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# PHYSICS LECTURE 23.10.

2014
Definition Lists
1. Brittle
a. A material that shows no plastic deformation and breaks just beyond its
elastic limit
2. Breaking stress
a. The maximum stress (force per unit area) that can be applied to a
material before it is pulled apart (also called the tensile strength)
3. Bulk modulus
a. The ratio of the stress applied to an object and the change in volume
per unit volume
4. Coefficient of viscosity
a. A measure of the resistance to flow of a fluid
5. Compression
a. Squashing of a material. The part of a longitudinal wave where the
pressure is greatest is known as a compression
6. Compressive force
a. The force on a material which tends to reduce the volume to squash
the material
7. Compressive strain
a. The amount of deformation per unit length of a material that is being
squashed
8. Compressive strength
a. The resistance to deformation of a material when subjected to a load
that squashes it (compression)
9. Compressive stress
a. The compressive force per unit area
10. Doppler effect
a. The change in the frequency and wavelength of a wave caused by the
relative movement of source and detector
11. Drift Velocity
a. Average velocity of the electrons in a conductor due to an electric field
12. Ductile
a. A material that shows plastic deformation without breaking is ductile. A
ductile material can be pulled into wires, for example, copper
13. Elastic limit
a. The load on a spring beyond which the extension increases more
rapidly than expected, and the spring remains permanently deformed
14. EMF
a. The energy gained per unit charge which.
15. Hard
a. Hard materials are those which resist plastic deformation. This means
they are difficult to dent, scratch or cut
16. In phase
a. When two oscillations are exactly in step
17. Law of conservation of energy
a. Energy cannot be created or destroyed

18. Malleable
a. Material which shows large plastic deformation before cracking or
breaking. Such materials can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets.
For example, gold
19. Node
a. Position along a standing wave at which there is no displacement
20. Path difference
a. Difference in distance travelled by two waves at a point, they could be
in phase or out of phase, and so interfere constructively or destructively
21. Phase difference
a. The phase difference between two oscillations is the fraction of a cycle
that their peaks and troughs are out of step
22. Plastic deformation
a. Permanent deformation of a material that has been loaded beyond its
elastic limit
23. Stiffness
a. A measure of the resistance of a material to deformation by a tensile
force (pull or push)
24. Tough
a. Able to withstand impact forces without breaking and require a large
force to produce a small plastic deformation
25. Shear modulus
a. The ratio of shear stress to sheer strain. Shear modulus is a measure
of the resistance of a material to shear deformation

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