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IHTC15-8596

J.-M. Buchlin1*, M. Delsipe1, Ph. Planquart1, M. Renard2

1

2

DREVER Int. SA, Angleur, Belgium

ABSTRACT

The paper describes an experimental investigation carried out on a semi-industrial prototype of regenerative roll

quench unit to determine the contact thermal conductance (CTC) between a roll and a moving strip. The

quantitative infrared thermograpy allows the temperature mapping of the strip while the angular evolution of the

roll temperature is obtained by mean of thermocouples connected to a telemetry acquisition system. A thermal

model allows the determination of the CTC. Typical results emphasize the effect of some parameters such as the

velocity, the temperature and the tensile strength of the strip.

1. INTRODUCTION

The knowledge of heat transfer between two solids is often required when designing thermal systems. A

typical example is the continuous annealing of moving strip based on the roll quench process [1-2]. The von

Karman Institute has undertaken in close collaboration with DREVER International S.A, a research

programme aiming to develop a new concept of annealing furnace for the treatment of steel strips. Called the

roll regenerative furnace (RRF), this innovative technique, few energy intensive, consists of benefiting from

the thermal potential provided by the hot strip leaving the furnace to preheat the cold strip entering the

furnace by means of a set of rolls as illustrated in Fig. 1 [patent No WO 2009/007362 by DREVER

International].

Hot strip

Cold strip

An engineering model involving basic unsteady conduction equations for the strips and the rolls has been

developed to estimate the performance of the RRF [3]. Predictions show that one of the main controlling

factors is the contact thermal conductance between the strip and the roll. Fig. 2 shows a typical example of

IHTC15-8596

the thermal performance expected in function of the CTC-value; the difference of the strip temperature, T,

between the inlet and outlet of the regenerator is plotted versus the number of rolls used (N).

T [C]

300

200

N

100

10

CTC [kW/m2.K]

0

A state of the art has been carried out in the frame of this research program to evaluate the knowledge about

the CTC. It has been noticed that such parameter depends on the nature of the materials in contact, surface

roughness, temperature level and contact pressure, which is function of the strip tensile strength. However, in

regard of the sparse data found in the literature [4-5] concerning this specific configuration, an experimental

investigation has been undertaken with the support of the Walloon region (Convention n6240). The

objective is the setting up of a database incorporating the effect of the operating parameters on the CTC for

such a counter flow regenerator. The main issues of the project are reported in this paper.

3.1 The test facility Roll Regenerative Furnace (RRF )

A dedicated facility, called RRF (Roll Regenerative Furnace), has been constructed, a schematic of which is

shown in Fig. 3. It consists of a (Inox or Carbon) steel band of 0.3m wide with a thickness eS = 0.3mm or

0.5mm thick, entrained by a pair of driving rolls of 0.3m in diameter and passing through a radiant heating

tube unit of 100kW to reach a maximum temperature of 650 C. Then the hot strip is put in contact with a

cylindrical steel roll of 0.8m in diameter and 0.02m thick. This roll is cooled on its opposite side (part

without strip in contact) by an array of air jets (plenum1composed of 10 slot nozzles of 5mm with pitch of

60mm) to control its initial temperature at the attack of the strip. Similarly the strip undergoes on its return

additional cooling by means of air multi jets (Plenum 2 designed as Plenum 1 but with nozzle pitch of

200mm) to maintain steady state conditions. The two jet plenums are supplied by a fan with a total

volumetric flow rate of 2.8m3/s under a relative pressure of 10 kPa. The facility allows line velocity, U,

ranging from 0.25 to 0.75 m/s. Fig. 4 provides some views of the facility.

Strip

Roll Shell

Radiant Heater

Driving

Rollers

Blower

Plenum 2

IHTC15-8596

Fig. 5 provides a schematic of the roll instrumentation. The roll is instrumented with two identical combs of

5 thermocouples of 0.5mm size; one at the middle of the roll and the other off-centered close to the edge. For

each comb the thermocouples are located at 0.2mm, 5mm, 10mm, 15mm and 19.8 mm from the external

surface of the roll, respectively. Prior to be inserted in the roll, all the thermocouples are calibrated in a

thermostatic bath with control temperature at 0.1C. The thermal contact inside the roll is ensured by coating

the thermocouples with high thermal conductivity glue. Regular checking of calibration is performed before

each test.

The thermocouples are connected to a data acquisition card, part of a WIFI telemetry unit mounted on the

axis of the roll. The signal received on PC is treated by dedicated software developed on Labview and Signal

Express platforms.

The external face of the strip is black painted and scanned by an SC3000 IR camera. The thermograms are

processed by an in-house DIP program to obtain the thermal mapping of the strip and the different angular

evolutions of the strip temperature.

Two pyrometers scan the strip; the first is positioned at the exit of the heating chamber and the second

downstream the roll. They allow the monitoring of the inlet and outlet strip temperature.

Pyromete r

M oving strip

Roll shell

T he rmo couple s

Tele metry

IR Ca mera

Pyrome ter

The entraining roll is equipped with tachymeter and strain gauges, all connected to the electrical power

cabinet of command, to monitor in real-time the velocity and strength of the strip, respectively. This latter is

adjusted by varying the force of a mechanical tensor by means of metal cast weights.

IHTC15-8596

Campaigns of preliminary test are conducted to perform tuning of the different modules and assess the good

functioning of the instrumentation. These tests allow also the understanding of the system behaviour. As an

example Fig. 6a shows the time evolution of the thermal field in the roll for a heating setting fixed at 300C.

The strip with a thickness of 0.5mm, runs at 0.25m/s and undergoes a strength, , of 2,3kg/mm2. The

thermocouples situated near the roll surface reproduce clearly the transient during the contact with the strip

(temperature up and down). The established thermal regime is characterized by a periodic behavior as

observed in the dashed-line box displayed in Fig. 6a. The CTC determination is based on one cycle of the

established regime. Fig. 6b shows dimensionless surface temperature of the roll during the part of this cycle

when the strip is in contact; the time is now replaced by the angular position =t where is the rotation

speed. It is worthwhile remarking that the roll surface temperature passes through a maximum between 35

and 45; It means that all the heat transfer with the strip is achieved after this angle.

260

1.2

TR [C]

Test

r [mm]

399.8

398

390

385

240

(TR-TR,min)/(TR,max-TR,min)

1

2

0.8

TSo=294C

U=0.25 m/s

eS=0.5mm

220

es= 0.3mm

U=0.25m/s

= 2kg/mm2

0.4

r = 399.8mm

[]

t [mn]

200

30

(a)

60

90

120

150

180

(b)

The strip temperature is inferred from false-color thermograms obtained with the IR camera. These thermal

mappings confirm that the central region of the strip exhibits a uniform transversal distribution. Fig. 7a displays

a typical IR measurement conducted in the central web region while Fig. 7b plots typical angular distribution of

the strip temperature, TS, along the central axis for two heating conditions; in theses experiments the strip

thickness is eS=0.3mm and the strength is adjusted to 2 kg/mm2. In agreement with Fig. 6b, Fig. 7b shows that

the strip reaches thermal equilibrium rather quickly at about 40, indeed. The asymptotic trend noticed in Fig. 7b

indicates the end of the heat exchange between the roll and the strip.

The determination of the CTC-value results from an analytical treatment of the strip and roll measurements. The

theoretical model on which relies the data processing expresses the enthalpy variation of the strip (the Biot

number is here very small):

S C S (TS ) eS

U d TS

= qCTC qenv

R d

(1)

R is the external roll radius and qenv represents the heat loss to the environment, which is estimated from thermal

convection [6-8] and radiation models [3]. Eq. 1 anticipates a variation of the strip temperature high enough to

IHTC15-8596

affect the value of the heat capacity. qCTC represents the heat exchange between the strip and the roll, from which

the CTC-value is deduced.

0

[]

[]

10

10

20

es= 0.3mm

U=0.25m/s

= 2kg/mm2

20

es= 0.3mm

U=0.25m/s

= 2kg/mm2

30

30

40

40

TS [C]

150

200

250

TS [C]

350

300

(a)

450

550

650

(b)

Fig. 7 Thermal behavior of the strip

Eq. 1 shows that the knowledge of the local dTS/d -value calculated from accurate curve fitting of the TS()

experimental profile (see Fig. 7b) allows the determination of the local CTC-value:

qCTC

CTC =

=

(TS TRM )

U d TS

qenv

R d

(TS TRM )

S C S (TS ) eS

(2)

To be consistent with the engineering developed in [3] and as pointed out in Eq. 2, the adopted definition of

the CTC is based on the mean temperature of the roll:

R

TRM = R CR u TR dr

Ri

CR u dr

(3)

Follows a definition of the mean contact thermal conductance, CTCm, in agreement with [3]:

CTCm ( c ) =

S eSU

R c

TS (c )

TSo

CS ( T )

dT

(TRM T )

(4)

Experiments are carried out to identify the effect of different parameters such as the strip strength (1 to 2

kg/mm2), the strip velocity U (0.25 to 0.75 m/s), the initial strip temperature TSo (150 to 650 C) and the initial

IHTC15-8596

strip-roll temperature difference TSRo (50 to 225C). Moreover, Inox and Carbon steel strips are successively

tested.

Fig. 8 emphasizes the effect of the strip tensile force on the angular variation of the contact thermal conductance.

The CTC deteriorates clearly when decreases. One notices 50% drop of CTCmax. To seek for the best

performance all the other results are presented for the highest tested.

4

CTC [kW/m2.K]

[kg/mm2 ]

1

2

es=0.3 mm;

U=0.25 m/s

[]

10

20

30

40

50

Fig. 9 highlights interesting angular evolutions of the CTC, which constitute recurring results obtained

throughout several tests performed at different operating conditions. One observes a rather low value at the

beginning of the strip-roll contact up to an angle of about 10, indeed. Such a finding reveals a very weak

mechanical contact probably due to a poor flatness of the strip that does not fit perfectly the roll curvature.

Obviously when happening, this undesirable event will yield poor performance of the roll regenerator furnace.

Fig. 9 emphasizes also the effect of the web motion on the CTC evolution. The increase of the strip velocity

shifts the thermal equilibrium towards the larger -values; that affects slightly the global value of the contact

thermal conductance.

6

CTC [kW/m2.K]

e=0.3mm

= 2 kg/mm2

TSo

10

20

U=0.37m/s

TSRo

[C]

150

350

45

105

30

eS=0.3mm

= 2 kg/mm2

U=0.50 m/s

CTC [kW/m2.K]

U=0.25 m/s

TSo

150

350

[]

40

10

20

TSRo

[C]

45

105

30

[]

40

To synthesize the effect of the different operating parameters on the strip-roll heat exchange, the results are

resented in terms of CTCm. In the industrial RRF design the foreseen angular coverage, c, will be ranging

between 25 and 45, therefore these two values are considered in the presentation of the following results.

Fig. 10 shows the effect U on the mean contact thermal conductance. The CTCm-values plotted in Fig. 10 result

from an average of the data obtained at each strip velocity but for different thermal conditions tested. The results

fall in the range of 2kW/m2.K to 4.5kW/m2.K in agreement with the sparse literature [4,5]. Even though the

IHTC15-8596

effect is small for Inox steel data, those of the Carbon steel tests indicate an increase of the CTCm as the strip

speed augments.

6

CTCm [kW/m2.K]

CTCm [kW/m2.K]

2

Inox

Carbon

c=25

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Inox

Carbon

c=45

U [m/s]

0

0.2

0.8

0.4

U [m/s]

0.6

0.8

Fig. 11a shows that the heat exchange improves as the initial strip temperature, TSo, increases. However the

benefit becomes negligible above 400C. Similarly, an improvement of the CTCm (about 20%) is depicted in Fig.

11b when the initial temperature difference between the strip and the roll exceeds 150C.

6

c [ ]

CTCm [kW/m2.K]

25

45

CTCm [kW/m2. K]

4

2

U=0.75 m/s

2

100

200

300

TBRo [C]

c = 45

TSo [C]

0

400

50

100

150

200

250

Finally it appears relevant to plot the data in function of the thermal efficiency factor defined as the ratio

of the effective exchanged heat over the coverage, c, to the maximum heat that could be transferred from the

strip to the roll. The expression of is:

TS 0 TS ( c )

TS 0 TR 0

(5)

It is worth noting that does not depend on the strip velocity. Fig. 12 displays the results for both types of

steel. Notice that as the angular coverage increases, TS tends TR and approaches the unity. However, the

contact thermal conductance keeps a more or less constant mean value (with 17% of standard deviation) in

the range 0.4 1.

IHTC15-8596

8

6

CTCm [kW/m2.K]

c []

45

25

4

2

0

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

6. CONCLUSIONS

A study of the contact thermal conductance, CTC, between a moving strip and a roll is presented. The study

is motivated by the modeling of the performance of a roll regenerative furnace that is a new concept of

annealing furnace for the treatment of steel strips.

A dedicated semi-industrial facility with only one roll and allowing strip temperature up to 650C is used. Its

main instrumentation involves quantitative infrared thermography and telemetric thermometry.

To support data processing and physical interpretation simple analytical model is developed. It allows the

determination of the angular evolution of the contact thermal conductance, which is based on the mean

temperature of the roll.

The results show that the heat transfer is achieved over an angular coverage not exceeding 45. In most of

the trials, low CTC-values are found for 10, revealing the importance to ensure a good mechanical

adhesion and a high-quality flatness of the strip. Such a remark is corroborated by the low performance

obtained at small strip tensile strength.

The value of the contact thermal conductance averaged over the angular coverage, CTCm, is ranged between

2kW/m2K et 4.5kW/m2K in good agreement with the few data reported in the literature. No marked effect of

the increase of the line velocity is found for the Inox steel strip while a benefit influence is observed for the

Carbon strip.

Higher is the initial strip temperature and the roll-strip temperature difference better is the CTCm. Plotted in

function of the thermal efficiency , the mean contact thermal conductance does not exhibit significant

variation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank the Walloon region for its continuous support along this research

programme.

IHTC15-8596

NOMENCLATURE

C

specific heat

( J/kg.K )

e

thickness

(m)

CTC conductance

( W/m2.K )

q

heat flux

( W/m2 )

R

radius

(m)

T

temperature

( C )

U,u

velocity

(m/s)

subscript

c

coverage

CTC contact thermal conductance

env

environment

M

mean

m

o

R

S

angle

density

tensile strength

thermal efficiency

rotation speed

()

( kg/m- )

( kg/mm2 )

(-)

( rd/s )

mean

initial

roll

strip

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

Hamel, G. et Molixe, F., Le recuit continu des tles minces Sollac Montataire, La Revue de Mtallurgie-CIT, pp 968-978,

( 1988).

Maemura, H., Jimba, T., Fukuoka, Y., Takushima, S., Jitsukawa, M., Shimomura, T., Application of roll quench system to

NKK-CAL process, Nippon Kokan Technical report, Overseas No. 38, (1983)

Buchlin, J.-M., Laboureur, D., Planquart, Ph., Renard, M. Modlisation dun rgnrateur rouleaux, Congrs Franais de

Thermique 2013, Proc. of Thermique et Contexte Incertain, paper 6268 , (2013).

Okura, M., Makino, H., Tanaka, Y., Iwaya, J., Maeda, H., Improvement in First Cooling Technique (Roll Quench and Water

Quench) and the Properties of Products. In R Pradhan and I. Gupta Eds. Developments in the Annealing of Sheets Steels.- The

Mineral, Metal and Material Society (1992).

Fukuda, S. and Ohkubo, Y., Heat Transfer characteristics of roller quench system in continuous annealing line,, In I.

Tanasawa and N. Lior Eds. Heat and mass transferring materials processing: Hemisphere publishing corporation, pp 501-513,

(1992).

Becker, K.M., Measurements of convective heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder rotating in a pool of water, Technical

Report AE-107, Aktiebolaget Atomenergi, Stockholm, Sweden, (1963).

Kendoush, A. A. An approximate solution of the convective heat transfer from an isothermal rotating cylinder, Int. J. Heat

and Fluid Flow , 17 pp. 439-441, (1996).

Anderson, J.T. and Saunders, O. A. Convection from an isolated heated horizontal cylinder rotating about its axis, In . Proc.

R. Soc. Lond. vol. 217, no. 1131, pp. 555-562,( 1953).

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