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# Bridge Structure Response Spectrum

Ling Zhao
March 14, 2013

OUTLINE

## Definition of Response Spectrum

Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis
Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling
Bridge Modeling Issues
Displacement-Based Seismic Design
Example

## DEFINITION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM

Single-Degree-Of-Freedom (SDOF) Equation of Motion:

mx cx kx mxg
Or rewritten as:

x 2 x x xg
2

m
c

ccr

Circular Frequency
Damping Ratio

## DEFINITION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM

Duhammels Integral:

x(t )

e
sin t d
g

max xt

## Taking derivative of x(t), with small damping ratio , it can be

proven:

max x (t ) max xt
max xt x t
g

max xt

## DEFINITION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM

For a given earthquake xg t
Response Spectra = Plots of peak response quantity (displacement, velocity,
acceleration) of a SDOF system subjected to the given ground motion, versus the
Fundamental Period T, and Damping Ratio of the SDOF system.

## For a whole class of possible earthquake xg t at a site

Design Response Spectra = Theoretically, Response Spectra constructed for a
range of possible earthquake events, with its ordinate having a uniform
probability of exceedance (e.g., 7% probability of exceedance in 75 years, 1000
year return period) over all periods. Practically, smoothed curve constructed by
three-point method.

SDS = FaSS
Sa = SD1/T

SD1 = FvSD1
As = Fpga PGA

0.2

T0 = 0.2TS

1.0
Ts = SD1/SDS

## Generic Design Response Spectrum

Constructed Using Three-Point Method
5% Critical Damping

## DEFINITION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM

You can define the Generic Design
ONLINE! First get Latitude, Longitude,
location, then go to:
http://geohazards.usgs.gov/designmaps
/us/application.php

## For example, the Design Response Spectrum

for where I am now: (assuming Site Class D)

## DEFINITION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM

Seismic Design Category (2009 AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD
Seismic Bridge Design):

## DEFINITION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM

Seismic Design Category (SDC) Core Flow Chart (2009 AASHTO Guide
Specification for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design):

## DEFINITION OF RESPONSE SPECTRUM

Analysis Procedure (2009 AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD
Seismic Bridge Design):
Seismic Design Category
A
B, C, or D

through 6 Spans

2 or more Spans

Not Required

Not Required

## Equivalent Static Analysis (ESA)

or Elastic Dynamic Analysis
(EDA)

(EDA)

## Nonlinear time history is generally not required unless:

P-D Effect too large to be neglected;
Damping provided by a base-isolation system is large;
Requested by Owner.

OUTLINE
Definition of Response Spectrum
Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis
Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

## Bridge Modeling Issues

Displacement-Based Seismic Design
Example

## MULTI-MODES RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

Elastic Dynamic Analysis (EDA) =
Multiple-Degree-Of-Freedom (MDOF) Response Spectrum Analysis:
(Modal Superposition Method)

## [M]{x} [C]{x } [K]x [M]Rxg

Mass Matrix [M]
Stiffness Matrix [K]
Damping Matrix [C]
Ground Motion Influence Coefficient Vector {R}
Nodal Displacement Vector {x}

Solve Eigenvalues i2 and Eigenvector Matrix [F] of the system first, then let:

x q

## MULTI-MODES RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

Because of the orthogonalities of eigenvectors, above Equation can be
decoupled into a series of SDOF equation of motion
(assuming proportional damping matrix), written as:
2
qi 2 ii qi i qi i xg

i 1 NDOF

## is the circular frequency of the ith mode

i T M R
i
iT M i

Or i i MR
T

when F is mass-normalized
i is the Modal Participation Coefficient of the ith mode.

Equation of Motion for each mode is essentially a SDOF equation of motion with
the ground motion being scaled by a factor i.

## MULTI-MODES RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

Therefore, procedure for solving peak response of the jth DOF at ith mode is:
1.
2.

Using the ith mode period Ti and modal damping ratio i, read the
response acceleration Sai from the design response spectra curve.
Scale Sai by a factor i , written as:

qi i Sai
3.

## Multiply mode shape ordinate ji with qi, resulting:

Response acceleration:

Ra ji i Sai ji
Response velocity:

Rv ji i

Response displacement:

Rd ji i

S ai

ji

S ai

ji

## MULTI-MODES RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

Look at Base Shear from the ith mode, Vi:
Vi m j Ra ji

m j i S ai ji

i S ai R M i
T

i T M R
Recall: i T
i M i
i
Vi T
S ai or Simply: Vi i 2 S ai
i Mi
when F is mass-normalized
2

Therefore:

i
represents the Mass Participation for each mode.
T
i M i
2
NMODE
i
90% of total mass

T
i 1 i M i
2

## MULTI-MODES RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

Combination of Modal Maxima Ri of each mode:

R Ri
i

## SRSS (Square root of Sum of Square): (May lead to erroneous results

when modes are not well
2
R Ri
separated)
i

## CQC (Complete Quadratic Combination): (Required by AASHTO)

R

R R
i

Where:

ij

ij

8 i j i t j t 3 / 2
(1 t 2 ) 2 4i j t (1 t 2 ) 4(i j )t 2
2

## represents the cross-modal coefficients which depends on the

modal damping ratio i, j, and the modal period ratio t = Ti/Tj .

## MULTI-MODES RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

Directional Combination of Rx, Ry, Rz:
Very little cross-correlation between two horizontal
perpendicular response Rx, Ry, therefore SRSS rule can apply:
R (R x )2 (R y )2

## Which produce results within 5% of those obtained with

the commonly used 30% rule:
R R x 0.3 R y

## Vertical response should not be combined with horizontal

motion due to time separation in the maximum intensity of
ground shaking in the vertical and horizontal motion.
However, some DOTs may have different requirement from
AASHTO on this regard.

OUTLINE
Definition of Response Spectrum
Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis
Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

## Bridge Modeling Issues

Displacement-Based Seismic Design
Example

## MASS, STIFFNESS AND DAMPING MODELING

Modeling means to build mathematical representations, mass [M], stiffness [K], and damping
MASS Modeling:
1.
2.

## All components that create inertia forces

Foundation Mass?
Translational Mass and Mass Moment of Inertia

STIFFNESS Modeling:
1.

2.

Linear Elastic Stiffness for all components that are not expected to yield during
seismic event: superstructure, prestressed concrete, conventional bearing,
foundation.
For cracked reinforced concrete, use effective stiffness:

EI e

My
Fy

Where My and Fy represent the yield moment and curvature for a bi-linear
moment-curvature approximation.

## MASS, STIFFNESS AND DAMPING MODELING

STIFFNESS Modeling (Continued):
Bi-Linear Moment Curvature Approximation:

N.A.

EIe

## MASS, STIFFNESS AND DAMPING MODELING

STIFFNESS Modeling (Continued):
EIe / EIg ratio
recommended by 2009
AASHTO Guide
Specification for LRFD
Seismic Bridge Design

## MASS, STIFFNESS AND DAMPING MODELING

DAMPING Modeling:
Convert hysteresis damping to equivalent viscous damping:

eq

Ah
4Ae

Back Ground:
Logarithmic Attenuation Rate of Amplitude:

AN 1 AN e 2
Logarithmic Attenuation Rate of Energy:

E N 1 E N e 4
Then:

Ah E N E N 1
Ae E N
Ah / Ae 1 e 4

## Expanding Taylor Series and neglect

second-order term.
Figure Referenced from Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges by M.J.N. Priestley et. al.

## MASS, STIFFNESS AND DAMPING MODELING

DAMPING Modeling (Continued):

## Steel Structure: 2~5%

Concrete Structure: 2~7%
Commonly Assumed: 5%

## Consideration of Damping > 5% (maximum 10%) only valid when:

1. Substantial energy dissipation through soil at the abutments;
2. Special energy absorption devices are employed;
3. Predominate response as SDOF system.
Damping Reduction Factor (2009
AASHTO Guide Spec):

0.05

RD

0.4

OUTLINE

OUTLINE
Definition of Response Spectrum
Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis
Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

## Bridge Modeling Issues

Displacement-Based Seismic Design
Example

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Inclusion Limit of Model:
Global Model:
From Abutment to Abutment (rarely used)

Frame Model:
Between Movement Joints (most commonly used)

Bent Model:
Individual Bents, or Multiple Bents with Rigid-Body Constraint that
represents superstructure (mostly used to develop effective bent stiffness
characteristics and displacement limit)

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Superstructure Modeling
(in ascending order of modeling complicity and descending order of preference):

Spine Model:
Whole superstructure modeled as a spine member following the
superstructure center of gravity. Spine member properties represent the
overall superstructure section properties. Superstructure mass moment of
inertia modeled by splitting the section mass to half and placing them at a
distance equal to Radius of Gyration rG from the center of gravity.

Grillage Model:
A grillage of beam elements connected transversely by dummy members
that represents the transverse stiffness of deck and diaphragms.

Prototype Model:
Exact member to member modeling

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling
(most important modeling elements):

## Moment Curvature Analysis and Collapse Mechanism Analysis

(Pushover Analysis) can produce valuable information on
substructure stiffness characteristics, displacement capacity and
ductility capacity.
For Moment Curvature Analysis and Push Over Analysis, use
Expected instead of Nominal Material Properties:
Concrete : f ce' 1.3 f c'
Rebar : f ye 68ksi for Grade 60 Bar

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Moment Curvature Analysis
y

N.A.

F
x

e F y-c

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Moment Curvature Analysis

Identical Area

Elastic Response
Line through (0,0)
and the point
representing the 1st
Rebar Yield

Fy

## Actual M-F Curve

Idealized Perfect
Elastic-Plastic M-F
Curve

Fu

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Moment Curvature Analysis
Plastic Hinge Rotational Capacity:

p (F u F y ) L p
Lp = Analytical Plastic Hinge Length
L p 0.08 L 0.15 f ye d bl 0.3 f ye d bl

## L = Length of column from point of maximum moment to point of contraflexure (in.)

fye = Expected yield strength of longitudinal column rebar (ksi)
dbl = Nominal diameter of longitudinal column rebar (in.)

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example
Ws =1500 kip
Moment Curvature Analysis Results:
P (kip)

F y (in-1)

F u (in-1)

Myi
(kip-ft)

EIeff
(kip-in2)

Compression

1026

112x10-6

1360x10-6

3779

4.05x108

750

111x10-6

1460x10-6

3549

3.84x108

Tension

474

113x10-6

1650x10-6

3319

3.52x108

Column Type

28

20

A

Hinge

36

## EIeff = Average of Tension and Compression

Column = 3.79x108 kip-in2
Plastic Hinge Length Lp = 0.08 L + 0.15 fye dbl =
0.08(20x12)+0.15(68)(1.27) = 32.2 in

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example
Scale S1 = 3319 / 10 = 331.9
E1 = (1) (331.9) = 331.9 kip
D1 = E1H3/(6EIeff) = 331.9 (20x12)3/(6(3.79x108)) = 2.02 in
D1 = 2.02 in

E1 =331.9 kip

E =1 kip
10

3319

10

3779

- 3319

- 3319

460

Event 1

S1 =331.9

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example
Scale S2 = 460 / 20 = 23
E2 = 1 (23) = 23 kip
D2 = E2H3/(3EIeff) = 23 (20x12)3/(3(3.79x108)) = 0.28 in
D2 = 0.28 in

E2 =23 kip
B

E =1 kip
20

460

S2 =23

B2 = D2/H =0.117%
A

Event 2

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example
pB= Lp (Fu-Fy) = 32.2 in x (1650-113)x10-6 in-1 = 4.95% (Tension Column)
pC= Lp (Fu-Fy) = 32.2 in x (1360-112)x10-6 in-1 = 4.02% (Compression Column)
pB - B2 = 4.95% - 0.117% = 4.83% still larger than pC . Therefore, plastic hinge
of compression column reaches rotational capacity first.
D3 = 9.65 in

E3 = 0 kip
B

## E = SEi = 331.9 + 23 = 354.9 kip

Du = SDi = 2.02 + 0.28 + 9.65 = 11.95 in

B3 = pC = 4.02%

Dy = 2.02 in
Ductility Capacity mc = Du/Dy= 11.95 / 2.02 = 5.9

Event 3

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Substructure Modeling (Continued) Pushover Analysis Example
Force E (kip)

355
332

Displacement D (in)
2.02

2.30

11.95

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Implicit Displacement Capacity for SDC B & C (2009 AASHTO Guide Spec):
For SDC B : DLc 0.12 H o (1.27 ln( x) 0.32) 0.12 H o
For SDC C : DLc 0.12 H o (2.32 ln( x) 1.22) 0.12 H o
x

Bo
Ho

## Ho = Clear Height of Column (ft)

Bo = Column Diameter of width measured parallel to the direction of displacement
under consideration (ft)
= factor for column end restraint condition
= 1 for fixed free (pinned on one end)
= 2 for fixed top and bottom

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Foundation Modeling - Common Foundation Type:

## Pile Supported Cap Footing

Drilled Shaft
Foundation Modeling Method (FMM) Requirement by AASHTO:
FMM I is permitted for SDCs B and C for foundation located at Site Class
A, B, C, or D; otherwise, FMM II is required;
FMM II is required for SDC D.
Foundation Type

Modeling Method I

Modeling Method II

Rigid

## Rigid for Site Class A and B, foundation spring required if footing

flexibility contributes >20% to pier displacement

Cap

Rigid

## Foundation Spring required if footing flexibility contributes >20%

to pier displacement

Estimated depth to
fixity

## Estimated depth to fixity or soil spring based on P-y curve

Pile Bent/Drilled
Shaft

## Foundation Flexibility Calculation:

Spread Footing: Reference FEMA 273, best estimated strain
compatible shear modulus G, and 25%.
Pile Foundation:
1. Evaluate single pile axial stiffness kp
2. Evaluate single pile lateral stiffness kL (p-y curve analysis
such as LPILE)
3. Integrate: Kv = Skp; Kr = Skpxi2; KL = SkL
Drilled Shaft Foundation: estimated point of fixity.

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Abutment Modeling:
Force

Kpile+Ksoil
Kpile
Kpile

Displacement
Exp. Jt.
Gap
Pull
Direction

Passive Soil
Resistance

Beyond soil
failure

Push
Direction

## BRIDGE MODELING ISSUES

Bearing Modeling:

Seismic - isolated?
Isolated ---- all other elements of bridge remain elastic except
the seismic-isolation bearings
Non-isolated ---- bearing remains elastic; protect bearings

OUTLINE
Definition of Response Spectrum
Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis
Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

## Bridge Modeling Issues

Displacement-Based Seismic Design
Example

## DISPLACEMENT-BASED SEISMIC DESIGN

E

EE

E
Elastic Analysis

EP

Inelastic
Response

1
Design Load EP = EE / R
D

Dy
Du

## R = Response Modification Factor

R = Du / Dy, represent the ductility
capacity of the ERS

## DISPLACEMENT-BASED SEISMIC DESIGN

E

Displacement-Based Design:

Elastic Analysis

EP

## Equal Displacement Assumption: Displacements

resulted from inelastic response is approximately
equal to displacement obtained from linear elastic
response spectrum analysis.

Inelastic
Response

DD

Dy
Du

What to be checked:

DD Du

## DISPLACEMENT-BASED SEISMIC DESIGN

Comparison of two Design Approaches:
Force

## AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design

Specification
Complete design for STR, SERV limit
state first
Elastic demand forces divided by
Response Modification Factor R
Ductile response is assumed to be
Capacity protection assumed

Displacement

## AASHTO Guide Specification for

LRFD Seismic Bridge Design
Complete design for STR, SERV limit
state first
Displacement demands checked
against displacement capacity
Ductile response is assured with
limitations prescribed for each SDC
Capacity protection assured

## DISPLACEMENT-BASED SEISMIC DESIGN

Capacity Protection: Capacity-Protected Member shall equal to or
exceed the Over-Strength Capacity of the Ductile Member

Column Shear
Pier Cap
Foundation
Joint

OUTLINE
Definition of Response Spectrum
Multi-Modes Response Spectrum Analysis
Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Modeling

## Bridge Modeling Issues

Displacement-Based Seismic Design
Example

Example
Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Transverse Mode

Example
Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Torsion Mode

Example
Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Longitudinal Mode

Example
Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Pier 1 Displacement

## Demand 0.3EX + 1.0EY

Example
Example 1: 3-Span Steel Girder Bridge Pier 1 Displacement

Check

Example
Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge Transverse

Mode

Example
Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge Torsion

Mode

Example
Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge

Longitudinal Mode

Example
Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge Pier 1

## Displacement Demand, 0.3EX + 1.0EY

Example
Example 2: 4-Span Concrete Box Girder Bridge Pier 1

Displacement Check

Thank you.