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# EE-214 Electrical Machines-1

III Semester 2013.
Electrical Engineering Department
PEC University of Technology.

LECTURE NOTES-4
TRANSFORMERS

Course Coordinator:
Assistant Prof. Dhiraj Bharat
EE Dept.
PEC University of Technology.

Prepared by:
Rahul Singh Tanwar
12104026
B.E.

mmf = flux * reluctance emf = current * reluctance .It works on the principle of mutual inductance.44 fNфm Ẽ1(rms)/Ẽ2(rms) = N1/N2 = Ṽ1/Ṽ2 V1I1 = V2I2 ( Because power input is equal to power output ) Also. ( unity coupled means coefficient of coupling is unity ). 3. Core is made up of stampings and stampings is mainly made of silicon steel.If coefficient of coupling is greater than 0. etc. Note :. ). Leakage flux is zero. Its core has infinite permeability. 2.It has 2 coils and a core.Working Principle :. It has loss less core ( means no hysteresis loss. no power loss. If ф = фm sin ωt e1 = -фmN1ωcosωt e1(rms) = фmN2∏f / √2 e1(rms) = 4.9 then the two coils are loosely packed. 1. Properties of ideal transformer :1. Construction :. An Ideal transformer :It is a unity coupled loss less transformer in which primary and secondary windings have infinite self inductance.9 then the two coils are tightly packed and if it is lesser than 0.

Ĩ1 = Ĩ2/a and Ṽ1 = aṼ2 thus. exact equivalent circuit of transformer is as shown below. Some leakage of flux is there.1. 2. Properties of practical transformer :1. . power loss. zin = input impedance let us suppose that we are seeing from left side. 2. z = Ṽ2/Ĩ2 = (Ṽ1/a)/aĨ1 = (Ṽ1/Ĩ1)/(1/a2) = zin(1/a2) Therefore. ). There are losses in core ( means hysteresis loss. Also. Non ideal transformer :It is tightly coupled transformer in which primary and secondary winding has finite inductances and having some losses. N1I1 = N2I2 2. this is called impedance reflection.mmf = ampere turns and in ideal transformer ampere turns should also be balanced so. Impedance reflection :Let a = turn ratio = N1/N2. Its core has finite permeability. 3. 4. Windings have resistances. etc. zin = a2z.

2. In this case the current Ĩ1 is going in the direction of dot 1. so due to mutual inductance the potential difference generated across the secondary coil will be in the polarity as shown in figure and will be of magnitude M(dĨ1/dt). So we can make this transformation and thus named this circuit as approximate equivalent circuit.2. so due to mutual inductance the polarity of potential difference generated is shown in figure and will be of magnitude . Also current Ĩ2 is going in direction which is outward of dot 2. In this circuit the parallel combination of Rc and Xm is transferred because their magnitude of impedance is too high such that very low current passes through it. Dot convention :In the figure given below has two vertical lines which represents that core is present in between the coils and also has two dots on the coil which helps in finding the voltage polarity across the coil when one coil's current direction is given.Approximate equivalent circuit is made to make our calculations easy.

MI' . Rated primary voltage 200 V Rated primary current Apparent power/ Rated primary voltage = 2000/200 = 10 A Rated secondary voltage 20 V Rated secondary current Apparent power/ Rated secondary voltage = 2000/20 = 100 A All the values are maximum. . Lab = L1 + L2 . Therefore.3. Va .L2I' . Lab = L1 + L2 + 2M 2) Here in this case polarity is as shown in figure.Vb = (L1 + L2 + 2M)I' Therefore.Find equivalent inductance of the circuits in which both of the inductors are mutually coupled. Va .2M 2.2M)I' Therefore. 2. Therefore.L1I' .L1I' + MI' .1 Open circuit test :a) Rated primary voltage is applied.L2I' + MI' = Vb Va .1) Here in this case polarity is as shown in figure.MI' = Vb Va .M(dĨ2/dt) For example :Question 1 :.3 Transformer ratings :Let us assume that transformer rating is 2KVA 200/20 V 2KVA is the apparent power. if they are exceeded then it will lead to the failure of transformer.Vb = (L1 + L2 . 1) 2) Answer :.4 Tests 2.

Now we put a wattmeter in between the circuit as shown in figure As wattmeter will show only real power so we get the power used by the resistor and let it be Woc. Real power loss = Voc2/Rc Woc = Voc2/Rc Therefore we get Rc which is equal to Voc2/ Woc. current will flow only in core. . VocIoc = apparent power = √(P2 + Q2) = √( Woc2 + Q2) Therefore. it is of that magnitude which is just sufficient enough to flow the secondary rated current. Also.2 Short circuit test :a) The applied voltage is not the rated one. so we get Xm which is equal to Voc2/√(Voc2Ioc2 . 2.Woc2) As we know that Q = Voc2/Xm.3. Thus.Woc2).b) Secondary is kept open circuited. Q = √(Voc2Ioc2 .

Wsc2)}/ Isc2. Wsc = Isc2(Re) = Isc2(R1 + a2R2) Therefore. As it shows the real power so.Wsc2) which is also equal to Isc2(X1 + a2X2) Therefore we get. most of the current flows in the windings only. R1 + a2R2 = Wsc/ Isc2 Now to calculate R1 and R2.Wsc2)}/2 Isc2. Now R1 = V/I Thus we get R1 as V/I and R2 as {(Wsc/ Isc2) .As the secondary side is short circuited. X1 + a2X2 = {√(Vsc2Isc2 . we have to apply the dc voltage test to the primary windings. Thus X1 = a2X2 = {√(Vsc2Isc2 .(V/I)}/a2. Here also Q = √(Vsc2Isc2 . thus we can approximate it to the figure as shown Let the wattmeter reading be Wsc. . Now we can assume that X1 = a2X2.