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Prelim course:
8.2 Chemical Earth:
1) The living and non-living components of the Earth contain mixtures

- Construct word and balanced formulae equations of chemical

reactions as they are encountered
Write up complete equation, and then start by balancing elements that are in
compounds first, then the elements that appear afterwards.
Eg: Complete combustion of 1-butene
O2 + C4H8 CO2 + H2O
First balance the Carbons,
O2 + C4H8 4CO2 + H2O
Then Hydrogens,
O2 + C4H8 4CO2 + 4H2O
Add up the oxygens, (4x2) + (4x1)
Ans/2 (Since Oxygen is in the gaseous state)
6O2 + C4H8 4CO2 + 4H2O

- Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures

in terms of particle theory
Element: A substance with only one type of atom composing it,
- Carbon
- Oxygen
Compounds: When two or more elements are CHEMICALLY bonded to one another,
- Carbon dioxide (CO2)
- Ammonia (NH3)
Mixtures: A Heterogeneous solution (meaning not evenly spread) of two or more
elements, compounds are PHYISCIALLY mixed together.

- Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and

atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds


Is inhabited by and
sustains living matter.
The lower part of the
atmosphere, the
hydrosphere, and the
lithosphere to a depth
of about 2 kilometres.

Examples of Mixtures Found

Elements = Mostly O2 and N2.

Consists of mainly organic Compounds

such as carbohydrates, protein and fat

Other compounds include water





(21%), argon (0.93%) and neon. ANON



Layer of Gas, 200300km thick

All bodies of water

found on the Earth

Dioxide/Monoxide and Nitrogen exist.

Mixture = Air

Dissolved O2 and N2

Mostly compound water







compounds water and sodium chloride.


The lithosphere is the

outer layer of the Earth
to a depth of 17km
which includes crust
and upper layer of

Sand is a mixture containing silica

(silicon dioxide) and other metallic
(such as titanium) and non-metallic
compounds as well as ground up shells
and dirt.

Mineral ores which are oxide, carbonate,

sulphate and sulphide compounds of
metals such as iron.

Crude oil and natural gas which are both

mixtures of hydrocarbon (hydrogen and
carbon containing) compounds.

Free elements are rare but can be found,

e.g. silver, platinum and gold

- Identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate

naturally occurring mixtures of:
- Solids of different sizes
- Through sieving (the larger particles remain on top as they cannot pass
through the holes)
- Solids and liquids
- Through Filtration (the liquid passes through the filter paper, but the solid remains a
finer former of sieving)
- dissolved solids in liquids
- Evaporation to remove the liquid completely as liquids have a lower BP than solids
- Distillation works on the same basis of boiling points; however the liquid is
evaporated and then condensed.
- Liquids
- Distillation
- This utilises the Boiling points of the elements in the mixture with the
lowest boiling the earliest. However if they are too close then it needs to be done with a
fractionating column.
- Separating funnel
- This utilises the density of the liquids, allowing one to be filtered out from
the bottom.
- Gases
- Cryogenic distillation
-The gases are cooled until it is completely a liquid and then slowly heated
with each gas going up the tube at different times. This utilises the boiling points much like
normal distillation.

- Describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful

data for chemists and other scientists
Gravimetric analysis = the composition of a substance in the complete mixture,
This helps in getting the exact amount of chemicals in things such as medicine, and the

percentage of impurities in goods such as iron in bronze.

- Identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are


Number of Carbons





2) Although most elements are found in combinations on Earth, some elements are
found uncombined

- Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and

the likelihood of its existing as an uncombined element
The more reactive an element is, the less likely it is going to be found as an uncombined
element, this can be shown by gold (which is one of the most unreactive elements,) and also
by Sodium which is one of the MOST reactive(sodium chloride). Some elements can be
found as BOTH an element and a compound, oxygen can be found as O2 and also as water

- Classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according

to their physical properties
Physical Properties




High (solids at
room temp)

Usually Dull

M.P. and B.P.

Conductivity(both heat
and electricity)


High (as they

are solids)

Low( gas/liquid at
room temp)
Low(as they are
usually gas/liquids)
No(except Graphite)





- Account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their

physical properties
Copper: Highly conductive, extremely ductile and malleable. Used for circuits.
Gold: Extremely lustrous, malleable. Used for jewellery.
Non Metals

Carbon (graphite): Extremely brittle. Used for lead pencils.

Carbon (diamond): Extremely hard (covalent network lattice). Used for cutting and
3. Elements in Earth materials are present mostly as compounds because of interactions
at the atomic level.

- Identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously

moving and interacting
All matter is constantly moving in variational movements (small vibrations) whilst
gas particles move in both variational and translational movements. This is called
the kinetic particle theory. Because of this constant movement it means that the
particles are going to be constantly hitting one another meaning that there is a
possibility for a reaction. A reaction will only occur if there is a productive collision.
A productive collision will only occur when there is both the right speed and
orientation of both the atoms when they collide.

- Describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms

There are 4 Energy Levels, K, L, M, and N. Each represents a different number of
maximum atoms in a shell.

Maximum number of

- Describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number

Mass number = number of protons + neutrons
Atomic Number = number of protons
Atomic number


atomic mass

Therefore the number of protons in carbon is 6 and the number of neutrons is 6 (126). The number of neutrons equals the number of electrons. Therefore it has 6 protons,
6 neutrons and 6 electrons.

- Describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing

Positive Ion (+) when an element loses an electron
Negative Ion (-) - when an element gains an electron
Monatomic Ions Ions made up of elements, Mg2+
Polyatomic Ions Ions made up of compounds, OH-

- Apply the Periodic Table to predict the ions formed by atoms of

metals and non-metals

Group 1 Metals lose 1 electron in ionic reactions and become +1 ions, Group 2 lose 2
electrons and so forth, until you reach group 4 which cannot form ions. Group 5 gains
3 electrons and becomes a -3 ion, whilst group 6 gains 2 forming a -2 ion. Group 8
cannot form ions as it has full shells and is stable.
Cations = positive ions (groups <4)
Anions= negative ions (groups >4)

- apply Lewis electron dot structures to:

- The formation of ions
Draw it in brackets with the charge on the top right corner.
Draw only the outer shells
How to draw Lewis dot structures:
1) Count how many valence electrons in outer shells of all atoms
2) How many are needed
3) 2)-1) = number of bonds

- the electron sharing in some simple molecules

Covalent bonds are shown by drawing a circle around the pair of bonding electrons.

Describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the

attraction of ions of opposite charge

Ionic compounds form when there is a perfect balance of ions O 2- + Mg 2+ to form


- Describe molecules as particles which can move independently of

each other
All molecules move on their own, due to the momentum that they carry and the
Brownian motion that occurs (as seen in the gaseous state).

- Distinguish between molecules containing one atom (the noble

gases) and molecules with more than one atom
Molecule: The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical
properties of that substance, it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded
Monatomic: Molecules made up of one atom.
Polyatomic: Molecules made up of more than one atom.

- Describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing

of electrons
Covalent molecules are made up of only non-metals. This is because the non-metals
have 4 or more electrons. E.g. hydrogen contains one electron. Its shell needs two
electrons to be complete. When two hydrogen atoms get close enough, their shells
overlap. They share their single electrons, now both atoms have 2 electrons and are

- Construct formulae for compounds formed from:

- Ions
Mg2+ + SO42- MgSO4

- atoms sharing electrons

N2 + 2O2 2NO2
4. Energy is required to extract elements from their naturally occurring sources

- Identify the differences between physical and chemical change in

terms of rearrangement of particles
A Physical change is one where there is a change in state, colour, size etc This
process can be undone by applying the opposite process to it. For example when
water boils it turns into a gas, this gas can be cooled back down into its liquid state. A
chemical change relies on the realigning of the atoms with bonds being broken and
formed. This usually means that if the reverse process is applied the change will not
be undone. If an egg is boiled, the egg cannot be unboiled. Putting bread in a toaster
cannot be undone likewise.
A Chemical reaction: Rearrangements in the reactant molecules, hence new
substance are formed.

- Summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of

water as an example of the difference between physical and
chemical change
Boiling water is an example of a physical change in water; this is because no new
products are created. The only difference is that there is energy added to the water
meaning that it has changed state. This can be undone by absorbing the energy in the
water (cooling it down). Electrolysis is the process which SEPERATES water into its
2 components, hydrogen and oxygen. This can be given by the equation
2H2O O2 + 2H2. This shows that 2 new substances have been formed (oxygen and
hydrogen meaning that the process has been a chemical change.)

- Identify light, heat and electricity as the common forms of energy

that may be released or absorbed during the decomposition or
synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes
occurring in everyday life
Type of Energy

Industrial Example
Decomposition of
limestone to form lime


Decomposition of silver
bromide in photographic
Production of aluminium
through electrolysis


Everyday Example
Decomposition of baking
soda to form carbon
dioxide in baking
Production of sugars and
oxygen during
Synthesis of nitrogen oxide
by lightning strikes

- Explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a

compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction, or bond,
between them.
The amount of energy required to break a bond depends on the intermolecular forces
found in the substance. The energy required is used to pull the electrons apart and for
that reason in a covalent bond they are much stronger.

5. The properties of elements and compounds are determined by their bonding and

- Identify differences between physical and chemical properties of

elements, compounds and mixtures
Sodium chloride

Chemical Properties
Does not burn, no reaction
with water and hydrogen


Physical Properties (at 25*C)

White crystals, soluble in water,
does not conduct electricity as a
solid, does conduct electricity as a
Soft silvery metal, conducts heat
and electricity as a solid/liquid

Burns in oxygen, violent

reactions with water and
Burns in air, reaction with
Green gas, does not conduct
water, violent reaction with electricity at all
From this table you can see that all elements and compounds have their own specific

- Describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as

ionic or covalent molecular or covalent network
Physical Property


Network covalent


Water (H20)
Dull if solid
Low to medium
Varies, but
generally soft
Slightly soluble

Physical state


Solubility in Water
conductivity of
Melting point





Generally low



That means is a substance is a conductor in a molten state, soluble in water it is a

ionic compound. If slightly soluble, dull in appearance it is most likely a covalent
molecular structure. A Network Covalent substance is insoluble in water and is a solid
state, what separates it from the others is its thermal conductivity, as it is in a solid
state and the other forms do not have free electrons.

- Distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds

Ionic bonds Form between a Metal and a non metal. The non-metal receives
electrons from the metal.

Na + Cl NaCl
Covalent bonding This occurs when the two electrons share their joint electrons to
complete their outer shell, this can be seen with most gases.
O + O O2
Metallic bonding This is the same as covalent bonding, however instead of the
electrons being shared with its immediate neighbours it is shared by ALL of the
atoms. This is why metallic bonded compounds can conduct electricity.
This occurs in a piece of metal, so equations arent necessary.

- Describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of

Metals are composed of Cations (positive ions) and are arranged in a repeating lattice
structure. For this reason the substance is a crystal. The metallic bonding that occurs
means that there are delocalised electrons which are known as a sea of electrons.

- Describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional

lattices of ions
Ionic compounds are made up of both positive and negative ions, because of this each
Cation (+) is surrounded by Anions (-) and so forth, this creates a 3-D lattice of ions.

- Explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical

Empirical formula: The ratio in which the elements are divided in the compound.
Ionic compounds are macromolecular lattices. This means that there are millions of
ions, however due to simplicity we use the empirical formula or the ratio that these
elements appear in the compound.

- Identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent

Diatomic elements: Oxygen, Fluorine, Iodine
Tetrahedral Covalent Lattices: Carbon (diamond), Silicon, Germanium
Hexagonal Lattices: Carbon (Graphite), Boron

- Explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and

hardness and the structure of ionic, covalent molecular and
covalent network structures

Example Conductivity
Sodium High(when
Chloride molten/dissolved)

When molten
the electrons
are free to
move around,


The Strong bonds
between the cations
and Anions mean
that very strong







however when
it is not the
electrons are in
a fixed position
No delocalised
No delocalised

bonds have been

y brittle

There are weak

bonds between the
The intermolecular
forces are
extremely strong
and they are
closely packed
meaning that the
substance is likely
to shatter and not
be malleable.

8.3 Metals
1) Metals have been extracted and used for many thousands of years

- Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history,

including contemporary uses, as uncombined metals or as alloys
Metals have been used throughout the ages.

Gold: Has been used for jewellery and coinage, due to its lustre and rarity. It has also
been used in circuits for its high conductivity.
Silver: Has been used for Jewellery, due to its malleability and lustre.
Bronze: Used for jewellery, wiring and cooking utensils. This is because it has a high
shine, and high conductivity.
Iron: Used for buildings. Iron is very strong, and malleable (at high heats)

- Describe the use of common alloys including steel, brass and

solder and explain how these relate to their properties
Alloy: A homogenous mixture of 2 or more elements, with at least one element being a metal.


Made up of
Iron, carbon


Copper, Zinc

Lead Solder

60% Tin,
40% Lead
Iron, Nickel

Instruments, coins,
Electrical circuits, joining
metal piping


Extremely strong and
hard, cheap
Very Malleable, cheap,
non corrosive
High conductivity, low
M.P. ,soft
Non corrosive, high M.P.,
hard, strong

- Explain why energy input is necessary to extract a metal from its

Energy input is required to break the bonds that are created when the metal reacts with
another substance. For example it is very hard to find pure aluminium in the
environment, but there is a lot of aluminium oxide. To separate the two, energy must
be put in to separate the oxygen from the aluminium.

- Identify why there are more metals available for people to use now
than there were 200 years ago
200 years ago, technology was a lot less sophisticated than what it is today. This
means that they would not have been able to produce such high amounts of energy, to
help separate metals. As metals are stronger and stronger bonded, more energy is
required meaning that it is less likely that there was enough technology for the
minimum amount of energy to be produced.
The Bronze alloy is relatively easier to produce (through heating copper and tin) than
extracting iron from its ore (puddling a molten mixture of iron ore/slag Therefore
more metals and alloys were/are produced today due to the increase in quality and
quantity of technological developments and scientific understanding. There are also
sophisticated methods of extracting ores, such as extracting titanium, which is done
by reacting titanium tetrachloride with sodium, inside a heated steel bomb.

2. Metals differ in their reactivity with other chemicals and this influences their uses.

- Describe observable changes when metals react with dilute acid,

water and oxygen
Metals reacting with dilute acid
Acid + Metal Hydrogen + Salt
2HCl (aq) + 2Na(s) H2 (Gas) + 2NaCl (aq)
Changes observed
-bubbles forming (due to hydrogen gas)
- Sodium would disappear (it dissolves in the solution)
-Colour of solution may change
Only works on the outside of the metal
Metal Neutralises Acid
Metals reacting with water
Water + Metal metal hydroxide + hydrogen
2H2O + 2Na 2NaOH + H2
Water is more stable than acid, therefore less metals react with it.
Metals reacting with oxygen
Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide
Mg + O2 MgO2
Oxygen is very stable, so very rarely happens
This is known as rust, a form of combustion.

- Describe and justify the criteria used to place metals into an order
of activity based on their ease of reaction with oxygen, water and
dilute acids
The more violent the reaction, the more reactive and thus the higher the position of
the metal in the electrochemical series
The degree of reaction with oxygen can be used to identify the most reactive metals
(less reactive metals do not react)
Metals of moderate reactivity can be determined by their reactivity with water (less
reactive metals do not react)
Metals that are relatively unreactive can be determined by their reactivity with dilute
acids (less reactive metals do not react)

- Identify the reaction of metals with acids as requiring the transfer

of electrons
Acid molecules break up when they react with Metals; this means that they are Anions. The
metals begin to react with them thus sharing their electrons.

- Outline examples of the selection of metals for different purposes

based on their reactivity, with a particular emphasis on current
developments in the use of metals
Lithium: used in pace makers, because it is extremely reactive, meaning that electrons can
pass through it easily.
Magnesium: used in fireworks, it is highly reactive and when burnt it creates a large amount
of light energy.
Titanium: Used in artificial bones, it is very unreactive and non corrosive. This means that it
is not going to deteriorate in the body.

- Outline the relationship between the relative activities of metals

and their positions on the Periodic Table
Reactivity increases as you go down a group, and as you move towards the left side of the
periodic table. Therefore the most reactive element is Francium which is so reactive that it
reacts with the water vapour in the air.

- Identify the importance of first ionisation energy in determining the

relative reactivity of metals
The lower the Ionisation energy is the higher the reactivity of the element is. This is because it
means there is lower activation energy required, meaning there is more chance of the element
3. As metals and other elements were discovered, scientists recognised that patterns in
their physical and chemical properties could be used to organise the elements into a
Periodic Table

- Identify an appropriate model that has been developed to describe

atomic structure
The most up to date model of the atom has a positively charged nucleus composed of
at least one proton and (with one exception) at least one neutron. Surrounding the
nucleus are volumes of space in which there is a high chance of finding one or more
electrons. The number of positively charged protons in the nucleus is exactly balanced
by the number of negatively charged electrons, giving the atom an overall neutral
electric charge

- Outline the history of the development of the Periodic Table

including its origins, the original data used to construct it and the
predictions made after its construction
Empedocles stated all things were made of 4substances Earth, wind, water and fire
Aristotle said all matter was made up of basic material that assumed different forms
1789 Antoine Lavoisier published a table of 33 known elements.
1829 Johann Dobereiner suggested triads
1862 Alexander de Chancourtois developed a helix screw
1864 John Newlands found that they varied periodically according to atomic mass
1869 Lothar Meyer Developed a type of periodic table that was arranged according to atomic
1869 Dmitri Mendeleev made a similar periodic table
- Explain the relationship between the position of elements in the Periodic Table,
- Electrical conductivity

From left to right decreases

In groups 1-3 electrical conductivity decreases down the group
In the rest it increases.
- Ionisation energy
Going left to right it increases
Going down a group it decreases
- Atomic radius
Decreases as you go left to right
Increases as you go down
- Melting point & Boiling Point
Increases and then decrease across the periods
VARY down a group
- Combining power (valency)
Going across a period it varies
Going down it is the same
- Electro-negativity
Increases as you go left to right
- Reactivity
Varies as you go left to right
Increases (for metals) and decreases for non metals

4. For efficient resource use, industrial chemical reactions must use measured amounts
of each reactant.

- Define the mole as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12

Mole: deals with the number of particles in a substance. It is the amount of ANY
substance that is equal to the number of particles as there are atoms in 12g of the
The number of particles in one mole of any substance is 6.022x1023.
Eg. The number of particles in one mole of helium is 1 x 6.022x1023 = 6.022x1023

- Compare mass changes in samples of metals when they combine

with oxygen
When metals are reacted with oxygen they form an oxide, which has a higher
molecular mass meaning that they have gained some mass. However not all metals
will react with oxygen at a fast enough rate to be recorded.

- Describe the contribution of Gay-Lussac to the understanding of

gaseous reactions and apply this to an understanding of the mole
Gay Lussac discovered the concept of all gasses react in a whole number ratio. When
gases combine during chemical reactions, they do so in volumes those are always
small whole number ratios Dalton believed that this was because the gas atoms split
which was then disproved by Avogadro when he solved the issue.

- Recount Avogadros law and describe its importance in developing

the mole concept
Avogadros law states that equal volumes of gas, at the same temperature and
pressure, will contain the exact same amount of particles, regardless of their physical
and chemical properties.

- Distinguish between empirical formulae and molecular formulae

Empirical formula: The common ratio that can be found in the molecule
Molecular formula: The actual ratio in which the particles are found in the molecule

C2H8 Ethane
CH4 empirical Formula (the ratio cannot get any simpler)
C2H8 Molecular Formula (The ratio that the particles in the molecule)

5. The relative abundance and ease of extraction of metals influences their value and
breadth of use in the community

- Define the terms mineral and ore with reference to economic and
non-economic deposits of natural resources
Mineral: A naturally occurring substance which has been formed through geological
processes and has characteristics of a chemical composition
Ore: An economically viable rock which contains minerals.

- Describe the relationship between the commercial prices of

common metals, their actual abundances and relative costs of
Prices of common metals are determined by their abundance and cost of production. This
means that if it is very hard to find a certain metal it will raise in price, an example would be
platinum. The relative cost of production raises the price of the mineral as the companies
want to make a profit. An example would be titanium which is extremely expensive to extract
thus raising its price. Ease of transport, is classified under relative costs of production ( so if
the ore is in the middle of the desert it will raise costs).

- Explain why ores are non-renewable resources

A renewable resource A resource replenished as fast as it is being used.
This means that when an ore is extracted it is not replenished for 1000s of years so
therefore it is not a renewable resource.

- Describe the separation processes, chemical reactions and energy

considerations involved in the extraction of copper from one of its
Copper ore example = copper carbonate
1. Copper carbonate reacts with sulphuric acid CuCO3 (s) + H2SO4 CuSO4 (aq) +
H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

2. Copper sulphate is electrolysed (decomposed) and copper is produced at the

cathode (at cathode) Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- Cu (s). This copper is 99.99% pure

- Recount the steps taken to recycle aluminium

1. Scraps taken to recycling plant
2. Scraps separated, checked and sorted.
3. Composition/value determined (and further processing occurs if need be).
3. Aluminium transferred to furnace. Heated up to 500*C to produce molten element.
4. Aluminium cools, and then it is cast, made into thin sheets.
5. Sheets travel to commercial factories. Sheets are made into beverage cans


8.4 Water:
1. Water is distributed on Earth as a solid, liquid and gas

- Define the terms solute, solvent and solution

Solute: The substance dissolved (usually solid)
Solvent: The substance in which the solute is place in (usually liquid)
Solution: a Homogeneous mixture

- Identify the importance of water as a solvent

Water is an important solvent because many organisms rely on the minerals which are
dissolved in it. Plants gather their nutrients from the water and it is also important as a
disposal of waste (such as urea).

- Compare the state, percentage and distribution of water in the

biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere

Description of

State of Abundance
of Water


The crust of the




% of

Hydrosphere All water ON the

earths surface
Atmosphere The air
surrounding the
The area in
which living
animals inhabit








Found as
ground water
and ice(on
mountain tops)
In the oceans,
Found as rain,
water vapour
and hail
organisms, in
habitats( such
as lakes, water
vapour and

- outline the significance of the different states of water on Earth in terms

of water as:
- A constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism
Because water is a good solvent many reactions take place in it, so that means cells are able to
complete complex reactions in the medium of water. Water is used in one of the most
fundamental reactions of life. Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
- A habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial habitats
Water has a High Heat Capacity meaning that it is able to absorb large amounts of heat
before increasing in temperature. This means that aquatic life experience less temperature
changes over the day allowing life to be able to grow better.
- An agent of weathering of rocks both as liquid and solid
Water in both liquid and ice states can break rocks down physically and chemically. This is
called Weathering. Water can dissolve some of the minerals on the surface of the rock and
carry them away. This is known as dissolution. Another form of physical erosion is Erosion,
this is when water gathers up in the cracks of rocks, and when frozen expands. This means
that the rock splits.
- A natural resource for humans and other organisms

Water is a versatile substance used for recreation, irrigation, electricity generation and
2. The wide distribution and importance of water on Earth is a consequence of its
molecular structure and hydrogen bonding

- Construct Lewis electron dot structures of water, ammonia and

hydrogen sulphide to identify the distribution of electrons
Arrange bonded atoms around central atom.
Count valence shell electrons and determine the number of bonds each atoms forms.
Assign bond pairs around the central atom.
Assign lone pairs to central atom.
Assign lone pairs to peripheral atoms.

- Compare the molecular structure of water, ammonia and hydrogen

sulphide, the differences in their molecular shapes and in their
melting and boiling points
Ammonia is a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 107.3. There is an orbital
occupied by a lone pair of valence electrons which repels the three bonding electron
pairs. In both water and hydrogen sulphide, there are two pairs of unshared electron
pairs (lone pairs). Thus the repulsion is greater and bond angle smaller at
104*.Hydrogen sulphide has the weakest intermolecular forces since the electro
negativities of sulphur and hydrogen are similar. Water has two pairs of lone pairs that
are regions of negative charge whereas ammonia only has one. Since the
intermolecular forces are weaker in ammonia than the melting/boiling point of water
is the highest (more heat energy is required to break the forces in the water).

- Describe hydrogen bonding between molecules

Hydrogen bonding occurs between a hydrogen, and oxygen, fluorine and nitrogen.
This is due to the extreme electro negativity difference. Hydrogen bonds are
extremely strong.

- Identify the water molecule as a polar molecule

A polar molecule is a molecule which has a net dipole. That means that
one side of the molecule will have stronger dispersion forces applied to
it than another side. This can be seen in water (as seen in diagram).

- Describe the attractive forces between polar molecules as dipoledipole forces

As seen in the diagram polar molecules will have both a positive and a negative end.
As in the case of water, there are two positives (hydrogen) and one negative
(oxygen). These poles are only slightly negative and are not to be confused with ions.
The positive end of the water is attracted to the negative end of another water
molecule and they become a lot closer.

- Explain the following properties of water in terms of its intermolecular

- Surface tension
Surface tension occurs when there is an imbalance of forces in a substance. This can be seen
on the surface of water. Because water is a polar molecule it is attracted to the surrounding
ones. However, on the surface there are no molecules above it so it is drawn inwards creating
a tight surface.
- Viscosity

Viscosity is the ability for a liquid to flow. Viscosity is determined by 2 things. Molecular
size and complexity, (the larger the molecule the higher its viscosity) and strength of
intermolecular forces (The stronger the intermolecular forces the higher the viscosity).Since
water is an extremely small molecule, and when compared to other molecules its size the
intermolecular forces are high, this means that water is relatively high.
-Boiling and melting points
Boiling and melting points are determined by the intermolecular forces of the molecules.
Because water has 2 hydrogen bonds and a relatively high polarity it means that it has a high
M.P. and B.P. for its molecular size.
3. Water is an important solvent

- Explain changes, if any, to particles and account for those changes

when the following types of chemicals interact with water:
Soluble ionic compound (sodium chloride): ions attracted to water molecules, bonds
between sodium and chloride ions break and move around solution, becoming
hydrated (chemically combined with water molecules).Soluble molecular compound
(sucrose): when sucrose is added to water electrostatic attractions from between the
hydroxyl groups of the outermost molecules of the sucrose crystal and the water
molecules that come into contact with them. Partially soluble molecular element or
compound (hydrogen chloride): non-polar, forms weak dispersion forces with water.
Covalent network substance (silicon dioxide): the component atoms are held together
by very strong intramolecular covalent bonds. When water is added the forces that are
possible of forming are significantly lower than the forces already present in water
and sand. Thus, sand is insoluble in water. A substance with large molecules
(cellulose): Covalent bonds between giant cellulose molecules do not break when
added to water. It is insoluble in water.

- Analyse the relationship between the solubility of substances in

water and the polar nature of the water molecule
Waters dipole is attracted to many other substances which carry a partial or full
electron charge. Like dissolve like. If the forces of attraction which can form
between the substance and water are stronger the forces for the substance, it dissolves.

4.The concentration of salts in water will vary according to their solubility, and
precipitation can occur when the ions of an insoluble salt are in solution together.

- Identify some combinations of solutions which will produce

precipitates, using solubility data
Compounds that
are Soluble
Group 1 and NH4+


Compounds that
are insoluble



Group 1 and NH4+


Ag+ Pb+2


Group 1 and NH4+,

Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2

Ag+, Pb+2, Ba+2,


Group 1 and NH4+,

Chlorides ,
Bromides and

Group 1 and NH4+


Sr+2, Ca+2

Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2

Common Precipitates:

- Identify the dynamic nature of ion movement in a saturated

Ions break off lattice and go into solution. As more ions become hydrated the rate
of dissolving slows down. The rate at which the ions leaving and rejoining the
crystalline lattice increases. This rate is constantly changing (dynamic). MX (s) <> M+ (aq) + X- (aq)

- Describe the morality of a solution as the number of moles of

solute per litre of solution using: c = n/v
Number of moles of solute/ volume of solution (mL)

- Explain why different measurements of concentration are

Different measures of concentration are important for the strength of drugs,
commercial labelling of products.
5.Water has a higher heat capacity than many other liquids.

- Explain what is meant by the specific heat capacity of a substance

Heat Capacity is how many Degrees it takes for a substance to increase by one Degree.

- Compare the specific heat capacity of water with a range of other

Water C = 4.18
Ethanol: 2.44
Petrol: 2.22
Hexane: 2.26
Propenol: 2.17

Explain and use the equation H = -mC T

H= Change in enthalpy (measured in J)

M = mass (measured in Kg)
C= Specific Heat Capacity (Measured in
T= Change in Temperature (Measured in K)

Explain how waters ability to absorb heat is used to measure

energy changes in chemical reactions

Using the Change in Enthalpy we can find how many degrees a substance has
increased by. This can then tell you how many joules the reaction has created.

- Describe dissolutions which release heat as exothermic and give

Exothermic reactions RELEASE energy into its
surroundings this is because the bonds broken do not
need to use up all its energy to create the new bonds and
an example would be sodium hydroxide and sulphuric
acid being reacted together.

Describe dissolutions which absorb heat as

endothermic and give examples

Endothermic reactions ABSORB heat, this is because the bonds that are broken are not as
strong as the bonds that are created, this means that energy is needed from the environment to
help the reaction work. An example of this would be ammonium nitrate and potassium

- Explain why waters ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic

organisms and to life on earth generally
Because of the high heat capacity of water, the oceans are able to stay at a relatively
stable temperature, encouraging life to grow, with tout the worry of drastic habitat
changes. If water had a very low heat capacity it would mean that it would be very
hard for humans to survive as most cooling methods involve water. It would lead to
more rainfall (water cycle) and more flooding.

- Explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the

implications for life if a body of water is affected by thermal
Thermal pollution is temperature in natural water bodies caused by human influence.
This usually means a change in temperature of approximately 2-5 degrees. When this
happens it results in a decreased solubility of oxygen, disruption of spawning and kill
organisms that cannot live in the new temperature. However some positives is that
some places thrive with the new increase in temperature, one case is the Manatee
which moves towards power plant sites during winter.

8.5 Energy:
1. Living organisms make compounds which are important sources of energy

Outline the role of photosynthesis in transforming light energy to

chemical energy and recall the raw materials for this process

Photosynthesis is one of the most important chemical reactions. This is because this is
the only way that light energy is converted into chemical energy and stored as
glucose. The formula for photosynthesis is represented by 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 +
6O2. This formula shows that photosynthesis is endothermic and also shows that it
forms a Carbohydrate.

Outline the role of the production of high energy carbohydrates

from carbon dioxide as the important step in the stabilisation of the
suns energy in a form that can be used by animals as well as plants

Photosynthesis is used to change light energy (from the sun) into chemical potential
energy (carbohydrates). Photosynthesis uses the suns energy to change carbon
dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen. Using high energy carbohydrates also
means that you are able to store energy much more efficiently. It also means that it is
going to be a long term fuel storage system.

Identify the photosynthetic origins of the chemical energy in coal,

petroleum and natural gas

The three main fossil fuels are coal, petroleum and natural gas. Coal is made up of
plants that have been buried in swamps and compressed into pure carbon. Petroleum
and Natural gas are both originated from marine plankton and bacteria, which is then
heated under high temperatures and pressure. Fossil fuels contain large amounts of
chemical energy. This means that all the energy found in fossil fuels is derived from
plants. Plants get there energy from the sun thus all energy in fossil fuels is derived
from the sun.
2. There is a wide variety of carbon compounds.

Identify the position of carbon in the Periodic Table and describe

its electron configuration

Carbon is the 6th element on the periodic table. It is in Group 4 and Period 2. Its electron
configuration is 2, 4.

Describe the structure of the diamond and graphite allotropes and

account for their physical properties in terms of bonding

Allotrope: a structural variant of an element. It has different bonding patterns which lead to
different physical and chemical properties.


3-D covalent lattice

Hardest known substance
High M.P., B.P.
Does not conduct electricity
High M.P., B.P.

Conducts Electricity
Layers (held by dispersion forces)

Identify that carbon can form single, double or triple covalent

bonds with other carbon atoms

Hydrocarbons are a great example. Alkanes form carbon-carbon single bonds, alkenes
form carbon-carbon double bonds and alkynes form carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Explain the relationship between carbons combining power and

ability to form a variety of bonds and the existence of a large
number of carbon compounds

Carbon atoms have four valence electrons capable of forming four covalent bonds and
can form single, double or triple bonds with itself. Carbon-carbon bonds are strong
and not easily broken. There are numerous compounds containing carbon-carbon
bonds e.g. hydrocarbons, allotropes of carbon. There are several million organic:
carbon-based molecules have been discovered.

Explain the relationship between the melting point, boiling point

and volatility of the above hydrocarbons, and their non-polar
nature and intermolecular forces(dispersion forces)

The M.P. and boiling points of hydrocarbons goes up as there overall mass increases.
All forms of hydrocarbons except the ynes are non polar. Alkanes have a higher
boiling point than Alkenes (this is because of the higher Molar mass). Alkenes are
more reactive because they contain a double bond.

Assess the safety issues associated with the storage of Alkanes C1

to C8 in view of their weak intermolecular forces (dispersion

Because Alkanes are extremely flammable it is suggested that they should be kept
well away from naked flames or cigarette butts. It is also recommended that they are
kept under high pressure (to remove the problems of flash point).
4. Combustion provides another opportunity to examine the conditions under which
chemical reactions occur

- Describe the indicators of chemical reactions

Irreversible change in appearance
Energy produced or absorbed
Formation of a gas
Formation of a precipitate
Displacement of a metal from its compound

Describe the energy needed to begin a chemical reaction as

activation energy

The breaking of chemical bonds is an endothermic process. The amount of energy

required to break all the bonds is known as the activation energy.
- Identify combustion as an exothermic chemical reaction
Combustion = substances burns in oxygen. The energy produced is much greater than
the activation energy.

Explain the relationship between ignition temperature and

activation energy

Activation energy: minimum energy required for colliding particles to react.

Ignition temperature: minimum temperature required for a fuel/air mixture to
spontaneously ignite.
Reactions that have large activation energy tend to not spontaneously react.

Identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion

of organic compounds and explain how these can be avoided

Complete combustion produces both carbon dioxide and water vapour. CO2 is a
greenhouse gas. Incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,
particulate carbon and water vapour. CO is harmful to humans and the environment.
When hydrocarbon fuels burn they produce many pollutants, some of which assist in
the formation of photochemical smog. Catalytic converters in car exhaust systems
break down CO and hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2O.
5. The rate of energy release is affected by factors such as types of reactants

Describe combustion in terms of slow, spontaneous and explosive

reactions and explain the conditions under which these occur

Slow: not enough air/oxygen to combust substance quickly. E.g. rust. Spontaneous: A
slow build up to the combustion of a substance. E.g. Liquid ethanol. Explosive: fast,
uncontrolled combustion reactions. E.g. Methane leaking from a gas tap.

Explain the importance of collisions between reacting particles as

criterion for determining reaction rates

For a reaction to occur, particles must collide. The more successful collisions i.e.
where a chemical reaction takes place, the faster the rate of chemical reaction. The
rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of reactant particles.
Average energy of collision and orientation of collision are two important factors
in the rate of chemical reactions.

Describe the role of catalysts in chemical reactions, using a named

industrial catalyst as an example

Vanadium (V) oxide. It is a very important chemical, used as a catalyst in the manufacture of
sulphuric acid, which is produced in massive quantities around the world for various chemical
and industrial purposes.

Explain the relationship between temperature and the kinetic

energy of particles

When the particles get hotter, it means that they move faster, increasing the possibility of a
productive collision.

Explain the role of catalysts in changing the activation energy and

hence the rate of chemical reaction

Catalysts are used to lower the activation rate. This means that it is more likely of chemical
reactions to occur. Catalysts lower the activation energy by increasing the number of

particles that collide with favourable orientation, attract reactant particles to its
surface thus increasing reactant concentration, increase the reactivity of reactant
molecules and provide a series of low activation energy reactions to form products.