Analysis and Seismic Design

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Analysis and Seismic Design

© All Rights Reserved

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Ling Zhao

March 14, 2013

OUTLINE

Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis

Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

Bridge Modeling Issues

Displacement-Based Seismic Design

Example

Single-Degree-Of-Freedom (SDOF) Equation of Motion:

mx cx kx mxg

Or rewritten as:

x 2 x x xg

2

m

c

ccr

Circular Frequency

Damping Ratio

Duhammels Integral:

x(t )

e

sin t d

g

max xt

proven:

max x (t ) max xt

max xt x t

g

max xt

For a given earthquake xg t

Response Spectra = Plots of peak response quantity (displacement, velocity,

acceleration) of a SDOF system subjected to the given ground motion, versus the

Fundamental Period T, and Damping Ratio of the SDOF system.

Design Response Spectra = Theoretically, Response Spectra constructed for a

range of possible earthquake events, with its ordinate having a uniform

probability of exceedance (e.g., 7% probability of exceedance in 75 years, 1000

year return period) over all periods. Practically, smoothed curve constructed by

three-point method.

SDS = FaSS

Sa = SD1/T

SD1 = FvSD1

As = Fpga PGA

0.2

T0 = 0.2TS

1.0

Ts = SD1/SDS

Constructed Using Three-Point Method

5% Critical Damping

You can define the Generic Design

Response Spectrum for your project

ONLINE! First get Latitude, Longitude,

site classification of your project

location, then go to:

http://geohazards.usgs.gov/designmaps

/us/application.php

for where I am now: (assuming Site Class D)

Seismic Design Category (2009 AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD

Seismic Bridge Design):

Seismic Design Category (SDC) Core Flow Chart (2009 AASHTO Guide

Specification for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design):

Analysis Procedure (2009 AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD

Seismic Bridge Design):

Seismic Design Category

A

B, C, or D

through 6 Spans

2 or more Spans

Not Required

Not Required

or Elastic Dynamic Analysis

(EDA)

(EDA)

P-D Effect too large to be neglected;

Damping provided by a base-isolation system is large;

Requested by Owner.

OUTLINE

Definition of Response Spectrum

Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis

Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

Displacement-Based Seismic Design

Example

Elastic Dynamic Analysis (EDA) =

Multiple-Degree-Of-Freedom (MDOF) Response Spectrum Analysis:

(Modal Superposition Method)

Mass Matrix [M]

Stiffness Matrix [K]

Damping Matrix [C]

Ground Motion Influence Coefficient Vector {R}

Nodal Displacement Vector {x}

Solve Eigenvalues i2 and Eigenvector Matrix [F] of the system first, then let:

x q

Because of the orthogonalities of eigenvectors, above Equation can be

decoupled into a series of SDOF equation of motion

(assuming proportional damping matrix), written as:

2

qi 2 ii qi i qi i xg

i 1 NDOF

i T M R

i

iT M i

Or i i MR

T

when F is mass-normalized

i is the Modal Participation Coefficient of the ith mode.

Equation of Motion for each mode is essentially a SDOF equation of motion with

the ground motion being scaled by a factor i.

Therefore, procedure for solving peak response of the jth DOF at ith mode is:

1.

2.

Using the ith mode period Ti and modal damping ratio i, read the

response acceleration Sai from the design response spectra curve.

Scale Sai by a factor i , written as:

qi i Sai

3.

Response acceleration:

Ra ji i Sai ji

Response velocity:

Rv ji i

Response displacement:

Rd ji i

S ai

ji

S ai

ji

Look at Base Shear from the ith mode, Vi:

Vi m j Ra ji

m j i S ai ji

i S ai R M i

T

i T M R

Recall: i T

i M i

i

Vi T

S ai or Simply: Vi i 2 S ai

i Mi

when F is mass-normalized

2

Therefore:

i

represents the Mass Participation for each mode.

T

i M i

2

NMODE

i

90% of total mass

T

i 1 i M i

2

Combination of Modal Maxima Ri of each mode:

R Ri

i

when modes are not well

2

R Ri

separated)

i

R

R R

i

Where:

ij

ij

8 i j i t j t 3 / 2

(1 t 2 ) 2 4i j t (1 t 2 ) 4(i j )t 2

2

modal damping ratio i, j, and the modal period ratio t = Ti/Tj .

Directional Combination of Rx, Ry, Rz:

Very little cross-correlation between two horizontal

perpendicular response Rx, Ry, therefore SRSS rule can apply:

R (R x )2 (R y )2

the commonly used 30% rule:

R R x 0.3 R y

motion due to time separation in the maximum intensity of

ground shaking in the vertical and horizontal motion.

However, some DOTs may have different requirement from

AASHTO on this regard.

OUTLINE

Definition of Response Spectrum

Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis

Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

Displacement-Based Seismic Design

Example

Modeling means to build mathematical representations, mass [M], stiffness [K], and damping

[C], of your structure.

MASS Modeling:

1.

2.

Foundation Mass?

Translational Mass and Mass Moment of Inertia

STIFFNESS Modeling:

1.

2.

Linear Elastic Stiffness for all components that are not expected to yield during

seismic event: superstructure, prestressed concrete, conventional bearing,

foundation.

For cracked reinforced concrete, use effective stiffness:

EI e

My

Fy

Where My and Fy represent the yield moment and curvature for a bi-linear

moment-curvature approximation.

STIFFNESS Modeling (Continued):

Bi-Linear Moment Curvature Approximation:

N.A.

EIe

STIFFNESS Modeling (Continued):

EIe / EIg ratio

recommended by 2009

AASHTO Guide

Specification for LRFD

Seismic Bridge Design

DAMPING Modeling:

Convert hysteresis damping to equivalent viscous damping:

eq

Ah

4Ae

Back Ground:

Logarithmic Attenuation Rate of Amplitude:

AN 1 AN e 2

Logarithmic Attenuation Rate of Energy:

E N 1 E N e 4

Then:

Ah E N E N 1

Ae E N

Ah / Ae 1 e 4

second-order term.

Figure Referenced from Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges by M.J.N. Priestley et. al.

DAMPING Modeling (Continued):

Concrete Structure: 2~7%

Commonly Assumed: 5%

1. Substantial energy dissipation through soil at the abutments;

2. Special energy absorption devices are employed;

3. Predominate response as SDOF system.

Damping Reduction Factor (2009

AASHTO Guide Spec):

0.05

RD

0.4

OUTLINE

OUTLINE

Definition of Response Spectrum

Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis

Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

Displacement-Based Seismic Design

Example

Inclusion Limit of Model:

Global Model:

From Abutment to Abutment (rarely used)

Frame Model:

Between Movement Joints (most commonly used)

Bent Model:

Individual Bents, or Multiple Bents with Rigid-Body Constraint that

represents superstructure (mostly used to develop effective bent stiffness

characteristics and displacement limit)

Superstructure Modeling

(in ascending order of modeling complicity and descending order of preference):

Spine Model:

Whole superstructure modeled as a spine member following the

superstructure center of gravity. Spine member properties represent the

overall superstructure section properties. Superstructure mass moment of

inertia modeled by splitting the section mass to half and placing them at a

distance equal to Radius of Gyration rG from the center of gravity.

Grillage Model:

A grillage of beam elements connected transversely by dummy members

that represents the transverse stiffness of deck and diaphragms.

Prototype Model:

Exact member to member modeling

Substructure Modeling

(most important modeling elements):

(Pushover Analysis) can produce valuable information on

substructure stiffness characteristics, displacement capacity and

ductility capacity.

For Moment Curvature Analysis and Push Over Analysis, use

Expected instead of Nominal Material Properties:

Concrete : f ce' 1.3 f c'

Rebar : f ye 68ksi for Grade 60 Bar

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Moment Curvature Analysis

y

N.A.

F

x

e F y-c

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Moment Curvature Analysis

Identical Area

Elastic Response

Line through (0,0)

and the point

representing the 1st

Rebar Yield

Fy

Idealized Perfect

Elastic-Plastic M-F

Curve

Fu

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Moment Curvature Analysis

Plastic Hinge Rotational Capacity:

p (F u F y ) L p

Lp = Analytical Plastic Hinge Length

L p 0.08 L 0.15 f ye d bl 0.3 f ye d bl

fye = Expected yield strength of longitudinal column rebar (ksi)

dbl = Nominal diameter of longitudinal column rebar (in.)

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example

Ws =1500 kip

Moment Curvature Analysis Results:

P (kip)

F y (in-1)

F u (in-1)

Myi

(kip-ft)

EIeff

(kip-in2)

Compression

1026

112x10-6

1360x10-6

3779

4.05x108

Gravity Load

750

111x10-6

1460x10-6

3549

3.84x108

Tension

474

113x10-6

1650x10-6

3319

3.52x108

Column Type

28

20

A

Hinge

36

Column = 3.79x108 kip-in2

Plastic Hinge Length Lp = 0.08 L + 0.15 fye dbl =

0.08(20x12)+0.15(68)(1.27) = 32.2 in

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example

Scale S1 = 3319 / 10 = 331.9

E1 = (1) (331.9) = 331.9 kip

D1 = E1H3/(6EIeff) = 331.9 (20x12)3/(6(3.79x108)) = 2.02 in

D1 = 2.02 in

E1 =331.9 kip

E =1 kip

10

3319

10

3779

- 3319

- 3319

460

Event 1

S1 =331.9

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example

Scale S2 = 460 / 20 = 23

E2 = 1 (23) = 23 kip

D2 = E2H3/(3EIeff) = 23 (20x12)3/(3(3.79x108)) = 0.28 in

D2 = 0.28 in

E2 =23 kip

B

E =1 kip

20

460

S2 =23

B2 = D2/H =0.117%

A

Event 2

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example

pB= Lp (Fu-Fy) = 32.2 in x (1650-113)x10-6 in-1 = 4.95% (Tension Column)

pC= Lp (Fu-Fy) = 32.2 in x (1360-112)x10-6 in-1 = 4.02% (Compression Column)

pB - B2 = 4.95% - 0.117% = 4.83% still larger than pC . Therefore, plastic hinge

of compression column reaches rotational capacity first.

D3 = 9.65 in

E3 = 0 kip

B

Du = SDi = 2.02 + 0.28 + 9.65 = 11.95 in

B3 = pC = 4.02%

Dy = 2.02 in

Ductility Capacity mc = Du/Dy= 11.95 / 2.02 = 5.9

Event 3

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example

Force E (kip)

355

332

Displacement D (in)

2.02

2.30

11.95

Implicit Displacement Capacity for SDC B & C (2009 AASHTO Guide Spec):

For SDC B : DLc 0.12 H o (1.27 ln( x) 0.32) 0.12 H o

For SDC C : DLc 0.12 H o (2.32 ln( x) 1.22) 0.12 H o

x

Bo

Ho

Bo = Column Diameter of width measured parallel to the direction of displacement

under consideration (ft)

= factor for column end restraint condition

= 1 for fixed free (pinned on one end)

= 2 for fixed top and bottom

Foundation Modeling - Common Foundation Type:

Spread Footing

Drilled Shaft

Foundation Modeling Method (FMM) Requirement by AASHTO:

FMM I is permitted for SDCs B and C for foundation located at Site Class

A, B, C, or D; otherwise, FMM II is required;

FMM II is required for SDC D.

Foundation Type

Modeling Method I

Modeling Method II

Spread Footing

Rigid

flexibility contributes >20% to pier displacement

Cap

Rigid

to pier displacement

Estimated depth to

fixity

Pile Bent/Drilled

Shaft

Spread Footing: Reference FEMA 273, best estimated strain

compatible shear modulus G, and 25%.

Pile Foundation:

1. Evaluate single pile axial stiffness kp

2. Evaluate single pile lateral stiffness kL (p-y curve analysis

such as LPILE)

3. Integrate: Kv = Skp; Kr = Skpxi2; KL = SkL

Drilled Shaft Foundation: estimated point of fixity.

Abutment Modeling:

Force

Kpile+Ksoil

Kpile

Kpile

Displacement

Exp. Jt.

Gap

Pull

Direction

Passive Soil

Resistance

Beyond soil

failure

Push

Direction

Bearing Modeling:

Seismic - isolated?

Isolated ---- all other elements of bridge remain elastic except

the seismic-isolation bearings

Non-isolated ---- bearing remains elastic; protect bearings

Definition of Response Spectrum

Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis

Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

Displacement-Based Seismic Design

Example

E

EE

E

Elastic Analysis

EP

Inelastic

Response

1

Design Load EP = EE / R

D

Dy

Du

R = Du / Dy, represent the ductility

capacity of the ERS

E

Displacement-Based Design:

Elastic Analysis

EP

resulted from inelastic response is approximately

equal to displacement obtained from linear elastic

response spectrum analysis.

Inelastic

Response

DD

Dy

Du

What to be checked:

DD Du

Comparison of two Design Approaches:

Force

Specification

Complete design for STR, SERV limit

state first

Elastic demand forces divided by

Response Modification Factor R

Ductile response is assumed to be

adequate without verification

Capacity protection assumed

Displacement

LRFD Seismic Bridge Design

Complete design for STR, SERV limit

state first

Displacement demands checked

against displacement capacity

Ductile response is assured with

limitations prescribed for each SDC

Capacity protection assured

Capacity Protection: Capacity-Protected Member shall equal to or

exceed the Over-Strength Capacity of the Ductile Member

Column Shear

Pier Cap

Foundation

Joint

Definition of Response Spectrum

Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis

Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

Displacement-Based Seismic Design

Example

Example

Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Transverse Mode

Example

Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Torsion Mode

Example

Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Longitudinal Mode

Example

Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Pier 1 Displacement

Example

Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Pier 1 Displacement

Check

Example

Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge Transverse

Mode

Example

Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge Torsion

Mode

Example

Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge

Longitudinal Mode

Example

Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge Pier 1

Example

Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge Pier 1

Displacement Check

Thank you.

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