks for Pile vertically and position: During the process of boring following checks should be made: i. Utility diversion: A circular pit of diameter 1700mm and depth 1500 mm shall be manually excavated at the location to ensure that the utilities are present. The verticality of the casing is checked continuously until the toe is reached and is kept within a tolerance of 50mm. Boring of soil is carried by using hydraulic boring machine. ii. 3. If the eccentricity is more than 50mm then reinstallation is done. 4. Following tests are carried out at the site: ● Pile Integrity Tests ● Cross Hole Test STEPS: Bored cast in situ piles are constructed in the following sequence: 1. Check the verticality of the casing during installation by plumbing from two perpendicular directions. 2. Survey: The surveyor set out the center of the bored pile location using total station.

Polymer system should be added continuously during excavation. pipes) are threaded 100mm deep both at the lower end (threading inside) and the upper end (threaded outside). ●Concrete shall be placed using pipes. The casing is then driven in to the ground with the help of a rotatory machine until about 300mm is left above the ground.5. a temporary steel casing of length 2. The pipes (200/ 250mm dia.5. The casing should then be lowered in the hole with the help of a crane. Fabrication and installation of reinforcement cage: Cutting and bending of bars shall be carried out with approved schedule in fabrication yard or on the site. Installation of temporary casing to stabilize the upper bore. Vertical distance between each layer of spacers shall be 4m. All concrete delivered shall be visually inspected and checked against delivery note before being tested and used. The depth is checked before the lowering of the cage. 6. iii. 7. Boring is stopped when the toe of the pile level is reached. Cleaning of base: i. CONCRETING (STEPS): ●Grade M35 concrete shall be supplied from batching plant. The borehole is cleaned carefully and the soil is removed. The rig is then used to progress the excavation to the bottom of the casing pipe and then suitable polymer system is added before further excavation. A 1000mm diameter hole is drilled using hydraulic boring machine up to a depth of 3-4m. iv. ii. ii. Tie wires shall be used for binding the bars.3m is installed: i. . Circular concrete spacers shall be provided of the same grade of the pile.

●Pipes are joined towards into the hole. As the level of the concrete in the borehole rises. these shall be withdrawn accordingly to aid the flow of concrete. ●The concrete shall be discharged from the delivery truck to a hopper connected to the pipes. The end of the pipe should not be more than 300 m above the bottom of the pile to ensure that free fall of concrete shall not be more than 1.5m. PILE CAP PILE CAP .

Reinforcement cage to overall dimensions will be fixed exactly true to the plumb line and specified plan geometry. Reinforcement: BBS shall be prepared as per approved drawings and jointly checked.METHODOLOGY Excavation of Pile Cap Area:Excavation of Pile Cap will be done as per the size of pile cap (including working space1m approx. The reinforcement of Pier also shall be fixed in position. The reinforcement bars cut and bent to the required length and shape shall be manufactured either on site or pre-arranged at steel yard.) on all sides up to the depth of pile cap. The excavation will be done by the JCB. placed and tied in position as per the applicable specifications. . The sides of pit will be made sloped or stepped to avoid sliding.

shall be erected for fixing and keeping in position reinforcement bars in position. Proper staging etc. The joints between the shutters shall be closed by suitable putty or by use of sponge. The Concrete shall be transported by transit mixers. Setting out: After completion of pile cap form work. and 60cum/hr. The top surface of concrete shall be properly finished with the side slopes as specified in the drawings.Fixing of side form work: The shutters are applied with shuttering oil. The batching plant which is already established at site (30cum/ hr. Concrete shall be placed in layers of 300mm thick as per any other approved method. Precautions while concreting: . capacity) and calibrated shall be used for production of concrete. top of foundation level shall be marked and jointly checked with DMRC for approval. Concrete shall be well compacted using vibrators. All necessary formats/ reports as per approved QA/QP shall be fulfilled. The shutters shall be aligned (Both Horizontally and vertically within the specified limits) and fixed in position with the help of Tie-rods. The layout of pier as per “Approved Drawings” shall be marked on the top of the cap for the inspection of DMRC Concrete Placing: M35 Grade of concrete is used for Pile cap Concreting shall be carried out as a single pour in layers of 300mm thickness.

Vibrators shall be used sufficiently to produce dense concrete. PIER .Height of fall shall be restricted to less than 1. Care shall be taken to avoid damages to edges of concrete. Any major damage of concrete shall be repaired after proper notification to DMRC. De-shuttering: De-shuttering shall start only after 24hours of completion of concreting which depends on the condition of the concrete setting.For the purpose of inserting concrete hose in to the reinforcement cage.5m. To avoid segregation. excess use of vibration shall be restricted.

This Method statement deals with the materials to be used. and the necessary equipment to be deployed in the construction of pier DESIGN AND DRAWINGS: The Pier shall be constructed as per the dimensions and locations indicated in the Approved drawings& based on that the separate bar bending Schedule (BBS) for each different height’s Pier shall be prepared.METHODOLOGY PURPOSE: This method statement deals with the construction processes of Piers. which directly affect the quality and planning. MATERIALS: . Latest revision of GFC drawing shall be followed.

HDPE Pipe of 200 dia. Suitable Mix Design as per Grade of concrete shall be got approved by DMRC in advance before concreting operation.All materials have been used shall comply all quality assurance and quality manual specification and technical specification of tender document. Aggregates shall be stored on paved area in batching plant according to nominal size. Admixture: Polypropylene Fiber and Glenium Ace 30T are used as a add mixture FIXING OF DRAINAGE SPOUT: Drainage shall be provided as per issued GFC drawing. Water used for mixing and curing concrete shall not be acidic in nature and free from chemicals and organic impurities. Cement: The cement used as per grade of concrete shall be offollowing type: 53 grade Ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS 12269. natural source shall in accordance with IS 383. Water: Water shall be used for concreting as well for curing shall be portable and free from deleterious materials. Drainage pipe will be fixed manually at pier center as per drawing. . Aggregates: Aggregates fro. The pipe shall be secured at location by using rebar of 16mm diameter as holders.

It helps to maintain the trueness of pier location at position with controllable base. PIER’S CONCRETING OPERATIONS: ●Concreting & Survey of Pier Starter:After casting of pile cap the four reference point will be taken around pier cage. Level of starter shall be checked for its correctness before pouring.6 m height approx. shall be cast with a steel formwork exactly the same as the pier shutter. The center line of the pier shall be checked with the help of total station. The pier shape shall be marked and a starter of 0. Base of shutter shall be fully slurry tight to avoid any slurry leakage during concreting operation. A hose pipe/ stationary pump pipe of 200mm diameter shall be installed up to a depth of 250-300 mm above the starter top. The arrangement of shuttering shall be followed as per design arrangement as shown in enclosed drawing on page. Before starting of concreting all checklists shall get signed jointly with DMRC Representative and sufficient standby arrangement for pouring . Each side shutter shall be first assembled on ground for the full height of the pier. The area of concrete under the pier shall be cleaned for all laitance / loose concrete. ●Concrete of Pier Shaft: Grade of concrete-M50. The concrete shall be placed with the help of either stationery concrete pump or boom placer.FIXING OF PIER SIDE FORMWORKS: Pier reinforcement shall be tied up the full height. Shutter shall be entire cleaned and shutter oil should be applied with the help of brush. Verticality of shutter shall be maintained throughout the pier concreting operation which shall be supervised by using hanging plum-bob on three sides of shutter. Proper vibrations shall be done with the help of vibrator. Joints of formwork shall be slurry tight.

. Pouring shall be slow as desired to maintain stability of formwork due to jerk.5m. DE-SHUTTERING OF FORMWORK: De-shuttering shall start only after 24hours of completion of concreting which depends on the condition of the concrete setting. excess use of vibration. Pier Concreting shall be carried out as a single pour in suitable intervals.e 80-120mm. ●Precautions while concreting: ▪Height of free fall shall be restricted to less than1. i. Any major damage of concrete shall be repaired after proper notification to DMRC. ▪Vibrators shall be used sufficiently to produce dense concrete to avoid segregation. Care shall be taken to avoid damages to edges of concrete.of concrete shall be made available before start of concrete for incase failure of concreting pump during operation.

. Pier Cap co-ordinates will be jointly checked prior to casting.PIER CAP METHODOLOGY Survey: After casting of pier. the center line shall be marked over the top surface of pier to fix the formwork and reinforcement.

De-shuttering will be done using crane and taking all the safety measures. To check the quality of concrete. The compaction of concrete shall be done using vibrator. placed and tied in position as per the applicable specification. which shall be kept moist by sprinkling the water at regular interval and care shall be taken that hessian cloth never gets dried. The concrete shall be transported in transit mixers to the pouring location. Curing: After removal of side formwork the surface of entire pier cap shall be wrapped with Hessian cloth. The reinforcement bars cut and bent to the required length and shape shall be manufactured either on site or pre-arranged at steel yard. Concreting: The concrete of M50 grade shall be prepared in the centralized batching plant as per approved mix design. . The concreting shall be done using Concrete Boom Placer with flexible hose.Reinforcements: BBS shall be prepared as per approved drawings and jointly checked. cubes shall be taken for testing compressive strength as per IS: 456-2000 at pouring locations. De-shuttering: After 24 hour of concreting side shutter shall be de-shuttered. Reinforcement cage to overall dimensions will be fixed exactly to the GFC drawing.

. and time savings to bridge construction.CASTING YARD The casting yard brings factory.controlled production techniques. a casting yard to this Project has been able to be installed not far from erection site. efficiency. quality control. Near Ashok Park Metro Station. Due to the required number of segment. Zakhira.

the first segment is cast between bulkheads and successive segments are cast between a movable bulkhead on one end and the previously cast segment on the other. With this method. casted segment is shifted nearby the form in order match the next segment to be concreted. Short Line Casting: Casting segments one at a time in a casting cell between a bulkhead at one end and a previously cast segment at the other. concrete is placed into the mould by bloom placer and mould is allowed for setting up according to its geometry. These are:1. CASTING OF SEGMENT First. After shuttering. segment reinforcement is assembled on casting bed. Short-Line Casting Long Line Casting: Casting segments on a casting bed of sufficient length to permit the cumulative casting of segments for the entire length of a span or cantilever between field closure pours without repositioning the segments on the casting bed. After curing. Here below Picture presents the typical casting sequence for segment prefabrication using match casting .Two methods of segment casting are available. temporary bulkhead. after initial setting of concrete in mould the formwork is removed by means of tower crane and segment is allowed for curing. shuttering of reinforcement cage is installed in the casting form by means of tower crane. After a first control. Long Line Casting 2. The first segment is cast between the bulkhead and another.

Match casting is accomplished by either the short line or long line casting method .Match Cast: A precast concrete fabrication process whereby a Segment is cast against the preceding segment producing a matching interface which permits the re-establishment of the cast geometry at erection time.

Quality Standards have been internalized and documented in Quality Assurance manuals.QUALITY ASSURANCE& QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMET Quality is the key component which propels performance and defines leadership traits. TESTS ON CEMENT CONSISTENCY: AIM: To determine the quantity of water required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency as per IS: 4031 (Part 4) . . L&T Construction recognizes the crucial significance of the human element in ensuring quality.1976 Balance. Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 . Structured training programmes ensure that every L&T employee is conscious of his/her role and responsibility in extending L&T Construction’s tradition of leadership through quality. PRINCIPLE: The standard consistency of a cement paste is defined as that consistency which will permit the Vicat plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom of the Vicat mould.1988. At L&T Construction. APPARATUS: VICAT APPARATUS.

85 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency . ▪ Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface. APPARATUS: Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 . ▪ Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of water until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm. ▪ Note the reading on the gauge.PROCEDURE: ▪ Weigh approximately 400g of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water. INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME AIM: To determine the initial and the final setting time of cement as per IS: 4031 (Part 5) -1988. ▪ Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste. The time of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes ▪ Fill the Vicat mould with paste and level it with a trowel.1976 PROCEDURE: ▪ Prepare a cement paste by gauging the cement with 0. REPORTING OF RESULTS: Express the amount of water as a percentage of the weight of dry cement to the first place of decimal.

the needle fails to pierce the test block by 5. The cement should be considered as finally set when.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould.▪ Start a stop-watch. TESTS ON AGGREGATES SIEVE ANALYSIS . upon applying the needle gently to the surface of the test block.0 ± 0. The time period elapsing between the time. the mould resting on a non-porous plate and smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould. water is added to the cement and the time. allowing it to penetrate the test block. is the final setting time. water is added to the cement and the time. ▪ FINAL SETTING TIME-Replace the above needle by the one with an annular attachment. while the attachment fails to do so. the needle makes an impression therein. while the attachment fails to do so.0 ± 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould. the moment water is added to the cement. ▪ Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement paste gauged as above. is the initial setting time. The period elapsing between the time. the needle makes an impression on the surface of the test block. ▪ INITIAL SETTING TIME-Place the test block under the rod bearing the needle. The cement block thus prepared in the mould is the test block. The results of the initial and the final setting time should be reported to the nearest five minutes. Repeat the procedure till the needle fails to pierce the test block to a point 5. Lower the needle gently in order to make contact with the surface of the cement paste and release quickly.

1. 20mm.80mm. the aggregates are separated into several groups. REPORTING OF RESULTS: The results should be calculated and reported as i) the cumulative percentage by weight of the total sample . 31.75mm. each of decreasing size openings. APPARATUS: A SET OF IS SIEVES i) ii) A set of IS Sieves of sizes . On completion of sieving.18mm.5mm. 25mm.1 percent of the weight of the tests ample PROCEDURE: i) The test sample is dried to a constant weight at a temperature of 110 + 5oC and weighed ii) The sample is sieved by using a set of IS Sieves. 4. 150µm and 75µm Balance or scale with an accuracy to measure 0.1963.35mm.AIM: To determine the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates by sieving as per IS: 2386 (Part I) . 600µm. 40mm. 63mm.3mm. the material on each sieve is weighed. 3. 50mm.36mm. iii) Cumulative weight passing through each sieve is calculated as a percentage of the total sample weight iv) Fineness modulus is obtained by adding cumulative percentage of aggregate s\retained on each sieve and dividing the sum by 100.16mm.5mm. PRINCIPLE: By passing the sample downward through a series of standard sieves. 12. 2. 10mm. each of which contains aggregates in a particular size range.300µm. 6.

the concrete is struck off the level with a trowel. TESTS ON FRESH CONCRETE SLUMP AIM: To determine the workability of fresh concrete by slump test as per IS: 1199 .section) v) After the top layer is rodded.1 percent. rigid and nonabsorbent surface. i) REPORTING OF RESULTS: . iii) The mould is then filled in four layers with freshly mixed concrete. vi) The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly in the vertical direction.ii) the percentage by weight of the total sample passing through one sieve and retained on the next smaller sieve. ii) The mould is placed on a smooth. iv) Each layer is tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod (strokes are distributed evenly over the cross.1959. each approximately to one-fourth of the height of the mould. vii) The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of the highest point of the subsided concrete is measured. to the nearest 0. horizontal. viii) This difference in height in mm is the slump of the concrete. APPARATUS: i) Slump cone ii) Tamping rod PROCEDURE: The internal surface of the mould is thoroughly cleaned and applied with a light coat of oil.

the field mix proportions are usually given in terms of designated amounts of fine and coarse aggregate per bag of cement. should be recorded. If. the aggregate is weighed out in an aggregate batching plant or batch plant. the test should be repeated with another sample. in the repeat test also. or only one hopper for fine aggregate and another for coarse aggregate. Any slump specimen. The batch plant may include separate hoppers for several sizes of fine and coarse aggregates. Each storage hopper or storage hopper compartment can be discharged into a weigh box. the slump should be measured and the fact that the specimen sheared.The slump measured should be recorded in mm of subsidence of the specimen during the test. The process of weighing out or measuring out the ingredients for a batch of concrete is called batching. the operator sets the weight on beam scale. It may have one or more divided hoppers. BATCHING PLANT When bagged cement is used. When specific weight of aggregate is called for. which collapses or shears off laterally gives in correct result and if this occurs. each containing two or more separate compartments for different sizes of aggregates. the specimen shears. . When mixing is to be done by hand. On large jobs. in turn be discharged into a mixer or a batch truck. The amount of material that is mixed at a time is called a batch. the size of the batch depends upon the number of persons available to turn with hand tools. Whenever possible a batch plant is located near to and used in conjunction with a crushing and screening plant. which can. the size of batch depends upon rated capacity of the mixer. When mixing is to be done by machine.

The concrete produced out of the concrete batching plant is used in the foundations of building construction. So. It becomes necessary that the concrete batching plant is efficient and speedy in order to complete a construction project as soon as possible. Concrete batching plant is used to mix and blend cement. from this we can make out that how important is the use of concrete in construction equipment. plumbing and piping in construction projects etc. So. water. Once the quality concrete is prepared it is transported to the site on A truck with a revolving drum which is known as transit mixer. sand and aggregates to form quality concrete without which building any construction project is not possible. The durability of a construction project highly depends on the quality of the concrete used in that construction project. . then we need to select with lot of precision as the success and failure of our construction project depends on the concrete used which is produced by a concrete batching plant. paving materials for roads. if we require a concrete batching plant for our construction project.IMPORTANCE OF A CONCRETE BATCHING PLANT A concrete batching plant is a facility where the ingredients of concrete are mixed and blended skill fully.

Basically. the concrete is being prepared and when it rotates anti clockwise. A Transit Mixers a truck or trailer with a rotating drum which mixes and blends the concrete while on transit. When the drum in the transit mixer rotates clockwise. The transit mixer is very much beneficial for the construction sites which require prompt delivery of freshly mixed concrete. truck mounted transit mixers and trailer mounted transit mixers. it pours the concrete out of the drum Erection .TRANSIT MIXERS: The capacity of transit miller used is 6 cubic met. there are two types of transit mixers.

The superstructure is be erected entirely from below using an over slung Erection tackle. On the basis of working launching girder. In Project CC-28 we are using over slung launching girder (LG).  Auto-Launching ● Segment Assembly ● gluing & stressing VARIOUS TERMS USED IN ERECTION – MACALLOY BAR- . Depending on the project dry joint or wet joint erection is required. It is classified into different part as follow. Launching girder can be used for both balanced cantilever as well as for span-by-span erection.

The second is Chain hoist which are less expensive and used for lower capacities.Macalloy bar systems are ideal for economic application of posttensioning forces on relatively short tendons. Through the use of threaded connections and anchorages they are simple to use and tend themselves to many applications.One or more hoist can be used on one or more Crabs. traversing the span. and platforms the actual lifting function via a hook or lifting attachment. There are two basic types of hoist. CRAB The Crab carries the hoist across the bay along the double girder bridge. The first is the Wire Rope Hoist which is generally for Higher Capacities and faster lifting speeds. HoistThe Hoist is mounted to the carriage or crab. .

HSFG BOLTSAlso called as High Strength Friction Grip bolts. . Due to high tensile strength these are commonly used in connections which require the taking up of high flexure and the tensile stress generated could be readily resisted by its high tensile strength.UNDER SLUNGThe crane Bridge travels on the bottom flange of the gantry beams which are usually supported by the roof structures or a Goal-post structure. These are used where any tight slip movement would render the integrity of the whole structures break down. OVER SLUNGThe crane bridge travels on top of rails mounted on gantry beam supported by either the building columns or support columns specifically engineered for the crane.

The joint between two pieces of steel is known as a Splice.SPLICE PLATEA Splice Plate is a thick metal sheet used to reinforce the connection between structural steel beams. . and each splice must be carefully reinforced to ensure a secure bond. Adding a splice plate minimizes the risk of failure and helps improve safety for building occupants.

LAUNCHING STEP – 1 ▪ Erect the HD tower and temporary tower as shown in fig. ▪ Erect the middle support over the temporary tower. ▪ Place S1 box of LG on front support and HD tower at its exact location. ▪ Place S2 & S3 box in sequence and connect the box. STEP-2 . ▪ S1 to s4 to each other by HSFG bolts and splice plates. ▪ Place box S4A and connect the box s4A to box s4 by HSFG bolts and splice plates. ▪ Erect the front support over the pier and engage anchor bolts as shown.

STEP-3 Erect the span P69-70 . sliding beam and 47tonn counter wt. bracket for monojack. ▪Remove all the HD tower between the front and middle support.▪ Erect the crab hoist. over LG.

▪Erect the rear support over segment S3 of newly erected span. . STEP-5 ▪Remove the middle support from temporary tower. ▪Transfer the load to rear support so that middle support is free. ▪Anchor rear support on top of segment S3 with vertical stress bars and jack it to transfer min load of 10T.STEP-4 ▪Remove the counter weight.

7 . ▪Move the slider beam over rear support as shown ▪Remove the temporary tower.▪Erect the middle support over segment S1 of newly erected span near front support ▪Transfer the load to middle sup so that front support is free. ▪Anchor middle support on top of segment S1 with vertical stress bars and jack it to transfer min load of 10T. STEP. STEP-6 ▪Close the telescopic leg of front support with the help of chain pulley blocks.

STEP-8 .▪Start the auto-launching. ▪Auto launch the girder by 9250mm.

▪Move the slider beam towards rear side by 12500 as shown so that it comes over S4A box. STEP-9 ▪Start the auto launching and auto launch the girder by 6750 as shown. STEP-10 . ▪Erect LG box S5 over the HD tower and connect the box S5 with box S4A by tightening the HSFG bolts with splice plates. ▪Pull back the slider after every stroke.

STEP. ▪ Move the slider beam towards rear side by 7500.12 . STEP-11 ▪Place the LG box S6 over the HD tower and connect the box S6 with box S5 by tightening the HSFG bolts with splice plates.▪Start the auto-launching and auto launch by the girder 2500.

. STEP-14 ▪Further auto-launch and launching girder by 4750. STEP 13 ▪Erect the 65tonn counter weight on LG box S6.▪Further auto launch and launching girder by 4500.

STEP -17 .STEP-15 Place LG box S7 over the HD tower and connect the box S7 with box S6 by HSFG bolts with splice plates. STEP-16 ▪Start the auto-launching and auto-launch the girder until front support reaches its final position.

▪ Erect the final counter weight over S7 box.▪Open the front support leg and anchor the front support on pier cap. . ▪Anchor the rear trolley with superstructure. S2 and anchor it with superstructure. ▪Erect the rail over span erected span near rear trolley. ▪Move the rear support from segment S3 (rear side) and move it to the segment S3 near middle support and activate it. STEP-18 ▪Remove monorail from S7 box and cut 3500mm from S6 box also from rear end. ▪Erect the rear trolley over segment S1. ▪Erect the span. STEP-19 ▪Lower the jack of rear support so that load come over the rear trolley.

▪Deactivate the middle support. ▪Start the auto-launching and launch the girder by 6900. SEGMENT ASSEMBLY & STRESSING . STEP-20 ▪Move the middle support from segment S1 (rear side) and shift it to segment S3 (near front support) and activate it. ▪Move the rear support from segment S3 (rear side) and shift it to the old position of middle support and activate it. ▪Fix the rear trolley with LG to its final position. ▪Close the telescopic leg of front support with the help of chain pulley block. STEP.22 ▪Remove the HD tower. STEP.21 ▪Move the middle support from segment S3 (rear side) and shift it to the segment S1 near front support and activate it.

STEP – 2 .STEP-1 ▪Move 11 sliding beam towards front support as shown. ▪ Move 2 sliding beam towards the counter weight as shown.

▪ Lift the pier segment S1 with the help of lifting device. ▪ Remove the lifting device with lifting beam from segment SE1. STEP-4 ▪Stop the trailer below the span and fix lifting beam & temporary prestressing beam on segment SE2J. STEP. .3 ▪ Hang the segment SE1 by vertical suspension over sliding beam. ▪Lift the segment SE2J with the help of lifting device. ▪Move segment over pier by sliding beam and position it on.

▪Remove the lifting device with lifting beam from segment SE2J.STEP-5 ▪Hang the segment SE2J by vertical suspender over sliding beam.6 ▪ Hang the segment SE1A by vertical suspender over sliding beam. SE4H. . STEP. ▪ Remove the lifting device with lifting beam from segment SE1A. ▪Move the segment SE2J by sliding beam near segment SE1. SE5G. ▪Follow same procedure for segment SE3I. SE5F.

▪Move the segment SE1A over pier by sliding beam and position it near
front support as shown.
▪ Lift the segment SE2B, SE3C, SE4D, SE5E same as above.
▪ Lift the segment SE3C by suspender bar so that the segment is parked
over segment SE2B as shown.


.▪Shift the segment SE2J to SE4D towards front support so thst minimum

300mm gap to be created between segment SE1 and SE2J.
▪ Create 300mm gap between SE1 & SE2J for applying epoxy glue
between segment.

▪Do temporary prestressing of the segment SE1 And SE2J by stress bars.
▪ Repeat the same steps for remaining segment upto SE4D.
▪ Parking segment SE3C will come down.
▪ Do temporary prestressing of the segment SE4D and SE3C.

▪Insert prestressing tendons and install the anchors.
▪Do prestressing of cables.
▪Activate temporary bearing (hydraulic jack with lock nut and tilting saddles)

Working with heavy Equipment. . SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: a) Proper barricading should be done with suitable traffic signs (warning signs diversion signs) to avoid any vehicles on the road encroaching in to the working area. Traffic plying on road at all points of conflict with. b. Working at Height.RISK INVOLVED: a. c. Trespassing of other workers in the working zone. d.

j) Unauthorized / outside persons will not be allowed to enter inside/near during the erection of girders and at the time of test. e) Cranes will be setup on firm ground with wooden log and thick metal plate underneath of outriggers. i) Employing safe working practices by the concerned Engineers. l) Availability of site First Aid facilities. n) Experienced Safety officer and team will be deployed to ensure that erection shall be carried in safe condition. k) All the workers will be provided with necessary PPE‟s & other safety equipment. deshackles. rope. h) All workers would be made aware regarding the methods of work and safety awareness through toolbox talks.b) The Equipments will be operated by competent persons & within the safe working radius/limits and all the equipments will be properly maintained and checked. g) Both cranes will have cut off device / sensor to prevent overloading during lifting operation. m) Proper Lighting arrangement during the night. No personnel will be allowed in the area of working/swing radius of the crane and other equipment. c) All slings. . d) Work permit shall be issued by competent person. foreman & supervisory staff. f) Trial tandem lift at required boom length and radius needs will be carried out before performing lift operation. master ring shall be checked and verified.

CONCLUSION It was a wonderful learning experience at L&T Construction site of Project CC-28 for one month in New Delhi.wikipedia.o) Safe access will be provided in the form of Stair case which is erected for the safe access during the launching operations. REFERENCES ● http://en. . I was given exposure in almost all the departments at the site. p) Formal Risk assessment will be conducted and the suitable control measures will be identified and adopted. I hope this experience will surely help me in my future and also in shaping my (for Batching Plant and introduction) ● All the relevant IS Codes as specified in the Design Report ● Contract Agreement CC-28 ● All the relevant Method Statements as specified ● Various Internet sources for introduction about piling and launching Segments. I gained a lot of insight regarding almost every aspect of site. The friendly welcome from all the employees is appreciating. sharing their experience and giving their peace of wisdom which they have gained in long journey of work.