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1. Ans (c)
Explanation: Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) form in the stratosphe
re in
altitudes between 20 and 30 km. The formation of PSC requires ver
y low
temperatures. That is why they only appear in winter and mainly o
Scandinavia, Scotland, Alaska and Antarctica. They form at temperatur
es of
around minus 85ºC, colder than average lower stratophere temperatures, and
are comprised of ice particles ~10µm across. The clouds must be composed of
similar sized crystals to produce the characteristic bright iridesce
nt colors by
diffraction and interference. Polar stratospheric clouds or PSCs, also known
nacreous clouds from nacre, or mother of pearl, due to its irides
cence), are
clouds in the winter polar stratosphere.
2. Ans (b)
Explanation: The mesosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere tha
t is
directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermospher
e. The
mesosphere is located about 50 to 85 kilometres (30 to 50 miles)
the Earth's surface. Within the mesosphere, temperature decrease
s with
increasing altitude. This is due to decreasing solar heating and in
cooling by CO2 Radiative emission. The top
of the
mesosphere, called
the mesopause, is the coldest place on Earth.
3. Ans (c)
1. Xerophytic vegetation found in all three climatic region.
2. The term xerophyte refers to a plant species that has evolved o
ver time to
adapt to dry regions like deserts. Xerophytes have adapted to be able t
o keep
extremely large amounts of water for a long period of time.
Without this
capability, the plant would die, as the desert region itself does not p
enough water to sustain life.
4. Ans (c)
Explanation: Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km (440 to 6,200 miles) Thermosphere:
80 to 700 km (50 to 440 miles)

Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km (31 to

50 miles) Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km (7 to 31 miles) Troposphere: 0 to 12 km (0 to 7 mi les) 5. 2. On October 24. Alan Eustace became the record holder for reaching the altitude record for a manned balloon at 135.2 miles) 7.6 . Mist forms wherev er water droplets are suspended in the air by temperature inversion. a fragile shield of gas. mostly due to the low temperatu res encountered near the tropopause and low air density.This optimizes fuel burn. Commercial airliners typically cruise at altitudes of 9–12 km (30. 8.000– 39. Spawned from . Ans (c) Explanation: The United Nations' (UN) International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer is celebrated on September 16 every year. 2014. Ans (c) Explanation: Tornadoes are nature’s most violent storms. 6. Some bird species like Rüppell's vulture have been reported to fly at the lower levels of the stratosphere`.6 miles). while mist can reduce visibility to between 1 and 2 kilometres (0. 3. Fog is denser than mist and tends to last longer. This event commemorates the date of the signing of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. It also allows them to stay above hard weather (extreme turbulence). volcanic activit y.Page 2----------------------SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY of visibility. The ozone layer. protects the Earth from the harmful portion of the rays of the sun.000 ft) in temperate latitudes (in the lowe r reaches of the stratosphere). fog reduces it to less than one kilometre (0. or changes in humidity. Fog is a cloud that reaches ground level. Ans (d) Explanation: Fog and mist are both created by water droplets.890 feet. reducing p arasitic drag on the airframe. In te rms ----------------------. even if that "ground" is a hill or mountaintop. Ans (d) Explanation: 1. differing only in their overall locations and density. thus hel ping preserve life on the planet.1.

near 30 degrees north or south latitude. This flow of air occurs because the Sun heats air at t he Earth’s surface near the equator. 11. the air flows toward the north and south poles. Ans (d) 12. 14. Ans (c) 10. Once the rising air r eaches the top of the troposphere at approximately 10-15 kilometres above the Earth’s surface. Ans (b) Explanation: Hadley cell is a thermally direct cell. tornadoes can cause fatalities and de vastate a neighbourhood in seconds. The air is normally cooled by expansion during it s upward movement. Upward flow of air in the atmosphere may be caused by convection ----------------------. and f lows back towards the equator. 9.powerful thunderstorms. returns to the Earth’s surface in the subtropics. The Hadley c ell is an atmospheric circulation pattern in the tropics that produces winds c alled the tropical easterlies and the trade winds. Ozone most absorbs ultra violet radiation. Ans (d) Explanation: 1. 2. A tornado appears as a rotating. air rises up i nto the atmosphere at or near the equator. In the Hadley cell.Page 3----------------------SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY . flows toward the poles above the surface of the Earth. The Hadley cell eventually returns air to the surface of the Earth in the subtropics. Ozone is a unstable Gas. funnelshaped cloud that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground with whirling winds th at can reach 300 miles per hour. creating a band o f low pressure at the equator. The warm air rises. Ans (a) Explanation: Clouds are formed when air containing water vapour is cooled below a critical temperature called the dew point and the resulting moisture condenses into droplets on microscopic dust particles (condensation nuclei) in the atmosphere. Ans (a) 13.

wild. or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas 22. Toronto belongs to Laur entian climate. Cairo belongs to Desert climate.resulting from intense solar heating of the ground. Camels ha ve: • Large. and thin fur elsewhere to all ow easy heat loss. but they lose very little through urination and sweating). They are well adapted for survival in the desert. • Thick fur on the top of the body for shade. Ans (b) 17. Rainforests receive 160 to 4 00 inches (400-1000 cm) of rain each year. Zaire (Africa) and Indonesia (South East Asia). 15. 18. Ans (a) 16. Ans (c) Explanation: Durban belongs to China climate. Ans (d) Explanation: Camels live in deserts that are hot and dry during the day. Ans (a) Explanation: A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use de signation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped. • The ability to go for a long time without water (they don t store water i n their humps. 19. Other tro pical rainforest places are in Hawaii and the islands of the Pacific & Caribbean . • A large surface area to volume ratio to maximise heat loss. • • The ability to tolerate body temperatures up to 42°C. 21. or b y a mountain range at an angle to the wind. Ans (d) 20. Ans (c) . by a cold wedge of air (cold front) near the ground causing a mass of warm air to be forced aloft. but cold at night. Clouds are occasionally produced b y a reduction of pressure aloft or by the mixing of warmer and cooler air curr ents. Delhi belongs to mo nsoon climate. flat feet to spread their weight on the sand. Slit-like nostrils and two rows of eyelashes to help keep the sand out. The largest rainforests are in Brazil (South America). Ans (d) Explanation: Tropical rainforests are located around the equat or where temperatures stay near 80 degrees year round.

Fertility is directly determined by a number of factor s which. cultural. In effect. usually a calendar year. the general fertility rate is a better basis to compare fertility lev els among populations than are changes in the crude birth rate. The general fertility rate is a somewhat more refined measure than the birth rate because it relates births to the age-sex group at risk of giving birth (usually defined as wom en ages 15 to 49). economic. the fertility of all women at a given poin t in time. which refers to the physiological capability of w omen to reproduce. are affected by a great many other fact ors: social. The TFR is one of the most useful indicators of fertility because it gives the best picture of how many children women are currently having. and health. 24.Page 4----------------------SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY because of different age and sex distributions among populations.000 women ages 15 to 49 in a given year. which is believed . It differs from fecundity. The general fertility rate (also called the fertility rate) is th e number of live births per 1. in turn. Thus. This limitation helps eradicate distortions that might arise ----------------------. The total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children that would be born to a woman by the time she ended childbearing if she were to pass through all her childbearing years conforming to the age specific fertility rates of a given year. environmental. Ans (c) Explanation: Fertility refers to the number of live births women have. in a single number.23. it says: This is the total number of children a woman would have if the fertility rates for a given year applied to her thr oughout her reproductive life. Ans (d) Explanation: An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not nativ e to a specific location and has a tendency to spread. The Age-Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR) is the number of live birt hs per 1000 women in a specific age group for a specified geographic area and for a spe cific point in time. The TFR sums up.

and their distinctive customs and cause damage to the environment. Bushmen were hunter/gatherers. Bushmen are small in stature generally with light yellowish skin. The area south of the Antarctic Circle is known as the Antarctic. exactly once per year. roots and melon s gathered primarily by the women. there is at ----------------------. Hyptis suaveolens 25. at the December solstice and J . and the zone immediately to the north is called the S outhern Temperate Zone. in principle. That is to say. Ans (a) Explanation: The Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group of nomadic people inhabiting southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. The equivalent line of latitude in the northern hemisphere is the Arctic Circle. where they hav e lived for at least 20. and at least one wh ole day during which the Sun does not rise. Ans (c) Explanation: The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles (or para llels) of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.Page 5----------------------SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY least one whole day during which the Sun does not set. nuts. The Bushmen are the oldest inhabitants of southern Africa. and a period of twenty-four hour continuous night time at least once per year. On the Antarctic Circle these even ts occur. The Bushmen are the remnants of Africa s oldest cultural group. Example: Eichhornia crassipes. Their home is in the vast expa nse of the Kalahari Desert. They are among the best known local populations due to their residence near the many game parks of the African Great Lakes. genetically the closest surviving people to the original Ho mo sapiens “core” from which the Negroid people of Africa emerged. Parthenium hysterophorus. Lantana camara. Every place south of the Antarctic Circle experiences a period of twenty-four hour continuous daylight at least once per year. human economy and/or human health. 26. As of 2000. with traditionally about 70/80% of their die t consisting of plant food. which wrinkles very early in l ife. including berries. it lies at latitude 66° 33′ 39″ south of the equator.000 years.

by approx imately 23. 34. Ans (d) Explanation: Indonesia can be eliminated because it is located ne arby to equator. and the region of permanent sunlight reaches it s northern limit. 30. (ii) Sunspot.5 degrees. 29. market gardening is exclusively related to British type. These events occur because the earth s axis is tilted. Brazil can be eliminated because it is located Southern Hemispher e. Algeria can be eliminated because it is located nearby to Greenwich meridi an. and the region of permanent darkness reaches its northern limit. at the December solstice the southern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun to its maximum extent. Ans (d) 28. Incoming solar radiation is short wave radi ation and terrestrial radiation is long wave radiation. 32. respectively. 33. Ans (b) Explanation: The earth atmosphere is transparent to short wave radiation a nd opaque to long wave radiation.une solstice. Ans (a) Explanation: Here question is about the factors responsible for a mount of incoming solar radiation. At the June solstice the southern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun to i ts maximum extent. That is the re ason the lower atmosphere of the earth is heated by various factors. Ans (c) 31. So type of the earth surface will not determined the amount of incoming solar radiation. relative to ecliptic (the plane of the earth s orbit around the S un). Ans (c) Explanation: If atmosphere is not there solar radiation will not scattered so .  27. Ans (a) Explanation: Though fruits are cultivated both in British type and Mediterranean climate. Ans (a) Explanation: All other three environmental issues are indirectly not relat ed to rise in sea level. Other factors which affects insolation are (i) Distance between sun and earth.

Ans (d) 43. Ans (d) 37. Ans (b) Explanation: Albedo of high clouds like cirrus is less than that of lowest and thickest clouds. 50. Ans (a) 40. Ans (a) 46. Ans (b) Explanation: Cyclone is a system of atmospheric pressure in which the isob ars indicates low pressure at the centre and high pressure at the periphery. Ans (a) 39. Ans (b) Explanation: In the question we ask of major determines of clima te of a particular location so local weather condition is not a major determinant. 35. Ans (d) 45. Ans (b) Explanation: Conventional rainfall is occurring in Malwa plateau. 44. Ans (b) Explanation: In the table temperature shows that the places locat ed in southern hemisphere because in June and July it has lowest temperature and . 49. Orograph ic rainfall is occurring in Malabar Coast.Page 6----------------------SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY Explanation: Thunderstorms will not occur in the subtropical high pressure belt. Ans (b) Explanation: Pressure belt are more regular in southern hemisphere. 41. Ans (a) Explanation: In India Bhopal will receive vertical sun rise because it is located within the tropics. 48. Ans (a) ----------------------. Ans (d) 47. Ans (d) 42. will appear in black. 38.

Ans (d) Explanation: Condensation – The process of conversion of water vapour into liquid and solid form. During winter season rainfall occur in Med iterranean climate only. 57.Page 7----------------------SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY than the surrounding air and hence rises upward automatically. 51. Option (C) is a explanation for absolute humidity. Moreover water vapour and other greenhouse gases will absorbs infrared energy. After rising to certain height the air bec omes saturated and latent heat of condensation is added to the rising air so the rising air cools at wet adiabatic(5OC per 1000m) whereas the normal lapse rate ( experiences winter.5OC per 1000 m. Ans (c) 55. Ans (b) . This is ca lled conditional instability because the air is initially forced to mo ve upward but rises automatically due to its own properties after condensation point is reached. Consequently. That is the reason for overcast nights are warmer than cl ear nights. Ans (b) Explanation: Option (A) is a explanation for relative humidity. Ans (c) 53. Ans (a) Explanation: When a parcel of air is forced to move upward. it cools at dry adiabatic lapse rate (10O O C per 1000m or 5. Mostly terrestrial radiation are infrared radiation.5OC per 1000m) is greater than it. 56. 54. Dew Point – The temperature at which the given air is saturated.5 F per 1000 feet) wh ereas normal lapse rate is 6. 52. the air become s warmer ----------------------. Ans (b) Explanation: Clouds are transparent to incoming solar radiation whereas it is opaque to terrestrial radiation. Frost point – The temperature at which condensation occurs.

65. Ans (b) 66. Tropical cyclone as highest wind velocity than temperature cyclon e. 70. tha t is the keyword to eliminate all other three options. Ans (d) Explanation: The Kuroshio Current starts from Taiwan and its flowing to Ku ril Islands. 59. 68.Explanation: Vegetation in the mountain is not the major deciding factor. Ans (b) Explanation: All the planets revolve around the sun not in the same plane and direction because Mercury and Uranus are in different motion. Ans (d) 61. Ans (a) Explanation: Temperate cyclone as less pressure gradient than t ropical cyclone. In temperate cyclone there will be different pattern of rainfall and weather conditions. 63. Ans (b) Explanation: The earth’s lower atmosphere is directly heated by ter restrial radiation or outgoing long wave radiation.Page 8----------------------SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY Explanation: In these four options in all other options it is g iven that particular climate type is found only in northern hemisphere. Example: 2005 Mumbai rain. Mountain should be near to the coast. Ans (d) 60. Ans (d) 67. Ans (d) 62. then only the mountain wi ll give triggering effect for the winds. Ans (b) ----------------------. Ans (b) Explanation: In the question you have to select not correct statement. Cl oud burst will occur in coastal areas also. 64. Ans (c) . 58. Ans (d) 69.

but difference between Lagos and Nairobi is 4 hours. 2. Ans (c) Explanation: Among the four given tribal communities Mongols are settled cultivators. Ans (c) Explanation: Movement of the sun causes shifting of both thermally induce d and dynamically produced pressure belts. Long winter nights 4. In these subtropics east coast wetter tha n west coast due to easterlies. Ans (c) 75. 1. per year. Ans (d) Explanation: For temperature inversion the following conditions are necess ary. 76. 74. Ans (d) Explanation: In all other three options time difference is 3 hou rs. Ans (a) 79. Generally precipitation is abundant in e quatorial region. Ans (a) 82. Ans (b) Explanation: In the high latitude west coasts are wetter than ea st coast because of westerlies influence. Clear sky. In the rainfall pattern in the s . 77. 81. Cold and dry air 80. Ans (d) 72. Uniformly high temperature throu ghout the year found in equator region. Ans (a) 78. Feeble wind 3. Ans (a) Explanation: Broad-leaf evergreen forests found only in regions where rai nfall is more than 150 cm. Ans (b) ----------------------.Page 9----------------------SHANKAR IAS ACADEMY 83. Ans (d) 73.71.

Ans (c) 91. 92. Ans (c) 97. Ans (c) 96. Ans (d) 85. 94. Ans (c) 86. 90. Ans (a) 93. Ans (c) Explanation: Among the four only (c) is most appropriate answer. Ans (a) 88. Ans (a) Explanation: There is no relation between season of the equatorial region and earth’s rotational velocity and coriolis force. Ans (c) 89.avannah region summer experience more rain and generally winter will be dry. Ans (b) . 95. Ans (d) 87. 98. Ans (c) Explanation: In the winter northern India will experience low temperature and high pressure. Ans (a) Explanation: No possibilities for thunderstorms and torrential rai ns in the north western India during winter. 84. Ans (d) Explanation: Near to the city A there is no influence of large water bodi es like sea or ocean. 99. because during winter north western pa rt of India will experience low temperature and high pressure. Ans (d) Explanation: The 4th statement explains about absolute humidity. Ans (c) 100. Generally any place located near to sea or ocean will exper ience moderating effect on its temperature.