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CHAPTER 2: TELLING

MEMORIES
1. Students will be able to use Past Tense to tell memories.
2. Students will be able to use Present Perfect Tense to begin to tell
experiences.
3. Students will be able to use either present tense or Past Tense to
promote one object, concept, building, or region by comparison of
adjective or adverb of manner approach.
4. Students will be able to use either Present Tense or Past Tense to
retell memories or experiences.

CHAPTER 2: TELLING MEMORIES


1. GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME OF THE TOPIC
General learning outcome of the topics are as follows:
1. Students will be able to use Past Tense to tell memories.
2. Students will be able to use Present Perfect Tense to begin to tell experiences.
3. Students will be able to use either present tense or Past Tense to promote one
object, concept, building, or region by comparison of adjective or adverb of
manner approach.
4. Students will be able to use either Present Tense or Past Tense to retell memories
or experiences.
2. LEARNING MATERIALS
Some students still cannot differentiate between the use of Present Tense and Past Tense.
They do not aware of the difference between I had two sisters and I have two sisters.
The first sentence means that now he has only one sister but in the second, he still has the
two sisters now. Although some students are aware of I went to school early in the morning
yesterday but they are still not aware that to say finish studying or babys delivery
should be expressed in the Past Tense: I left SMA 26 Jakarta in 2005 or He was born in
July 2006. Past Tense refers to statements of activities that take place in the past, yesterday,
last night, this morning, or a few minutes ago while Present Tense refers to statements of
activities that always, often (frequently), seldom (rarely), (n)ever, sometimes happen, refers
to reminding facts, truth, or refers to habit that often takes place.
Students often make incorrect sentence constructions in Past Tense. They make double verbs
to fill the predicate slot or no predicate at all in the sentence. Instead of saying I left home
to school at 7 oclock, students often say I was leave home to school at 7 oclock (double
verbs). Instead of saying He went to school in the morning, students may say He was
gone to school in the morning (incorrect past form of the verb in the predicate slot).
Students still do not remember the past forms of certain verbs.
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Thus, in this topic students will learn how to


1. Use Past Tense to tell memories.
2. Use Present Perfect Tense to begin to tell experiences.
3. Use either present tense or Past Tense to promote one object, concept, building,
or region by comparison of adjective or adverb of manner approach.
4. Use either Present Tense or Past Tense to retell memories or experiences.

3. EXERCISES:
At the end of each subtopic, students will have:
1. To tell memories by the use of Past Tense.
2. To tell 3 experiences or memories or more by the use of Present Perfect Tense to
begin each story.
3. To promote one object, concept, building, or region by comparison of adjective
or adverb of manner approach in either Present Tense or Past Tense.
4. To retell memories or experiences by the use of either Present Tense or Past
Tense.

4. EVALUATION
Students are supposed to tell their experiences or memories in front of the class. Thus;
students will be evaluated on 1) the sequences or details of the story, telling experiences, or
memories, 2) pronunciation, 3) choice of word used, and 4) fluency. Students are not
allowed to refer to the written text they may have made at home before the presentation.
1. In telling memories, students will be evaluated on the correct use of verbs in the
past forms and their pronunciation.
2. In telling 3 more experiences or memories, students will be evaluated on the
correct sentence structure of Present Perfect Tense and also in Past Tense.

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3. In promoting one object, concept, building, or region by comparison of adjective


or adverb of manner approach, students will be evaluated on the correct sentence
structure and correct use of either Present Tense or Past Tense.
4. In retelling memories or experiences, students will be evaluated on the correct
sentence structure and correct use of either Present Tense or Past Tense too.

5. STUDENTS COMPETENCE AFTER THE LEARNING PROCESS


1. Students will be able to use Past Tense to tell memories.
2. Students will be able to use Present Perfect Tense to begin to tell experiences.
3. Students will be able to use either present tense or Past Tense to promote one
object, concept, building, or region by comparison of adjective or adverb of
manner approach.
4. Students will be able to use either Present Tense or Past Tense to retell memories
or experiences.
6. SUMMARY
A good sentence in English should contain at least one S(ubject) and one P(redicate). The
following sentences: He back a few minutes ago or I 17 years old are not good
sentences because there are no predicates in both sentences. The predicate in the first
sentence should be was and in the second sentence should be am. Thus, the two sentences
will read such as the following: He was back a few minutes ago and I am 17 years old.

7. FEED BACK
During the presentation, jot down the mistakes student may make either in the use of word
choice, pronunciation, or grammatical aspects. Encourage students to learn more details in
the grammar book or browse the internet as there are many websites of English grammar
teaching and not to refer to the texts they may have made at home before the presentation.
After the presentation or feedback, students are also to rewrite the text they have just spoken
in front of the class.
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8. REFERENCES
1. Alexander, L.G. Practice and Progress: an Integrated Course for PreIntermediate Students. London: Longman Group Ltd., 1972
2. Frank, Marcella. Modern English: A Practical Reference Guide. New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, Inc.
3. http://tensesinenglish.com/ Learn about What Others Has to Say in English.
4. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/tenses/tense_frames.htm. Grammar
in English

SUBTOPIC 2.1 TELLING MEMORIES

Learning objective: After the session is over, students will be able to use Past Tense to tell
memories or experiences.

A. LEARNING MATERIAL
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2.1.A.1 The Use of Past Tense


Past Tense refers to the verb-changes that occur in the predicate slot. From the Present Form,
Verbs in the predicate slot may change into Past Form. From the Present Form, verbs may
change into Past Form just by the additional letter of either D or ED (if the last letter of
the verbs is E such as in Worked, Played, Said, Planned). The changes are the most easily
remembered form so that these types of verbs are popularly known as regular verbs. Around
125 verbs do not follow this regular change. It totally changes from the previously present
form, such as in gowent or findfound. These types of verbs are popularly known as
irregular verbs. Some irregular verbs only undergo minor changes to be past form such as in
writewritten or sleepslept.
Past tense is used to tell activities, occurrences, or happenings that take place in the past
time, yesterday, last night, this morning, a few minutes ago, or take place in a definite time
in the past, for example in the year 2009. Generally, any occurrences may be expressed in
Present Tense, Present Future Tense, or Past Tense but some occurrences must be expressed
in past tense such as born or left school. As written in Chapter 1, the sentence
construction of Past Tense is as follows:
TABLE 1 SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION WITH PAST TENSE
SUBJECT

PREDICATE
V2
Was / were

IDENTITY

S
S

Was / were V3

Was / were not V3

Did

Did not V1
Was / were not

V1 ?

Affirmative and Active


sentence
Affirmative and Passive
sentence
Negative and Active
sentence
Negative and Passive
sentence
Question and Active
sentence

Was / were
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Was/wer
eS

V3 ?

Question and Passive


sentence

Active sentence means that the meaning of the verbs in the predicate slot will be me
kan/i or ber kan/i while the passive sentence means that the meaning of the verbs
in the predicate slot will be di kan/i or ter kan/i.
Read the text below and learn the past form of verbs in the predicate which is typed in bold.
LIN
E

TEXT
WRONG SANDALS
One morning, I woke up late. In fact I had an
appointment to see a friend of mine in her house. I
left my house in a hurry there. I took a bus to her
house. The passenger looked at me strangely. I didnt
know what happened with me. I felt bothered but I
ignored them. When I arrived at my friends house,
she laughed at me loudly. Finally, I asked her what
was wrong with me. She said Look at your sandals.
Did you take them on purpose? You wore different
color of pairs. You looked strange. I was absolutely
surprised to know about it. I was then aware why the
people in the bus looked at me strangely. I wore
white and red pair of sandals.

10

LINE

PRESENT FORM

1
2
3
4
4-5
5
6
7
8
8-9
9
10
11
12

Wake / have
Leave
Take
Look
Negative
sentence
happen/feel/ignor
e
Arrive
Laugh / ask
Say
Question
sentence
Wear
Look / am
Am
Look / wear

B. EXERCISES
Read the text below and do the same analysis as done above for you.
LIN
E

LINE

TEXT

PRESENT FORM

A COBRA
After I was in the secondary school, my parent
assigned me to clean the house every day. Sometime
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10

15

20

I cleaned it in the morning but sometime I did it in


night before going to bed. One day, I arrived home
late from school. I had to follow extracurricular
activities there until 5 oclock. I arrived home at
06.15. After I had Maghrib pray, I did clean the
house. I planned to go to bed early on that night. I
did it enthusiastically. Being tired, I went to bed at 9.
Hopefully, I would sleep soundly and got up early on
the next day. When I was about to sleep, I saw
something move in the corner of my bedroom. I
thought it was a wall-lizard. It moved slowly. After a
while, it was clear it was not a wall-lizard. It was a
snake. When I was about to look at it closely,
suddenly it jumped towards me and almost touched
my foot. I screamed loudly. I took a stick to hit it.
Both my father and mother entered my bedroom.
After I told him, my father hit the snake hard. It
spilled out the blood. It died. It was a cobra. I had to
clean the bedroom again because there was a blood
there. I worked twice on that day.

C. ASSIGNMENT
Tell one unforgettable event in your personal lives which are of unforgettable experiences in
front of the class in the next session. Describe the event sequentially in detail. Explore the
probable verbs you may use in the story. Be careful in the pronunciation of the past form of
the verbs. Tell the happy experiences instead of the unhappy ones. Do not refer to
experiences of other persons as you may find difficulties to narrate the details.

D. EVALUATION
Students will be evaluated on the details of the details of the story, sequence, fluency, correct
pronunciation of the verbs, choice of words, and correct sentence structure. Do not use two
verbs in the predicate slot such as My father was go to his office early in the morning.
Students should not read the text that they may previously have made at home. The subject
must be dominantly I.
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SUBTOPIC 2.2 TELLING ANOTHER 3 MORE EXPERIENCES


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Learning objective: After the session is over, students will be able to use Present Perfect
Tense to begin to tell memories or experiences.

A. LEARNING MATERIAL
Indonesian often speaks a statement which is both structurally and meaningfully correct but
it is actually inappropriate. The statement is where have you been? (Spoken in Present
Perfect Tense) a literal translation from bahasa Indonesia Dari mana saja kamu? If the
answer is I have been to the canteen for example, the answer is inappropriate. Present
Perfect Tense is never used in such a kind of situation.
Present Perfect Tense is used to express an activity, an occurrence, a happening that has just
taken place, that has (n)ever taken place, that has already take place, or that has taken place
for some time or since some time ago. The most probable question in Present Perfect Tense
is the question of HOW LONG such as one here: How long have you been here? Thus; the
question Where have you been? should correspondingly be spoken as Where were you?
and the response will be I was in the canteen. The full dialogue will look like as the
following: where were you? Ive been looking for you for long but I didnt see you. The
response will be I was in the canteen. Learn the structure of Present Perfect Tense below.
TABLE 2 SENTENCE CONSTRUCTIONS IN PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
SUBJECT

SPL

SS
SPL

SS
SPL

SS
SPL

PREDICATE
HAVE

IDENTITY

V-3

HAS
HAVE
HAS
HAV
E
HAS
HAVE

V-3

BEEN
NOT

V-3
V-3

NOT

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Affirmative and Active


sentence
Affirmative and Passive
sentence
Negative and Active
sentence
Negative and Passive
Administration

SS
HAVE
SPL

HAS

sentence

BEEN

V-3?

Question and Active


sentence

HAS
SS
HAVE
SPL

BEEN

HAS
SS

V3?

Question and Passive


sentence

Another common misspoken statement in Bahasa Indonesia is I have gone to Ancol


( literal translation from Saya pernah pergi ke Ancol). The statement is grammatically
correct but it denotes different idea from the original idea in Indonesian. When the speaker
means he knows Ancol well, he should purposely say I have been to Ancol but when he
means differently (Saya sekadar pernah (mampir/pergi) ke Ancol he may say I have
gone to Ancol.
The Present Perfect Tense is never followed by a time signal either in the past, such as
yesterday, this morning, last night, a few time ago, or in the year 2009for example
except only just, (n)ever, already, or for some time or since some time ago. The following
statement Ive been to Ancol when I was 7 years old or I have been to Ancol in 2009 are
grammatically incorrect. The first statement should say I have been to Ancol. I went there
when I was 7 years old while the second statement should say I have been to Ancol. I went
there in 2009. As a conclusion, there should be two sentences.
Because the Present Perfect Tense is basically only a statement of being ever, never,
already, or just, a story will never totally be in the Present Perfect Tense sentences. Instead,
the Present Perfect Tense will be followed by Past Tense in order to get a complete idea of
the story. Thus; the Present Perfect Tense is a kind of review, main idea, or the title of the
story.
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The above ideas underline the use of the Present Perfect Tense to tell 3 different memories,
experiences, or stories. Learn the samples below. The sentences typed in bold is the Present
Perfect Tense. It is used to begin the story and it also means the main idea or the title of the
stories. The Present Perfect Tense is followed by Past Tense.
I have ever had an embarrassing experience. About two months ago, I went to internet rental house to play
online games. I usually go there by motorcycle but I didnt at that time. I went there by bus. I played online game
for 5 hours. At 5.30 in the afternoon, I then planned to go home. I then put my hand into the pocket to get the
motorcycle key. I browsed it in either trousers pocketleft pocket or right pocketor my shirts pocket but it
was not there. I browsed it again and again but I still failed to find one. I became panic. I began to think that my
motorcycle could have been gone. After around 20 minutes, I sat on a chair and then I remembered if I didnt go
to the internet rental house by motorcycle. I could never find the motorcycle key, then.
I have ever walked home from swimming pool. I was 15 years old. One day, three of my friends and I went
to swimming pool. We went there by public transportation. One my friend paid the transportation tickets for us.
He also planned to pay the transportation tickets when we were back home. We swam there for 2 hours. When
we were about to leave the pool, he said that he lost the money. My other friends and I searched for it for 20
minutes but we didnt find it. Finally we went back home on foot. We walked for 3 kilometer away. When I
arrived home, I was very tired.
I have ever come to a wrong wedding party. One of my school mates got married in a hall one day. She
invited me and my other two friends to attend the party. I forgot precisely the address but I remembered the
area of the hall. On the D-day, we decided to attend it. On the hall gate, it was written my friends name. We
came to the party at around 12.15. We decided to take the menu first before seeing the couple because we
were hungry. When we were full, we stood on a long queue to greet the bride and the groom. We were sure she
would be happy to our presence. When we finally arrived in front of the bride, to my surprise she was not my
friend.

B. EXERCISES
Read the texts below and give the correct grammatical form to the verbs that is typed in
italic.
TEXT
CORRECTION
I have locked up in the house. One day my parent and I have been locked in the house.
their family planned to go to a public park in my town.
We went there in the morning at 8 oclock. They leave
me in the house. I was slept. When I woke up, I see no
one at home. When I want to open the door, it was lock.
I called my mothers name, but she do not come. I was
very upset. I was crying loudly when my parent
suddenly come.
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I have entered a wrong hall. One year ago, my school


send one team to followed accounting competition in
Darmajaya University. I was one member of the team.
On the competition day, I told my other team members
that I will arrive there at 08.00. I hurriedly go to one
hall in the university. To my surprise, I do not find
them. I asked the committee members standing there.
He tell me that my team was on the third floor of that
building. I have enter a wrong hall.
I have ever spend the whole day in the beach. During
the holiday semester at the third grade in the secondary
school, my school mates and I go to Anyer beach. We
spent the night at a villa. Early in the morning, I get up
early. I walk along the coast my self. After I had
breakfast, I enjoy my self in the beach. I ride bicycle. I
took banana boat. My friend was overthrow by the boat.
He couldnt swim. Fortunately he wear life-jacket. We
laugh together to see him. I enjoyed the holiday very
much.

C. ASSIGNMENT
Tell 3 different events (stories) in your personal life. They should be yours. Otherwise you
cannot details the events. Begin each story by Present Perfect Tense and details the stories
by Past Tense. The present perfect Tense is also meant as the title of the story.

D. EVALUATION
Students will be evaluated on the details of the sequence, fluency, correct pronunciation of
the verbs, choice of words, and correct sentence structure. Do not use two verbs in the
predicate slot such as My father was go to his office early in the morning when you detail
the event. Students should not read the text that they may previously have made at home.
The subject must be dominantly I.

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SUBTOPIC 2.3 RETELLING MEMORABLE STATEMENTS


Learning objective: After the session is over, students will be able to use reported speech to
retell memorable words, advice, or valuable statements.

A. LEARNING MATERIAL
2.3.A.1 The Nature of Reported Speech
Advices, quotes, statements, words are often unforgettable, especially, when they come from
parents, spiritual leaders, teachers, or from notable people who are honored. Religious
teachings often quote advices, warnings, or advices from the prophet, legendary religious
leaders. Words from notable people are often memorable. Retrieving advices and memorable
words often disclose events underlining them.
However; a legend told by parents, a history told by historians, a novel written by the people
whom the readers love also bear events which are memorable and, thus, worth retelling. The
advices, quotes, words, or statements could guide us to lead and enjoy a happy life and to
avoid breaking forbidden rules.
These memorable words, advices, or statements are expressed in Reported Speech of a
compound sentence model. Speech is sentence. In reported speech, there two sentences that
are connected by conjunction THAT (to repeat an affirmative statements), WHETHER or IF
(to repeat a yes / no question sentence), or WHAT, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, WHY, and
HOW (to repeat a question sentence begun with one of the following question words:
WHAT, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, WHY, and HOW). One reported speech model contains
only one sentence. It comes from a repetition of a remainder, order, or warning. From a

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remainder and order, TO VERB phrase construction follows the main clause while from a
warning, NOT TO VERB phrase construction follows the main clause.
Because reported speech is a repetition of memorable words, advices, or statements, the
predicate of first sentence (or commonly known as the main sentence) will be SAY,
ORDER, ASK, REPEAT, ARGUE, REQUEST, ENSURE, ADVICE, TELL, WARN, or
other words and the second sentence will the repeated words, advices, or statements. Thus
the sentence construction of the reported speech will be as follows:
TABLE 3 SENTENCE CONSTRUCTIONS IN REPORTED SPEECH
MAIN CLAUSE / SENTENCE

CONJUN CTION

REPEATED WORDS, ADVICES,


STATEMENTS (SUBCLAUSE)

(say, argue, order,


ask, talk to, tell,
inform, advice, warn
)

My father
The teacher
The secretary
The rule
My father
NOTE:

THAT *)
WHETHER/IF **)
WHAT ***)
WHO
WHEN
WHERE
WHY
HOW
TO VERB phrase #)
NOT TO VERB phrase ##)
SAMPLE WORDS, ADVICES, OR STATEMENTS
often tells me
that
I
have to learn hard.
asked me
if
I
did the test well.
my
name
asked me
what
was.
require students
to get to school before 7 in the morning.
order me
not to arrive at to school late.

*) for repeating an affirmative statement


**) for repeating a yes / no question sentence
***) for repeating a question sentence begun with one of the following question
words: WHAT, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, WHY, and HOW
#) for repeating a remainder or order
##) for repeating a warning

2.3.B.2 Sample of The Use of Reported Speech


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MIKE
Mike was a young naughty boy. He was having birthday when he made everything around
him in a mess. His uncle gave him a present. It was a monkey. His uncle hoped mike would
change his bad habit after receiving the present. Mikes mother was in doubt if he would
change his bad habit. She was not sure mike could take care of his animal. She asked Mike
for many times whether he really wanted to keep the monkey well as his pet. Mike, then,
convinced his mother that he really wanted the monkey.
Mike loved his monkey very much. It was very funny. He always acted like what Mike did.
One day, Mike did his bad habit again. He threw the kitchen equipments anywhere. He drew
some of them on the wall. In some other case he made his mother angry. Unpredictably, the
monkey also did the same. Mikes mother was angry too with the monkey. Mike told his
mother that it was not the monkeys fault. He told about it repeatedly to his mother. His
mother finally asked him why he did bad habit again. His mother threatened him that she
would fling the monkey away if Mike didnt change his habit. Mike would really be afraid if
he changed himself slowly. Finally he could be a young nice boy.

B. EXERCISES
Read the text below and underline the sentences with the reported speech construction.
BAWANG MERAH AND BAWANG PUTIH
Once upon a time in a small village, there was a family who had a girl named Bawang
Putih. When Bawang Putih was 4 years old, her mother died because of a disease. One year
later, her father married another woman who had a daughter named Bawang Merah. After
the marriage, Bawang Putih was always tortured by her step mother and her step sister. She
did every house work herself.

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One day, her step mother asked her to get up early and work harder. After she had done all
her work, Bawang Merah asked her to wash all her clothes. Bawang Putih then went to a
river near her house. When she was washing the clothes, one of them was washed away and
she lost it. Bawang Putih was very upset. She didnt know what to do if Bawang Merah was
angry with her. Bawang Putih then walked along the river to look for the cloth, but she
could not find it.
When she finally found it, she met an old woman. She asked her to bring a pumpkin and
gave it to her step mother. Bawang Putih thanked her. Bawang Putih then went back home.
She told her step mother and step sister why she lost her cloth but they didnt believe it. Her
mother told her how stupid she was to lose the cloth. Bawang Putih cried for long. Suddenly
the pumpkin fell down to the floor. It broke to pieces. Unbelievably, it contained a lot of
jewelries. Her step mother and her step sister come to it and they looked happy and thought
they would be rich. They then apologized to Bawang Putih. They lived happily after that.

C. ASIGNMENT
Remind words, advices, or statements from parents, teachers, and religious leaders,
concerning life and leading an easy life. You may also retell memorable words from texts,
books, or novels. The important thing is that you should include the three reported speech
models of sentences. There should be at least 10 reported speech sentences in your story.
The Past Tense and the Present Tense are not counted although they are preliminary
sentences in your story.

D. EVALUATION
Students will be evaluated on the details of the words, advices, or statements, fluency,
correct pronunciation of the verbs, choice of words, correct tenses, and correct sentence
structure. Do not use two verbs in the predicate slot such as My father was go to his office
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early in the morning when you detail the event. Students should not read the text that they
may previously have made at home. The subject must be dominantly I.

SUBTOPIC 2.4 PROMOTING OBJECTS, REGIONS,


BUILDINGS, OR CONCEPTS
Learning objective: After the session is over, students will be able to promote objects,
regions, buildings, or concepts by comparison of adjective and adverb of manner approach.

A. LEARNING MATERIAL
2.4.A.1 The Nature of Promotion
Promotion is one of the four elements of marketing mix (product, price, promotion,
distribution). It is the communication link between sellers and buyers for the purpose of
influencing,

informing,

or

persuading

potential

buyer's

purchasing

decision.

Fundamentally, however there are three basic objectives of promotion. These are 1) to
present information to consumers as well as others, 2) to increase demand, and 3) to
differentiate a product. To promote a product, building, regions, or concepts, one can just
inform popular sites or landmarks. Otherwise, audiences may not know what he means.
To promote a product, one can approach it from different point of view. In this case, as an
exercise of language structure mastery, the promotion of products, buildings, regions, or
concepts is focusing on the use of comparison of adjective and adverb of manner. Adjective
is a word that modifies Noun. It is in the subject position or after the predicate BE,
SEEM, LOOK, and BECOME. Adverb of manner is a word that modifies Verb which
is located in the Predicate position. Adverb of manner is derived from Adjective+LY,
except good, bad, hard, fast where the adverb of manner is well, badly, hard, and past. Learn
the different sentence construction with adjective and adverb of manner below.

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SUBJECT

PREDICATE SUBJECT COMPLEMENT/ADVERB

NOTE

He

is

a hard worker

Adjective

He

works

hard

Adverb of manner

Because both adjective and adverb of manner function as modifier, the qualities of the
NOUN or VERB can be comparable. Since adverb of manner is basically derived from
adjective, comparison technique for both adjective and adverb of manner is also similar.
Comparative degree of the four adverb of manner (WELL, BADLY, HARD, and FAST) is
the same as comparison of adjective with one syllable while comparative and superlative
degree for adverb of manner derived from adjective+LY is the same as the comparison of
derivational adjective. Learn the rules for the construction of the comparative and
superlative degree of adjective and adverb of manner below.
TABLE 5.1 RULES FOR CONSTRUCTING THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE AND
SUPERLATIVE DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERB OF MANNER
Adjectives of one
syllable, such as big

Equal quality

As adjectives
as
Adv of manner

Adjectives of two
Adjectives of more two
syllables, such as clever syllables, such as difficult
and derivational
adjectives, such as
friendly
As adjectives as

Comparative degree Add er to the adjective Add er to the adjective


Add than after the
Add than after the
adjectives/adv of manner adjectives
OR
Add more before the
adjectives
Add than after the
adjective

As adjectives
as
Adv of manner

Add more before the


adjectives
Add than after the
adjective/adv of manner

Superlative degree Add est to the adjectives Add est to the adjectives Add the most before the
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Add the before the


Add the before the
adjectives/adv of manner
adjectives/adv of manner adjectives
OR
Add the most before the
adjectives

Learn how to promote objects, buildings, regions, or concepts by the comparison of


adjective and adverb of manner approach below.

BANGKA AND BELITUNG


Bangka and Belitung is the 31st province in Indonesia. They were used to be parts of South
Sumatra. Its capital city is Pangkal Pinang. It has tropical climate where wet season lasts for
7 months and the dry season lasts for 5 months. There is a wide low lands area with only a
smaller mountainous area. The population of the province in 2006 is 1.074.775
people. The population of Belitung is 210,368 less than Bangka. The population of

Belitung is 529,441 and Bangka is 789,809 people. Bangka is 11,693 km2 wide and
Belitung is 7,031 km2. Bangka is 4,662 km2 larger than Belitung. Bangka has 4 more subdistricts than Belitung. Bangka has 6 sub-districts and Belitung has 2 sub-districts. People of
Bangka speak Malay and Belitung does too. Pepper production in Bangka is as big as in
Belitung. Bangka has two more beaches than Belitung. Bangka has 4 interesting beaches
while Belitung has only 2 interesting beaches. Plantation in Belitung is 503 km2 larger than
Bangka. Plantation in Bangka is 1,203 km2 while in Belitung is 1,700 km2 wide.

B. EXERCISE
Read the text below, underline the comparison of adjective or adverb of manner, and then
identify the comparison whether of equal degree, comparative degree, or superlative degree.
ELEPHANT
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Elephants are the largest land mammals of the family Elephantidae. The African Savanna
Elephant is the biggest elephant with adult males achieving body weights greater than 7
tones and they have thicker tusks. Three species of elephant are living today: the African
bush elephant, the African forest elephant and the Asian elephant (also known as the Indian
elephant). The Asian elephant is slightly smaller than the African elephant. The easiest way
to distinguish the two is that the Asian elephant has smaller ears. The long trunk permits the
elephant to reach as high as 23 feet. The elephant's gestation period is 22 months, the
longest of any land animal. At birth it is common for an elephant calf to weigh
120 kilograms (260 lb). They typically live for 50 to 70 years, but the oldest recorded
elephant lived for 82 years. The largest elephant ever recorded was shot in Angola in 1956.
This male weighed about 24,000 lb (11,000 kg), with a shoulder height of 3.96 meters (13.0
ft), a meter (yard) taller than the average male African elephant. The smallest elephants,
about the size of a calf or a large pig, were a prehistoric species that lived on the island of
Crete during the Pleistocene epoch.

C. ASIGNMENT
Identify an object, building, region, or concept and then promote or tell it by the use of
comparison of adjective and or adverb of manner. Before making comparison, make
introductory words first in around 46 sentences. There should be around 2 equal-quality
degree, 3 comparative degree, 3 superlative degree of comparison of adjective or adverb of
manner. There will be around 1016 sentences altogether.

D. EVALUATION
Students will be evaluated on the correct construction of comparison of adjective and adverb
of manner, fluency, and correct pronunciation of the verbs, choice of words, correct tenses,
and correct sentence structure.

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