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Music Theory

Lesson 1 Music Theory and Musical Dynamics

- music theory is the study of the structure of constructed music

Lesson 2 Pitch in Music
- pitch is the rate at which these variations occur
- the rate is called the frequency of the sound
- if the pattern repeats 440 times per second, the perceived pitch is A above middle C (most
orchestras tuned)

Lesson 3 Time in Music
Lesson 4 Notes
Lesson 5 Rests
Lesson 6 The Music Keyboard
Lesson 7 Musical Staves
- a musical staff is made up of five lines and four spaces

Lesson 8 Treble Clef and Staf
- treble clef is a symbol from a very old way to write a G

Lesson 9 Bass Clef and Staf
- bass clef is a symbol from a very old way to write a F

Lesson 10 The Grand Staf
- the bass clef and treble clef…combined
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but not too fast allegro= fast (cheerful) presto= very fast prestissimo= as fast as possible varying the tempo throughout a piece of music is called rubato Lesson 15 Rhythm Lesson 16 Intervals: Numeric Size 2 musical interval= the distance between two notes each line and space is counted until you reach the other note A to C is a third C to E is a third .Music Theory Lesson 11 Meter in Music Lesson 12 Measures and Bar Lines Lesson 13 Time Signatures - Bottom number refers to the type of note that will get a beat Top number refers to the amount of those notes per measure Cut time aka alla breve Simple meter refers to a meter in which each beat is subdivided into two equal note values Simple meter: top number always indicates the number of beats in the measure and the bottom number indicates the type of note that takes one beat Lesson 14 Tempo - largo-broad= extremely slow larghetto= slightly faster than largo lento= very slow adagio= slow (at ease) andante= walking moderato= moderate allegretto= fast.

and A to B all can be written on the grand staff Frere Jacques starts with ascending major seconds Lesson 18 Intervals: Octaves - an octave is an interval between a note and the next note with the same letter name “oct” means 8 octaves are eighths frequency is the rate of vibration of the sound pressure waves that produce the sense of pitch ratio of two notes that are an octave apart is 2:1 unison is 1:1 Lesson 19 Accidentals: Sharps Lesson 20 Accidentals: Flats Lesson 21 More Accidentals .enharmonic notes are two notes of the same pitch written differently like E double flat and D sharp are enharmonic Lesson 22 The C Major and G Major Scales . G to A.Minor seconds on the white keys are between B and C and E and F .whole steps are all the other white keys that do not have a black key between them aka major seconds - major seconds are always two half steps white-key major seconds include: C to D.second interval=step Lesson 17 Intervals: Major and Minor Seconds . D to E.scales are used for melodies and harmonies in music 3 . F to G.a scale in music is a group of notes that are an ordered set .white keys that are side by side and do not have a black key between them are half steps or minor 2nd .Music Theory .

C#. leading tone. whole. A. submediant. C#. F. Bb.Music Theory - scales tend to vary with the different time periods different cultures also tend to use different scales in their styles of music in our western culture.solfege or the movable do system 4 . whole. E. C#. B flat . subdominant. the most common scale is the major scale major steps= whole. tonic . dominant. Eb. G. Eb. B. D#. Ab. G#. Bb. A#. supertonic. E B Major: B. A#. Cb when 2 scales are enharmonic it is usually best to use the one that has the least amount of sharps or flats Lesson 26 Naming Scale Degrees . D A Major: A. Gb. B. C#. A. F. G Lesson 23 The F Major and B-flat Major Scales . C. Gb. A E Major: E. B. G. G#. F#. D Eb Ab Major: Ab. F# Lesson 25 More Major Scales in Flats - Eb Major: Eb.a scale degree is the name of a particular note .B flat major scale has two flats Lesson 24 More Major Scales in Sharps - D Major: D. G. Ab. F#. F. B. Cb. G#. E. B F# Major: F#. E. E#. Db.F major scale has one flat. Bb. F. B. C. Ab. C. Db. Db Gb Major: Gb. Eb. A. C#. Db. F#. D#. D. Ab Db Major: Db. half. Ab. whole. C. mediant. Bb. Gb Cb Major: Cb. Bb. E. D#. G#. E. F#. F#. whole.tonic. D. half G Scale is G. Fb.

F-G-whole not every 4th is perfect Lesson 29 All Major Key Signatures in Sharps/Flats . before the time signatures 5 each key’s tonic note is up a P5th from the one right before it when a new sharp is added it is written up a 5th or down a 4th from the one before it C Major=no sharps G Major=E# D Major=E#.if a composition is written in the key of G.there are different styles of music varying from culture to culture. and usually a particular scale this sense of a particular emphasize note is where the key of the piece comes from a piece of music then has a major or minor scale built on this tone and then we will say that this piece is written in a certain key .a musical piece that is written in a key can be altered by using accidentals.Music Theory Lesson 27 Introduction to Key Signatures . periods in history and even musical composers - tonal music is one of the styles with Western influence it has been around since about the 16th century this style of music emphasizes a particular note. he/she could put the sharp just after the clef and it would hold true not just for one measure but for the whole piece of music Lesson 28 Perfect Fifths and Perfect Fourths - a perfect 5th always has 3 whole steps and one half step or seven half steps G to A-whole. E to F-half. and the composer wants the F to be sharp. A-B-whole. B-C-half.the key of a piece of music comes from the sense that a particular note is emphasized throughout a piece of music . C to D-whole every 5th is not a perfect 5th a perfect 4th always has 2 whole steps and 1 half step or five half steps D to E-whole. sharps. or flats .key signatures are written on bass and treble staves just after the clef symbol. C# .

A#. Cb.clockwise each tonic is up a P5th. A# C# Major=E#. Ab. Eb. Eb. Db Db Major=Bb. Db.enharmonic keys are keys that sound exactly the same but spelled differently Lesson 31 Ties - 6 a tie in music is a curved line that connects the head of two notes of the same pitch tie is used when you would like to hold a note over to the next measure 2 ties in Cole Porter’s “Ive Got You Under My Skin” Scott Joplin’s “The Entertainer” uses ties within a measure . you will add a sharp or remove a flat . D#.Music Theory - A Major=E#. F#. go a half step up from the last sharp to the right - F Major=Bb Bb Major=Bb. C#. Eb. Cb Cb Major=Bb. C#. D#. C#. Ab. Eb Eb Major=Bb. Ab. Eb.circle of fifths shows the relationship between the major keys . C#. Gb. F# F# Major=E#. B# sharps are written down a 4th or up a 5th clean and clear is C Major to find the name of the key when you have a sharp in the key signature. G#. D# B Major=E#. G#. Eb. Db. Gb. Fb flats are written up a 4th or down a 5th to find the major key look find the second to last flat one fabulous flat is F major Lesson 30 The Circle of Fifths: Enharmonic Keys . G#. Ab Ab Major=Bb. G#. C#. Gb Gb Major=Bb. Ab. Db. F#. D#. G# E Major=E#.

tremolo.dots are placed after note heads to change the duration of the note .slurs connect notes of different pitches .down bow looks like a flag with two poles. quickly using a succession of down and up bows. fermata an accent is placed over or under the note that is supposed to be accented the symbol > tells the performer to put a special emphasis on a note legato is another name for slur legato is Italian for smoothly so when a slur is placed over notes.trill in Minuet by Paderewski . trill.pizzicato/arco. down bow/up bow. up bow V. slur.pizzicato and arco relate to bowed stringed instruments . drags bow upward or downward . they should be played smoothly .staccato is a dot above or below the note and is written so that a musician will play the note crisply and distinctly .Music Theory Lesson 32 Dotted Notes .pizzicato means to pluck the string and arco tells an instrumentalist to go back to using the bow .articulations in music are notations that tell a performer to produce a certain effect by the way a tone or group of tones is produced - accent.tremolo used for stringed instruments. staccato.fermata is a symbol that tells an instrument to play a note longer than it is written Lesson 34 Specific Articulations . pedal .down bow and up bow apply to stringed instruments that use a bow .Mozart’s Twinkle Twinkle Little Star starts with staccato .dot adds half the duration of whichever note it follows Lesson 33 General Articulations . a note with 3 dashes on stem 7 .trill (tr) tells a performer to play the written note and the one just a step above it alternating rapidly .staccato is Italian that means detach .

unison. D-E whole.Music Theory Lesson 35 Interval Size .a tritone is an interval of 3 whole steps 8 . A-B whole. F-G whole famous example of P8 beginning of “Over the Rainbow” by Harold Arlen P5 contains 3 whole steps and 1 half step or 7 half steps Twinkle Twinkle Little Star has a P5 in beginning P4 contains 2 whole steps and 1 half step or 5 half steps Here Comes the Bride has a P4 unison is two notes of the same pitch written on the same line or space unison 1:1. E-F half. P4 4:3. P5 3:2. and P8 P8 aka perfect octave. P5.5 steps between them major thirds contain 2 whole steps a major sixth has 4.5 steps. octave 2:1. C-D whole. P4. 5 whole steps and 2 half steps. 12 half steps or 6 whole steps G-A whole. rations come from Classic Greek period and todays ratios are very close to the older ones change came about so that musicians could play a selection that changed keys without having to tune their instruments in the middle of the piece Lesson 37 Major and Minor Intervals - minor thirds have 1. a whole step wider than a P5th minor sixth has 3 whole steps and 2 half steps or 8 half steps major seventh has 11 half steps minor seventh contains 10 half steps octave has 12 half steps so a major seventh is just one half step smaller than an octave minor 7th is one whole step smaller than an octave Lesson 38 The Diminished Fifth and Augmented Fourth . B-C half.an interval in music is the distance between pitches Lesson 36 Perfect Intervals - there are 4 perfect intervals.

and is a major third above the first degree .12 pitch classes matching the 12 keys that are within an octave .all perfect or major intervals can be augmented without changing their numeric size . 05. m3. 5. scale degree 1. P5. 4. M6. 7 and 8 . 2. 04. octave plus a 3rd is a 10th 1. M3.3rd scale degree is called mediant. +5 octave plus a 2nd is a 9th.5th scale degree is called dominant and is a perfect 5th from the first note. both called tritones Lesson 39 More Augmented and Diminished Intervals . 8. P4. +4. M10th=P8+M3 any interval larger than an 8th is a compound interval Lesson 41 The Structure of Major Scales .half steps are between scale degrees 3 and 4. also called tonic . 03. M2. 3. 7. m6.Music Theory - tritone is also called a diminished fifth because it is a half step smaller than a perfect fifth to make a diminished fifth the top note can move down or the bottom note can move up an augmented fourth is created by enlarging a perfect fourth by one half step moving the top note up or the bottom note down dim5 and +4. passing the other note - inverted 2nd becomes a 7th inverted 3rd becomes a 6th inverted 4th becomes a 5th numeric sizes add up to 9 because you start counting intervals with 1 invert a minor it becomes major invert a perfect interval you will get a perfect interval inverting a diminished interval gives you an augmented interval m2. 9. m7. M7. 6. +6.all perfect or minor intervals can be diminished Lesson 40 Inverted and Compound Intervals . 10.an interval is inverted when you move one of the two notes from the original interval an octave up or down.transposing a scale happens when the scale is started on a different pitch 9 .

many times in a melodic minor passage. C. D. because if you begin on A.on the way back down the scale reverts back to a natural minor scale .if the passage is ascending. Ab.harmonic minor scale occurs when the 7th scale degree of a natural minor scale is raised.whole. B natural. C diatonic scale is one in which all the notes. whole 10 . C.Bb scale is up a major second from C and transposed from it Lesson 42 The Natural Minor Scale - half steps between 2-3. Eb. half. whole.natural minor scale is an example of this. Ab. F. augmented half C harmonic scale. whole.Music Theory . whole. the 6th and 7th scale degrees will be sharped when ascending . whole. G. ascending and descending . all the notes can be played on the white keys . this minor scale has 3 half steps instead of 2 interval between 6 and 7 is augmented 2nd. half. in one transposition. whole. whole. half. half. F. Bb. it will stay in the ascending melodic minor mode . C 7th scale degree is a whole step down from 8 and is not as strong as when it is a half step away so it is called “subtonic” instead of leading tone Lesson 43 The Harmonic Minor Scale . G. can be played on the white notes of the keyboard . whole. whole.melodic minor scales have 2 forms.harmonic minor scale has to have one black key so it is said to be non-diatonic Lesson 44 Forms of the Melodic Minor Scale . then descending and going right back up. Eb. whole. half.it is more likely to use the natural minor on the way back down if it goes on down to 5 or lower after going up to 8 . 5-6 5th scale degree is a P5th above the first note (tonic) 3rd scale degree is a a minor 3rd above tonic C natural minor. whole. half and revert back down to whole. D. making the interval from 7 to 8 a half step - now.

dominant. and a composer might choose it to create a more solemn or moody piece . Major F#=Minor D#.Major C=Minor A. it is referred to as leading tone happens in both harmonic minor scale and the ascending melodic minor scale when there is a whole step between 7 and 8. Major Bb=Minor G. Major Ab=Minor F. G. Eb. G. Major B=G#. D. submediant Lesson 45 Minor Keys . Major Gb=Minor Eb. Major Eb=Minor C. Major G=Minor E.major key is a minor third above its relative minor key. C.major and minor key that has the same tonic note. Major Cb=Minor Ab .Major C=Minor A. are called parallel keys (C major and C minor) 11 . subdominant. F. Major C#=Minor A# . not the same key signature. Major E=Minor C#. but each major key has a relative minor key . Major D= Minor B. Eb. Bb.music written in a minor key has a different sound and mood. C C melodic minor scale down. the 7th scale degree is called the subtopic tonic. F. supertonic. mediant.Music Theory - C melodic minor scale up. Major Db=Minor Bb.interval pattern is different for major and minor scales. D. B natural. C. C when the 7th scale degree is a half step away from the 8th. A natural. Major F=Minor D. another way to look at that is the tonic note for any minor key is a minor third below the tonic for its relative major . Ab. Major A=Minor F#.