MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) A friend has discovered a new plant and brings it to you to classify. The plant has the following characteristics: a fibrous root system; no petioles; parallel leaf veins; thick, lignified cell walls; and a vascular cambium. Which of the following best describes the new plant? A) woody monocot B) herbaceous monocot C) herbaceous dicot D) woody annual E) woody dicot 2) by A) B) C) D) E) Most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil by a plant are absorbed sections of the root that have secondary xylem. storage roots. taproots. the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem. root hairs.

3) An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is A) absence of petioles. B) lateral buds. C) apical dominance. D) intercalary meristems. E) closing of the stomates. 4) A person working with plants may remove apical dominance by doing which of the following? A) pruning B) feeding the plants nutrients C) deep watering of the roots D) fertilizing E) transplanting The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root. I. root cap II. zone of elongation III. zone of cell division IV. zone of cell maturation V. apical meristem 5) Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward? A) I, II, V, III, IV B) IV, II, III, I, V C) III, V, I, II, IV D) I, V, III, II, IV E) II, IV, I, V, III 6) A) B) C) D) What effect does "pinching back" a houseplant have on the plant? inhibits the growth of lateral buds increases apical dominance increases the flow of auxin down the shoot produces a plant that will grow taller

E) produces a plant that will grow fuller 7) A) B) C) D) E) 8) A) B) C) D) E) 9) A) B) C) D) E) Land plants are composed of all the following tissue types except vascular. mesoderm. epidermal. meristematic. ground tissue. Plant vascular tissue includes all of the following cell types except vessel elements. sieve cells. companion cells. tracheids. cambium cells. Which functional plant cells lack a nucleus? xylem only sieve-tube cell only companion cells only both companion and parenchyma cells both xylem and sieve-tube cells

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. The questions below use the following answers. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. parenchyma B. collenchyma C. sclerenchyma D. tracheids E. sieve-tube cells 10) long, thin, tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water flow through pits 11) living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes; they transport sucrose and other organic nutrients 12) the least specialized plant cells, which serve general metabolic, synthetic, and storage functions 13) cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that support young parts of the plant 14) mature cells without protoplasts but with thick, lignified secondary walls that may form fibers MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 15) What is the largest organelle in most mature living plant cells? A) central vacuole B) dictyosome (Golgi apparatus) C) nucleus

D) mitochondrion E) chloroplast 16) Which of the following is not a characteristic of parenchyma cells? A) lack of specialization B) little metabolism and synthesis C) lack of secondary walls D) thin primary walls E) flexible primary walls 17) Which of the following tissues is incorrectly matched with its characteristics? A) parenchymahorizontalthin-walled, loosely packed, unspecialized cells B) sclerenchymahorizontalheavily lignified secondary walls C) epidermishorizontalprotective outer covering of plant body D) collenchymahorizontaluniformly thick-walled supportive tissue E) meristematic tissuehorizontalundifferentiated tissue capable of cell division 18) The fiber cells of plants are a type of A) parenchyma. B) collenchyma. C) sclerenchyma. D) xylem cell. E) meristematic cell. 19) The best word to describe the growth of plants in general is A) derivative. B) weedy. C) primary. D) indeterminate. E) perennial. 20) What is one result of an organism having meristems? A) a rapid change from juvenile to adult state B) a rapid change from a vegetative state to a reproductive state C) a seasonal change in leaf morphology D) production of a fixed number of segments during growth E) indeterminate, life-long growth 21) Which of the following are primary meristems? A) procambium B) ground meristem C) protoderm D) Only A and C are primary meristems. E) A, B, and C are primary meristems. 22) All of the following are primary meristems of a plant except A) epidermis only. B) protoderm only. C) ground meristem only. D) procambium only.

E) both procambium and protoderm. 23) From which tissue does primary phloem in the root develop? A) protoderm B) procambium C) vascular cambium D) ground tissue E) endoderm 24) The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the A) pith. B) periderm. C) endodermis. D) stele. E) cortex. 25) A) B) C) D) E) Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its structure and function? sclerenchymahorizontalsupporting cells with thick secondary walls mesophyllhorizontalparenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leaves pericyclehorizontalwaterproof ring of cells surrounding central stele in roots ground meristemhorizontalprimary meristem that produces ground tissue system peridermhorizontalprotective coat of woody stems and roots

26) All of the following are derived from ground meristem except A) sclereids. B) parenchyma. C) sclerenchyma. D) collenchyma. E) phloem. The following questions are based on the drawing of root or stem cross sections shown in Figure 35.1.<GRAPHIC>Figure 35.1 27) Endodermis is present in A) I only. B) II only. C) III only. D) IV only. E) both I and III. 28) A woody dicot is represented by A) I only. B) II only. C) III only. D) IV only. E) both I and III. 29) A monocot stem is represented by A) I only. B) II only.

C) III only. D) IV only. E) both I and III. 30) A plant that is at least three years old is represented by A) I only. B) II only. C) III only. D) IV only. E) both I and III. 31) In a root, the ground meristem differentiates and forms the A) procambium only. B) cork cambium only. C) epidermis only. D) epidermis and procambium. E) cortex only. 32) Which of the following root tissues gives rise to secondary roots? A) cortex B) phloem C) epidermis D) pericycle E) endodermis 33) One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that A) only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem. B) leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not. C) a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent in roots. D) vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves. E) the cells of roots have cell walls that are lacking in leaf cells. 34) You are studying a plant from the arid southwestern United States. Which of the following adaptations is least likely to have evolved in response to water shortages? A) development of large leaf surfaces to absorb water B) a thick waxy cuticle on the epidermis C) mycorrhizae associated with the root system D) closing the stomata during the hottest time of the day E) formation of a fibrous root system spread over a large area 35) Which of the following is not a fundamental difference between monocot and dicot morphology and anatomy? Monocots have __________, while dicots have __________. A) fibrous roots; taproots B) parallel veins; net veins C) one cotyledon; two cotyledons D) vascular bundles in a ring; vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem 36) The photosynthetic cells in the interior of a leaf are what kind of cells?

A) B) C) D) E)

collenchyma parenchyma endodermis sclerenchyma phloem

37) A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What cells are these? A) collenchyma B) xylem C) endodermis D) parenchyma E) sclerenchyma 38) Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called A) sclereids. B) stomata. C) phloem cells. D) hairs. E) xylem cells. 39) Which of the following is a true statement about growth in plants? A) Monocots have only primary growth and dicots have only secondary growth. B) Only stems have secondary growth. C) Only secondary growth produces reproductive structures. D) Some plants lack secondary growth. E) Only primary growth is localized at meristems. 40) All of the following cell types are correctly matched with their functions except A) sieve-tube cellhorizontaltranslocation. B) companion cellhorizontalformation of secondary xylem and phloem. C) mesophyllhorizontalphotosynthesis. D) vessel elementhorizontalwater transport. E) guard cellhorizontalregulation of transpiration. 41) As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is about 1.5 meters from the ground. Fifteen years later, you return and discover the tree has grown to a height of 30 meters. The nail is now __________ meters above the ground. A) 15.0 B) 0.5 C) 1.5 D) 28.5 E) 3.0 42) Which of the following is true about secondary growth in plants? A) Flowers may have secondary growth. B) Primary growth and secondary growth alternate in the life cycle of a plant. C) Plants with secondary growth are typically the smallest ones in an ecosystem. D) Secondary growth is a common feature of eudicot leaves. E) Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.

43) What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree? A) vascular cambium B) secondary xylem C) mesophyll cells D) primary xylem E) secondary phloem 44) A) 2 B) 2 C) 3 D) 3 E) 2 The vascular system of a three-year-old dicot stem consists of rings of xylem and 2 of phloem. rings of xylem and 3 of phloem. rings of xylem and 3 of phloem. rings of xylem and 1 of phloem. rings of xylem and 1 of phloem.

45) If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a large redwood tree, when you exit from the middle of the trunk (stem) outward, you would cross, in order, A) the vascular cambium, oldest xylem, and newest xylem. B) the secondary xylem, secondary phloem, and vascular cambium. C) the annual rings, phloem, and bark. D) the newest xylem, oldest phloem, and periderm. E) the summer wood, bark, and phloem. 46) Which of the following is true of bark? A) It is formed by the apical meristems. B) It forms annual rings in deciduous trees. C) It is composed of phloem plus periderm. D) It has no identifiable function in trees. E) It is associated with annuals but not perennials. 47) Which of the following are components of bark? A) cork cambium B) secondary phloem C) cork D) A and B only are components of bark. E) A, B, and C are components of bark. 48) George Washington completely removed the bark from around the base of a cherry tree but was stopped by his father before cutting the tree down. It was noticed that the leaves retained their normal appearance for several weeks, but that the tree eventually died. The tissue(s) that George left functional was (were) the A) cork cambium. B) companion and sieve cells. C) cortex. D) xylem. E) phloem. 49) Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells? A) xylem B) apical meristem

C) endodermis D) phloem E) vascular cambium 50) A leaf primordium is initiatied as a small mound of tissue on the flank of a dome-shaped shoot apical meristem. The earliest physical evidence of the site of a newly forming leaf primordium would be A) elongation of epidermal cells perpendicular to the surface of the shoot apical meristem. B) pre-prophase bands parallel to the surface of the meristem in subsurface cells of the shoot apical meristem. C) cell division in the shoot apical meristem with the newly forming walls perpendicular to the surface of the meristem. D) formation of stomata in the epidermal layer of the shoot apical meristem. E) development of chloroplasts in a surface cell of the shoot apical meristem. 51) A short branch was cut into three segments as shown in Figure 35.2 to root some cuttings. Roots will form at which position(s)?<GRAPHIC>Figure 35.2 A) A only B) A and B C) A, B, and C D) A, C, and E E) A, B, C, D, and E 52) While studying the plant Arabidopsis, a botanist finds that an RNA probe produces colored spots in the sepals of the plant. From this information, which information can be inferred? A) The RNA probe is specific to a gene active in sepals. B) More research needs to be done on the sepals of Arabidopsis. C) The RNA probe is transported only to certain tissues. D) The colored regions were caused by mutations that took place in the sepals. E) The differently colored plants will attract different pollinating insects. 53) Before differentiation can begin during the processes of plant cell and tissue culture, parenchyma cells from the source tissue must A) differentiate into procambium. B) undergo dedifferentiation. C) enzymatically digest their primary cell walls. D) establish a new polarity in their cytoplasm. E) increase the number of chromosomes in their nuclei. <GRAPHIC>Figure 35.3Sectors of corn plants 54) Each of the patterns indicated in Figure 35.3 above occurred as a sector during clonal analysis of several corn plants. Based on this data, a growth module in corn must consist of A) a leaf only. B) a leaf, its associated node, and the internode below. C) a leaf, its associated node, the internode below, and the bud below the leaf. D) a leaf and its associated node. E) a leaf and its associated node and axillary bud, and the internode below the leaf.

55) Silver-dollar eucalyptus has rounded juvenile leaves but lance-shaped mature leaves. A plant propagator wants to produce more plants of the juvenile form, but has only a single older plant. Where should the cuttings come from? A) the youngest, most recently formed lateral branches because they are the most immature branches B) only the terminal stem containing the main shoot apical meristem because this is the most recently formed tissue of the shoot C) older, more basal branches because they were formed during the juvenile growth phase D) either A or B E) none of the above. As soon as a plant becomes mature, all of the branches will be mature. 56) A feeding insect destroys only the very central portion of a developing flower bud. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true? A) Carpels will not form in the developing flower. B) Petals formed subsequent to the insect attack will be disfigured. C) None of the "A," "B," or "C" floral organ identifying genes will "turn on" as floral development proceeds. D) Stamens formed subsequent to the insect attack will be sterile. E) Only the "A" floral organ identifying gene will be affected.

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