You are on page 1of 10

HYDROCOIN Problem

Background
The problem was originally developed as Level 1, case study 5 within the scope of the
international HYDROCOIN project "Groundwater hydrology modeling strategies for
performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal". It examines a ground water flow over a
stationary surface salt layer, taking into account the diffusion or dispersion and the variable fluid
density.
In a vertical section of the size 900 m x 300 m, the density flow of a porous, saturated,
homogeneous and isotropic material is investigated. The groundwater flows due to a prescribed
horizontal pressure gradient over a salt water source. The salt water boundary condition is
located at the bottom of the model area. Freshwater flows on the upper edge from the left in the
model area. On the left and right edge will be no mass flow.
Fig. 1 Structure of the HYDROCOIN problem 1.5[Kolditz, 1996]

Flow boundary conditions:


pressure distribution at zhe upper edge p(x) = (2-x/900 m) bar;
The left, right and lower edge are impermeable.
Transport boundary conditions:
Concentration at the lower edge for 300 m < x < 600 m is Cin = 1;
Right and left edges as well as the right and left side of the source at the lower edge are
impermeable.
Initial conditions:

Concentration C = 0;
Horizontalpressure gradient from the left (2 bar) to the right (1 bar)

For calculation with SPRING, the model area is discretized horizontally into 90 elements, each
10 m long and vertically into 60 elements, each 5 meters high. The thickness perpendicular to the
model plane is 1 m. The calculation is transient until a substantially steady state is reached after
500 years with a time step of months.

Fig. 3 Calculated concentration isolines 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7,
0.8, 0.9, 1.0 for the HYDROCOIN problem 1.5 after 500 years:
Comparison between [Kolditz, 1996], above and SPRING, below

Fig. 4 Visualisiation of the velocities for the HYDROCOIN problem 1.5

During the calculation, the salt run-off amounts were accounted and logged for each time step,
which flow off over the right upper range. Figure 3 shows the measured rates over time.

Fig. 5 Calculated rates for the HYDROCOIN problem 1.5

HYDROCOIN with modified parameters


In [Javeri, 2000] boundary conditions and material parameters of the HYDROCOIN problem are
modified. The lower boundary is assumed to be impermeable, the salt water intrusion is
simulated by a source on the ground. In addition, the parameters of porosity, dispersion and
diffusion were changed (see Table 4). In addition, the nuclide transport for nuclides consisting of
mother and daughter nuclide is considered . The definition of the problem SN1 is described here.

Fig. 6 Structure of the problem SN1, modified by (Javeri, 2000)

Flow boundary conditions:


Pressure distribution at the upper edge p(x) = (2-x/900 m) bar;
The left, right and lower edge are impermeable.
Transport boundary conditions:
Salt water source 10.000 kg/year or. 6,667 kg/(m/year);
Mother nuclide source 100 kg/year or 6,66710-2 kg/m/year);
Daughter nuclide source 10 kg/year or 6,66710-3 kg/m/year)
The left, right and lower edge are impermeable.
Initial conditions:
Concentration C = 0;
Horizontal pressure gradient from left (2 bar) to the right (1 bar)

The source area was defined for 300 m - 300 m and has the same parameters as the rest of the
model area.
For the calculation with SPRING, the model area was discretized horizontally into 90 elements,
each 10 m long and vertically into 60 elements, each 5 meters high. The thickness perpendicular

to the model plane is 1 m. The calculation is transient over 2000 years with a time step of
month.
The calculation was performed both with the module SITRA (without nuclide) and the module
XTRA (with nuclide) and compared with the results of (Javeri, 2000).

Calculated concentration isolines 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55,
Abb. 7 0.6 for the modified HYDROCOIN problem without nucklide transport after 2000
years: Comparison between [Javeri, 2000], above and SPRING, below
During the calculation, the salt run-off amounts were accounted and logged for each time step,
which flow off over the right upper range. Figure 8 shows the measured rates over time.

Abb. 8

Calculated rates for the modified HYDROCOIN problem without nuclide transport by
[Javeri, 2000]

The following figures show the results of the calculation with the module XTRA compared to the
calculation case SN1 in (Javeri, 2000).

Calculated salt-concentration isolines from 0.05 in 0.05-steps for the modified


Fig. 9 HYDROCOIN problem with nuclide transport after 2000 years: Comparison between
[Javeri, 2000], above and SPRING, below.

Calculated mouther nuclide concentration isolines from 0.0005 in 0.0005-steps for the
Fig. 10 modified HYDROCOIN problem with nuclide transport after 2000 years: Comparison
between [Javeri, 2000], above and SPRING, below.

Calculated daughter nuclide concentration isolines from 0.0001 in 0.0001-steps for the
Fig. 11 modified HYDROCOIN problem with nuclide transport after 2000 years: Comparison
between [Javeri, 2000], above and SPRING, below.
Literature
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

Fein, E. (Hrsg.); d3f - A Simulator for Density Driven Flow Modelling. User's
Manual. GRS, Braunschweig, 1988.
Frind, E. O., Simulation of long-term transient density-dependent transport in
groundwater, Adv. Water Resour., vol. 5, 73-88, 1982.
Galeati, G., et al., Coupled and partially coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model of
freshwater-seawater mixing, Water Resour. Res., vol. 28, 149-165, 1992.
Henry, H. R. Effects of Dispersion on Salt Encoroachment in Coastal Aquifers.
In U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1613-C: Sea Water in Coastal

[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]

[18]

[19]
[19]

Aquifers, S. C70ff, 1964.


Herbert, A. W., C. P. Jackson and D. A. Lever, Coupled groundwater flow and
solute transport with fluid density strongly dependent upon concentration, Water
Resour. Res., vol. 24, 1781-1795, 1988.
Holzbecher, E. and R. Baumann, Numerical simulations of seawater instrution in
to the Nile delta aquifer, Computational methods in water resources X., vol.2,
1011-1018, 1994.
Huyakorn, P. S., et al., Seawater intrusion in aquifers: Development and Testing
of a three-dimensional finite element model, Water Resour. Res., vol. 23, No. 2,
293-312, 1987.
Javeri, V., Analysen zum Nuklidtransport bei salzanteilabhngiger Adsorption in
einem heterogenen porsen Medium mit dem Rechenprogramm TOUGH2,
GRS-Bericht, Kln 2000
Knig, C., Numerische Berechnung des dreidimensionalen Transports im
Grundwasser, Tech. Wissen. Mitt. Nr. 91-13, Ruhr-Universitt Bochum, 1991.
Knig, C., Density dependant groundwater flow coupled with a
hydrogeochemical transport model, Computational methods in water resources
XI., vol.1, 101-108, 1996.
Oldenburg, C. M. and K. Pruess, Dispersive transport dynamics in a strongly
coupled groundwater-brine flow system, Water Resour. Res., vol. 31, 289-302,
1995
Oostrom, M., J. S. Hayworth, J. H. Dane and O. Guven, Behavior of dense
aqueous phase leachate plumes in homogeneous porous media, Water Resour.
Res., vol. 28, 2123-2134, 1992.
S. Oswald; Dichtestrmungen in porsen Medien. ETH Zrich, 1999
Schincariol, R. A., F. W. Schwartz and C. A. Mendoza, An experimental
investigation of variable density flow and mixing in homogeneous and
heterogeneous media, Water Resour. Res., vol. 26, 2317-2329, 1990.
Schincariol, R. A., F. W. Schwartz and C. A. Mendoza, On the generation of
instabilities in variable density flow, Water Resour. Res., vol. 30, 913-927, 1994.
SPRING; Simulation of Processes in Groundwater. Programmbeschreibung.
delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Witten, 2010
Van Genuchten, M.Th., A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic
conductivity of unsaturated soils, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.
44, no. 5, pp. 892-898, 1980
Voss, C. I., SUTRA: A finite-element simulation model for saturated-unsaturated
fluid-density-dependent ground-water flow with energy transport or chemicallyreactive single-species solute transport, U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Resour. Invest.,
84-4369, 1984.
Voss, C. I. and W. R. Souza, Variable density flow and solute transport
simulations of regional aquifers containing a narrow freshwater-saltwater
transition zone, Water Resour. Res., vol. 23, 1851-1866, 1987.
Zhang, H. and F. W. Schwartz, Multispecies contaminant plumes in variable
density flow systems, Water Resour. Res., vol. 31, 837-847, 1995.