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Review for Long Answer Questions

These are the short answer questions that I will be choosing from for the midterm test.
Chapter 1
1. Compare and contrast Classical, Positivist and Sociological Criminology.
2. Discuss the three different views of crime and law: (1) Consensus view; (2) Conflict view;
(3) Interactionist view.
3. Discuss the four diverse definitions of law and crime, and provide one limitation of each:
(1) Legal; (2) Sociological; (3) Political; (4) Psychological.
Chapter 2
1. Discuss the three most important classifications of law: (1) Crime and Torts – Criminal and
Civil Law; (2) Indictable and Summary Offences; (3) Mala in Se and Mala Prohibitum Crimes.
2. Discuss the five main functions of criminal law: (1) Providing social control; (2) Discouraging
revenge; (3) Expressing public opinion and morality; (4) Deterring criminal behavior;
(5) Maintaining the social order.
3. Differentiate between Actus Reus and Mens Rea. Discuss how the prosecutor/crown attorney
proves that the event was ‘caused’ by the accused person’s conduct. Discuss the difference
between subjective and objective mens rea.
Chapter 3
1. Discuss the main explanations for age differences in crime, specifically why are crime rates
high for youth, but then decrease with age. Discuss which factors influence people to age out of
crime or desist from crime and explain why some people continue to commit crime even when
they get older. Make sure to make reference to Maturational reform and Greenberg’s perspective.
2. Discuss the four explanations for the overrepresentation of aboriginals in the criminal justice
system: (1) Cultural explanation; (2) Structural explanation; (3) Discriminatory treatment of
aboriginal people by the criminal justice system; (4) Structural and cultural explanation.
3. Discuss the three explanations for gender difference in crime: (1) Biosocial differences; (2)
Socialization; (3) Liberal feminist theory.

Explain why people become victims of crime according to Routine Activities theory.Chapter 4 1. . Discuss why crime rates have increased since the 1960s according to routine activities theory. 3. Explain why people become victims of crime according to Lifestyle theories. and the deviant place hypotheses. (3) Routine Activities theory. Discuss these 3 variables and provide an example of a crime to illustrate how these 3 variables interact. Discuss some of the motives and roots of hate crime. (2) Lifestyle theories. Discuss the difference between active and passive precipitation. proximity. Conclude by discussing some of the limitations of the routine activities approach. Discuss the equivalent group. Discuss how the volume and distribution of predatory crime are closely related to the interaction of 3 variables. leading to victimization. Discuss the three theories which explain why people become victims of crime: (1) Victim Precipitation theories. 2. Explain why people become victims of crime according to Victim Precipitation theories. Discuss the four techniques of crime control advocated by routine activities theory. 4.