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# Kathleen Faith C.

Briones
Hope Louis Simbrio
BS in Chemistry III
Experiment No. 9
Distillation of an Azeotropic Mixture

I.

## Data and Calculations

Calibration Curve
1.55
1.50
1.45
benzene
Refraction Index

f(x) = 0.12x
- 0.12x
++
1.37
1.49
R = 0.99
Linear (benzene)

IPA

Linear (IPA)

1.40
1.35
1.30
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

mole Fraction

Sample Calculations:
Calibration Curve:
Data:

density Benzene
(g/ml)
density IPA (g/ml)
MW Benzene
(g/mol)
MW IPA (g/mol)

Mass of benzene =

0.8765
0.786
78.11184
60.09502

1.00

1.20

= 0.0000

Mass of IPA =

## ( 0.1753 g ) ( 0.786 g /ml )

= 1.5720 g
Mole of Benzene =
=

mass of benzene
M W of benzene

0.0000 g
78.11184 g /mol

= 0 mols

mass of IPA
MW of IPA

Mole of IPA =

1.5720 g
60.09502 g/ mol

= 0.02616 mols

Mole of benzene
Mol e of benzene+ mole of IPA

X Benzene =

0.0000 mol
0.0000mols +0.02616 mols

=0
X IPA =

Mole of IPA
Mole of benzene +mole of IPA
0.02616 mols
0.0000mols +0.02616 mols

= 1.0000

## Equation of X benzene versus RI

y = 0.1221x + 1.3716
x = mole fraction = (y 1.3716)/ 0.1221
Equation of X IPA versus RI

y = -0.1221x + 1.4938
x = mole fraction = -(y 1.4938)/ 0.1221

Distillation Curve
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
T
U
R
E

355
350

Residue
Distillate

345

Residue 2
Distillate 2

340
335
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

## MOLE FRACTION OF BENZENE

ISOPROPYL DISTILLATION
TRIAL
Boiling Temp(K)
1
353.0
2
346.5
3
344.5
4
343.0
5
342.8
6
341.0
Refraction Index
Residue Distillate
1.3764
1.3760

X Benzene
Residue
Distillate
0.03931
0.03604

X benzene (residue) =

## residue ( refractive index )1.3716

0.1221

X benzene (distillate) =

X Isopropyl Alcohol
Residue
Distillate
0.96151
0.96478

1.37641.3716
= 0.03931
0.1221
distillate ( refractive index )1.3716
0.1221

= 0.03931

1.37641.4938
0.1221

X IPA (distillate) =
=

= 0.03604

## residue ( refractive index )1.4938

0.1221

X IPA (residue) =
=

1.37601.3716
0.1221

= 0.96151

## distillate ( refractive index )1.4938

0.1221

1.37601.4938
0.1221

= 0.96478

Distillation Curve
T
355
E
M
350
P
E
345
R
A
340
T
U
335
R
-0.2
0.0
E

Residue
Distillate
Residue 2
Distillate 2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

## MOLE FRACTION OF ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL

BENZENE DISTILLATION
TRIAL
Boiling Temp(K)
1
353
2
345
3
343

Refraction Index
Residue Distillate

X Benzene
Residue
Distillate

X Isopropyl Alcohol
Residue
Distillate

1.4962
1.4564
1.4539

1.4978
1.4764
1.4561

1.02048
0.69451
0.67404

X benzene (residue) =

1.49781.3716
0.1221

1.49621.4938
0.1221

X IPA (distillate) =

II.

= 1.02048

= 1.03358

## residue ( refractive index )1.4938

0.1221

X IPA (residue) =

-0.03276
0.14251
0.30876

0.1221

-0.01966
0.30631
0.32678

## residue ( refractive index )1.3716

0.1221

1.49621.3716
0.1221

X benzene (distillate)

1.03358
0.85831
0.69206

= 0.01966

## distillate ( refractive index )1.4938

0.1221

1.49781.4938
0.1221

= 0.03278

Discussion

Binary mixtures of two volatile liquids exhibit a range of boiling behavior from
ideal, with a simple continuous change in boiling point with composition, to
nonideal, showing the presence of an azeotrope and either a maximum or minimum
boiling point. In this experiment, the properties of a binary mixture of benzene and
isoprpyl wasobserved by studying the change in boiling point with composition. a
boiling point diagram was constructed and any nonidealbehaviour was identified in
the system.

For ideal mixtures of liquids, the composition of the vapor phase is always
richer in the component with the higher vapor pressure. According to Raoult's Law,
the vapor pressure of component A is given by

## fraction of A in solution and p is the vapor pressure of pure A. Actual vapor

pressures can be greater or less than those predicted by Raoult's Law, indicating
negative and positive deviations from ideality. In some cases, the deviations are
large enough to produce maxima or minima in the boiling point and vapor pressure
curves. At the maximum or minimum, the compositions of the liquid and vapor
phases are the same, but the system is not a pure substance. This results in an
azeotrope, a mixture which boils with constant composition. A distillation will not be
able to completely separate the two components. Either the distillate or the residue
will eventually reach the azeotropic composition and no further separation will
occur.
Simple distillation can be used to obtain a boiling point diagram so long as
some method exists to analyze both the distillate and the residue. In practice,
several mixtures of differing composition of the two liquids are distilled and samples
of both the distillate and residue are taken. The temperature (boiling point) of each
distillation was recorded and the composition of both the distillate and residue was
determined, also, the refractive index was recordedto provide a proper measure of
concentration. The purpose of this experiment is to construct a liquid/vapor
temperature-composition (T-X) phase diagram for a binary mixture of benzene and
isopropyl alcohol.

III.

Conclusion

## Most liquid mixtures of organic components form nonideal systems. The

presence of some specific groups, particularly polar groups (oxygen, nitrogen,
chlorine and uorine), often results in the formationof azeotropes. Azeotropic
mixtures may often be effectively separated by distillation by adding a liquid
material (entrainer) to the system.