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Examples

1. A neurologist is testing the effect of a drug on response time by injecting 100

rats with a unit dose of the drug, subjecting each to neurological stimulus, and

recording its response time. The neurologist knows that the mean response time

for rats not injected with the drug is 1.2 seconds. The mean of the 100 injected

rats response time is 1.05 seconds with a sample standard deviation of 0.5

seconds. (Significance level =5 .)

a. Do you think that the drug has an effect on response time? (It implies a

two-tailed test)

Step 1: Clearly state the null and alternative hypotheses.

H0: the drug has no effect or mean response time =1.2 .

H1 (Ha): the drug has effect or mean response time 1.2 .

Step 2:

X s / n=

0.5

=0.05 .

100

p-value = P(z < -3) + P(z > 3) = 2*NORM.S.DIST(-3, 1) = 0.0027 or 0.27%.

(two-tailed test)

If H0 is true, then the probability we see a result more extreme than 3

standard errors away from the population mean is 0.27%. In other words,

|>3SE =0.27 .

P( |X

Step 4: Significance level is 5%, which is greater than the p-value,

0.27%. (It is highly unlikely to see such a result if H 0 is true.)Thus we reject

H0 and conclude that the drug does have effect on response time (accept

H1).

b. Do you think that the drug can reduce response time? (It implies a onetailed test)

Step 1: Clearly state the null and alternative hypotheses.

H0: the drug cannot reduce mean response time or 1.2 .

H1 (Ha): the drug can reduce mean response time or <1.2 .

Step 2:

X s / n=

Step 3:

0.5

=0.05 .

100

If H0 is true, then the probability we see a sample mean response time of

1.05 seconds or less is 0.135%.

Step 4: Significance level is 5%, which is greater than the p-value,

0.135%. (It is highly unlikely to see a sample mean response time of 1.05

seconds or less if H0 is true.)Thus we reject H0 and conclude that the drug

does reduce response time (accept H1).

Exercises

New tires manufactured by a company are designed to provide a mean of at least

30,000 miles. Tests with 30 randomly selected tires resulted in a mean of 31,000

miles and standard deviation of 2,000 miles. Using a 0.05 significance level, test

whether there is sufficient evidence to reject the claim of a mean of at least 30,000.

a. Clearly state your null and alternative hypothesis and determine this is a onetailed or two-tailed test.

b. Find sample mean, sample standard deviation and calculate standard error.

c. Compute z-score and corresponding p-value. Explain the meaning of this pvalue.

d. Draw your conclusion on whether there is sufficient evidence to reject the

claim of a mean of at least 30,000.

Step 1:

This is one

tailed test.

H0: the drug

cannot increase

mean response

time u<=1.2

H1 (Ha): the

drug increases

mean response

time or u>1.2

Step 2:

(Sample mean)

X-bar=1.05 ;

n = 100; s =

0.5.

Standard

error(SE) =

s/sqrt(n)=

0.5/sqrt(100)=

0.05

Step 3:

z

= (1.05 1.2)/0.05

= -3.

p-value = P(z > 3)

=1NORM.S.DIST(3, 1)

= 0.001349

Conclusion:- 1)

This is one tailed

(right tailed) test.

2)

Since pvalue<alpha , we

can reject H0.

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