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CHAPTER 4

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

4.1

Introduction

Butanol is a flammable liquid that is used as a fuel and as an industrial solvent. Like gasoline, it is a
hydrocarbon, meaning that it is composed of the chemical elements hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.
Butanol also known as an alternative fuel stems in a large part from the fact that it has convinced
significant advantages over ethanol. For example, an engine which runs on this hydrocarbon will have an
easier time starting in cold temperatures than one which uses ethanol. This is because of a chemical
property called heat of vaporization. Fuel must be vaporized before it can be burned in an engine, and
butanol can be vaporized more easily at low temperatures than ethanol.
Because of the way it is structured on a molecular level, butanol is considered an alcohol. In
practical terms, this means, among other things, that it is able to be dissolved in water, and that it is
somewhat toxic, especially if its fumes are not properly contained or are not ventilated. The production of
butanol for fuel was traditionally accomplished by fermentating biomass, such as algae, corn, and other
plant materials containing cellulose that could not be used for food and would otherwise go to waste.
To design a production of butanol, environmental and safety consideration is a very important
factor that must be concern. All manufacturing processes are exposing to some extent of hazardous. In
chemical processes, it has additional hazards associated with the chemicals used and the process
conditions. Thus, the design of the process must be aware of the hazards and application of engineering
practice in order to reduce the risk to the acceptable level. The particular hazards associated with the
chemical process will be considered in this chapter.

4.2

Environmental and Safety Consideration

Environmental considerations can be defined as identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the
biophysical, social and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decision being
commitment made. This consideration is a set down as repeatable series of steps to be taken to allow the
environmental consequences of proposed development to be assessed.
Safety consideration is the main criteria should be taken into existing plant. It is not just to ensure
that the plant will operate longer but also to let all the employees feel safe whenever they are at work. All
the employees must be educated on what to do during emergencies. Every worker who is dealing with any
unit operations must be familiar with the units. For example, they should know what type of chemicals
inside the units and hazards pose by the chemicals. The workers should know what action that should be
taken if any of their fellow workers have met with accidents during the operation process or exposed to
hazardous chemicals. In any parts of the plant, safety is the number one thing to be considered. Workers
also should be alert to their working environment. Everyone must be responsible for their own and other
people safety.

4.3

Waste Treatment
In this butanol production plant, there are three hazardous chemicals used which are propylene,

carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Extra attention and precaution must be taken when dealing with all these
chemicals and safety consideration must not be taken for granted due to the potential of these chemicals
that can cause fire, explosion and harm to human. There are some criteria that need to be seriously taken
into consideration such as hazard identification, first aid measurement, fire and explosion, accidental
release measures, storage and handling, exposure and control, physical and chemical properties, reactivity
and stability, transportation, toxicological and disposal.

4.3.1

Anaerobic waste treatment

The anaerobic process is in many ways ideal for waste treatment. It has several significant advantages
over other available methods and is almost certainly assured of increased usage in the future. Anaerobic
treatment is presently employed at most municipal treatment plants, and is responsible for the major
portion of waste stabilization that occurs there.

Figure 4.1:

Anaerobic treatment process

In anaerobic treatment, there are two basically different process designs. One is the "conventional
process" most widely used for the treatment of concentrated wastes such as primary and secondary sludge
at municipal treatment plants. The other process is one designed to handle more dilute waste and has been
termed the "anaerobic contact process." 1 .2 Schematic diagrams of each process are shown in Fig. 4.1.

Figure 4.2:

Optimum environment condition for anaerobic

A summary of optimum environmental conditions for anaerobic treatment are listed in Figure 4.1.
At higher temperatures, rates of reaction proceed much faster, resulting in more efficient operation and
smaller tank sizes. Two optimum temperature levels for anaerobic treatment have been reported, one in
the mesophilicrange from 85 to 100F, and the other in the thermophilic range from 120 to 135F.
Although treatment proceeds much more rapidly at thermophilic temperatures, the additional neat
required to maintain such temperatures may offset the advantage obtained. Therefore, most treatment
systems are designed to operate in the mesophilic range or lower.

4.3.2

Incineration

This simply means burning waste. This method is common in countries with limited landfill space.
Incineration chambers can be small for domestic use, but there are large ones for municipal use as well. It
is great for treating waste with contamination and hazardous waste, but the method produces too much
carbon dioxide. Modern incineration processes are more efficient and release less dioxin than home
fireplaces and backyard barbecues.

Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances
contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are
described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and
heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid
lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate
pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration
can be used to generate electric power.

The incineration process is simple and highly effective. We load the waste into the primary
chamber and incinerate it at temperature between 1000

and 1150

. Then, we cool the exhaust gases

from the secondary chamber before passing them through the air pollution control plant. The exhaust
purification process utilizes a wet bed system to achieve acid gas removal.

4.4

Material Safety Data Sheet

4.2.1

Hazard Identification

Butanol is a flammable liquid that is used as a fuel and as an industrial solvent. Like gasoline, it is a
hydrocarbon, meaning that it is composed of the chemical elements hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. It is
clear and colourless liquid. It is categories as medium volatile liquid with a characteristic banana like
odor. It is used to produce other chemicals, as an ingredient in formulated products. In acute effect,
butanol is very hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant, permeator), eye contact (irritant) of ingestion of
inhalation. It may slightly hazardous in case skin contact (sensitizer). Inflammation of the eye is
characterized by redness, watering, and itching. Skin inflammation is characterized by itching, scaling,
reddening, occasionally or blistering. Otherwise, there is no carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic effect in
this butanol.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than
air. It is toxic to humans and animals when encountered in higher concentrations, although it is also
produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological
functions. In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of
ground level ozone. The most common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may resemble other
types

of

poisonings

and

infections,

including

symptoms

such

as headache, nausea,

vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, and a feeling of weakness. Affected families often believe they are victims of

food poisoning. Infants may be irritable and feed poorly. Neurological signs include confusion,
disorientation, visual disturbance, syncope and seizures. (The Linde Group, 2008).

Hydrogen is an odorless, colorless and compressed liquefied gas. With air, oxygen, chlorine,
fluorine and strong oxidants it reacts violently causing fire and explosion hazard. The gas is extremely
flammable and may cause immediate fire or explosion when concentrations exceed 4%. Hydrogen can
enter into body through inhalation. Hydrogen is a simplest asphyxiates which affect through human
inhalation. Exposure to an oxygen deficient atmosphere about less than 19.5% may cause dizziness,
headache, vomiting, excess salivation, diminished mental alertness, nausea and unconsciousness.
Exposure to atmosphere containing 8 to 10% or less oxygen will quickly bring about unconsciousness
without warning leaving individuals unable to protect themselves. Serious injury or death may cause from
the lack of sufficient oxygen. For skin or eye contact, wash with plentiful of water in case of case burns.
Seek for medical attention immediately for inhalation, skin or eye contact.

4.2.2

First Aid Measurement

For propylene, the potential affect that to be considered are inhalation and skin or eye contact. Eye
contact is not required for gas. If frostbite is suspected, flush eyes with cool water for 15 minutes and
obtain immediate medical attention. In case of skin contact with liquefied gas, melt frosted parts with
warm water. Inhalation prompt medical attention is mandatory in all cases of inhalation overexposure.
Rescue personnel should be equipped with self contained breathing apparatus. Conscious inhalation
victims should be assisted to an uncontaminated area and inhale fresh air. If breathing is difficult,
administer oxygen. Unconscious persons should be moved to an uncontaminated area, as necessary, given
artificial resuscitation and supplemental oxygen

For carbon monoxide, the affect of exposure is to human inhalation If adverse effects occur,
remove to uncontaminated area. Give artificial respiration if not breathing. If breathing is difficult,
oxygen should be administered by qualified personnel and

get immediate medical attention. In skin

contact, If frostbite or freezing occur, immediately flush with plenty of lukewarm water and make sure
dont use hot water. If warm water is not available, gently wrap affected parts in blankets. For eye
contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and then get immediate
medical attention.

For butanol, In case of skin contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15
minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold
water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. For serious skin
contact, wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti bacterial cream. Seek
immediate medical attention. If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If
breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If serious inhalation evacuate happen, place the victim to a safe area as
soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If breathing is difficult,
administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth to mouth resuscitation.

4.2.3

Fire and Explosion

Butanol is a flammable liquid that has lower flammability limits of 1.4% and upper flammability limit of
11.2%. The extinguisher media that can be used to extinguish flames are dry chemical powder or carbon
dioxide and alcohol foam for small fire and large fire respectively and water spray may be used to cool
the containers that expose to the fire (When dealing with fire, one must wear personal protective
equipment and self-contained breathing apparatus with full face piece which operate at the demand
pressure or other positive pressure mode to prevent contact with skin and clothing (Science Stuff, 2006)

Propylene will ignite at ambient temperature and can be expected to form a flammable mixture
upon release to the atmosphere. Thus, it may burn with an almost invisible flame in bright light. The
suitable fire extinguishing media to prevent the fire is water, carbon dioxide or dry chemical. If fire is
extinguished is flow of gas still continued, it proper to increase ventilation to prevent a build-up of
flammable atmosphere. The people who extinguish the fire should wear the special protection equipment
such as full face mask, self containing breathing apparatus and thermal protective clothing (Lenox, 2008).
Hydrogen is a flammable gas that has lower flammability limits of 4% and upper flammability
limits of 74%. It is very light and may collect in the upper positions of enclosed space. The extinguisher
media that can be used to extinguish flames are carbon dioxide, dry chemical and water spray. The person
who extinguishes the flames must wear personal protective equipment including self contained breathing
apparatus and protective clothing to prevent contact with skin. All personnel must be evacuating from
danger area and cool the container with water. spray from maximum distance immediately. Do not
extinguish the flames until the source of hydrogen is shut off. (Airgas, 2013).

Carbon monoxide will ignite at ambient temperatures and can be expected to form a flammable
mixture upon release to the atmosphere. May burn with an almost invisible flame in bright light. In the
case of large fires, regular foam or flood with fine water spray can be used. Severe fire hazard. If exposed
to heat, containers may rupture or explode. Move container from fire area if without risk and cool the
containers with water spray until the fire is out. Keep unnecessary people away from the fire area, isolate
hazard area and avoid people to enter the area. Do not attempt to extinguish fire without shut off the
sources and unless the flow of the material can be stopped first. For protection against possible exposure,
the person that extinguishes the fire or hazards must wear full protective fire fighting gear including self
contained breathing apparatus.

4.2.4

Accidental Release Measures

In propylene personal precautions, eliminate all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in
immediate area). Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Keep people away from and upwind of spill or leak.
All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Wear self contained breathing
apparatus when entering area unless atmosphere is proved to be safe. In environmental precautions,
beware of vapors accumulating to form explosive concentrations. Vapors can accumulate in low areas.
Prevent spreading of vapors through sewers, ventilation systems and confined areas

In small spill of butanol, Dilute with water and mop up, or absorb with an inert dry material and
place in an appropriate waste disposal container. And for large spill, flammable liquid. Keep away from
heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Stop leak if without risk. Absorb with dry earth, sand or other
non combustible material. Do not touch spilled material. Prevent entry into sewers, basements or confined
areas.
If the carbon monoxide released or spilled, the gas source must be closed if possible to do it
safely. The area of the hazards or fire must be evacuated and personnel must deny entering to the area.
Contact the supplier if leak is from cylinder, cylinder valve or the valve pressure relief device.
For hydrogen, evacuate the immediate area. Eliminate any possible sources of ignition and
provide maximum explosion proof ventilation. Shut off source of hydrogen if possible. If leaking from
cylinder or valve, call the air products emergency number. The presence of a hydrogen flame can be
detected by approaching cautiously with an outstretched straw broom to make the flame visible.

4.2.5 Storage and Handling

Propylene is non corrosive chemical and may be used with any common structural material. It is use only
with adequate ventilation and explosion proof electrical (ventilating, lighting and material handling)
equipment. It is in high pressure gas. The equipment rated for cylindrical pressure must be used and dont
puncture or incinerate of the container. Close the valve after each use and when empty. Keep container
closed and keep away from heat, sparks and flame. To avoid fire, eliminate ignition sources. Protect
cylinders from physical damage, make sure do not drag, roll, slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for
cylinder movement. While in storage, keep container in a cool, well ventilated area. Keep container
tightly closed and sealed until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame).
Cylinders should be stored upright, with valve protection cap in place, and firmly secured to prevent
falling or being knocked over. Cylinder temperatures should not exceed 52 C (125 F). (Lenox, 2008)

In handling and storage of hydrogen, wash thoroughly after handling and remove contaminated
clothing and wash before reuse. Ground and bond containers when transferring material. Use spark proof
tools and explosion proof equipment. Avoide contact with eye, skin and clothing. Empty containers retain
product residue and do not ingest or inhale. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind or
expose empty container heat, sparks or open flames. Store in a cool, dry, well ventilated area away from
incompatible substances. (Airgas, 2002).

Butanol container must be protected from any physical damage. It must be stored in a cool, dry
well-ventilated location and away from fire hazard area. The container should be separate from
incompatibles and should be bonded and grounded for transfer to avoid static sparks. Storage and use area
should be labelled as No smoking area. In addition, only non sparking type tools and equipment
includes explosion proof ventilation can be used to handle butanol container. People in the area must
observe all warnings and precautions listed since butanol containers may be hazardous when empty due to
the retail product residues (Mallinckrodt Chemicals, 2008; Science Stuff, 2006).

4.2.6 Exposure and Control

Personal protection such as protective clothing and eye protection should be used when dealing with all
the chemicals (propylene, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and butanol). The person who handling the gas
should wear appropriate protective and cold insulating clothing to protect the body from skin contact and
insulated gloves should be worn to protect the hand. Besides, use suitable types of respirator for

respiratory system. For eye protection, the splash resistant safety goggles are required for welding or
burning as well as when handling the liquid and gases but do not attempt to wear contact lenses.
Moreover, emergency eye wash fountain and soak shower should be provided in the immediate work area
(Lenox, 2008).

For hydrogen, natural or explosion proof ventilation should be used to ensure that the hydrogen
does not reach its lowest explosive limit of 4%. For emergency use of respiratory protection, air supplied
a respirator which is air purifying or air-fed respirators are required in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. The
respirator selection must be based on anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator (Airgas, 2013).
For butanol, in term of engineering control, exhaust ventilation or other engineering control
should be provided to keep the airborne concentrations of vapours lower than the threshold limit value.
Eyewash stations and safety shower are ensure to be proximal to the work-station location
(ScienceLab.Com, 2010)

4.2.7 Physical and Chemical Properties

Propylene also known as propene exists as gas at room temperature. Its molecular formula is C 3H6 which
composed of three carbon atoms with six hydrogen atoms. Basically, it has been used in plastics and
solvents (BOC Safety Data Sheet). Propylene is colorless and partially odorless. Propylene is a very
reactive intermediate, which can undergo all typical reactions of short chain olefin. The complex product
mixtures need to be separated during the production of propylene due to the reactivity of propylene.
Propylene can be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Propylene undergoes a number of industrially
important such as addition, alkylation, oxidation, and halogenations reactions. The physical and chemical
properties of propylene are shown in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1:

Physical and Chemical Properties of Propylene.

PROPERTIES

VALUES

Molecular weight

42.09 g/mole

Molecular formula

C3H6

Boiling/ condensation point

-48C (-54.4F)

Melting/ freezing point

-185C (-301F)

Critical temperature

91.85C (197.3F)

Vapor pressure

136.6 (psig)

Vapor density

1.5 (Air = 1)

Specific volume (ft 3/lb)

9.0909

Gas Density (lb/ft 3)

0.11 (25C / 77 to F)
Source (Airgas, 2013)

Carbon monoxide or CO is an important chemical formed in many chemical reactions and in the thermal
or incomplete decomposition of many organic materials. It is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas. The
physical and chemical properties of carbon monoxide are stated in
Table 4.2.

Table 4.2:

Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Monoxide.

PROPERTIES

VALUES

Molecular weight

28.01 g/mole

Molecular formula

C-O

Boiling/ condensation point

-191C (-311.8F)

Melting/ freezing point

-205C (-337F)

Critical temperature

-140.1C (-220.2F)

Vapor pressure

Vapor density

0.97 (Air = 1)

Specific volume (ft 3/lb)

13.8889

Gas Density (lb/ft 3)

0.072
Source (Airgas, 2012)

Hydrogen is a flammable, odorless, colorless and compressed gas packaged in cylinders at high pressure.
Its molecular formula is H2. It can cause a serious fire hazard if accidentally released and the
concentrations exceed 4%. The main health hazard that affected when overexposure to the hydrogen is
asphyxiation which by displacement of oxygen. The physical and chemical properties of hydrogen are
shown in Table 4.3.

Table 4.3:

Physical Properties of Hydrogen.

PROPERTIES

VALUES

Molecular weight

2.02 g/mole

Molecular formula

H2

Boiling/ condensation point

-253C (-423.4F)

Melting/ freezing point

-259.15C (-434.5F)

Critical temperature

-240.15C (-400.3F)

Vapor pressure

Vapor density

0.07 (Air = 1)

Specific volume (ft 3/lb)

191.9386

Gas Density (lb/ft 3)

0.00521
Source (Airgas, 2013)

Butanol or as known as n-Butanol (normal butanol) is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable. It has a
characteristic of banana like odor and has many uses such as to produce other chemicals, as an ingredient
in formulated products like cosmetics, and as a solvent. The physical and chemical properties of carbon
monoxide are stated in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4:

Physical and Chemical Properties of Butanol.

PROPERTIES

VALUES

Molecular weight

74.14 g/mole

Molecular formula

C4-H10-O

Boiling/ condensation point

117.8C (244F)

Melting/ freezing point

-88.9C (-128F)

Critical temperature

289.9C (553.8F)

Vapor pressure

0.5 kPa (4 mm Hg) (at 20C)

Vapor density

2.6 (Air = 1)

4.2.8 Reactivity and Stability


Butanol is a stable product. It is highly reactive or incompatible with the following materials (oxidizing
materials). Under normal conditions of storage and use. Hazardous decomposition products should not be
produced and hazardous of polymerization will not occur. The materials that need to be avoid from

hydrogen is oxidizing agents. At high pressure and temperatures, some steels having the risk to hydrogen
embrittlement. When impurities present, hydrogen reacts at -250oC. Hydrogen mixtures will explode if
exposed to light while lithium metal will burn in hydrogen atmosphere.

Carbon monoxide is stable at normal temperature and pressure. It must be avoid from heat,
flames, sparks and other ignition sources and therefore, minimized contact with material and avoid
inhalation of material or combustion by products. Proscribe from water supplies and sewers. Carbon
monoxide is incompatibility with oxidizing materials, halogens, metal oxides, metals, combustible
materials and lithium.

4.2.9

Transportation

On behalf of shipping of carbon monoxide, the proper name that must be labelled is compressed carbon
monoxide with identification number of UN1016. It is classify in hazard class or division of 2.3 and
labeling requirement is 2.3 and 2.1. It is forbidden to transport by using passenger aircraft or railcar.
Carbon monoxide is in Toxic Inhalation Hazard Zone D (Matheson Tri Gas, 2008). For butanol, no
special provisions for transport butanol. Like other chemicals, butanol has its identification number and
DOT classification which must be labelled. The identification number and DOT classification for butanol
are UN1120 and CLASS 3 respectively (Dow Chemical Company, 2006).

The shipping name is compressed hydrogen and it is classified in hazard class of 2.1 which is
flammable gas. Identification number of hydrogen is UN 1049 and for shipping, it is must labelled as
flammable gas. The hydrogen cylinder should be transported in a safe and secured upright position in a
well ventilated truck. Furthermore, do not attempt to transport the hydrogen in passenger compartment of
a vehicle (Airproduct, 1995).

For propylene, the UN number is 1077 it had been classified under class of 2.1 with the
classification code of 2F. It must be labelled as flammable gas and should be avoid transporting on
vehicles where the load space is not separated from the drivers compartment. The driver should be aware
of the potential hazards of the load and must know what to do in case of emergency or accident. There are
certain criteria that need to be ensure before transporting the product includes the cylinder valve must be
closed and not leaking, the valve outlet cap nut or plug is correctly fitted, the valve protection device is
correctly fitted and adequate ventilation and compliance with applicable regulations.

4.2.10 Toxicological

Propylene is an anesthetic where mildly irritating to the mucous membranes. In addition, at high
concentrations propylene acts as a simple asphixiant without significant potential for systematic toxicity.
High concentration can cause death due to oxygen depletion.

Toxicity amount of carbon monoxide is 1400 ppm per 4 hours of inhalation. The target organs are
blood, heart and nervous system. Medical conditions that affected if exposed to carbon monoxide are
blood system disorders, heart or cardiovascular disorders and respiratory disorders.

4.2.11 Disposal
There are many methods to dispose the waste of hydrogen, propylene and carbon monoxide. The
company must not dispose of the residual or unused product in the cylinder but return the waste into the
shipping container together with the protection cap. The waste container was properly labelled for
recognition purpose. For safer disposal, return the waste to supplier. For hydrogen, residual product
within the process system may be vented to the atmosphere in a controlled rate, through the vent stack
that discharges to an elevated ignition point. The vent stack should be in an isolated area and away from
ignition sources. For carbon monoxide, the residual product may be burned if the burning unit available
on site is suitable.

4.3

HAZOP Study

A hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or
existing process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to
personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation. The HAZOP technique was initially developed to
analyze chemical process systems, but has later been extended to other types of systems and also to
complex operations such as nuclear power plant operation and to use software to record the deviation and
consequence. A HAZOP is a qualitative technique based on guide words and is carried out by a multi
disciplinary team (HAZOP team) during a set of meetings.

In a HAZOP Study, the works through the P&ID examining the impact of potential changes to
parameters such as flow, temperature, pressure and time. Using their experience they determine the
effects of deviations from design conditions. This means that a HAZOP Study is a systematic, step by

step approach to brainstorming possible deviations in determining the likelihood of the deviation,
evaluating existing protections and estimating the resulting impact and potential catastrophic result of the
deviation.
The process system is evaluated as designed and noting the potential for deviations. All potential
causes of failure are identified. Existing safeguards and protection systems are identified and their ability
to handle the deviations evaluated. An assessment is written weighing the potential deviations, their
consequences, their causes, and the protection requirements. When a hazard condition is identified,
recommendations may be made for process or system modifications, or further study by a specialist may
be required.
Process system components such as mixers, piping, valves, sample points, instruments and
vessels must be identified and labeled in accordance with the P&ID. Being able to correctly and reliably
locate the component identified on the P&ID is important both for an effective Hazop Study, as well as
for operational safety. Opening a wrong valve, or starting to cut a wrong pipe, has often been the causes
of serious accidents.

Table 4.5:

Guide Words Used for the HAZOP Procedure.

Guide Words

Meaning

NO, NOT, NONE

The complete negation of the intention

MORE, HIGHER,GREATER

Quantitative increases

LESS, LOWER

Quantitative decrease

AS WELL AS

Quantitative increases

PART OF

Quantitative decrease

REVERSE

The logical opposite of

OTHER THAN

Complete substitution

SOONER THAN

Too early / in the wrong order

LATER THAN

Too late / in the wrong order

4.3.1 HAZOP Studies for Equipment


The detail discussion on HAZOP studies will cover on main equipment such as reactors, distillation
column, and flash drum. This studies applied to these equipments are potential hazards which may occur
from deviations and identified the appropriate actions that should be taken. There are several HAZOP

objectives suggested for the main equipments. The main equipment and objective of HAZOP Study are
shown in Table 4.6.
Table 4.6:

Main Equipment and Objective of HAZOP Study.

Equipment
Reactor

Objective

Material balance control - maintain its reaction rate between


minimum and minimum limit.

Product quality control- maintains exit composition at


specified value.

Operational constraints for safe, satisfactory operation of


vessel for instance:
reactor pressure should be in range in order to maintain
effective operation
Temperature difference in reactor should not exceed the
critical limit.

Distillation Column

Flash Drum

Material balance control maintain column hold-up as well


as overhead and the bottom column inventories between the
minimum and maximum limits

Product quality control

Maintain the composition at the other end of the column as


close as possible to desired composition

Maintain either the overhead or bottom composition at


specified value

Operational constrains

The column must not flood

The temperature difference in the reboiler should not exceed


the critical temperature difference.

Product quality control maintain the exit composition at


specified value

Operational constraints flash pressure should be in range to


maintain effective operation and temperature difference in
flash should not exceed the critical limit

4.4

Planning and Conducting of HIRARC

4.1

Purpose of HIRARC

The purposes of HIRARC are as follows:


i.

To identify all the factors that may cause harm to employees and others (the hazards)

ii.

To consider what the chances are of that harm actually be falling anyone in the
circumstances of a particular case and the possible severity that could come from it
(the risk)

iii.

To enable employers to plan, introduce and monitor preventive measures to ensure


that the risks are adequately controlled at all times.

4.2

Planning of HIRARC Activities

HIRARC activities shall be plan and conducted


a. For situation
i.

Where hazard appear to pose significant threat

ii.

Uncertain whether existing controls are adequate

iii.

Before implementing corrective or preventive measures

b. By organization intending to continuously improve OSH Management System.

It should be the duty of the employer to assign trained personnel to lead a team of employees
associated with one particular process or activity to conduct HIRARC.

4.3

Process of HIRARC

Process of HIRARC requires 4 simple steps


a. Classify work activities
b. Identify hazard
c. Conduct risk assessment (analyze and estimate risk from each hazard), by calculating or
estimating

i.

Likelihood of occurrence

ii.

Severity of hazard

d. Decide if risk is tolerable and apply control measures

Figure 4.3

4.3.1

Flowchart of HIRARC Process

Analyze and Estimate risk

Risk is the determination of likelihood and severity of the credible accident/event sequences in
order to determine magnitude and to priorities identified hazards. It can be done by qualitative,
quantitative or semi quantitative method.

A qualitative analysis uses words to describe the magnitude of potential severity and the
likelihood that those severities will occur. These scales can be adapted or adjusted to suit the
circumstances and different descriptions may be used for different risks. This method uses expert
knowledge and experience to determine likelihood and severity category.

In semi-quantitative analysis, qualitative scales such as those described above are given values.
The objective is to produce a more expanded ranking scale than is usually achieved in qualitative
analysis, not to suggest realistic values for risk such as is attempted in quantitative analysis.

Quantitative analysis uses numerical values (rather than the descriptive scales used in qualitative
and semi-quantitative analysis) for both severity and likelihood using data from a variety of
sources such as past accident experience and from scientific research. Severity may be
determined by modeling the outcomes of an event or set of events, or by extrapolation from
experimental studies or past data. Severity may be expressed in terms of monetary, technical or
human impact criteria, or any of the other criteria. The way in which severity and likelihood are
expressed and the ways in which they are combined to provide a level of risk will vary according
to the type of risk and the purpose for which the risk assessment output is to be used.

4.3.2.1

Likelihood of an occurrence

This value is based on the likelihood of an event occurring. You may ask the question How
many times has this event happened in the past? Assessing likelihood is based worker
experience, analysis or measurement. Likelihood levels range from most likely to
inconceivable. For example, a small spill of bleach from a container when filling a spray bottle
is most likely to occur during every shift. Alternatively, a leak of diesel fuel from a secure
holding tank may be less probable.

Table 4.7:

Likelihood using the following values

LIKELIHOOD (L)

EXAMPLE

RATING

Most Likely

The most likely result of the hazard/event

being realized

Possible

Has a good chance of occurring and is not

unusual
Conceivable

Might be occur at sometime in future

Remote

Has not been known to occur after many years

Inconceivable

Is practically impossible and has never

occurred

4.3.2.2

`Severity of Hazard

Severity can be divided into five categories. Severities are based upon an increasing level of
severity to an individuals health, the environment, or to property. Table B indicates severity by
using the following table:
Table 4.8:

Severity table

SEVERITY (S)

EXAMPLE

RATING

Catastrophic

Numerous fatalities, irrecoverable

property damage and productivity


Fatal

Approximately one single fatality major

property damage if hazard is realized


Serious

Non-fatal injury, permanent disability

Minor

Disabling but not permanent injury

Negligible

Minor abrasions, bruises, cuts, first aid

type injury

4.3.2.3

Risk Assessment

Risk can be presented in variety of ways to communicate the results of analysis to make decision
on risk control. For risk analysis that uses likelihood and severity in qualitative method,
presenting result in a risk matrix is a very effective way of communicating the distribution of the
risk throughout a plant and area in a workplace.
Risk can be calculated using the formula:

L x S = Relative Risk
L

= Likelihood

= Severity

4.4

Documenting of HIRARC

4.4.1 Responsibility and accountability


Proper management of hazards sporadically identified in the workplace can be done through
effective process. Ultimately, the individual or team who identified the hazard must ensure
proper communication of the hazard to the appropriate workplace authority (manager,
department head, or designated person). Each HIRARC must be fully documented. The
HIRARC form must be completed by the HIRARC team and signed by the in charge personnel
of the area. Departments responsible for the hazards and their control are required to maintain all
records of assessments for at least 3 years. (In some cases, legislative requirements will
determine the minimum time to retain records).

The appropriate authority is responsible for ensuring that effective and timely controls are
applied to the hazard and communicating the results back to the originator. Management or
employer must endorse and approve the HIRARC results. Employer must communicate all
HIRARC to employees, monitor the follow up action and keep the records.

4.4.2 Documenting process


Instructions to team leader and persons conducting HIRARC
i.

Complete HIRARC Form. It is recommended to use a single form for each work
process

ii.

Record the names and designation of HIRARC team members

iii.

Outline the process workflow and indicate in the form under process/location
column

iv.

List all activities for each work process under the Work Activity column

v.

Identify the hazards associated with each activity and record in Hazard column

vi.

Determine the effect of each hazard identified and record in Effect column

vii.

Record any existing hazard control measures

viii.

Determine likelihood (L) from Table A and severity (S) from Table B for each
hazard. Assign P and C rating in respectively column. The existing control measures
should be take into consideration while determine (L) and (S);

ix.

By using Risk Matrix assign one risk and record in Risk column

x.

Based on the risk assigned, recommend appropriate risk control measure

xi.

Assign a suitable person to implement the recommended risk control and indicate the
follow up action date and status

xii.

Repeat the HIRARC for other activities and process

xiii.

Conduct another round of HIRARC after control measures have been implemented

xiv.

Review HIRARC for every three years or whenever there are changes in process or
activities

4.5

Consultation

If practicable, there must be consultation with the relevant health and safety representative(s)
when identifying, assessing and controlling risks. Consulting directly with employees and
drawing on their experience and knowledge is more effective in reducing risk.

4.6

Training

Information, instruction and training provide employees with the skills and knowledge to
perform their work in a manner that is safe and without risks to health. It enables them to:
a. Follow health and safety procedures
b. Use risk control set in place for their protection
c. Have an appreciation of the nature of the hazard, the risks associated with their use and
the reason why risk controls are used

Managers, Supervisors Health and Safety Representatives and others who may be required to
perform risk assessments by agreement with management shall be trained in hazard identification

risk assessment and control methods. They must be trained in the risk assessment process and be
familiar with:

a. The regulation associated with the hazard


b. Have a practical understanding of the work hazards
c. Consult with the Health and Safety Representative

4.7

Event Tree Analysis

Event tree analysis (ETA) is an analysis technique for identifying and evaluating the sequences
of events in a potential accident scenario following the occurence of an initiating event. ETA
utilizes a visual logic tree structure known as an event tree (ET). The objective of ETA is to
determine whether the initiating event will develop into a serious mishap or if the event is
sufficiently controlled by the safety systems and procedures implemented in the system design.
An ETA can result in many different possible outcomes from a single initiating event, and it
provides the capability to obtain a probability for each outcome.

The purpose of ETA is to evaluate all of the possible outcomes that can result from an
initiating event. Generally, there are many different outcomes possible from an initiating event,
depending upon whether design safety systems work properly or malfunction when needed. ETA
provides a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the risk associated with each potential
outcome. The ETA technique can be used to model an entire system, with analysis coverage
given to subsystems, assemblies, components, software, procedures, environment, and human
error. ETA can be conducted at different abstraction levels, such as conceptual design, top-level
design, and detailed component design. ETA has been successfully applied to a wide range of
systems, such as nuclear power plants, spacecraft, and chemical plants. The technique can be
applied to a system very early in design development and thereby identify safety issues early in
the design process.

Early application helps system developers to design in safety of a system during early
development rather than having to take corrective action after a test failure or a mishap. The

ETA technique, when applied to a given system by an experienced analyst, is thorough at


identifying and evaluating all of the possible outcomes resulting from an initiating event (IE). A
basic understanding of ETA and FTA theory is essential to developing an ETA model. In
addition it is crucial for the analyst to have a detailed understanding of the system. Overall, ETA
is very easy to learn and understand. Proper application depends on the complexity of the system
and the skill of the analyst. Applying the ETA technique to the evaluation of a system design is
not a difficult process; however, it does require an understanding of FTA and probability theory.

Figure 4.4:

Event Tree analysis for reactor damage

4.7

Site Selection

Figure 4.5:

Proposed design for plant layout for the butanol production

4.7.1 Site Selection Plant


The location of the plant can have huge impact on the easement of execution, profitability of a
project and the scope for any expansion in the future. A few major factors must be considered
when selecting a suitable site.

The following factors should be considered in selecting a plant site:

Distance from town

Type of industry preferred

Development status

Raw materials availability

Area and energy availability

Market study

Transportation facilities

Water supply and waste disposal

Site characteristic

Safety and environmental measures

Community factors and labor supply