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Passage was about the altruistic behaviour of animal which is an unselfish act of

kindness. But the lecturer opposes the idea of altruism. She says that it may not
always be the case of altruism.
In lecture, the professor gave an example of a study conducted on Meerkats'
behaviour. The early belief about Meerkat is that one Meerkat stands guard and
gives an alarm cry when a predator comes as so showing an act of altruism. But
the close study of Meerkat revealed that the Meerkat standing as guard eats
before it guards and as the guard Meerkat is the first to see the predator coming
it increases the chance of guard Meerkat's survival as it is guarding near its burl.
And other Meerkat would have to run together in a crowd so it may get noticed
by predator more quickly which decreases their chance of survival. But the
passage suggested that the guarding Meerkat was actually an altruistic
behaviour which is completely opposed by the study.
The professor also gave an example of a person donating his/her kidney. People
usually consider that it's an act of altruism, but actually person donating his/her
kidney or any organ to a family member or stranger may also seek an increased
sense of self behaviour or reward from society or any non-materialist
acknowledgement. But the passage suggested that it's an unselfish act which is
not always the case according to the professor.

The lecture contradicts the passage discussing altruism. In the lecture, a careful study of
meerkats has been discussed. According to the study, meerkats stand guard after having food,
unlike mentioned in the passage.
Another observation that was made was that the meerkat sentinel is the first one to escape
since it is the first one to see the predator. Also, the burrow is nearby so it doesn't have to
cover a long distance alone. This is again in contradiction with the passage's declaration.
Furthermore, the study found that the predator is likely to attack in a direction away from the
cry of the sentinel so the statement in the passage that the sentinel is at a greater risk is
incorrect. The probability of the predator assailing the group of meerkats foraging for food is
The lecture also covered altruism in case of human beings. An example of donation of kidney
has been considered. This example explains that it would not be correct to assert that the
donor is an altruist and is not gaining anything out of the unselfish act he performs because
he would receive appreciation from the society and experience the feeling of self-worth. So,
in a way he receives something non-material in exchange for a materialistic object. This is
another place where the lecture is in opposition to the passage.
To conclude, it can be said that the altruist also receives something, latent or patent, in
exchange for his good deed.