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CONMUTACION AND

ROUTING I.
MSc. MARCELO DONOSO V.

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

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Introduction to Routing
and Packet Forwarding

Concepts – Chapter 1

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Router as a Computer
§ Describe the basic purpose of a router
-Computers that specialize in sending packets over the data
network. They are responsible for interconnecting networks by
selecting the best path for a packet to travel and forwarding
packets to their destination

§ Routers are the network center
-Routers generally have 2 connections:
-WAN connection (Connection to ISP)
-LAN connection

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Router as a Computer
§ Data is sent in form of packets between 2 end devices
§ Routers are used to direct packet to its destination

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Router as a Computer
§ Routers examine a packet’s destination IP address and
determine the best path by enlisting the aid of a routing
table

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Router as a Computer
§ Router components and their functions”
§CPU - Executes operating system instructions
§Random access memory (RAM) - Contains the running copy of
configuration file. Stores routing table. RAM contents lost when power
is off
§Read-only memory (ROM) - Holds diagnostic software used when
router is powered up. Stores the router’s bootstrap program.
§Non-volatile RAM (NVRAM) - Stores startup configuration. This may
include IP addresses (Routing protocol, Hostname of router)
§Flash memory - Contains the operating system (Cisco IOS)
§Interfaces - There exist multiple physical interfaces that are used to
connect network. Examples of interface types:
-Ethernet / fast Ethernet interfaces
-Serial interfaces
-Management interfaces

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Router as a Computer
§ Router components

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Inc.Router as a Computer § Major phases to the router boot-up process §Test router hardware Power-On Self Test (POST) Execute bootstrap loader §Locate & load Cisco IOS software -Locate IOS -Load IOS §Locate & load startup configuration file or enter setup mode -Bootstrap program looks for configuration file © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 8 . All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 9 . All rights reserved.Router as a Computer § Verify the router boot-up process: -The show version command is used to view information about the router during the bootup process. Information includes: §Platform model number §Image name & IOS version §Bootstrap version stored in ROM §Image file name & where it was loaded from §Number & type of interfaces §Amount of NVRAM §Amount of flash §Configuration register © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Cisco Public 10 . Inc. All rights reserved.Router as a Computer © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. All rights reserved.Router as a Computer § Router Interface is a physical connector that enables a router to send or receive packets § Each interface connects to a separate network § Consist of socket or jack found on the outside of a router § Types of router interfaces: -Ethernet -Fastethernet -Serial -DSL -ISDN -Cable © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 11 .

Cisco Public 12 .Router as a Computer § Two major groups of Router Interfaces LAN Interfaces: §Are used to connect router to LAN network §Has a layer 2 MAC address §Can be assigned a Layer 3 IP address §Usually consist of an RJ-45 jack § WAN Interfaces §Are used to connect routers to external networks that interconnect LANs. §Uses a layer 3 IP address © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. a layer 2 address may be used. Inc. §Depending on the WAN technology.

Inc. Cisco Public 13 . All rights reserved. §After router determines the best path §Packet is encapsulated into a frame §Frame is then placed on network medium in form of Bits © 2007 Cisco Systems.Router as a Computer § Routers and the Network Layer Routers use destination IP address to forward packets §The path a packet takes is determined after a router consults information in the routing table.

Router as a Computer § Routers Operate at Layers 1. Inc. 2 & 3 §Router receives a stream of encoded bits §Bits are decoded and passed to layer 2 §Router de-encapsulates the frame §Remaining packet passed up to layer 3 -Routing decision made at this layer by examining destination IP address §Packet is then re-encapsulated & sent out outbound interface © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14 .

Inc. Cisco Public 15 .Configure Devices and Apply Addresses § Implementing Basic Addressing Schemes § When designing a new network or mapping an existing network you must provide the following information in the form of a document: -Topology drawing that Illustrates physical connectivity –Address table that provides the following information: §Device name §Interfaces used §IP addresses §Default gateway © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

§ After entering in the basic configuration the following tasks should be completed -Verify basic configuration and router operations. All rights reserved. Describe purpose of interface. -Save the changes on a router © 2007 Cisco Systems. banner should warn against unauthorized use -Passwords . Issue no shutdown command.Specify interface type.Configure Devices and Apply Addresses § Basic Router Configuration § A basic router configuration should contain the following: -Router name . Cisco Public 16 .Host name should be unique -Banner . If DCE serial interface issue clock rate command.At a minimum.Use strong passwords -Interface configurations . IP address and subnet mask. Inc.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17 .Configure Devices and Apply Addresses © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Displays configuration currently in RAM §Show startup-config .Displays all interface configurations §Show IP int brief . Inc. All rights reserved.Displays configuration file NVRAM §Show IP route .Displays routing table §Show interfaces .Configure Devices and Apply Addresses § Verify Basic Router Configuration -Issue the show running-config command -Save the basic router configuration by Issuing the copy running-config startup-config command -Additional commands that will enable you to further verify router configuration are: §Show running-config . Cisco Public 18 .Displays abbreviated interface configuration information © 2007 Cisco Systems.

this is a network that is not directly connected to a particular router §Detailed information about the networks include source of information.this occurs when a device is connected to another router interface §Remotely connected networks . and Ip address of next-hop router § Show ip route command is used to view a routing table © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. network address & subnet mask. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19 .Routing Table Structure § Routing Table is stored in ram and contains information about: §Directly connected networks .

Routing Table Structure § Adding a connected network to the routing table -Router interfaces §Each router interface is a member of a different network §Activated using the no shutdown command §In order for static and dynamic routes to exist in routing table you must have directly connected networks © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 20 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Routing Table Structure § Static routes in the routing table -Includes: network address and subnet mask and IP address of next hop router or exit interface -Denoted with the code S in the routing table -Routing tables must contain directly connected networks used to connect remote networks before static or dynamic routing can be used § When to use static routes -When network only consists of a few routers -Network is connected to internet only through one ISP -Hub & spoke topology is used on a large network © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21 . Inc.

All rights reserved.Routing Table Structure § Connected and Static routes © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 22 .

Cisco Public 23 . Inc.Routing Table Structure § Dynamic routing protocols -Used to add remote networks to a routing table -Are used to discover networks -Are used to update and maintain routing tables § Automatic network discovery -Routers are able discover new networks by sharing routing table information © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Routing Table Structure § Maintaining routing tables -Dynamic routing protocols are used to share routing information with other router & to maintain and up date their own routing table. Cisco Public 24 . Inc. Example of routing protocols include: -RIP -IGRP -EIGRP -OSPF © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. § IP routing protocols.

All rights reserved. based on the information it has in its routing table. Cisco Public 25 . §Different routing table may contain different information § A routing table can tell how to get to a destination but not how to get back © 2007 Cisco Systems.Routing Table Structure § Routing Table Principles -3 principles regarding routing tables: §Every router makes its decisions alone. Inc.

© 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.Routing Table Structure § Effects of the 3 Routing Table Principles -Packets are forwarded through the network from one router to another. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26 . on a hop by hop basis. -Packets can take path “X” to a destination but return via path “Y” (Asymmetric routing).

Inc.Router Paths and Packet Switching § Internet Protocol (IP) packet format contains fields that provide information about the packet and the sending and receiving hosts § Fields that are importance for students: -Destination IP address -Source IP address -Version & TTL -IP header length -Precedence & type of service -Packet length © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 27 . All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved. They include: -Preamble -Start of frame delimiter -Destination MAC address -Source MAC address -Type/length -Data and pad -Frame check sequence © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 28 .Router Paths and Packet Switching § MAC Layer Frame Format § MAC Frames are also divided into fields.

this is the number of routers a packet must travel through to get to its destination -Bandwidth . All rights reserved.this is the “speed” of a link also known as the data capacity of a link © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.Router Paths and Packet Switching § A Metric is a numerical value used by routing protocols help determine the best path to a destination –The smaller the metric value the better the path § 2 types of metrics used by routing protocols are: -Hop count . Cisco Public 29 .

a router will use Equal Cost Load Balancing. Cisco Public 30 . Inc.Router Paths and Packet Switching § Equal cost metric is a condition where a router has multiple paths to the same destination that all have the same metric § To solve this dilemma. This means the router sends packets over the multiple exit interfaces listed in the routing table. © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31 .Router Paths and Packet Switching § Path determination is a process used by a router to pick the best path to a destination § One of 3 path determinations results from searching for the best path Directly connected network Remote network No route determined © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Cisco Public 32 . All rights reserved. -A packet received by a router will do the following: §Strips off layer 2 headers. §Forwards frame out exit interface.Router Paths and Packet Switching § Switching Function of Router is the process used by a router to switch a packet from an incoming interface to an outgoing interface on the same router. Inc. §Examines destination IP address located in Layer 3 header to find best route to destination. §Re-encapsulates layer 3 packet into layer 2 frame. © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 33 .Router Paths and Packet Switching § As a packet travels from one networking device to another -The Source and Destination IP addresses NEVER change -The Source & Destination MAC addresses CHANGE as packet is forwarded from one router to the next. All rights reserved. -TTL field decrement by one until a value of zero is reached at which point router discards packet (prevents packets from endlessly traversing the network) © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Router Paths and Packet Switching § Path determination and switching function details. All rights reserved. PC1 Wants to send something to PC 2 here is part of what happens Step 1 . Cisco Public 34 . Frame contains R1’s destination MAC address © 2007 Cisco Systems.PC1 encapsulates packet into a frame. Inc.

§After finding destination IP in routing table. Inc. §R1 sees that destination MAC address matches its own MAC. §R1 re-encapsulates IP packet with a new Ethernet frame.R1 receives Ethernet frame. Cisco Public 35 .Router Paths and Packet Switching Step 2 . R1 now looks up next hop IP address. §R1 then strips off Ethernet frame. §R1 Examines destination IP. All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems. §R1 forwards Ethernet packet out Fa0/1 interface. §R1 consults routing table looking for destination IP.

Cisco Public 36 . Inc. All rights reserved.Router Paths and Packet Switching © 2007 Cisco Systems.

R2 now looks up next hop IP address §R2 re-encapsulates IP packet with a new data link frame §R2 forwards Ethernet packet out S0/0 interface © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37 .Packet arrives at R2 §R2 receives Ethernet frame §R2 sees that destination MAC address matches its own MAC §R2 then strips off Ethernet frame §R2 Examines destination IP §R2 consults routing table looking for destination IP §After finding destination IP in routing table. PC1 Wants to send something to PC 2 here is part of what happens Step 3 .Router Paths and Packet Switching § Path determination and switching function details. Inc.

PC1 Wants to send something to PC 2 here is part of what happens Step 4 . Cisco Public 38 .Router Paths and Packet Switching § Path determination and switching function details.Packet arrives at R3 §R3 receives PPP frame §R3 then strips off PPP frame §R3 Examines destination IP §R3 consults routing table looking for destination IP §After finding destination IP in routing table.IP packet arrives at PC2. R3 is directly connected to destination via its fast Ethernet interface §R3 re-encapsulates IP packet with a new Ethernet frame §R3 forwards Ethernet packet out Fa0/0 interface Step 5 . Inc. Frame is decapsulated & processed by upper layer protocols. © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

e. Memory.Summary § Routers are computers that specialize in sending data over a network. IP address and subnet mask § Routing tables contain the following information -Directly connected networks -Remotely connected networks -Network addresses and subnet masks -IP address of next hop address © 2007 Cisco Systems. System bus. All rights reserved. Inc. CPU. Cisco Public 39 . Interfaces -Software used to direct the routing process §IOS §Configuration file § Routers need to be configured.e. § Routers are composed of: -Hardware i. Basic configuration consists of: -Router name -Router banner -Password(s) -Interface configurations i.

© 2007 Cisco Systems. §Process continues until packet reaches destination. §Note . Cisco Public 40 .Summary § Routers determine a packets path to its destination by doing the following §Receiving an encapsulated frame & examining destination MAC address.only the MAC addresses will change the source and destination IP addresses do not change. Inc. §If destination IP address is in routing table or there is a static route then Router determines next hop IP address. All rights reserved. Router will re-encapsulate packet with appropriate layer 2 frame and send it out to next destination. §If the MAC address matches then Frame is de-encapsulated so that router can examine the destination IP address.

Static Routing Concepts – Chapter 2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 41 . All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 42 . All rights reserved. Inc.Objectives § Define the general role a router plays in networks. different router interfaces § Examine directly connected networks in the routing table and use the CDP protocol § Describe static routes with exit interfaces § Describe summary and default route § Examine how packets get forwarded when using static routes § Identify how to manage and troubleshoot static routes © 2007 Cisco Systems. § Describe the directly connected networks.

General Role of the Router § Functions of a Router Best Path Selections Forwarding packets to destination § Introducing the Topology 3 1800 series routers connected via WAN links Each router connected to a LAN represented by a switch and a PC © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 43 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Switch-to-Hub. Router-to-Server. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44 . Hub-to-Hub. Switch-to-PC. PC-to-PC.General Role of the Router § Connections of a Router for WAN -A router has a DB-60 port that can support 5 different cabling standards § Connections of a Router for Ethernet -2 types of connectors can be used: Straight through and Cross- over §Straight through used to connect: -Switch-to-Router. Hub-toPC. Inc. Router-to-Router © 2007 Cisco Systems. Hub-to-Server §Cross-over used to connect: -Switch-to-Switch.

Inc.Interfaces § Examining Router Interfaces -Show IP router command – used to view routing table -Show Interfaces command – used to show status of an interface -Show IP Interface brief command – used to show a portion of the interface information -Show running-config command – used to show configuration file in RAM © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45 .

Cisco Public 46 . All rights reserved.Interfaces § Configuring an Ethernet interface -By default all serial and Ethernet interfaces are down -To enable an interface use the No Shutdown command © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc.Interfaces § Verifying Ethernet interface -Show interfaces for fastEthernet 0/0 – command used to show status of fast Ethernet port -Show ip interface brief -Show running-config § Ethernet interfaces participate in ARP © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 47 .

255.255.16.Interfaces § Configuring a Serial interface -Enter interface configuration mode -Enter in the ip address and subnet mask -Enter in the no shutdown command § Example: -R1(config)#interface serial 0/0 -R1(config-if)#ip address 172.1 255. Inc.2. All rights reserved.0 -R1(config-if)#no shutdown © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 48 .

© 2007 Cisco Systems.Interfaces § Examining Router Interfaces -Physically connecting a WAN Interface. Cisco Public 49 . CSU/DSU is a DCE device. -A WAN Physical Layer connection has sides: §Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) – This is the service provider. All rights reserved. Inc. §Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Typically the router is the DTE device.

© 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 50 . Inc.Interfaces § Configuring serial links in a lab environment §One side of a serial connection must be considered a DCE §This requires placing a clocking signal – use the clock rate command. §Example: -R1(config)#interface serial 0/0 -R1(config-if)#clockrate 64000 §Serial Interfaces require a clock signal to control the timing of the communcations. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 51 .Routing Table and CDP Protocol § Purpose of the debug ip routing command §Allows you to view changes that the router performs when adding or removing routes §Example: -R2#debug ip routing -IP routing debugging is on © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Public 52 . Inc.255.255.1 255.0 -R2(config-if)#no shutdown © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.16.1.Routing Table and CDP Protocol § To configure an Ethernet interface §Example: -R2(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 -R2(config-if)#ip address 172.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 53 .Routing Table and CDP Protocol § When a router only has its interfaces configured & no other routing protocols are configured then: -The routing table contains only the directly connected networks -Only devices on the directly connected networks are reachable © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.Routing Table and CDP Protocol © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 54 .

Cisco Public 55 .Routing Table and CDP Protocol § Checking each route in turn The ping command is used to check end to end connectivity © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 56 .Routing Table and CDP Protocol § Purpose of CDP A layer 2 cisco proprietary tool used to gather information about other directly connected Cisco devices. All rights reserved. Inc. § Concept of neighbors -2 types of neighbors §Layer 3 neighbors §Layer 2 neighbors © 2007 Cisco Systems.

in seconds §Neighbor device capability code §Neighbor hardware platform §Neighbor remote port ID §Show cdp neighbors detail command -Useful in determining if an IP address configuration error © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 57 . All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Table and CDP Protocol § CDP show commands §Show cdp neighbors command -Displays the following information: §Neighbor device ID §Local interface §Holdtime value.

Cisco Public 58 . All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Table and CDP Protocol § Disabling CDP To disable CDP globally use the following command Router(config)#no cdp run © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 59 .Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Purpose of a static route A manually configured route used when routing from a network to a stub network © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Public 60 .Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § IP route command §To configure a static route use the following command: ip route §Example: -Router(config)# ip route network-address subnet-mask {ipaddress | exit-interface } © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

1.2 .Static route command §172.16.Subnet mask of destination network §172. All rights reserved.255.2.0 .0 – Destination network address §255.255.16. Inc.Serial 0/0/0 interface IP address on R2. which is the "next-hop" to this network © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 61 .Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Dissecting static route syntax §ip route .

2.2.2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.0 255.2.16.0 172.168.255.0 172.0 255.1.168. Inc.255. Cisco Public 62 .Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Configuring routes to 2 or more remote networks Use the following commands for R1 -R1(config)#ip route 192.255. All rights reserved.255.16.2 -R1(config)#ip route 192.

" © 2007 Cisco Systems.“ §Principle 3: "Routing information about a path from one network to another does not provide routing information about the reverse. Cisco Public 63 .Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Zinin’s 3 routing principles §Principle 1: "Every router makes its decision alone. based on the information it has in its own routing table.“ §Principle 2: "The fact that one router has certain information in its routing table does not mean that other routers have the same information. or return path. All rights reserved. Inc.

© 2007 Cisco Systems. -Does this mean that any packets from these networks destined for 172.168.0/24 and 192.0/24 networks would reach their destination. how would you answer the following? -Would packets from PC1 reach their destination? Yes.1. Inc.0/24 network. Cisco Public 64 .3. because neither R2 nor R3 router has a route to the 172.0/24 network will reach their destination? No. packets destined for 172.16.1.3.16.Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Using Zinin’s 3 routing principles. All rights reserved.16.

Occurs when the router has to perform multiple lookups in the routing table before forwarding a packet. All rights reserved. A static route that forwards all packets to the next-hop IP address goes through the following process (reclusive route lookup) §The router first must match static route’s destination IP address with the Next hop address §The next hop address is then matched to an exit interface © 2007 Cisco Systems.Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Resolving to an Exit Interface -Recursive route lookup . Cisco Public 65 . Inc.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66 . Inc.Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Configuring a Static route with an Exit Interface -Static routes configured with an exit interface are more efficient because the routing –The routing table can resolve the exit interface in a single search instead of 2 searches -Example of syntax require to configure a static route with an exit interface © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Modifying Static routes §Existing static routes cannot be modified. Inc. Cisco Public 67 .0 172. The old static route must be deleted by placing no in front of the ip route §Example: -no ip route 192.168.2.2 §A new static route must be rewritten in the configuration © 2007 Cisco Systems.16.2. All rights reserved.255.0 255.255.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 68 .Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Verifying the Static Route Configuration -Use the following commands §Step 1 show running-config §Step 2 verify static route has been entered correctly §Step 3 show ip route §Step 4 verify route was configured in routing table §Step 5 issue ping command to verify packets can reach destination and that Return path is working © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Static Routes with Exit Interfaces § Ethernet interfaces and ARP. Inc. All rights reserved. – If a static route is configured on an Ethernet link -If the packet is sent to the next-hop router then… the destination MAC address will be the address of the next hop’s Ethernet interface This is found by the router consulting the ARP table. If an entry isn’t found then an ARP request will be sent out © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 69 .

© 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 70 .Summary and Default Route § Summarizing routes reduces the size of the routing table. § Route summarization is the process of combining a number of static routes into a single static route.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71 .Summary and Default Route § Configuring a summary route Step 1: Delete the current static route Step 2: Configure the summary static route Step 3: Verify the new static route © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Summary and Default Route § Default Static Route §This is a route that will match all packets.0. Cisco Public 72 .0. All rights reserved. -Like route summarization this will help reduce the size of the routing table § Configuring a default static route §Similar to configuring a static route.0.0.0 0.0 [exit-interface | ipaddress ] © 2007 Cisco Systems. Except that destination IP address and subnet mask are all zeros §Example: -Router(config)#ip route 0. Stub routers that have a number of static routes all exiting the same interface are good candidates for a default route.

Summary and Default Route § Static routes and subnet masks The routing table lookup process will use the most specific match when comparing destination IP address and subnet mask § Default static routes and subnet masks Since the subnet mask used on a default static route is 0.0 all packets will match.0. Cisco Public 73 .0. All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

192.0/24 R1 uses the default static route.Static Routes and Packet Forwarding § Packet forwarding with static routes. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 74 .168.2. Inc. (recall Zinin’s 3 routing principles) § Router 1 Packet arrives on R1’s Fastethernet 0/0 interface R1 does not have a route to the destination network. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.2.Static Routes and Packet Forwarding § Packet forwarding with static routes. © 2007 Cisco Systems.168. Inc. Cisco Public 75 . (recall Zinin’s 3 routing principles) § Router 2 The packet arrives on the Serial 0/0/0 interface on R2. R2 has a static route to 192.0/24 out Serial0/0/1.

0/24 out Fastethernet 0/1.Static Routes and Packet Forwarding § Packet forwarding with static routes.168.2. (recall Zinin’s 3 routing principles) § Router 3 The packet arrives on the Serial0/0/1 interface on R3. Cisco Public 76 . All rights reserved. Inc. © 2007 Cisco Systems. R3 has a connected route to 192.

Inc.used to show status of router interfaces -Show cdp neighbors detail– used to gather configuration information about directly connected neighbors © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 77 .Static Routes and Packet Forwarding § Troubleshooting a Missing Route § Tools that can be used to isolate routing problems include: -Ping– tests end to end connectivity -Traceroute– used to discover all of the hops (routers) along the path between 2 points -Show IP route– used to display routing table & ascertain forwarding process -Show ip interface brief. All rights reserved.

Static Routes and Packet Forwarding § Solving a Missing Route § Finding a missing or mis-configured route requires methodically using the correct tools -Start with PING. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 78 . If ping fails then use traceroute to determine where packets are failing to arrive § Issue: show ip route to examine routing table. -If there is a problem with a mis-configured static route remove the static route then reconfigure the new static route © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Static Routes and Packet Forwarding § Solving a Missing Route © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 79 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 80 . Inc.Static Routes and Packet Forwarding § Solving a Missing Route © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. Cisco Public 81 . All rights reserved.Summary § Routers -Operate at layer 3 -Functions include best path selection & forwarding packets § Connecting Networks WANs Serial cables are connected to router serial ports. (The type of cable used depends on what devices are being connected) § Cisco Discovery Protocol A layer 2 proprietary protocol Used to discover information about directly connected Cisco devices © 2007 Cisco Systems. In the lab environment clock rates must be configured for DCE LANs Straight through cables or cross over cables are used to connect to fastethernet port.

Summary § Static Routes -This is a manually configured path that specifies how the router will get to a certain point using a certain path. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 82 . § Summary static routes -This is several static routes that have been condensed into a single static route. § Forwarding of packets when static route is used -Zinin’s 3 routing principles describe how packets are forwarded § Troubleshooting static routes may require some of the following commands: -Ping -Traceroute -Show IP route -Show ip interface brief -Show cdp neighbors detail © 2007 Cisco Systems. § Default route -It is the route packets use if there is no other possible match for their destination in the routing table.

Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocol Concepts – Chapter 3 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 83 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Objectives § Describe the role of dynamic routing protocols and place these protocols in the context of modern network design. § Describe how metrics are used by routing protocols and identify the metric types used by dynamic routing protocols. § Determine the administrative distance of a route and describe its importance in the routing process. Inc. All rights reserved. § Identify the different elements of the routing table. Cisco Public 84 . § Identify several ways to classify routing protocols. © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Dynamic Routing Protocols § Function(s) of Dynamic Routing Protocols: -Dynamically share information between routers. All rights reserved. -Determine best path to a destination. Cisco Public 85 . © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. -Automatically update routing table when topology changes.

Inc. Cisco Public 86 . All rights reserved.Dynamic Routing Protocols § The purpose of a dynamic routing protocol is to: -Discover remote networks -Maintaining up-to-date routing information -Choosing the best path to destination networks -Ability to find a new best path if the current path is no longer available © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Dynamic Routing Protocols § Components of a routing protocol Algorithm In the case of a routing protocol algorithms are used for facilitating routing information and best path determination Routing protocol messages These are messages for discovering neighbors and exchange of routing information © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 87 . Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved.Dynamic Routing Protocols § Advantages of static routing -It can backup multiple interfaces/networks on a router -Easy to configure -No extra resources are needed -More secure § Disadvantages of static routing -Network changes require manual reconfiguration -Does not scale well in large topologies © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 88 .

Examples include: -RIP -IGRP -EIGRP -OSPF -IS-IS -BGP § Autonomous System is a group of routers under the control of a single authority. All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 89 .Classifying Routing Protocols § Dynamic routing protocols are grouped according to characteristics.

Cisco Public 90 . All rights reserved. Inc.Classifying Routing Protocols § Types of routing protocols: -Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) -Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP) © 2007 Cisco Systems.

EIGRP. Cisco Public 91 . All rights reserved. Inc.Classifying Routing Protocols § Interior Gateway Routing Protocols (IGP) -Used for routing inside an autonomous system & used to route within the individual networks themselves. -Examples: RIP. OSPF § Exterior Routing Protocols (EGP) -Used for routing between autonomous systems -Example: BGPv4 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

© 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. – incomplete view of network topology. –Generally. periodic updates. Link state – complete view of network topology is created. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 92 . – updates are not periodic.Classifying Routing Protocols § IGP: Comparison of Distance Vector & Link State Routing Protocols Distance vector – routes are advertised as vectors of distance & direction.

Inc.Classifying Routing Protocols © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 93 .

All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 94 .Classifying Routing Protocols § Classful routing protocols Do NOT send subnet mask in routing updates § Classless routing protocols Do send subnet mask in routing updates. Inc.

Classifying Routing Protocols § Convergence is defined as when all routers’ routing tables are at a state of consistency © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 95 .

All rights reserved.Routing Protocols Metrics § Metric A value used by a routing protocol to determine which routes are better than others. Inc. Cisco Public 96 . © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 97 . All rights reserved.Routing Protocols Metrics § Metrics used in IP routing protocols -Bandwidth -Cost -Delay -Hop count -Load -Reliability © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Bandwidth (Cisco’s implementation) © 2007 Cisco Systems. Reliability -IS-IS & OSPF – Cost.Routing Protocols Metrics § The Metric Field in the Routing Table § Metric used for each routing protocol -RIP . Cisco Public 98 .hop count -IGRP & EIGRP Bandwidth (used by default). Load. All rights reserved. Delay (used by default). Inc.

Cisco Public 99 .Routing Protocols Metrics § Load balancing This is the ability of a router to distribute packets among multiple same cost paths © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 100 . All rights reserved. Inc.Administrative Distance of a Route § Purpose of a metric It’s a calculated value used to determine the best path to a destination § Purpose of Administrative Distance It’s a numeric value that specifies the preference of a particular route © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.Administrative Distance of a Route § Identifying the Administrative Distance (AD) in a routing table It is the first number in the brackets in the routing table © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 101 . Inc.

Inc.Administrative Distance of a Route § Dynamic Routing Protocols © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 102 .

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 103 .Administrative Distance of a Route § Directly connected routes Have a default AD of 0 § Static Routes Administrative distance of a static route has a default value of 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved.Administrative Distance of a Route § Directly connected routes -Immediately appear in the routing table as soon as the interface is configured © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 104 .

Cisco Public 105 .these protocols do not include subnet mask in routing update © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Summary § Dynamic routing protocols fulfill the following functions -Dynamically share information between routers -Automatically update routing table when topology changes -Determine best path to a destination § Routing protocols are grouped as either -Interior gateway protocols (IGP)Or -Exterior gateway protocols(EGP) § Types of IGPs include -Classless routing protocols .these protocols include subnet mask in routing updates -Classful routing protocols . Inc.

Inc. § Administrative distance is an integer value that is used to indicate a router’s “trustworthiness” § Components of a routing table include: -Route source -Administrative distance -Metric © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 106 . All rights reserved.Summary § Metrics are used by dynamic routing protocols to calculate the best path to a destination.

Cisco Public 107 .Distance Vector Routing Protocols Chapter 4 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Objectives § Identify the characteristics of distance vector routing protocols. § Recognize that distance vector routing protocols are in use today © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. § Describe the processes to maintain accurate routing tables used by distance vector routing protocols. § Identify the conditions leading to a routing loop and explain the implications for router performance. Cisco Public 108 . § Describe the network discovery process of distance vector routing protocols using Routing Information Protocol (RIP).

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 109 .Distance Vector Routing Protocols § Examples of Distance Vector routing protocols: §Routing Information Protocol (RIP) §Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) §Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

or direction. Cisco Public 110 . traffic should be directed © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.Distance Vector Routing Protocols § Distance Vector Technology –The Meaning of Distance Vector: •A router using distance vector routing protocols knows 2 things: §Distance to final destination §Vector.

Distance Vector Routing Protocols Characteristics of Distance Vector routing protocols: § Periodic updates § Neighbors § Broadcast updates § Entire routing table is included with routing update © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 111 . Inc.

Distance Vector Routing Protocols § Routing Protocol Algorithm: -Defined as a procedure for accomplishing a certain task © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 112 . Inc.

Inc.Distance Vector Routing Protocols Routing Protocol Characteristics –Criteria used to compare routing protocols includes §-Time to convergence §-Scalability §-Resource usage §-Implementation & maintenance © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 113 .

Inc.Distance Vector Routing Protocols © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 114 .

Cisco Public 115 . All rights reserved.Network Discovery § Router initial start up (Cold Starts) -Initial network discovery §Directly connected networks are initially placed in routing table © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 116 .Network Discovery § Initial Exchange of Routing Information –If a routing protocol is configured then -Routers will exchange routing information § Routing updates received from other routers -Router checks update for new information §If there is new information: -Metric is updated -New information is stored in routing table © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Network Discovery § Exchange of Routing Information –Router convergence is reached when -All routing tables in the network contain the same network information –Routers continue to exchange routing information -If no new information is found then Convergence is reached © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 117 . All rights reserved.

Inc.Network Discovery § Convergence must be reached before a network is considered completely operable § Speed of achieving convergence consists of 2 interdependent categories -Speed of broadcasting routing information -Speed of calculating routes © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 118 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Table Maintenance § Periodic Updates: RIPv1 & RIPv2 These are time intervals in which a router sends out its entire routing table. Cisco Public 119 . © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 120 .Routing Table Maintenance § RIP uses 4 timers -Update timer -Invalid timer -Holddown timer -Flush timer © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Routing Table Maintenance
§ Bounded Updates: EIGRP
§ EIRPG routing updates are
-Partial updates
-Triggered by topology changes
-Bounded
-Non periodic

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

121

Routing Table Maintenance
§ Triggered Updates
–Conditions in which triggered updates are sent
-Interface changes state
-Route becomes unreachable
-Route is placed in routing table

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

122

Routing Table Maintenance
§ Random Jitter
Synchronized updates
A condition where multiple routers on multi access LAN
segments transmit routing updates at the same time.
§Problems with synchronized updates
-Bandwidth consumption
-Packet collisions
§Solution to problems with
synchronized updates

- Used of random variable
called RIP_JITTER

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

123

Routing Loops
§ Routing loops are
A condition in
which a packet is
continuously
transmitted within
a series of routers
without ever
reaching its
destination.

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

124

Routing Loops
§ Routing loops may be caused by:
-Incorrectly configured static routes
-Incorrectly configured route redistribution
-Slow convergence
-Incorrectly configured discard routes

§ Routing loops can create the following issues
-Excess use of bandwidth
-CPU resources may be strained
-Network convergence is degraded
-Routing updates may be lost or not processed in a timely
manner

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

125

Routing Loops
§ Count to Infinity
This is a routing loop whereby packets bounce
infinitely around a network.

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

126

Routing Loops
§ Setting a maximum
§ Distance Vector routing protocols set a specified
metric value to indicate infinity
Once a router “counts to infinity” it marks the route
as unreachable

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

127

-Point of using holddown timers §Allows routing updates to propagate through network with the most current information.Routing Loops § Preventing loops with holddown timers -Holddown timers allow a router to not accept any changes to a route for a specified period of time. Cisco Public 128 . All rights reserved. Inc. © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems.Routing Loops § The Split Horizon Rule is used to prevent routing loops § Split Horizon rule: A router should not advertise a network through the interface from which the update came. Cisco Public 129 .

advertise it as unreachable back through the same interface © 2007 Cisco Systems.Routing Loops § Split horizon with poison reverse The rule states that once a router learns of an unreachable route through an interface. Cisco Public 130 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 131 . © 2007 Cisco Systems.Routing Loops § IP & TTL –Purpose of the TTL field The TTL field is found in an IP header and is used to prevent packets from endlessly traveling on a network § How the TTL field works -TTL field contains a numeric value The numeric value is decreased by one by every router on the route to the destination. If numeric value reaches 0 then Packet is discarded. Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 132 . Inc. All rights reserved.Routing Protocols Today § Factors used to determine whether to use RIP or EIGRP include -Network size -Compatibility between models of routers -Administrative knowledge © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Routing Protocols Today § RIP §Features of RIP: -Supports split horizon & split horizon with poison reverse -Capable of load balancing -Easy to configure -Works in a multi vendor router environment © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 133 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 134 . All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Protocols Today § EIGRP §Features of EIGRP: -Triggered updates -EIGRP hello protocol used to establish neighbor adjacencies -Supports VLSM & route summarization -Use of topology table to maintain all routes -Classless distance vector routing protocol -Cisco proprietary protocol © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.Summary § Characteristics of Distance Vector routing protocols –Periodic updates –RIP routing updates include the entire routing table –Neighbors are defined as routers that share a link and are configured to use the same protocol § The network discovery process for D. Inc.V. Cisco Public 135 . routing protocol –Directly connected routes are placed in routing table 1st –If a routing protocol is configured then •Routers will exchange routing information –Convergence is reached when all network routers have the same network information © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. Cisco Public 136 . split horizon. routing protocols may be prone to routing loops – routing loops are a condition in which packets continuously traverse a network –Mechanisms used to minimize routing loops include defining maximum hop count. holddown timers. All rights reserved.V. routing protocols maintains routing tables by –RIP sending out periodic updates –RIP using 4 different timers to ensure information is accurate and convergence is achieved in a timely manner –EIGRP sending out triggered updates § D.V.Summary § D. route poisoning and triggered updates © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.Summary § Conditions that can lead to routing loops include –Incorrectly configured static routes –Incorrectly configured route redistribution –Slow convergence –Incorrectly configured discard routes § How routing loops can impact network performance includes: –Excess use of bandwidth –CPU resources may be strained –Network convergence is degraded –Routing updates may be lost or not processed © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 137 . Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 138 .Summary § Routing Information Protocol (RIP) A distance vector protocol that has 2 versions RIPv1 – a classful routing protocol RIPv2 .a classless routing protocol § Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) –A distance vector routing protocols that has some features of link state routing protocols –A Cisco proprietary routing protocol © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 139 . All rights reserved.RIP version 1 Chapter 5 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

verify. and operation of the RIPv1 protocol.Objectives § Describe the functions. Cisco Public 140 . § Use recommended techniques to solve problems related to RIPv1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. § Verify proper RIPv1 operation. All rights reserved. and troubleshoot default routes propagated in a routed network implementing RIPv1. Inc. § Describe how RIPv1 performs automatic summarization. § Configure. characteristics. § Configure a device for using RIPv1.

RIPv1 § RIP Characteristics -A classful. Inc. Distance Vector (DV) routing protocol -Metric = hop count -Routes with a hop count > 15 are unreachable -Updates are broadcast every 30 seconds © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 141 .

RIPv1 § RIP Message Format § RIP header .composed of 3 fields -Address family identifier -IP address -Metric © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 142 . All rights reserved.divided into 3 fields -Command field -Version field -Must be zero § Route Entry . Inc.

RIPv1 § RIP Operation –RIP uses 2 message types: §Request message -This is sent out on startup by each RIP enabled interface -Requests all RIP enabled neighbors to send routing table §Response message -Message sent to requesting router containing routing table © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 143 .

RIPv1 § IP addresses initially divided into classes -Class A -Class B -Class C § RIP is a classful routing protocol -Does not send subnet masks in routing updates © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 144 .

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 145 .RIPv1 § Administrative Distance –RIP’s default administrative distance is 120 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 146 .Basic RIPv1 Configuration § A typical topology suitable for use by RIPv1 includes: -Three router set up -No PCs attached to LANs -Use of 5 different IP subnets © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 147 .Basic RIPv1 Configuration § Router RIP Command –To enable RIP enter: -Router rip at the global configuration prompt -Prompt will look like R1(config-router)# © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 148 . Inc. All rights reserved.Basic RIPv1 Configuration § Specifying Networks –Use the network command to: -Enable RIP on all interfaces that belong to this network -Advertise this network in RIP updates sent to other routers every 30 seconds © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 149 .Verification and Troubleshooting § Show ip Route § To verify and troubleshoot routing -Use the following commands: -show ip route -show ip protocols -debug ip rip © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Verification and Troubleshooting § show ip protocols command -Displays routing protocol configured on router © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 150 . Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 151 . All rights reserved.Verification and Troubleshooting § Debug ip rip command -Used to display RIP routing updates as they are happening © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.Verification and Troubleshooting § Passive interface command -Used to prevent a router from sending updates through an interface -Example: Router(config-router)#passive-interface interface-type interface-number © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 152 . Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 153 .Verification and Troubleshooting § Passive interfaces © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

0/24 The following devices are part of the 172.30.30. Cisco Public 154 .0/16 192.0/16 network is subnetted into three subnets: 172.0/16 classful network address: All interfaces on R1 S0/0/0 and Fa0/0 on R2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.30.0/24 The 172. All rights reserved.168.168.1.0/24 192.0.0/24 172.0/24 172.Automatic Summarization Modified Topology § The original scenario has been modified such that: Three classful networks are used: 172.30. Inc.0.30.30.3.4.2.0.5.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 155 .Automatic Summarization § Configuration Details -To remove the RIP routing process use the following command No router rip -To check the configuration use the following command Show run © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 156 . Inc.Automatic Summarization § Boundary Routers –RIP automatically summarizes classful networks –Boundary routers summarize RIP subnets from one major network to another.

Automatic Summarization Processing RIP Updates § 2 rules govern RIPv1 updates: -If a routing update and the interface it’s received on belong to the same network then The subnet mask of the interface is applied to the network in the routing update -If a routing update and the interface it’s received on belong to a different network then The classful subnet mask of the network is applied to the network in the routing update. Inc. Cisco Public 157 . All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Automatic Summarization § Sending RIP Updates –RIP uses automatic summarization to reduce the size of a routing table. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 158 . All rights reserved.

Automatic Summarization § Advantages of automatic summarization: -The size of routing updates is reduced -Single routes are used to represent multiple routes which results in faster lookup in the routing table. Inc. © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 159 .

Cisco Public 160 . All rights reserved. Inc.Automatic Summarization § Disadvantage of Automatic Summarization: -Does not support discontiguous networks © 2007 Cisco Systems.

© 2007 Cisco Systems.Automatic Summarization § Discontiguous Topologies do not converge with RIPv1 § A router will only advertise major network addresses out interfaces that do not belong to the advertised route. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 161 .

0.Default Route and RIPv1 § Modified Topology: Scenario C § Default routes Packets that are not defined specifically in a routing table will go to the specified interface for the default route Example: Customer routers use default routes to connect to an ISP router. Cisco Public 162 .0. Inc.0.0 s0/0/1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Command used to configure a default route is ip route 0.0 0. All rights reserved.0.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 163 .Default Route and RIPv1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

by propagating the static default route in RIP update. Cisco Public 164 . All rights reserved. Inc.Default Route and RIPv1 § Propagating the Default Route in RIPv1 § Default-information originate command -This command is used to specify that the router is to originate default information. © 2007 Cisco Systems.

distance vector routing protocol Metric is Hop Count Does not support VLSM or discontiguous subnets Updates every 30 seconds § Rip messages are encapsulated in a UDP segment with source and destination ports of 520 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 165 . All rights reserved.Summary § RIP characteristics include: Classful. Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 166 .Summary: Commands used by RIP Command Command’s purpose Rtr(config)#router rip Enables RIP routing process Rtr(config-router)#network Associates a network with a RIP routing process Rtr#debug ip rip used to view real time RIP routing updates Rtr(config-router)#passive-interface fa0/0 Prevent RIP updates from going out an interface Rtr(config-router)#default-information originate Used by RIP to propagate default routes Rtr#show ip protocols Used to display timers used by RIP © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

VLSM and CIDR Chapter 6 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 167 .

§ Review VLSM and explain the benefits of classless IP addressing. Cisco Public 168 .Objectives § Compare and contrast classful and classless IP addressing. § Describe the role of the Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) standard in making efficient use of scarce IPv4 addresses © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. -VLSM is simply subnetting a subnet © 2007 Cisco Systems. IP addresses used only the first 8 bits to specify the network portion of the address § In 1981. RFC 791 modified the IPv4 32-bit address to allow for three different classes § IP address space was depleting rapidly the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) introduced Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) –CIDR uses Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) to help conserve address space. Cisco Public 169 . All rights reserved.Introduction § Prior to 1981.

RFC 1519) -Network Address Translation (1994. there are over 433 million hosts on internet § Initiatives to conserve IPv4 address space include: -VLSM & CIDR notation (1993. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 170 .Classful and Classless IP Addressing § Classful IP addressing § As of January 2007. RFC 1631) -Private Addressing (1996. RFC 1918) © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Classful and Classless IP Addressing § The High Order Bits These are the leftmost bits in a 32 bit address © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 171 .

0.255. All rights reserved. Inc.255.0 to 191.255.255.0.0.255.255 Class B address begin with a 1 bit and a 0 bit Range of class B addresses = 128. Cisco Public 172 .0.0.255 Class C addresses begin with two 1 bits & a 0 bit Range of class C addresses = 192. © 2007 Cisco Systems.0 to 223.255.Classful and Classless IP Addressing § Classes of IP addresses are identified by the decimal number of the 1st octet Class A address begin with a 0 bit Range of class A addresses = 0.0.0 to 127.255.

Classful and Classless IP Addressing § The IPv4 Classful Addressing Structure (RFC 790) An IP address has 2 parts: -The network portion Found on the left side of an IP address -The host portion Found on the right side of an IP address © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 173 .

All rights reserved.Classful and Classless IP Addressing © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 174 .

Inc. Cisco Public 175 .Classful and Classless IP Addressing § Purpose of a subnet mask It is used to determine the network portion of an IP address © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

RIPv1) do not send subnet masks in their routing updates The reason is that the Subnet mask is directly related to the network address © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 176 . All rights reserved.e. Inc.Classful and Classless IP Addressing § Classful Routing Updates -Recall that classful routing protocols (i.

All rights reserved. Inc.Classful and Classless IP Addressing § Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR – RFC 1517) §Advantage of CIDR : -More efficient use of IPv4 address space -Route summarization §Requires subnet mask to be included in routing update because address class is meaningless Recall purpose of a subnet mask: -To determine the network and host portion of an IP address © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 177 .

Cisco Public 178 .a.Classful and Classless IP Addressing § Classless IP Addressing § CIDR & Route Summarization -Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) -Allows a subnet to be further sub-netted according to individual needs -Prefix Aggregation a. Route Summarization -CIDR allows for routes to be summarized as a single route © 2007 Cisco Systems.k. All rights reserved. Inc.

Classful and Classless IP Addressing § Classless Routing Protocol § Characteristics of classless routing protocols: -Routing updates include the subnet mask -Supports VLSM Supports Route Summarization © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 179 .

Inc.Classful and Classless IP Addressing § Classless Routing Protocol Routing Protocol Routing updates Include subnet Mask Supports Ability to send VLSM Supernet routes Classful No No No Classless Yes Yes Yes © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 180 . All rights reserved.

VLSM § Classful routing -only allows for one subnet mask for all networks § VLSM & classless routing -This is the process of subnetting a subnet -More than one subnet mask can be used -More efficient use of IP addresses as compared to classful IP addressing © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 181 . All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 182 . All rights reserved.0.0 / 24 to 10.1.1. -Mask allows for 254 host addresses per subnet -Subnets range from: 10.1.0 / 24 © 2007 Cisco Systems.0. to create 256 subnets with a /24 mask. 8 more bits are borrowed again.VLSM § VLSM – the process of sub-netting a subnet to fit your needs -Example: Subnet 10. Inc.255.0/16.

16. Cisco Public 183 .0.23. All rights reserved. Inc.0.0 / 16 classful networks © 2007 Cisco Systems.0 / 16 to 172.Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) § Route summarization done by CIDR -Routes are summarized with masks that are less than that of the default classful mask -Example: 172.0.0 / 13 is the summarized route for the 172.16.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 184 .Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) § Steps to calculate a route summary -List networks in binary format -Count number of left most matching bits to determine summary route’s mask -Copy the matching bits and add zero bits to determine the summarized network address © 2007 Cisco Systems.

& C addresses were designed to provide IP addresses for different sized organizations §The class of an IP address is determined by the decimal value found in the 1st octet §IP addresses are running out so the use of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) and Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) are used to try and conserve address space © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 185 .Summary § Classful IP addressing §IPv4 addresses have 2 parts: -Network portion found on left side of an IP address -Host portion found on right side of an IP address §Class A. B. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 186 .Summary § Classful Routing Updates –Subnet masks are not sent in routing updates § Classless IP addressing –Benefit of classless IP addressing §Can create additional network addresses using a subnet mask that fits your needs –Uses Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 187 . All rights reserved. Inc.Summary § CIDR § Uses IP addresses more efficiently through use of VLSM -VLSM is the process of subnetting a subnet § Allows for route summarization -Route summarization is representing multiple contiguous routes with a single route © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 188 . All rights reserved.Summary § Classless Routing Updates Subnet masks are included in updates © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

RIPv2 Routing Protocols and Concepts – Chapter 7 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 189 .

and troubleshoot RIPv2 in “handson” labs © 2007 Cisco Systems. § Analyze router output to see RIPv2 support for VLSM and CIDR § Identify RIPv2 verification commands and common RIPv2 issues. verify.Objectives § Encounter and describe the limitations of RIPv1’s limitations. § Apply the basic Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2) configuration commands and evaluate RIPv2 classless routing updates. § Configure. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 190 .

Inc. Cisco Public 191 . All rights reserved. -Next hop address is included in updates -Routing updates are multicast -The use of authentication is an option © 2007 Cisco Systems.Introduction § Chapter focus -Difference between RIPv1 & RIPv2 §RIPv1 -A classful distance vector routing protocol -Does not support discontiguous subnets -Does not support VLSM -Does not send subnet mask in routing update -Routing updates are broadcast §RIPv2 -A classless distance vector routing protocol that is an enhancement of RIPv1’s features.

Inc. All rights reserved.Introduction § Similarities between RIPv1 & RIPv2 -Use of timers to prevent routing loops -Use of split horizon or split horizon with poison reverse -Use of triggered updates -Maximum hop count of 15 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 192 .

All rights reserved. §Routers 1 & 3 contain VLSM networks © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 193 .RIPv1 Limitations § Lab Topology § Scenario: §3 router set up §Topology is discontiguous §There exists a static summary route §Static route information can be injected into routing table updates using redistribution. Inc.

RIPv1 Limitations § Scenario Continued § VLSM -Recall this is sub netting the subnet § Private IP addresses are on LAN links § Public IP addresses are used on WAN links § Loopback interfaces -These are virtual interfaces that can be pinged and added to routing table © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 194 . Inc.

0 255.255.0.0. Cisco Public 195 .0 Null0 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.RIPv1 Limitations § Null Interfaces §This is a virtual interface that does not need to be created or configured -Traffic sent to a null interface is discarded -Null interfaces do not send or receive traffic § Static routes and null interfaces §null interfaces will serve as the exit interface for static route -Example of configuring a static supernet route with a null interface -R2(config)#ip route 192.168.

Inc. Cisco Public 196 .RIPv1 Limitations § Route redistribution -Redistribution command is way to disseminate a static route from one router to another via a routing protocol -Example R2(config-router)#redistribute static © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

RIPv1 Limitations § Verifying and Testing Connectivity Use the following commands: § show ip interfaces brief § ping § traceroute © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 197 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 198 .RIPv1 Limitations § RIPv1 – a classful routing protocol -Subnet mask are not sent in updates -Summarizes networks at major network boundaries -if network is discontiguous and RIPv1 configured convergence will not be reached © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 199 . Inc.RIPv1 Limitations §Examining the routing tables -To examine the contents of routing updates use the debug ip rip command -If RIPv1 is configured then Subnet masks will not be included with the network address © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 200 . All rights reserved. Inc.RIPv1 Limitations § RIPv1 does not support VLSM Reason: RIPv1 does not send subnet mask in routing updates § RIPv1 does summarize routes to the Classful boundary Or uses the Subnet mask of the outgoing interface to determine which subnets to advertise © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 201 .RIPv1 Limitations § No CIDR Support § In the diagram R2 will not include the static route in its update Reason: Classful routing protocols do not support CIDR routes that are summarized with a smaller mask than the classful subnet mask © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 202 .Configuring RIPv2 § Comparing RIPv1 & RIPv2 Message Formats -RIPv2 Message format is similar to RIPv1 but has 2 extensions §1st extension is the subnet mask field §2nd extension is the addition of next hop address © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Configuring RIPv2 § Enabling and Verifying RIPv2 § Configuring RIP on a Cisco router By default it is running RIPv1 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 203 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 204 . Inc. All rights reserved.Configuring RIPv2 § Configuring RIPv2 on a Cisco router -Requires using the version 2 command -RIPv2 ignores RIPv1 updates § To verify RIPv2 is configured use the show ip protocols command © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 205 .Configuring RIPv2 § Auto-Summary & RIPv2 § RIPv2 will automatically summarize routes at major network boundaries and can also summarize routes with a subnet mask that is smaller than the classful subnet mask © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Configuring RIPv2 § Disabling AutoSummary in RIPv2 § To disable automatic summarization issue the no auto-summary command © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 206 .

Cisco Public 207 . along with the exit interface and next-hop address to reach that subnet. § To verify information being sent by RIPv2 use the debug ip rip command © 2007 Cisco Systems.Configuring RIPv2 § Verifying RIPv2 Updates § When using RIPv2 with automatic summarization turned off Each subnet and mask has its own specific entry. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc.e.VLSM & CIDR § RIPv2 and VLSM § Networks using a VLSM IP addressing scheme Use classless routing protocols (i. Cisco Public 208 . RIPv2) to disseminate network addresses and their subnet masks © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.VLSM & CIDR § CIDR uses Supernetting Supernetting is a bunch of contiguous classful networks that is addressed as a single network. Inc. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 209 .

VLSM & CIDR § To verify that supernets are being sent and received use the following commands -Show ip route -Debug ip rip © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 210 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 211 .Verifying & Troubleshooting RIPv2 § Basic Troubleshooting steps -Check the status of all links -Check cabling -Check IP address & subnet mask configuration -Remove any unneeded configuration commands § Commands used to verify proper operation of RIPv2 –Show ip interfaces brief –Show ip protocols –Debug ip rip –Show ip route © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Verifying & Troubleshooting RIPv2 § Common RIPv2 Issues § When trouble shooting RIPv2 examine the following issues: §Version Check to make sure you are using version 2 §Network statements Network statements may be incorrectly typed or missing §Automatic summarization If summarized routes are not needed then disable automatic summarization © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 212 .

Cisco Public 213 . All rights reserved. Inc.Verifying & Troubleshooting RIPv2 § Reasons why it’s good to authenticate routing information -Prevent the possibility of accepting invalid routing updates -Contents of routing updates are encrypted § Types of routing protocols that can use authentication -RIPv2 -EIGRP -OSPF -IS-IS -BGP © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Summary Routing Protocol Distance Vector Classless Routing Protocol Uses HoldDown Timers Use of Split Horizon or Split Horizon w/ Poison Reverse Max Hop count = 15 Auto Summary Support CIDR Supports VLSM Uses Authentication RIPv1 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No RIPv2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 214 .

The Routing Table: A Closer Look Chapter 8 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 215 . All rights reserved.

© 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Objectives § Describe the various route types found in the routing table structure § Describe the routing table lookup process. Cisco Public 216 . Inc. § Describe routing behavior in routed networks.

Introduction § Chapter Focus -Structure of the routing table -Lookup process of the routing table -Classless and classful routing behaviors © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 217 .

-R3 also has a 172. -R2 and R3 are connected by the 192.16.4. or discontiguous.0/24 network. Inc. from the 172.0/16 network with 172.16. All rights reserved.0.0.16.Routing Table Structure § Lab Topology § 3 router setup -R1 and R2 share a common 172.0/24 subnets.168.0. which is disconnected.1.0/24 subnet. Cisco Public 218 .0 network that R1 and R2 share. © 2007 Cisco Systems.16.

Inc.Routing Table Structure § Routing table entries come from the following sources -Directly connected networks -Static routes -Dynamic routing protocols © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 219 . All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Public 220 .Routing Table Structure § Level 1 Routes § As soon as the no shutdown command is issued the route is added to routing table © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 221 .Routing Table Structure § Cisco IP routing table is a hierarchical structure -The reason for this is to speed up lookup process © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

§ Level 1 route can function as -Default route -Supernet route -Network route © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 222 .Routing Table Structure § Level 1 Routes -Have a subnet mask equal to or less than the classful mask of the network address. Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved.Routing Table Structure § Level 1 Routes -Ultimate Route §Includes either: -A next-hop address OR -An exit interface © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 223 .

All rights reserved.Routing Table Structure § Parent and Child Routes -A parent route is a level 1 route -A parent route does not contain any nexthop IP address or exit interface information © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 224 . Inc.

Routing Table Structure
§ Automatic creation of parent
routes
-Occurs any time a
subnet is added to the
routing table
§ Child routes
-Child routes are level
2 routes
-Child routes are a
subnet of a classful
network address

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Routing Table Structure
§ Level 2 child routes contain route source & the network
address of the route
§ Level 2 child routes are also considered ultimate
routes
Reason: they contain the next hop address &/or exit
interface

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Routing Table Structure
§ Both child routes have the same subnet mask
-This means the parent route maintains the /24 mask

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Routing Table Structure
§ Diagram illustrates 2 child networks belonging to the
parent route 172.16.0.0 / 24

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Routing Table Structure
§ In classless networks, child routes do not have to share
the same subnet mask

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Routing Table Structure
§ Parent & Child Routes: Classless Networks

Network
Type

Parent route’s
Classful mask is
Displayed

Term
variably
subnetted
is seen in parent
route in routing
table

Includes the Subnet mask
# of different
included
masks of
with each
child routes
child route
entry

Classful

No

No

No

No

Classless

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

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Routing Table Structure
§ Parent & Child Routes: Classless Networks

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Cisco Public 232 . If not packet is dropped © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Table Lookup Process § The Route Lookup Process § § § Examine level 1 routes -If best match a level 1 ultimate route and is not a parent route this route is used to forward packet Router examines level 2 (child) routes -If there is a match with level 2 child route then that subnet is used to forward packet -If no match then determine routing behavior type Router determines classful or classless routing behavior -If classful then packet is dropped -If classless then router searches level one supernet and default routes -If there exists a level 1 supernet or default route match then Packet is forwarded.

Routing Table Lookup Process § Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes –Best match is also known as the longest match –The best match is the one that has the most number of left most bits matching between the destination IP address and the route in the routing table. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 233 .

Cisco Public 234 .168.0 / 24 –Router forwards packets out s0/0/0 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.1. Inc.1.Routing Table Lookup Process § Finding the subnet mask used to determine the longest match Scenario: –PC1 pings 192.2 & 192.168.168.2 –Router examines level 1 route for best match –There exist a match between192.1.

Cisco Public 235 . © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.Routing Table Lookup Process § The process of matching -1st there must be a match made between the parent route & destination IP -If a match is made then an attempt at finding a match between the destination IP and the child route is made.

168.168.0 and the level one IP of 192.1.Routing Table Lookup Process § Finding a match between packet’s destination IP address and the next route in the routing table -The figure shows a match between the destination IP of 192. Cisco Public 236 . Inc. All rights reserved.1.0 / 24 then packet forwarded out s0/0/0 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. All rights reserved.Routing Table Lookup Process § Level 1 Parent & Level 2 Child Routes § Before level 2 child routes are examined -There must be a match between classful level one parent route and destination IP address. Cisco Public 237 . © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 238 . Inc.Routing Table Lookup Process § After the match with parent route has been made Level 2 child routes will be examined for a match -Route lookup process searches for child routes with a match with destination IP © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 239 .Routing Table Lookup Process § How a router finds a match with one of the level 2 child routes -First router examines parent routes for a match -If a match exists then: §Child routes are examined §Child route chosen is the one with the longest match © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Routing Table Lookup Process § Example: Route Lookup Process with VLSM -The use of VLSM does not change the lookup process -If there is a match between destination IP address and the level 1 parent route then -Level 2 child routes will be searched © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 240 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Routing Behavior § Classful & classless routing protocols Influence how routing table is populated § Classful & classless routing behaviors Determines how routing table is searched after it is filled © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 241 .

Cisco Public 242 . Inc. All rights reserved.Routing Behavior § Classful Routing Behavior: no ip classless § What happens if there is not a match with any level 2 child routes of the parent? -Router must determine if the routing behavior is classless or classful -If router is utilizing classful routing behavior then -Lookup process is terminated and packet is dropped © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Routing Behavior § Classful Routing Behavior – Search Process § An example of when classful routing behavior is in effect and why the router drops the Packet -The destination’s subnet mask is a /24 and none of the child routes left most bits match the first 24 bits. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 243 . This means packet is dropped © 2007 Cisco Systems.

if the subnet was not in the routing table. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 244 . the subnet did not exist and packet was dropped © 2007 Cisco Systems.Routing Behavior § Classful Routing Behavior – Search Process § The reason why the router will not search beyond the child routes §Originally networks were all classful §This meant an organization could subnet a major network address and “enlighten” all the organization’s routers about the subnetting §Therefore.

Routing Behavior § ip Classless § Beginning with IOS 11.3. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 245 . ip classless was configured by default § Classless routing behavior works for -Discontiguous networks And -CIDR supernets © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Routing Behavior § Classless Routing Behavior: ip classless § Route lookup process when ip classless is in use -If classless routing behavior in effect then §Search level 1 routes §Supernet routes Checked first -If a match exists then forward packet §Default routes Checked second If there is no match or no default route then the §Packet is dropped © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 246 . Inc. All rights reserved.

then there is a search of the child route © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Behavior § Classless Routing Behavior – Search Process § Router begins search process by finding a match between destination IP and parent route After finding the above mentioned match. Cisco Public 247 .

All rights reserved.Routing Behavior § Classless Routing Behavior – Search Process § If no match is found in child routes of previous slide then Router continues to search the routing table for a match that may have fewer bits in the match © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 248 . Inc.

Classless Routing Behavior -It is recommended to use classless routing behavior §Reason: so supernet and default routes can be used whenever needed © 2007 Cisco Systems.Routing Behavior § Classful vs. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 249 .

Cisco Public 250 . All rights reserved.Summary Content/structure of a routing table § Routing table entries -Directly connected networks -Static route -Dynamic routing protocols § Routing tables are hierarchical -Level 1 route Have a subnet mask that is less than or equal to classful subnet mask for the network address -Level 2 route These are subnets of a network address © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc.Summary Routing table lookup process § Begins with examining level 1 routes for best match with packet’s destination IP § If the best match = an ultimate route then -Packet is forwarded -Else-Parent route is examined If parent route & destination IP match then Level 2 (child) routes are examined Level 2 route examination § If a match between destination IP and child route found then Packet forwarded -Else § If Router is using classful routing behavior then Packet is dropped -Else § If router is using classless routing behavior then Router searches Level 1 supernet & default routes for a match § If a match is found then Packet if forwarded -Else § Packet is dropped © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 251 .

Cisco Public 252 .Summary § Routing behaviors -This refers to how a routing table is searched § Classful routing behavior -Indicated by the use of the no ip classless command -Router will not look beyond child routes for a lesser match § Classless routing behavior -Indicated by the use of the ip classless command -Router will look beyond child routes for a lesser match © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Public 253 .EIGRP Routing Protocols and Concepts – Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

§ Calculate the composite metric used by EIGRP. All rights reserved.Objectives § Describe the background and history of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). § Describe the concepts and operation of DUAL. § Describe the uses of additional configuration commands in EIGRP. Cisco Public 254 . § Examine the basic EIGRP configuration commands and identify their purposes. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved.Introduction © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 255 .

2(R1s4)S © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 256 .2(13)T & 12. Inc. All rights reserved.EIGRP § Roots of EIGRP: IGRP -Developed in 1985 to overcome RIPv1’s limited hop count -Distance vector routing protocol -Metrics used by IGRP §bandwidth (used by default) §Delay (used by default) §reliability §load -Discontinued support starting with IOS 12.

Cisco Public 257 . All rights reserved.contains source and destination MAC address §IP packet header .EIGRP EIGRP Message Format § EIGRP Header §Data link frame header . Inc.contains source & destination IP address §EIGRP packet header .data portion of EIGRP message © 2007 Cisco Systems.contains AS number §Type/Length/Field .

All rights reserved.EIGRP § EIGRP packet header contains –Opcode field –Autonomous System number § EIGRP Parameters contains –Weights –Hold time © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 258 .

Cisco Public 259 .EIGRP § TLV: IP internal contains –Metric field –Subnet mask field –Destination field § TLV: IP external contains –Fields used when external routes are imported into EIGRP routing process © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. IP. Inc.e. Cisco Public 260 .EIGRP Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM) § EIGRP uses PDM to route several different protocols i. IPX & AppleTalk § PDMs are responsible for the specific routing task for each network layer protocol © 2007 Cisco Systems.

0.EIGRP Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) § Purpose of RTP –Used by EIGRP to transmit and receive EIGRP packets § Characteristics of RTP –Involves both reliable & unreliable delivery of EIGRP packet §Reliable delivery requires acknowledgment from destination §Unreliable delivery does not require an acknowledgement from destination –Packets can be sent §Unicast §Multicast –Using address 224.0. Inc.10 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 261 .

All rights reserved.EIGRP EIGRP’s 5 Packet Types § Hello packets –Used to discover & form adjacencies with neighbors © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 262 .

EIGRP § Update packets –Used to propagate routing information § Acknowledgement packets –Used to acknowledge receipt of update. Inc. Cisco Public 263 . query & reply packets © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

EIGRP § Query & Reply packets §Used by DUAL for searching for networks §Query packets -Can use §Unicast §Multicast §Reply packet -Use only §unicast © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 264 . Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 265 .EIGRP § Purpose of Hello Protocol –To discover & establish adjacencies with neighbor routers § Characteristics of hello protocol –Time interval for sending hello packet §Most networks it is every 5 seconds §Multipoint non broadcast multi-access networks –Unicast every 60 seconds -Holdtime §This is the maximum time router should wait before declaring a neighbor down §Default holdtime –3 times hello interval © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved. only those devices that are impacted will be notified of the change § EIGRP’s use of partial bounded updates minimizes use of bandwidth © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 266 .EIGRP EIGRP Bounded Updates § EIGRP only sends update when there is a change in route status § Partial update –A partial update includes only the route information that has changed – the whole routing table is NOT sent § Bounded update –When a route changes.

EIGRP Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) –Purpose •EIGRP’s primary method for preventing routing loops –Advantage of using DUAL •Provides for fast convergence time by keeping a list of loopfree backup routes © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 267 . Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 268 . Inc.EIGRP § Administrative Distance (AD) –Defined as the trustworthiness of the source route § EIGRP default administrative distances –Summary routes = 5 –Internal routes = 90 –Imported routes = 170 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

EIGRP Authentication § EIGRP can – Encrypt routing information – Authenticate routing information © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 269 . Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Inc.EIGRP Network Topology § Topology used is the same as previous chapters with the addition of an ISP router © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 270 .

Inc.EIGRP § EIGRP will automatically summarize routes at classful boundaries © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 271 .

Cisco Public 272 . Inc.Basic EIGRP Configuration § Autonomous System (AS) & Process IDs –This is a collection of networks under the control of a single authority (reference RFC 1930) –AS Numbers are assigned by IANA –Entities needing AS numbers §ISP §Internet Backbone prodiers §Institutions connecting to other institutions using AS numbers © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Basic EIGRP Configuration § EIGRP autonomous system number actually functions as a process ID § Process ID represents an instance of the routing protocol running on a router § Example Router(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 273 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved.Basic EIGRP Configuration The router eigrp command § The global command that enables eigrp is router eigrp autonomous-system -All routers in the EIGRP routing domain must use the same process ID number (autonomous-system number) © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 274 .

Inc. Cisco Public 275 . All rights reserved.Basic EIGRP Configuration The Network Command § Functions of the network command –Enables interfaces to transmit & receive EIGRP updates –Includes network or subnet in EIGRP updates § Example –Router(config-router)#network network-address © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 276 . Inc. All rights reserved.Basic EIGRP Configuration § The network Command with a Wildcard Mask -This option is used when you want to configure EIGRP to advertise specific subnets -Example Router(config-router)#network network-address [wildcard-mask] © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Basic EIGRP Configuration Verifying EIGRP § EIGRP routers must establish adjacencies with their neighbors before any updates can be sent or received § Command used to view neighbor table and verify that EIGRP has established adjacencies with neighbors is show ip eigrp neighbors © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 277 .

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 278 .EIGRP § The show ip protocols command is also used to verify that EIGRP is enabled © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 279 .Basic EIGRP Configuration Examining the Routing Table § The show ip route command is also used to verify EIGRP § EIGRP routes are denoted in a routing table by the letter “D” § By default . EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at major network boundary © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Public 280 . All rights reserved.Basic EIGRP Configuration § Introducing the Null0 Summary Route –Null0 is not a physical interface –In the routing table summary routes are sourced from Null0 §Reason: routes are used for advertisement purposes –EIGRP will automatically include a null0 summary route as child route when 2 conditions are met §At least one subnet is learned via EIGRP §Automatic summarization is enabled © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

16. Cisco Public 281 . Inc. All rights reserved.0.0/16 network is automatically summarized by R1 & R3 © 2007 Cisco Systems.Basic EIGRP Configuration § R3’s routing table shows that the 172.

delay.EIGRP Metric Calculation EIGRP Composite Metric & the K Values § EIGRP uses the following values in its composite metric -Bandwidth. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 282 . Inc. and load § The composite metric used by EIGRP – formula used has values K1 àK5 K1 & K3 =1 all other K values = 0 © 2007 Cisco Systems. reliability.

EIGRP Metric Calculation § Use the sh ip protocols command to verify the K values © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 283 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc.544Mbos (T1) © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 284 .EIGRP Metric Calculation EIGRP Metrics § Use the show interfaces command to view metrics § EIGRP Metrics Bandwidth – EIGRP uses a static bandwidth to calculate metric Most serial interfaces use a default bandwidth value of 1.

Cisco Public 285 .EIGRP Metric Calculation EIGRP Metrics § Delay is the defined as the measure of time it takes for a packet to traverse a route -it is a static value based on link type to which interface is connected © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Public 286 .EIGRP Metric Calculation § Reliability (not a default EIGRP metric) -A measure of the likelihood that a link will fail -Measure dynamically & expressed as a fraction of 255 the higher the fraction the better the reliability § Load (not a default EIGRP metric) – A number that reflects how much traffic is using a link – Number is determined dynamically and is expressed as a fraction of 255 §The lower the fraction the less the load on the link © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Public 287 . Inc. All rights reserved.EIGRP Metric Calculation Using the Bandwidth Command § Modifying the interface bandwidth -Use the bandwidth command -Example Router(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits § Verifying bandwidth –Use the show interface command § Note – bandwidth command does not change the link’s physical bandwidth © 2007 Cisco Systems.

EIGRP Metric Calculation § The EIGRP metric can be determined by examining the bandwidth delay © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 288 .

All rights reserved. Inc.EIGRP Metric Calculation § EIGRP uses the lowest bandwidth (BW)in its metric calculation Calculated BW = reference BW / lowest BW(kbps) § Delay – EIGRP uses the cumulative sum of all outgoing interfaces Calculated Delay = the sum of outgoing interface delays § EIGRP Metric = calculated BW + calculated delay © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 289 .

Cisco Public 290 . Inc.EIGRP Metric Calculation © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

DUAL Concepts § The Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) is used to prevent looping © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 291 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 292 .DUAL Concepts § Successor The best least cost route to a destination found in the routing table § Feasible distance The lowest calculated metric along a path to a destination network © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Public 293 . Feasibility Condition & Reported Distance § Feasible Successor -This is a loop free backup route to same destination as successor route © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.DUAL Concepts Feasible Successors.

Cisco Public 294 . Feasibility Condition & Reported Distance § Reported distance (RD) -The metric that a router reports to a neighbor about its own cost to that network © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.DUAL Concepts Feasible Successors.

Inc.DUAL Concepts § Feasibility Condition (FC) -Met when a neighbor’s RD is less than the local router’s FD to the same destination network © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 295 .

Cisco Public 296 . All rights reserved.DUAL Concepts § Topology Table: Successor & Feasible Successor § EIGRP Topology table –Viewed using the show ip eigrp topology command §Contents of table include: – all successor routes – all feasible successor routes © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

DUAL Concepts
§ EIGRP
Topology
Table
dissected

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DUAL Concepts
Topology Table: No
Feasible Successor
§ A feasible successor may
not be present because
the feasibility condition
may not be met
-In other words, the
reported distance of
the neighbor is greater
than or equal to the
current feasible
distance

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DUAL Concepts
§ Finite Sate Machine (FSM)
–An abstract machine that defines a set of possible
states something can go through, what event
causes those states and what events result form
those states
–FSMs are used to describe how a device, computer
program, or routing algorithm will react to a set of
input events

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DUAL Concepts
§ DUAL FSM
–Selects a best loopfree path to a
destination
–Selects alternate
routes by using
information in EIGRP
tables

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DUAL Concepts
Finite State Machines (FSM)
§ To examine output from EIGRP’s finite state machine
us the debug eigrp fsm command

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More EIGRP Configurations
The Null0 Summary Route
§ By default, EIGRP uses the Null0 interface to discard
any packets that match the parent route but do not
match any of the child routes
§ EIGRP automatically includes a null0 summary route as
a child route whenever both of the following conditions
exist
–One or subnets exists that was learned via EIGRP
–Automatic summarization is enabled

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More EIGRP Configurations
The Null0 Summary Route

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More EIGRP Configurations Disabling Automatic Summarization § The auto-summary command permits EIGRP to automatically summarize at major network boundaries § The no auto-summary command is used to disable automatic summarization –This causes all EIGRP neighbors to send updates that will not be automatically summarized §this will cause changes to appear in both -routing tables -topology tables © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 304 . All rights reserved.

More EIGRP Configurations Manual Summarization § Manual summarization can include supernets Reason: EIGRP is a classless routing protocol & include subnet mask in update § Command used to configure manual summarization –Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp as-number network-address subnet-mask © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 305 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 306 .More EIGRP Configurations § Configuring a summary route in EIGRP © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 307 .More EIGRP Configurations EIGRP Default Routes § “quad zero” static default route -Can be used with any currently supported routing protocol -Is usually configured on a router that is connected a network outside the EIGRP domain § EIGRP & the “Quad zero” static default route –Requires the use of the redistribute static command to disseminate default route in EIGRP updates © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

More EIGRP Configurations Fine-Tuning EIGRP § EIGRP bandwidth utilization -By default. All rights reserved. EIGRP uses only up to 50% of interface bandwidth for EIGRP information -The command to change the percentage of bandwidth used by EIGRP is Router(config-if)#ip bandwidth-percent eigrp asnumber percent © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 308 . Inc.

Inc.More EIGRP Configurations § Configuring Hello Intervals and Hold Times -Hello intervals and hold times are configurable on a per-interface basis -The command to configure hello interval is Router(config-if)#ip hello-interval eigrp as-number seconds § Changing the hello interval also requires changing the hold time to a value greater than or equal to the hello interval -The command to configure hold time value is Router(config-if)#ip hold-time eigrp as-number seconds © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 309 .

Summary § Background & History –EIGRP is a derivative of IGRP §EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary distance vector routing protocol released in 1994 § EIGRP terms and characteristics –EIGPR uses RTP to transmit & receive EIGRP packets –EIGRP has 5 packet type: §Hello packets §Update packets §Acknowledgement packets §Query packets §Reply packets –Supports VLSM & CIDR © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 310 .

Inc. All rights reserved.Summary § EIGRP terms and characteristics –EIGRP uses a hello protocol §Purpose of hello protocol is to discover & establish adjacencies –EIGRP routing updates §Aperiodic §Partial and bounded §Fast convergence © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 311 .

Summary § EIGRP commands –The following commands are used for EIGRP configuration §RtrA(config)#router eigrp [autonomous-system #] §RtrA(config-router)#network network-number –The following commands can be used to verify EIGRP §Show ip protocols §Show ip eigrp neighbors §Show ip route © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 312 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Summary § EIGRP metrics include –Bandwidth (default) –Delay (default) –Reliability –Load © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 313 . Inc.

All rights reserved.Summary § DUAL –Purpose of DUAL §To prevent routing loops –Successor §Primary route to a destination –Feasible successor §Backup route to a destination –Feasible distance §Lowest calculated metric to a destination –Reported distance §The distance towards a destination as advertised by an upstream neighbor © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 314 . Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 315 .Summary § Choosing the best route –After router has received all updates from directly connected neighbors. it can calculate its DUAL §1st metric is calculated for each route §2nd route with lowest metric is designated successor & is placed in routing table §3rd feasible successor is found –Criteria for feasible successor: it must have lower reported distance to the destination than the installed route’s feasible distance –Feasible routes are maintained in topology table © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 316 .Summary § Automatic summarization –On by default –Summarizes routes on classful boundary –Summarization can be disabled using the following command §RtrA(config-if)#no auto-summary © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Link-State Routing Protocols Routing Protocols and Concepts – Chapter 10 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 317 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 318 . Inc. § List the benefits and requirements of link-state routing protocols. © 2007 Cisco Systems.Objectives § Describe the basic features & concepts of link-state routing protocols.

All rights reserved.Introduction © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 319 . Inc.

Inc.Link-State Routing § Link state routing protocols -Also known as shortest path first algorithms -These protocols built around Dijkstra’s SPF © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 320 .

Cisco Public 321 . Inc. All rights reserved.Link-State Routing Dikjstra’s algorithm also known as the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. Cisco Public 322 . All rights reserved.Link-State Routing § The shortest path to a destination is not necessarily the path with the least number of hops © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Inc. link type.Link-State Routing Link-State Routing Process § How routers using Link State Routing Protocols reach convergence -Each routers learns about its own directly connected networks -Link state routers exchange hello packet to “meet” other directly connected link state routers. -Each router builds its own Link State Packet (LSP) which includes information about neighbors such as neighbor ID. Cisco Public 323 . & bandwidth. -Once all the routers have received all the LSPs. -After the LSP is created the router floods it to all neighbors who then store the information and then forward it until all routers have the same information. the routers then construct a topological map of the network which is used to determine the best routes to a destination © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. Cisco Public 324 . All rights reserved.Link-State Routing § Directly Connected Networks § Link This is an interface on a router § Link state This is the information about the state of the links © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 325 .Link-State Routing Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors § Link state routing protocols use a hello protocol Purpose of a hello protocol: -To discover neighbors (that use the same link state routing protocol) on its link © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Cisco Public 326 . § Once routers learn it has neighbors they form an adjacency -2 adjacent neighbors will exchange hello packets -These packets will serve as a keep alive function © 2007 Cisco Systems.Link-State Routing Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors § Connected interfaces that are using the same link state routing protocols will exchange hello packets. All rights reserved. Inc.

All rights reserved. link type. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 327 . & bandwidth. Inc.Link-State Routing Building the Link State Packet § Each router builds its own Link State Packet (LSP) Contents of LSP: -State of each directly connected link -Includes information about neighbors such as neighbor ID.

-After receiving the LSP the neighbor continues to forward it throughout routing area. All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems.Link-State Routing Flooding LSPs to Neighbors § Once LSP are created they are forwarded out to neighbors. Cisco Public 328 . Inc.

Link-State Routing § LSPs are sent out under the following conditions -Initial router start up or routing process -When there is a change in topology © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 329 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Link-State Routing Constructing a link state data base § Routers use a database to construct a topology map of the network © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 330 .

Inc. Cisco Public 331 .Link-State Routing © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Link-State Routing Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree § Building a portion of the SPF tree Process begins by examining R2’s LSP information -R1 ignores 1st LSP Reason: R1 already knows it’s connected to R2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 332 . All rights reserved.

This information is added to R1’s SPF tree © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Link-State Routing § Building a portion of the SPF tree -R1 uses 2nd LSP Reason: R1 can create a link from R2 to R5. Cisco Public 333 .

Link-State Routing § Building a portion of the SPF tree -R1 uses 3rd LSP §Reason: R1 learns that R2 is connected to 10.0/16. Cisco Public 334 . §This link is added to R1’s SPF tree. Inc. © 2007 Cisco Systems.0.5. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 335 . All rights reserved.Link-State Routing § Determining the shortest path The shortest path to a destination determined by adding the costs & finding the lowest cost © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

© 2007 Cisco Systems.Link-State Routing § Once the SPF algorithm has determined the shortest path routes. these routes are placed in the routing table. Inc. Cisco Public 336 . All rights reserved.

Convergence A periodic/ event driven routing updates Use of LSP Distance vector No No Slow Generally No No Link State Yes Yes Fast Generally Yes Yes © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 337 .Link-State Routing Protocols Advantages of a Link-State Routing Protocol Routing protocol Builds Topological map Router can independently determine the shortest path to every network. All rights reserved. Inc.

Link-State Routing Protocols Requirements for using a link state routing protocol § Memory requirements Typically link state routing protocols use more memory § Processing Requirements More CPU processing is required of link state routing protocols § Bandwidth Requirements Initial startup of link state routing protocols can consume lots of bandwidth © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 338 .

Cisco Public 339 . Inc.Link-State Routing Protocols § 2 link state routing protocols used for routing IP -Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) -Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS) © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Summary § Link State Routing protocols are also known as Shortest Path First protocols § Summarizing the link state process -Routers 1ST learn of directly connected networks -Routers then say “hello” to neighbors -Routers then build link state packets -Routers then flood LSPs to all neighbors -Routers use LSP database to build a network topology map & calculate the best path to each destination © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 340 . All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 341 . All rights reserved.Summary § Link An interface on the router § Link State Information about an interface such as -IP address -Subnet mask -Type of network -Cost associated with link -Neighboring routers on the link © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Summary § Link State Packets After initial flooding. Inc. Cisco Public 342 . additional LSP are sent out when a change in topology occurs § Examples of link state routing protocols -Open shortest path first -IS-IS © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

OSPF Chapter 11 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 343 . Inc.

Cisco Public 344 . modify and calculate the metric used by OSPF § Describe the Designated Router/Backup Designated Router (DR/BDR) election process in multiaccess networks § Describe the uses of additional configuration commands in OSPF © 2007 Cisco Systems.Objectives § Describe the background and basic features of OSPF § Identify and apply the basic OSPF configuration commands § Describe. Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 345 . Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 346 .Introduction to OSPF Background of OSPF § Began in 1987 § 1989 OSPFv1 released in RFC 1131 This version was experimental & never deployed § 1991 OSPFv2 released in RFC 1247 § 1998 OSPFv2 updated in RFC 2328 § 1999 OSPFv3 published in RFC 2740 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Destination IP address.Source IP address. & Protocol field set to 89 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 347 . Inc.Introduction to OSPF OSPF Message Encapsulation § OSPF packet type There exist 5 types § OSPF packet header Contains . All rights reserved.Router ID and area ID and Type code for OSPF packet type § IP packet header Contains .

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 348 .Introduction to OSPF OSPF Message Encapsulation § Data link frame header Contains .Source MAC address and Destination MAC address © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc.Introduction to OSPF OSPF Packet Types © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 349 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Introduction to OSPF Hello Protocol § OSPF Hello Packet –Purpose of Hello Packet § Discover OSPF neighbors & establish adjacencies § Advertise guidelines on which routers must agree to become neighbors § Used by multi-access networks to elect a designated router and a backup designated router © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 350 . Inc.

All rights reserved.0.Introduction to OSPF § Hello Packets continued Contents of a Hello Packet router ID of transmitting router § OSPF Hello Intervals –Usually multicast (224.0.5) –Sent every 30 seconds for NBMA segments § OSPF Dead Intervals –This is the time that must transpire before the neighbor is considered down –Default time is 4 times the hello interval © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 351 . Inc.

Introduction to OSPF § Hello protocol packets contain information that is used in electing -Designated Router (DR) § DR is responsible for updating all other OSPF routers -Backup Designated Router (BDR) § This router takes over DR’s responsibilities if DR fails © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 352 . Inc.

All rights reserved.Introduction to OSPF OSPF Link-state Updates § Purpose of a Link State Update (LSU) Used to deliver link state advertisements § Purpose of a Link State Advertisement (LSA) Contains information about neighbors & path costs © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 353 .

Cisco Public 354 . All rights reserved.Introduction to OSPF OSPF Algorithm § OSPF routers build & maintain link-state database containing LSA received from other routers –Information found in database is utilized upon execution of Dijkstra SPF algorithm –SPF algorithm used to create SPF tree –SPF tree used to populate routing table © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc.Introduction to OSPF Administrative Distance § Default Administrative Distance for OSPF is 110 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 355 .

Cisco Public 356 . Inc.Introduction to OSPF § OSPF Authentication –Purpose is to encrypt & authenticate routing information –This is an interface specific configuration –Routers will only accept routing information from other routers that have been configured with the same password or authentication information © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Basic OSPF Configuration Lab Topology § Topology used for this chapter Discontiguous IP addressing scheme Since OSPF is a classless routing protocol the subnet mask is configured in © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 357 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Basic OSPF Configuration The router ospf command § To enable OSPF on a router use the following command R1(config)#router ospf process-id Process id § A locally significant number between 1 and 65535 -this means it does not have to match other OSPF routers © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 358 . Inc. All rights reserved.

area-id refers to the OSPF area. Inc.the inverse of the subnet mask area-id . OSPF area is a group of routers that share link state information -Example: Router(config-router)#network network-address wildcard-ask area area-id © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 359 .Basic OSPF Configuration § OSPF network command -Requires entering: network address wildcard mask .

Basic OSPF Configuration
§ Router ID
–This is an IP address used to identify a router
–3 criteria for deriving the router ID
§Use IP address configured with OSPF router-id command
-Takes precedence over loopback and physical interface
addresses
§If router-id command not used then router chooses highest
IP address of any loopback interfaces
§If no loopback interfaces are configured then the highest IP
address on any active interface is used

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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360

Basic OSPF Configuration
OSPF Router ID
§ Commands used to verify current router ID
–Show ip protocols
–Show ip ospf
–Show ip ospf interface

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Basic OSPF Configuration
OSPF Router ID
§ Router ID & Loopback addresses
-Highest loopback address will be used as router ID if router-id
command isn’t used
-Advantage of using loopback address
the loopback interface cannot fail à OSPF stability

§ The OSPF router-id command
–Introduced in IOS 12.0
–Command syntax
§Router(config)#router ospfprocess-id
§Router(config-router)#router-idip-address

§ Modifying the Router ID
–Use the command Router#clear ip ospf process
© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Basic OSPF Configuration
Verifying OSPF
§ Use the show ip ospf command to verify & trouble
shoot OSPF networks
Command will display the following:
§ Neighbor adjacency
-No adjacency indicated by §Neighboring router’s Router ID is not displayed
§A state of full is not displayed
-Consequence of no adjacency§No link state information exchanged
§Inaccurate SPF trees & routing tables

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Basic OSPF Configuration
Verifying OSPF - Additional Commands
Command

Show ip protocols

Show ip ospf

Show ip ospf interface

Description
Displays OSPF process ID,
router ID, networks router is
advertising & administrative
distance
Displays OSPF process ID,
router ID, OSPF area information
& the last time SPF algorithm
calculated
Displays hello interval and dead
interval

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Basic OSPF Configuration
Examining the routing table
§ Use the show ip route command to display the routing
table
-An “O’ at the beginning of a route indicates that the router
source is OSPF
-Note OSPF does not automatically summarize at major
network boundaries

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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OSPF Metric
§ OSPF uses cost as the metric for determining the
best route
-The best route will have the lowest cost
-Cost is based on bandwidth of an interface
§Cost is calculated using the formula

108 / bandwidth
-Reference bandwidth
§defaults to 100Mbps
§can be modified using
§auto-cost reference-bandwidth command

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All rights reserved. Cisco Public 367 . Inc.OSPF Metric § COST of an OSPF route Is the accumulated value from one router to the next © 2007 Cisco Systems.

OSPF Metric § Usually the actual speed of a link is different than the default bandwidth –This makes it imperative that the bandwidth value reflects link’s actual speed §Reason: so routing table has best path information § The show interface command will display interface’s bandwidth -Most serial link default to 1. Inc. Cisco Public 368 . All rights reserved.544Mbps © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. Cisco Public 369 . All rights reserved.Basic OSPF Configuration Modifying the Cost of a link § Both sides of a serial link should be configured with the same bandwidth –Commands used to modify bandwidth value §Bandwidth command –Example: Router(config-if)#bandwidthbandwidth-kbps §ip ospf cost command – allows you to directly specify interface cost -Example:R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ip ospf cost 1562 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Basic OSPF Configuration Modifying the Cost of the link § Difference between bandwidth command & the ip ospf cost command –Ip ospf cost command §Sets cost to a specific value –Bandwidth command §Link cost is calculated © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 370 .

Cisco Public 371 . All rights reserved. Inc.OSPF and Multiaccess Networks Challenges in Multiaccess Networks § OSPF defines five network types: –Point-to-point –Broadcast Multiaccess –Nonbroadcast Multiaccess (NBMA) –Point-to-multipoint –Virtual links © 2007 Cisco Systems.

OSPF in Multiaccess Networks § 2 challenges presented by multiaccess networks –Multiple adjacencies –Extensive LSA flooding © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 372 . Inc.

Cisco Public 373 .OSPF in Multiaccess Networks § Extensive flooding of LSAs For every LSA sent out there must be an acknowledgement of receipt sent back to transmitting router. All rights reserved. Inc. consequence: lots of bandwidth consumed and chaotic traffic © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 374 .0.0.0. Inc.6 to DR & BDR –DR forward LSA via multicast address 224.5 to all other routers © 2007 Cisco Systems.0.OSPF in Multiaccess Networks § Solution to LSA flooding issue is the use of –Designated router (DR) –Backup designated router (BDR) § DR & BDR selection –Routers are elected to send & receive LSA § Sending & Receiving LSA –DRothers send LSAs via multicast 224. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 375 . Inc.OSPF in Multiaccess Networks DR/BDR Election Process § DR/BDR elections DO NOT occur in point to point networks © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Public 376 . All rights reserved.OSPF in Multiaccess Networks § DR/BDR elections will take place on multiaccess networks as shown below © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.OSPF in Multiaccess Networks § Criteria for getting elected DR/BDR 1. © 2007 Cisco Systems. 3. Cisco Public 377 . DR: Router with the highest OSPF interface priority. If OSPF interface priorities are equal. 2. the highest router ID is used to break the tie. BDR: Router with the second highest OSPF interface priority. Inc.

All rights reserved.OSPF in Multiaccess Networks § Timing of DR/BDR Election –Occurs as soon as 1st router has its interface enabled on multiaccess network §When a DR is elected it remains as the DR until one of the following occurs -The DR fails. Inc. -The OSPF process on the DR fails. -The multiaccess interface on the DR fails. Cisco Public 378 . © 2007 Cisco Systems.

OR §Shut down the interface on all routers. and then all other routers. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 379 . and then boot all other routers.OSPF in Multiaccess Networks § Manipulating the election process -If you want to influence the election of DR & BDR then do one of the following §Boot up the DR first. then the BDR. © 2007 Cisco Systems. followed by a no shutdown on the DR. followed by the BDR.

All rights reserved.OSPF in Multiaccess Networks OSPF Interface Priority § Manipulating the DR/BDR election process continued –Use the ip ospf priority interface command. Cisco Public 380 . –Example:Router(config-if)#ip ospf priority {0 .255} §Priority number range 0 to 255 –0 means the router cannot become the DR or BDR –1 is the default priority value © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

More OSPF Configuration Redistributing an OSPF Default Route § Topology includes a link to ISP –Router connected to ISP §Called an autonomous system border router §Used to propagate a default route –Example of static default route R1(config)#ip route 0.0.0 loopback 1 –Requires the use of the default-information originate command –Example of default-information originate command R1(config-router)#default-information originate © 2007 Cisco Systems.0. All rights reserved.0.0 0.0. Cisco Public 381 . Inc.

Inc. Cisco Public 382 . All rights reserved.More OSPF Configuration Fine-Tuning OSPF § Since link speeds are getting faster it may be necessary to change reference bandwidth values –Do this using the auto-cost reference-bandwidth command –Example: § R1(config-router)#auto-cost reference-bandwidth 10000 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.More OSPF Configuration Fine-Tuning OSPF § Modifying OSPF timers –Reason to modify timers §Faster detection of network failures –Manually modifying Hello & Dead intervals §Router(config-if)#ip ospf hello-interval seconds §Router(config-if)#ip ospf dead-interval seconds –Point to be made §Hello & Dead intervals must be the same between neighbors © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 383 .

Summary § RFC 2328 describes OSPF link state concepts and operations § OSPF Characteristics –A commonly deployed link state routing protocol –Employs DRs & BDRs on multi-access networks §DRs & BDRs are elected §DR & BDRs are used to transmit and receive LSAs –Uses 5 packet types: 1: HELLO 2: DATABASE DESCRIPTION 3: LINK STATE REQUEST 4: LINK STATE UPDATE 5: LINK STATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 384 .

Inc. Cisco Public 385 . All rights reserved.Summary § OSPF Characteristics –Metric = cost §Lowest cost = best path § Configuration –Enable OSPF on a router using the following command §R1(config)#router ospf process-id –use the network command to define which interfaces will participate in a given OSPF process §Router(config-router)#network network-address wildcard-mask area area-id © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 386 .Summary § Verifying OSPF configuration –Use the following commands §show ip protocol §show ip route §show ip ospf interface §show ip ospf neighbor © 2007 Cisco Systems.