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STP Curriculum Java course

Part 1:
Java as an Object-oriented
Programming Language

00. Introduction to Java

Java History

James Gosling and Sun Microsystems


Oak

Java, May 20, 1995, Sun World


Hot Java

The first Java-enabled Web browser

JDK Evolutions
J2SE, J2ME, and J2EE
13/03/2015

JDK Editions
Java Standard Edition (J2SE)
J2SE can be used to develop client-side standalone applications or
applets.

Java Enterprise Edition (J2EE)


J2EE can be used to develop server-side applications such as Java
servlets and Java ServerPages.

Java Micro Edition (J2ME).


J2ME can be used to develop applications for mobile devices such as
cell phones.

13/03/2015

Java IDE Tools


Text Pad
Net Bean
EClipse

13/03/2015

Your first Java program!

public class Hello {


public static void
main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("Hello,
world!");
}
}
What does this code output (print to the
user) when you run (execute) it?
5

Compiling a program

Before you run a program, you must compile it.


compiler: Translates a computer program
written in one language (i.e., Java) to another
language (i.e., byte code)
Compile (javac)
source code
(Hello.java)

Execute (java)

byte code
(Hello.class)

output

The Java Virtual Machine


(JVM, or VM)

The Java Virtual Machine executes byte code


Use the java command to execute it
It only understands byte code (.class files)

The VM makes Java a bit different from older


programming languages (C, C++)
Its an extra step; compilers for other languages
directly produce machine code
Its slower
But it allows the same byte code to run on any
machine with a VM

Program execution

The output is printed to the console.


Some editors pop up the console as
another window.

Another Java program


public class Hello2 {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("Hello, world!");
System.out.println();
System.out.println("This program produces");
System.out.println("four lines of output");
}
}

Syntax

syntax: The set of legal structures and


commands that can be used.
Examples:
Every basic statement ends with a semi-colon.
The contents of a class occur between curly
braces.

10

Syntax Errors

syntax error: A problem in the structure


of a program.
1 public class Hello {
2
pooblic static void main(String[] args) {
3
System.owt.println("Hello, world!")
4
}
5 }
compiler output:
2 errors found:
File: Hello.java [line: 2]
Error: Hello.java:2: <identifier> expected
File: Hello.java [line: 3]
Error: Hello.java:3: ';' expected
11

More on syntax errors

Java is case-sensitive
Hello and hello are not the same
1 Public class Hello {
2
public static void main(String[] args) {
3
System.out.println("Hello, world!");
4
}
5 }
compiler output:
1 error found:
File: Hello.java [line: 1]
Error: Hello.java:1: class, interface, or enum
expected
12

System.out.println
System.out.println: A statement to print a line of
output to the console.

pronounced print-linn
Two ways to use System.out.println:

System.out.println("<message>");
Prints the given message as a line of text to the
console.
System.out.println();
Prints a blank line to the console.
13

Primitive data types,


expressions, and variables

14

Primitive types
Java has eight primitive types. Here are two examples:
Name Description
int
integers
double
real numbers

Examples
42, -3, 0, 926394
3.4, -2.53, 91.4e3

Numbers with a decimal point are treated as real numbers.


Question: Isnt every integer a real number? Why bother?

15

Other Primitive Data Types

Discrete
Types
byte
short
int
long

Continuous Types
float
double

Non-numeric Types
boolean
char

16

Data Type Representations


Type

Representation

Bits

Bytes

#Values

boolean

true or false

N/A

char

a or 7 or \n

16

216 = 65,536

byte

,-2,-1,0,1,2,

28 = 256

short

,-2,-1,0,1,2,

16

216 = 65,536

int

,-2,-1,0,1,2,

> 4.29 million

long

,-2,-1,0,1,2,

> 18 quintillion

float

0.0, 10.5, -100.7

32

double

0.0, 10.5, -100.7

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Precision in real numbers

The computer internally represents real


numbers in an imprecise way.
Example:
System.out.println(0.1 + 0.2);
The output is 0.30000000000000004!

18

Concatenation: Operating on strings


string concatenation: Using the + operator between a string
and another value to make a longer string.

Examples:

"hello" + 42 is "hello42"
1 + "abc" + 2
is "1abc2"
"abc" + 1 + 2
is "abc12"
1 + 2 + "abc
is "3abc"
"abc" + 9 * 3 is "abc27" (what happened here?)
"1" + 1
is "11"
4 - 1 + "abc
is "3abc"
"abc" + 4 - 1causes a compiler error. Why?
19

Overflow example
int n = 2000000000;
System.out.println(n * n);
// output: -1651507200
the result of n*n is 4,000,000,000,000,000,000 which needs 64-bits:

---------- high-order bytes ------00110111 10000010 11011010 11001110


---------- low order bytes -------10011101 10010000 00000000 00000000

In the case of overflow, Java discards the high-order bytes, retaining


only the low-order ones
In this case, the low order bytes represent 1651507200, and since the
right most bit is a 1 the sign value is negative.

Declaring variables
To create a variable, it must be declared.
Variable declaration syntax:

<type> <name>;

Convention: Variable identifiers follow the same


rules as method names.
Examples:
int x;
double myGPA;
int varName;
21

Identifiers: Keywords

keyword: An identifier that you cannot use, because it already has a


reserved meaning in the Java language.

Complete list of Java keywords:


abstract
boolean
break
byte
case
catch
char
class
const
continue

default
do
double
else
extends
final
finally
float
for
goto

if
implements
import
instanceof
int
interface
long
native
new
package

private
protected
public
return
short
static
strictfp
super
switch
synchronized

this
throw
throws
transient
try
void
volatile
while

NB: Because Java is case-sensitive, you could technically use Class or cLaSs
as identifiers, but this is very confusing and thus strongly discouraged.

22

Increment and decrement

Incrementing and decrementing 1 is used often enough that they have a


special shortcut operator!

Shorthand
<variable>++;
<variable>--;

Examples:
int x = 2;
x++;

Equivalent longer version


<variable> = <variable> + 1;
<variable> = <variable> - 1;

// x = x + 1;
// x now stores 3

double gpa = 2.5;


gpa++;
// gpa = gpa + 1;
// gpa now stores 3.5

23

if/else statements

24

The if statement
if statement: A control structure that executes a block of
statements only if a certain condition is true.
General syntax:
if (<test>) {

<statement(s)> ;
}

Example (with grade inflation):


if (gpa >= 2.0) {
System.out.println("You get an A!");
}

25

if statement flow chart

26

The if/else statement


if/else statement: A control structure that executes one block
of statements if a certain condition is true, and a second block of
statements if it is false. We refer to each block as a branch.
General syntax:

if (<test>) {

<statement(s)> ;

} else {

<statement(s)> ;
}

Example:
if (gpa >= 3.0) {
System.out.println("Welcome to Temple!");
} else {
System.out.println("Try applying to Penn.");
}
27

if/else statement flow chart

28

Chained if/else statements


Chained if/else statement: A chain of if/else that can select
between many different outcomes based on several tests.
General syntax:
if (<test>) {

<statement(s)> ;
} else if (<test>) {
<statement(s)> ;
} else {
<statement(s)> ;
}

Example:
if (number > 0) {
System.out.println("Positive");
} else if (number < 0) {
System.out.println("Negative");
} else {
System.out.println("Zero");
}

29

Chained if/else flow chart


if (<test>) {
<statement(s)>;
} else if (<test>) {
<statement(s)>;
} else {
<statement(s)>;
}

30

Chained if/else if flow chart


if (<test>) {
<statement(s)>;
} else if (<test>) {
<statement(s)>;
} else if (<test>) {
<statement(s)>;
}

31

Boolean Arithmetic

32

The boolean Type


The boolean type has two possible values:
true and false
boolean variables are declared and initialized
just like other primitive data types:

boolean iAmSoSmrt = false;

//just like

boolean minor = (age < 21);

//just like

int i = 2;

int x = y*2;

33

Relational expressions
Relational expressions have
numeric arguments and
boolean values.

They use one of the following six relational operators:


Operator

Meaning

Example

Value

==

equals

1 + 1 == 2

true

!=

does not equal

3.2 != 2.5

true

<

less than

10 < 5

false

>

greater than

10 > 5

true

<=

less than or equal to

126 <= 100

false

>=

greater than or equal to

5.0 >= 5.0

true

34

Evaluating Relational expressions


Relational operators have lower precedence than math
operators.
5 * 7
5 * 7
35
35
true

>=
>=
>=
>=

3 + 5 * (7 - 1)
3 + 5 * 6
3 + 30
33

Relational operators cannot be chained (unlike math


operators)
2 <= x <= 10
true
<= 10
error!
35

Logical operators
Logical operators have
boolean arguments and
boolean values

Operator
&&

Description
and

Example
(9 != 6) && (2 < 3)

||

or

(2 == 3) || (-1 < 5)

not

!(7 > 0)

Result
true

36

Boolean expressions
What is the result of each of the following expressions?
int x = 42;
int y = 17;
int z = 25;

y < x && y <= z


x % 2 == y % 2 || x % 2 == z % 2
x <= y + z && x >= y + z
!(x < y && x < z)
(x + y) % 2 == 0 || !((z - y) % 2 == 0)
Answers: true, false, true, true, false
37

Class Constants
A class constant is a variable
whose scope is the entire class, and
whose value can never change after it has been initialized.
To give it the right scope, simply declare it right inside the class:
public class MyClass {
public static final int myConstant = 4;
}

The final keyword means its value cant be changed.

The for loop

39

Looping via the for loop

for loop: A block of Java code that executes a group of statements


repeatedly until a given test fails.

General syntax:

Example:

for (<initialization>; <test>; <update>) {


<statement>;
<statement>;
...
<statement>;
}

for (int i = 1; i <= 30; i++) {


System.out.println("I will not throw...");
}
40

Control Structure
The for loop is a control structurea syntactic
structure that controls the execution of other
statements.
Example:
Shampoo hair. Rinse. Repeat.

41

for loop over range of ints

We'll write for loops over integers in a given range.


The <initialization> declares a loop counter variable that is used in the test,
update, and body of the loop.
for (int <name> = 1; <name> <= <value>; <name>++) {

Example:
for (int i = 1; i <= 4; i++) {
System.out.println(i + " squared is " + (i * i));
}

Output:
1
2
3
4

squared
squared
squared
squared

is
is
is
is

1
4
9
16

42

for loop flow diagram


for (<init>; <test>; <update>) {
<statement>;
<statement>;
...
<statement>;
}

43

Loop walkthrough
Code:
for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) {
System.out.println(i + " squared is " + (i * i));
}

Output:

i:

1 squared is 1
2 squared is 4
3 squared is 9

44

Loop example
Code:
System.out.println("+----+");
for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) {
System.out.println("\\
/");
System.out.println("/
\\");
}
System.out.println("+----+");

Output:
+----+
\
/
/
\
\
/
/
\
\
/
/
\
+----+

45

Varying the for loop

The initial and final values for the loop counter variable can be arbitrary
expressions:

Example:
for (int i = -3; i <= 2; i++) {
System.out.println(i);
}

Output:
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2

Example:
for (int i = 1 + 3 * 4; i <= 5248 % 100; i++) {
System.out.println(i + " squared is " + (i * i));
}

46

Varying the for loop

The update can be a -- (or any other operator).

Caution: This requires changing the test from <= to >= .


System.out.println("T-minus");
for (int i = 3; i >= 1; i--) {
System.out.println(i);
}
System.out.println("Blastoff!");
Output:
T-minus
3
2
1
Blastoff!

47

Errors in coding
ERROR: Loops that never execute.
for (int i = 10; i < 5; i++) {
System.out.println("How many times do I print?");
}

ERROR: Loop tests that never fail.


A loop that never terminates is called an infinite loop.
for (int i = 10; i >= 1; i++) {
System.out.println("Runaway Java program!!!");
}
48

Nested for loops

nested loop: Loops placed inside one another.


Caution: Make sure the inner loop's counter variable has a different name!
for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) {
System.out.println("i = " + i);
for (int j = 1; j <= 2; j++) {
System.out.println(" j = " + j);
}
}
Output:
i = 1
j = 1
j = 2
i = 2
j = 1
j = 2
i = 3
j = 1
j = 2
49

Nested loops example


Code:
for (int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= 10; j++) {
System.out.print((i * j) + " ");
}
System.out.println(); // to end the line
}

Output:
1
2
3
4
5

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30
8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

50

Nested loops example


Code:
for (int i = 1; i <= 6; i++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= 10; j++) {
System.out.print("*");
}
System.out.println();
}

Output:
**********
**********
**********
**********
**********
**********

51

Nested loops example


Code:
for (int i = 1; i <= 6; i++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= i; j++) {
System.out.print("*");
}
System.out.println();
}

Output:
*
**
***
****
*****
******

52

Nested loops example


Code:
for (int i = 1; i <= 6; i++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= i; j++) {
System.out.print(i);
}
System.out.println();
}

Output:
1
22
333
4444
55555
666666

53

Nested loops example


Code:
for (int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= (5 - i); j++) {
System.out.print(" ");
}
for (int k = 1; k <= i; k++) {
System.out.print(i);
}
System.out.println();
}

Output:
1
22
333
4444
55555
54

Exercise: Nested loops


What nested for loops produce the following output?
inner loop (repeated characters on each line)
....1
...2
..3
.4
5

outer loop (loops 5 times because there are 5 lines)

Key idea:
outer "vertical" loop for each of the lines
inner "horizontal" loop(s) for the patterns within each line
55

Nested loops

First, write the outer loop from 1 to the number of lines desired.
for (int line = 1; line <= 5; line++) {
...
}

Notice that each line has the following pattern:


some number of dots (0 dots on the last line)
a number
....1
...2
..3
.4
5

56

Nested loops
Make a table:
....1
...2
..3
.4
5

line # of dots line * -1 + 5

value displayed

Answer:
for (int line = 1; line <= 5; line++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= (line * -1 + 5); j++) {
System.out.print(".");
}
System.out.println(line);
}
57

Errors in coding

ERROR: Using the wrong loop counter variable.


What is the output of the following piece of code?
for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) {
for (int j = 1; i <= 5; j++) {
System.out.print(j);
}
System.out.println();
}
What is the output of the following piece of code?
for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) {
for (int j = 1; j <= 5; i++) {
System.out.print(j);
}
System.out.println();
}
58

while loops

59

Definite loops
definite loop: A loop that executes a known number of
times.
The for loops we have seen so far are definite loops.

We often use language like


"Repeat these statements N times."
"For each of these 10 things, "

Examples:
Print "hello" 10 times.
Find all the prime numbers up to an integer n.
60

Indefinite loops
indefinite loop: A loop where it is not obvious in advance
how many times it will execute.
We often use language like
"Keep looping as long as or while this condition is still true."
"Don't stop repeating until the following happens."

Examples:
Print random numbers until a prime number is printed.
Continue looping while the user has not typed "n" to quit.

61

while loop

while loop: A control structure that repeatedly performs a test and


executes a group of statements if the test evaluates to true.

while loop, general syntax:


while (<test>) {

<statement(s)>;

Example:
int number = 1;
while (number <= 200) {
System.out.print(number + " ");
number *= 2;
}

Output:
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128
62

while loop flow chart

63

Example
Finds and prints a number's first factor other than 1:
Scanner console = new Scanner(System.in);
System.out.print("Type a number: ");
int number = console.nextInt();
int factor = 2;
while (number % factor != 0) {
factor++;
}
System.out.println("First factor: " + factor);

Sample run:
Type a number: 91
First factor: 7
64

for vs. while


Any for loop of the following form:
for (<initialization>; <test>; <update>) {
<statement(s)>;
}

is equivalent to a while loop of the following form:


<initialization>;
while (<test>) {
<statement(s)>;
<update>;
}

65

for vs. while: Example


What while loop is equivalent to the following for loop?
for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) {
System.out.println(i + " squared = " + (i * i));
}

Solution:
int i = 1;
while (i <= 10) {
System.out.println(i + " squared = " + (i * i));
i++;
}

66

Exercise: digitSum
Write a class named DigitSum that reads an integer from
the user and prints the sum of the digits of that number.
You may assume that the number is non-negative.
Example:

Enter a nonnegative number:

29107

prints 2+9+1+0+7 or 19

Hint: Use the % operator to extract the last digit of a


number. If we do this repeatedly, when should we stop?

67

Solution: digitSum
import java.util.Scanner;
public class DigitSum {
public static void main(String [] args) {
Scanner keyboard = new Scanner(System.in);
int n = keyboard.nextInt();
int sum = 0;
while (n > 0) {
sum += n % 10;
// add last digit to sum
n = n / 10;
// remove last digit
}
System.out.println(sum = + sum);
}
}
68

Random numbers

69

The Random class


Objects of the Random class generate pseudo-random
numbers.
Class Random is found in the java.util package.
import java.util.*;

The methods of a Random object


Method name
nextInt()

Description
returns a random integer

nextInt(max) returns a random integer in the range [0, max)


in other words, from 0 to one less than max
nextDouble() returns a random real number in the range [0.0, 1.0)
70

Generating random numbers


Random rand = new Random();
int randomNum = rand.nextInt(10);
// randomNum has a random value between 0 and 9

What if we wanted a number from 1 to 10?


int randomNum = rand.nextInt(10) + 1;

What if we wanted a number from min to max (i.e. an


arbitrary range)?
int randomNum = rand.nextInt(<size of the range>) +

<min>

where <size of the range> equals (<max> - <min> + 1)


71

Random questions
Given the following declaration, how would you get:
Random rand = new Random();

A random number between 0 and 100 inclusive?

A random number between 1 and 100 inclusive?

A random number between 4 and 17 inclusive?

72

Random solutions
Given the following declaration, how would you get:

Random rand = new Random();

A random number between 0 and 100 inclusive?


int random1 = rand.nextInt(101);
A random number between 1 and 100 inclusive?
int random1 = rand.nextInt(100) + 1;
A random number between 4 and 17 inclusive?
int random1 = rand.nextInt(14) + 4;
73

Exercise: Die-rolling
Write a program that simulates the rolling of two six-sided
dice until their combined result comes up as 7.
Sample run:
Roll: 2
Roll: 3
Roll: 5
Roll: 1
Roll: 4
You won

+ 4 =
+ 5 =
+ 6 =
+ 1 =
+ 3 =
after

6
8
11
2
7
5 tries!

74

Solution: Die-rolling
import java.util.*;

public class Roll {


public static void main(String[] args) {
Random rand = new Random();
int sum = 0;
int tries = 0;
while (sum != 7) {
int roll1 = rand.nextInt(6) + 1;
int roll2 = rand.nextInt(6) + 1;
sum = roll1 + roll2;
System.out.println("Roll: " + roll1 + " + " + roll2 + " = " + sum);
tries++;
}
System.out.println("You won after " + tries + " tries!");

}
}

75

Scanner objects

76

Interactive programs
We have written programs that print console output.
It is also possible to read input from the console.
The user types the input into the console.
The program uses the input to do something.
Such a program is called an interactive program.

77

Scanner
Constructing a Scanner object to read the console:
Scanner <name> = new Scanner(System.in);

Example:
Scanner console = new Scanner(System.in);

78

Scanner methods
Some methods of Scanner:
Method
nextInt()

Description
reads and returns user input as an int

nextDouble() reads and returns user input as a double


next()

reads and returns user input as a String

Each of these methods pauses your program until


the user types input and presses Enter.
Then the value typed is returned to your program.

79

Using a Scanner object


Example:
System.out.print("How old are you? "); // prompt
int age = console.nextInt();
System.out.println("You'll be 40 in " + (40 age)
+ " years.");

prompt: A message printed to the user, telling


them what input to type.

80

Input tokens
token: A unit of user input, as read by the Scanner.
Tokens are separated by whitespace (spaces, tabs, new lines).
How many tokens appear on the following line of input?
23 John Smith
42.0 "Hello world"

When the token doesn't match the type the Scanner tries to read,
the program crashes.
Example:
System.out.print("What is your age? ");
int age = console.nextInt();

Sample Run:
What is your age? Timmy
InputMismatchException:
at java.util.Scanner.throwFor(Unknown Source)
at java.util.Scanner.next(Unknown Source)
at java.util.Scanner.nextInt(Unknown Source)
...
81

Importing classes
Java class libraries: A large set of Java classes available
for you to use.
Classes are grouped into packages.
To use the classes from a package, you must include an
import declaration at the top of your program.
Scanner is in a package named java.util

Import declaration, general syntax:


import <package name>.*;

To use Scanner, put this at the start of your program:


import java.util.*;

82

A complete program
import java.util.*;

// so that I can use Scanner

public class ReadSomeInput {


public static void main(String[] args) {
Scanner console = new Scanner(System.in);
System.out.print("What is your first name? ");
String name = console.next();

System.out.print("And how old are you? ");


int age = console.nextInt();
System.out.println(name + " is " + age + ".

That's quite old!");

}
}

Sample Run:
What is your first name? Marty
How old are you? 12
Marty is 12. That's quite old!

83

Another complete program


import java.util.*;

// so that I can use Scanner

public class Average {


public static void main(String[] args) {
Scanner console = new Scanner(System.in);
System.out.print("Please type three numbers: ");
int num1 = console.nextInt();
int num2 = console.nextInt();
int num3 = console.nextInt();
double average = (num1 + num2 + num3) / 3.0;
System.out.println("The average is " + average);
}
}

Sample Run:
Please type three numbers: 8 6 13
The average is 9.0

Notice that the Scanner can read multiple values from one line.
84