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S.Rengasamy

S.Rengasamy –Conflict in Community Setting Part I

Contents
Conflict in Community Settings .............................................................................................................................. 3 What is community conflict? .................................................................................................................................. 4 Box: What is community? ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Box: Community organizers & Conflict .................................................................................................................. 4 What is Conflict ..................................................................................................................................................... 5 Definitions ............................................................................................................................................................. 5 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Box: Stages & Signs of Conflict ............................................................................................................................. 5 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5 4 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6 5 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6 6 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6 7 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6 8 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6 Box: Types of Conflict ........................................................................................................................................... 6 Table: Five Types of Conflict ................................................................................................................................. 7 Box: Conflict Staircase ........................................................................................................................................... 7 A.Types of Conflict ................................................................................................................................................ 8 B. Types of Conflict ............................................................................................................................................... 8 Box: What do we mean by conflict ......................................................................................................................... 8 C. Types of Conflict ............................................................................................................................................... 8 Box: Conflict Stages & Types of community Disputes .......................................................................................... 10 Types of Community Disputes.............................................................................................................................. 10 Dia: Levels of conflict .......................................................................................................................................... 11 Box: Conflict is ever-changing: Stages of conflict ................................................................................................. 12 D.Types of conflict ............................................................................................................................................... 13 Box: Consequences of conflict .............................................................................................................................. 13 E. Types of conflict: ............................................................................................................................................. 13 Box: Understanding Conflict as a Strategy in Social Change ................................................................................. 14 Different kinds of conflict. .................................................................................................................................... 14 Understanding Conflict as a Strategy in Social Change ......................................................................................... 14 Competition & Conflict ........................................................................................................................................ 15 Box: Casual Pathway of Conflict over Natural Resources -& Fresh water Conflicts ............................................... 16 Consequences of conflict ...................................................................................................................................... 17 Positive and Negative Conflict .............................................................................................................................. 17 Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management .................................................................................. 18 Box: How is conflict resolution different than the legal approach? ......................................................................... 18 Common development pressures fuelling conflict ................................................................................................. 19 Community situations where conflict resolution may be useful .............................................................................. 19 Box: Model Conflict Analysis Mapping ................................................................................................................ 19 Box: Types of conflict .......................................................................................................................................... 20 Box: Conflict mapping & Community Conflict ..................................................................................................... 21 Conflict - Careers and education ........................................................................................................................... 21 Box Examples of Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management....................................................... 22 What are community-based conflicts? ................................................................................................................... 23 References ........................................................................................................................................................... 25

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S.Rengasamy –Conflict in Community Setting Part I
Conflict in community Settings

Conflict in Community Settings

"Not all conflict is bad and not all cooperation is good" Conflict is inevitable, but combat is optional. "Peace is not the absence of conflict but the presence of creative alternatives for responding to conflict - alternatives to passive or aggressive responses, alternatives to violence."
This compilation is not talking about • Conflicts caused by criminals. These are for the police to deal with. • Conflicts that occur within families or between individuals - that are unrelated to our work as community organizers/ development workers/ or as livelihood promoters. These are for social services to deal with. • Conflict caused by individuals who need medical help. These are for health care professionals to deal with This compilation won‘t provide instant answers to complex questions / solutions for violent conflict /or Instant project security • This knowledge won‘t replace the ground work the community organizers are expected to do. This may help in understanding the communities and the context and building relationships and trust. This material may help how to proceed our work in a careful manner and designing strategies in an appropriate manner

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S.Rengasamy –Conflict in Community Setting Part I

What is community conflict? Conflict situations appear with frequency in daily, public, and private life. These conflicts may be on a small or large scale; they may occur within and among groups, communities, or nations; and, they may be triggered by ethnic, racial, What is community? religious, or economic differences, or arise The typical image of a community in a Community from differences in values, beliefs, and Based Development (CBD) program is a village comattitudes regarding issues. Local communities posed of people from similar backgrounds who have a long time. In a conflict-affected are constantly faced with issues such as lived together reality may be very different. A setting, the sharing of water, dumping of waste, temple ‗community‘ in a conflict-affected area may include rights, and zoning that have the potential of members of different warring groups, internally leading to community conflict. Workers in displaced persons (IDPs), refugees, ex-combatants, among the community organizations are (or should be) and victims of violence along with andby prolonged original inhabitants. In countries affected aware of issues and value differences that violence, it may be primarily composed of women or may cause conflict within or among groups. children and old people. In some programs, Unmanaged conflict is a threat to the survival communities may be groups of individuals united by similar interests, such as businessmen, farmers or of the group and, at the least, tends to make health workers. A CBD community may be an urban the group less effective. slum or a rural village. For the purposes of
Box: What is community?

What causes conflict to emerge in communities and community groups? How can one minimize, deal with, "manage", or resolve community and group conflict? How is conflict used by groups as a strategy to bring about desired changes?
Box: Community organizers & Conflict

understanding conflict, a community is a group of people sharing some common interests and needs and who have to work together to solve problems.

Community organizers & Conflict Community organizers should be prepared to confront issues and deal with them, and they should not be not intimidated by conflict and the emotions that accompany it. Community Organizers should not feel that conflicts are to be avoided and that if they occur, they are a sign of failure; that reasonable people can always find a middle ground, a compromise that avoids unpleasantness. But there are things that need to be challenged. There may be low level casteism and sexism, officials who appear to be acting unreasonably, organizations that find it difficult to adapt to new and changing realities. Challenging these, in positive ways, is part of working towards change.
Beware of Iceberg

Conflicts occur because of historical, cultural and economic changes that can make people anxious. If people feel excluded from the decisions being made about their communities, they will often react angrily. If they are repeatedly excluded, the anger will grow and may escalate into a major conflict. Many community organizations work with people who feel excluded, who feel that they have no say in what is going on. If you and your organizations are introducing change, it will, by definition, disturb “the way things are done around here”. Changes will force people to think and act differently, and often affect the way resources are allocated to different uses. None of this is likely to happen without 4

S.Rengasamy –Conflict in Community Setting Part I

conflict. The feelings and emotions, the hopes and aspirations, the anger and the frustration that the changes bring up will often be carried into your organization and affect your work. It can show up in disagreements between organizations and in disagreements within organizations. This is not anyone’s fault: it is what happens in any highly charged change situation. Our task is to learn from it… not to pretend it isn’t there, or just hope that it will go away What is Conflict The potential for conflict exists whenever and wherever people have contact. As people are organized into groups to seek a common goal, the probability of conflict greatly increases. Since only the most serious conflicts make headlines, conflict has a negative connotation for many people. All conflicts are not the same. We face conflicts on all levels. We have disagreements with family, friends, and co-workers. "Conflicts are rarely resolved easily. Most conflicts are managed as individuals work out differences...." Individuals may dislike certain people with whom they come into frequent contact, but may tolerate their behavior on a day-to-day basis until a situation arises where strong feelings are at issue. Such situations almost inevitably turn up, sooner or later, within any long term community project or program. Conflict can occur within groups (intra-group conflict) or among groups (inter-group conflict).
'CONFLICT ENTREPRENEURS',

Definitions
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stand to gain a great deal of power and wealth from instability and conflict.

Conflict is defined in many ways. The Latin word conflictus, a striking together with force implies disagreement, discord, and friction among members of a group; interaction where words, emotions, and actions strike together to produce disruptive effects
Box: Stages & Signs of Conflict

Signs of Conflict Gossip Avoidance Resistance Exclusion Absenteeism Mood change Silences, or a drop in the amount of communication Inappropriate communication Negative body language Continual complaining or arguments Change in work and decision-making styles Change in social patterns, and Recurring problems.
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The word ‘conflict’ carries negative connotations. It is often thought of as the opposite of cooperation and peace, and is most commonly associated with violence, the threat of violence or disruptive (nonviolent) disputes. This view of conflict as negative is not always helpful. In non-violent settings it can often be seen as a force for positive social change, its presence being a visible demonstration of society adapting to a new political, economic or physical environment.

Conflict. Conflict is usually defined as a social situation in which incompatible goals and

activities occur between two or more parties (individuals or groups) who hold antagonistic feelings towards each other and attempt to control each other.
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Conflict exists whenever incompatible activities occur.

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Conflict occurs when an individual is motivated to make two or more mutually incompatible

responses.
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Conflict is a tension between two or more entities (individuals, groups or larger organizations),

which arise from incompatibility of actual or larger responses.
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Conflict is the energy that builds up when individuals or groups of people pursue incompatible goals in their drive to meet their needs and interests
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Conflict is a perceived divergence of interests or the belief that the current aspirations of the parties cannot be simultaneously met
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Conflict is defined in many ways. The Latin word conflictus, a striking together with force implies disagreement, discord, and friction among members of a group; interaction where words, emotions, and actions strike together to produce disruptive effects. Conflict is an unavoidable outgrowth of group life, for by entering into relations with others we must negotiate and renegotiate our undertakings and our outcomes
Box: Types of Conflict

• Clarify perceptions • Control emotions through procedures • Block negative behavior by changing structure • Encourage problem solving attitudes • Read agreements on what data are important • Agree on process to collect data • Develop common criteria to access data • Jointly collect, jointly assess data

• Allow parties to agree or disagree • Search for super-ordinate goal

• Clearly define roles • Establish fair decision making process • Change time constraints

• Focus on common interests • Address 3 types of interests differently

Resource Scarcity and Ingenuity To maintain ―constant-satisfaction requirement‖, humans will need to run resource systems every more efficiently requiring ―ever greater amounts of (technical and social) ingenuity.‖ ―Some societies are locked into a race between a rising requirement for ingenuity and their capacity to supply it‖ and that create conflicts

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Table: Five Types of Conflict

Types Relationship Conflict Data Conflicts

Interest Conflicts

Structural Conflict Value Conflict

Five types of conflicts Causes Explanation Miscommunication Relationship conflicts are breaks in our ability to relate to Strong Emotions one another. They are usually caused by Stereotyping miscommunication, strong emotions, preconceived opinions Repetitive negative Behavior (stereotyping), or repetitive negative behavior. Lack of Information Data conflicts are caused by a lack of information (e.g. not Misinformation knowing the market value of a small business), Differing views on data relevance misinformation (e.g. belief in a false rumor about a job Different interpretations of data applicant), or different ways of looking at the same information (e.g. whether crime statistics indicate a safer or more dangerous neighborhood). Perceived or actual competition over In values conflicts, different ideologies, worldviews, and interests lifestyles are at the heart of the conflict. Disputes over Procedural interests universal healthcare, withdrawal from Iraq, same-sex Psychological interests marriage, and increasing taxes on tobacco likely stem from a difference in values. Unequal authority Interest conflicts are typically about resources — for Unequal control of resources example, three cities in competition for an urban Time constraints revitalization grant, or roommates who want to watch different TV shows. Different ways of life, ideology, Structural conflicts are mostly caused by actual or world view etc perceived power inequality. Disputes between corporations Different criteria for evaluating ideas and labor unions are usually structural. A dispute between a manager and the CEO's administrative assistant might also be structural.

Box: Conflict Staircase

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The more our lives overlap with others, the more likely it is that there will at times be conflicts. So one can identify different types of conflicts. A.Types of Conflict There are different ways to classify the conflict based on the need to intervene. Some are A. Three basic types of conflict: task conflict, interpersonal conflict, and procedural conflict.
Positive Conflict Can . . . B. Types of Conflict Help define issues Man vs. Man Introduce new perspectives Man vs. Man occurs when a character (man or Make groups consider a wide range of options woman!) has an argument, disagreement, or Energize creative thinking other kind of “argument” with another Keep groups alert to member‘s interests character. Man vs. Society The conflict between Man and Society occurs when a character disagrees with societal values, laws, or beliefs. Man vs. Nature A conflict of Man vs. Nature occurs when a character has a problem with outside forces: weather, animals, land, etc. Man vs. Self Man vs. self occurs when a character develops an internal struggle between his thoughts and ideas. This can be a result of the other conflicts mentioned .
Box: What do we mean by conflict

C. Types of Conflict What do we mean by conflict? Conflict is tension or disagreement between people Interpersonal Conflict, Intrapersonal or institutions. It can manifest itself in a number of Conflict and Intergroup Conflict. ways: Interpersonal conflict Through violent attacks on people or property; Pseudo-Conflict:- This type of conflict • Through peaceful demonstration and blockades; • Through local antagonisms resulting in the inability happens when people have misunderstandings of groups to work together productively; with each • Through kidnappings of company staff; other. Sometimes two people perceive their • Through inter-communal tensions with state goals as incompatible, but in fact the goals are security forces or armed militia; or • Through low productivity. compatible. That is known as a pseudo conflict. Conflict can be social or political, or both. It might Pseudo conflict can be easily solved by be: clarification of information or meaning. pre-existing (e.g. between groups, tribes or outright civil war); Simple Conflict:- This type of conflict occurs • latent (e.g. festering tensions which need a small when people disagree about certain issues. This catalyst to erupt such as in a post-conflict can occur when each of two individuals knows environment where there are large groups of what each other want, but neither can achieve unemployed youth with nothing to do, or in an area where there is already competition over natural their own goals without preventing the other resources); or from achieving theirs. • caused directly by a project (e.g. anger over Ego Conflict:-This type of conflict is caused construction impacts, unmet expectations or when personalities within a group clash. It is perceived inequality over a community development program, loss of livelihoods or access to land and essentially a struggle between two people that resources). is characterized by name calling and blaming. Ego conflict puts the other on the defensive and tends to ignore the original issue. Intrapersonal conflict- Conflict within the individual. 8

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Approach conflict: an individual must choose among alternatives, each of which is expected to have a positive outcome. Avoidance conflict: an individual must choose among alternatives, each of which is expected to have a negative outcome. Avoidance conflict: an individual must decide whether to do something that has both positive and negative outcomes.
Links between livelihoods and conflict Conflict can result from a wide range of factors, including competition for scarce resources, ethnic or religious tensions, competition over political power, dissatisfaction or desperation on the part of marginalized groups, or deliberate attempts by the state to subjugate particular groups or extract resources from areas where there are competing claims.

Intergroup conflict- An overt expression of tensions between goals or concerns of one group or those of another group. There are opposing interests, group boundaries or group differences involved. The conflict is directly or indirectly related to culture group identities. Sources of this type conflict includes: Competing Goals; Competition of Resources; Cultural Differences; Power Discrepancies; Assimilation vs. Preservation of micro cultural identity.
Vulnerability/context Environmental/political/economic/climatic/military shocks and trends
Affects Affects Livelihood assets of a particular household/ group/ community/ population Affects Affects

Affects engagement with

Affects

Relative power / wealth / Vulnerability / poverty of particular household/ group / community / population

and access to

F= financial assets H= human assets N= natural assets P= physical assets S= social assets Pol= political assets

Determines

and impacts of/significance of

Transforming structures & processes Livelihood infrastructure strategies state/government institution • agriculture kinship networks • labour markets Influencing • trade civic institutions • migration traditional authority • smuggling private sector • predation and ethnic institutions asset- stripping religious institutions • external aid laws policies determining/ achieving culture ethnic & religious identity conflict and violence Livelihood outcomes war economy • income displacement • food security environmental degradation • health and education asset transfer • economic vulnerability aid inputs • political vulnerability foreign investment • vulnerability to violence militarization • use of natural resources foreign intervention trading

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Box: Conflict Stages & Types of community Disputes

Types of Community Disputes Small Claims - property damage, accidents, vandalism, small debts, harassment, etc. Neighbor problems - such as noise, pet, neighbor relations, parking, etc. Domestic problems - involving family members, friends, or roommates. Juvenile disputes - conflicts between youth, as well as between youth and adults, schools, merchants, or the law. Consumer/merchant product or service satisfaction. Landlord/tenant - security deposits, repairs, damages, etc. Worksite - employer/employee, among workers. Property division - personal or business relationships disputes.

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Intragroup Conflict: This type of conflict is conflict between the group members. There are two types of conflict: Relationship conflict-Relationship conflict exists when there are interpersonal incompatibilities among group members, which typically includes tension, animosity, and annoyance among members within a group. Task conflict-Exists when there are disagreements among group members about the content of the tasks being performed, including differences in viewpoints, ideas, and opinions.
Dia: Levels of conflict

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Box: Conflict is ever-changing: Stages of conflict

Conflict is ever-changing: Stages of conflict Conflicts are best thought of as dynamic (ever-changing), interactive social processes. No two conflicts are the same. However, conflict analysis makes it possible to examine the structure and dynamics of conflicts in a systematic way. From this, it becomes clear that conflicts often share similar patterns and stages of development. Conflicts can generally be thought of a cycle from emergence to resolution. However, they do not always progress in a strictly linear fashion, from stage A, to B, to C, and so on. Instead, conflicts sometimes unfold in non-linear ways, moving backwards and forwards between different stages, skipping a stage altogether, or stopping at one stage for a long time before suddenly moving on. When conflict is not open but is a potential threat, it is described as being latent; there may be smoke, but there is no visible fire. Latent conflict refers to social tensions, differences and disagreements that are hidden or undeveloped. This is the stage at which incompatible goals may exist, but parties may either not be acutely conscious of them or not be willing to reveal themselves or their interests in the conflict. They may allow conflict to remain latent because of fear, distrust, peer pressure or financial reasons. In such situations, conflicts may show up through what Scott calls "the ordinary weapons of relatively powerless groups: foot dragging, dissimulation, desertion, false compliance, pilfering, feigned ignorance, slander, arson, sabotage, and so on". In such situations tensions build up. Conflict can emerge gradually and steadily, or develop rapidly in response to a few significant events. As differences increase and intensify, conflict becomes manifest, expanding into a full-blown public issue that cannot be avoided. In the manifest stage, opponents' differences become more prominent and more central to group dynamics. As incompatibilities become clearer, they become the defining issues: debate revolves more and more around differences. Opponents begin to define themselves and their groups on the basis of such cleavages, in terms of "us versus them". These differences might then be used to mobilize sections of the population on behalf of a "cause". Manifest conflicts can escalate and become violent. When a conflict reaches this stage, violence often produces counterviolence, leading to further escalation. Ideally, conflicts should be managed at the latent stage, before they emerge or escalate. When a conflict reaches the manifest stage, it may either become blocked in a stalemate or impasse in which the conflict parties refuse to modify their positions, or fall out of control through tensions and violent actions.

CONFLICT STAGES

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D.Types of conflict economic conflict, power conflict, value conflict – Conflict due to personality clashes, conflict due to different needs, roles, goals, interest. different needs,
Economic Conflict:

It arises due to competing motives to obtain scarce resources. Each group wants to maximize its gain at the cost of other party. Economic conflict will not be resolved by improving communication, but by difficult and detailed negotiations among the parties.
Power Conflict:

Power conflict arises when each party wishes to maximize the influence it has. This type of conflict usually ends in a victory for one party and a defeat for another, or in a standoff that involves a continuing state of tension. The crucial issue is not resource scarcity or differences in basic values, but simply a question of control and related matters such as pride, recognition and future material rewards that power may bring.
Value Conflict:

It involves incompatible principles and practices that people believe in- their ideology, religion, political system and culture. E.g. Marxist Vs Capitalist, Religious conversion etc.Since the value conflicts lie at the very heart of a person / peoples identity, they are extremely difficult to resolve. Most conflict involve a mixture of realistic economic, power or value differences as well as unrealistic ingredient of misperception and miscommunication. Usually a conflict may begin from one source but broaden to include other elements.
Box: Consequences of conflict

Consequences of conflict Interrupting food access or production Restricting access to agricultural or grazing land Restricting access to water and other natural resources Causing the labor market to collapse Preventing markets from operating, causing price spikes, or destroying or blocking market and trade routes Disrupting banking systems and government services, either as a result of capacity failure or deliberate action Stripping, burning or looting assets of marginalized or targeted groups Displacing civilians Destroying infrastructure Encouraging or enabling sexual violence against women and girls The breakdown of law and order

Executive branch domination Compliant judiciary Weak independent media Divided, ineffective political parties Limited minority representation Corruption and lack of accountability at local and national levels Weak, ethnically segmented civil society Corrupt, ineffective police force

Conflict Risk Factor -Institutional

E. Types of conflict:
Personality clashes:

It occurs when two people who have to see each other frequently cause negative feelings and reactions in one another. Often these people share common goals, but they cannot get along. E.g. he hurts me
Different needs: Roles: Role expectation can cause conflict Goals: lack of clarity or disagreement about the goals of the program Conflict of interest: e.g. higher wages

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Box: Understanding Conflict as a Strategy in Social Change

Understanding Conflict as a Strategy in Social Change Conflict, as a strategy, is an attempt to coerce power after understanding and reason fail. There are individuals and groups who use conflict as a strategy to achieve their goals and change existing conditions. They may instigate conflict to gain recognition and call attention to their message. They usually want people higher in the power structure to address their problem. In effectively approaching in such situations, it is necessary to understand how conflict can be used as a strategy in social change. One of the necessary "tools" in conflict management is an awareness and understanding of the strategies that agitators use in generating conflict. Saul Alinsky was one of the major advocates of using conflict to achieve group goals. His basic strategy was to organize community and neighborhood groups to "establish a creative tension within the establishment". Whether the tension was creative or not, tension was frequently "created". Those who utilize the conflict approach may use disruptive tactics to call attention to their position. These tactics may range from non-violent protests - boycotts and sit-ins - to violence. Community development professionals appear to be divided on the use of conflict. Some community development workers feels: "Conflict itself...of some kind or degree is a major determinant of change and far from moving to avoid or immediately dissolve it, it may often be entirely appropriate even to stimulate it." Many reject conflict because they feel that decisions reached through community consensus and cooperation is the best method to achieve social change. Conflict, it is argued, may stimulate participation in the decision making process but provide only a temporary stimulus and prevent the development of a permanent foundation for participation. Many individuals who find conflict distasteful may be repelled states that although benefits often accrue when conflict is properly used, there are risks involved in using conflict in community organizations. Nonviolent conflict may turn violent, and conflict may produce unexpected results. Conflict may also result in the identification of the wrong "enemy." As Robinson and Clifford (1974) notes, "Alinsky demonstrated that his approach would bring change. Sometimes his methods generated great unrest and created much stress within communities. At other times, significant advances and social change occurred." While many community development workers may not promote the use of conflict to bring about change, it is necessary to understand how it may be used by groups in order to deal with conflict situations more effectively when they arise.

Different kinds of conflict. There are as many different meanings of conflict as there are books written about it. Here are some useful ideas: • Conflict is a serious disagreement or argument, a clash, a strike, a breaking, a confrontation, a collision, a fight, a struggle. • It can break out instantly or, more typically; it can build up over a long period of time. • People in conflict talk of not being heard or not being listened to or not being understood. It is as if we are each talking a different language. The more we try to explain, the worse the disagreement becomes. • Conflict feels like a threat to us: a threat to our needs or desires or beliefs. Sometimes it can feel like a threat to who we are as a person.

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Competition implies an opposition in the goals of the interdependent parties such that the

probability of goal attainment for one decreases as the probability of other increases. Aggression is a form of behavior intended to inflict injury to a person or object. Conflict Theory. A theory that views community and society as an arena in which various groups compete to attain maximum gain for themselves. Conflict (or alienation) approach. A theory of society, which argues that fundamental tensions or built in contradictions exist between the powerful and the powerless – and these problems, can be resolved only through radical changes in society. Conflict handling modes / conflict resolution. Settlement of disputes that are mutually satisfactory and that receive a long-term commitment from both the parties.
If there is a possibility to enjoy social justice without recourse to physical violence in any society then there will be less conflict in that society. Systems that handle conflict openly and productively can maximize the benefits while reducing the conflicts

One has to examine both the goals and the means of conflict in order to judge its acceptability. Functional Vs Dysfunctional Conflict Positive Vs Negative Conflict Competition & Conflict
Competition No direct action of one party to interfere with the ongoing activities of another e.g. track and field events Competition occurs within a set of agreed upon rules. E.g.hockey Conflict Conflict interferes There is no agreed upon rules. All is fair in conflict

Effective livelihood programming in pre-conflict, conflict, and post-conflict situations require creative thinking, flexibility, an understanding of the dynamics of the particular conflict, and recognition of its local impact. Suggested measures to resolve conflicts 1. Promote resilience at the local level Utilizing local resilience-based strategies 2. Promote peace building and reconciliation 3. Use livelihood support to identify and counteract state weakness 4. Where state legitimacy is absent, work with trusted local actors 5. Develop gender-focused programming 6. Build economic linkages through the informal economy 7. Support livelihood efforts for populations displaced by conflict 8. Build flexibility into the planning and budgeting process

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Box: Casual Pathway of Conflict over Natural Resources -& Fresh water Conflicts

Causes of Freshwater Conflicts

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Consequences of conflict Widespread, deadly violence now affects nearly 60 percent of the countries. While conflict can be an inherent and legitimate part of social and political life, in many places the costs and consequences of violent conflict, extremism, and state failure have become unacceptly high. By the year 2000, internal conflict and repression had generated 14.5 million asylum seekers worldwide and nearly 25 million persons were displaced within their own countries. Child soldiers, gender-specific atrocities, extremist ideologies, and the targeting of aid workers are all part of "new war" scenarios. Violent conflict also dramatically disrupts development. It discourages investment, destroys human and physical capital, undermines the institutions needed for political and economic reform, redirects resources to nonproductive uses, and causes a dramatic deterioration in the quality of life. Conflict is an inherent and legitimate part of social and political life. Democratic institutions, for example, are not meant to eliminate conflict, they are designed to manage it and channel it in productive directions. Also, conflict is often a precursor to positive change, and one certainly should not try to avoid all conflict if in so doing we eliminate protests that lead to democratic elections, or positive changes status of women, or increased economic growth, or more sound environmental practices. While there are many different causes of conflict, there is an emerging consensus that certain broad clusters or categories of causes need to be in place for conflict to emerge. These are: 1) Causes that fuel incentives or motives for participation in violence; 2) Causes that facilitate the mobilization and expansion of violence; 3) Causes found at the level of state and social capacity to manage and respond to violence; and 4) Regional or international causes. If all of these are in place, there are also likely to be windows of vulnerability — moments when events such as highly contested elections, natural disasters, economic shocks, or riots — can trigger the outbreak of full-scale violence.
Positive and Negative Conflict

Positive and negative conflict. Conflict can be extremely negative, but not all conflict is negative: it can also be very useful and productive. In today‘s complex communities many people and organizations are working to bring about change – tackling poor health, low educational achievement, rundown environments, high unemployment – and to manage the challenges of cultural diversity. But changing things usually brings about conflict because there will be different views between different groups involved: within and between statutory organizations; within and between different communities; between young and old, men and women; between people of different cultures and faiths. Expressing these different views is an essential part of the process of negotiation and change. Disagreeing with the way things are is an important part of being a responsible member of society, and it is important for people to have an opportunity to express their views in a safe space, without fear of condemnation or reprisals. Not feeling you have that right is a sure way of generating conflict, but speaking different views will also lead to conflict in the robust discussions that they cause. This is positive conflict if it: • is channeled into building trust and confidence between people. • is channeled into finding positive solutions that meet people‘s needs. • is contained within a set of rules which protect those involved and ensure no one is damaged by them. • ensures that no one with the right to speak is excluded from the debate. The key principle is that: POSITIVE CONFLICT DOES NO HARM It may be hard work, demanding, infuriating at times, but it does no harm to the participants. Indeed, the reverse is true. Positive conflict can build trust and confidence between people if it means that important, uncomfortable or opposing views are being spoken and not excluded. Sometimes it feels so uncomfortable that we try to avoid or suppress positive conflict. We hope this Resource Pack will make you feel more robust about positive conflict. We have all dealt with positive conflict many times. It is all a matter of confidence, patience and belief in yourself.

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Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management

Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management Intra micro–micro conflicts: 1. Disputes over land and resource ownership, e.g. between private and communal land owners; 2. Disputes over land boundaries between individuals or groups; 3. Latent family and relationship disputes; 4. Disputes due to natural resource projects being captured by élites and/or those who happen to own resources of a higher quality; 5. Breaking of CPR constitutional or operational rules, such as protection agreements for grazing areas, fish net sizes, forests, or misappropriation of funds, etc.; 6. Disputes over the unfair distribution of work and profits. Inter micro–micro conflicts: 1. Conflict between land-owners and resource users; 2. Conflict between indigenous CPR groups, and more recent settlers; 3. Disputes generated by jealousy related to growing wealth disparities; 4. Lack of co-operation between different community groups; 5. Disputes over renewal arrangements for leased land; 6. Internal land ownership disputes ignited by the speculation activities of commercial companies; 7. Resentment built up due to lack of representation on village committees. Micro–macro conflicts: 1. Contradictory natural resource needs and values, e.g. between wildlife habitat protection and local livelihood security; 2. Cultural conflicts between community groups and outsiders; 3. Disputes over project management between community groups and outside project-sponsors; 4. Disputes caused by political influence (national, provincial or local); 5. Disputes arising from differences between the aspirations of community groups and expectations of 6. NGOs or commercial companies; 7. Off-site environmental impacts affecting unintended third-parties.
Box: How is conflict resolution different than the legal approach?

How is conflict resolution different than the legal approach?
In the past few years, alternative dispute resolution methods, like conflict resolution, have taken their place in the justice system along side of more traditional methods like talking with a lawyer or going to trial. Often differences between two or more parties can be resolved through the assistance of a trained mediator. Community Conflict Resolutions encourages people to try this method of resolving conflict or disputes before making a formal complaint to the authorities or considering legal action.

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Common development pressures fuelling conflict

Common development pressures fuelling conflict over Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) • The introduction of productivity enhancing technologies (e.g. synthetic fertilizers, agricultural mechanization, permanent irrigation, joint management regimes, etc.) if poorly managed can place a strain on the regeneration capacity of renewable natural resources. • Growing awareness within rural communities and the private sector that commercial value can be attributed to common property resources (wildlife, land, minerals, forests, fish, etc.) and that these benefits can be accessed through the exertion of ‗private‘ property rights. • Increasing importance of the cash economy to rural people and rising local aspirations for consumer products. • Lack of incentive for resource users (community groups and private organizations) to prevent environmental and social impacts that adversely affect unintended third parties. • Declining government public expenditure on essential rural services, e.g. health, education, water and electricity supplies, transportation, etc. • New conservation policies, e.g. wildlife protection legislation. • Government policies providing autonomy to communities to manage state-owned natural resources. • Continuing rural-to-urban migration reducing the available labour for sustainable resource management. • Changes in rural employment activities resulting from the arrival of rural-based industries, e.g. crop processing, manufacturing, extractive industries, oil and gas, construction projects, etc. Conflicts arising from poor enforcement of natural resource management regulations include: • Private companies avoiding compliance and sanctions by threatening to withdraw their investment or by manipulating the courts. • A general lack of understanding of environmental laws and regulations by industries, governmental agencies and the general population. • Non-compliance arising from unrealistic requirements for pollution control technology and poor implementation of environmental impact mitigation plans. • Failure of the courts to enforce regulations because of prolonged legal processes, with the outcome often unsupported by one or more parties. • Perverse incentive structures promoted by conventional cost-benefit analysis.

Community situations where conflict resolution may be useful Clients typically originate from within the following groups: Neighbors (e.g. noise, pets, parking, fences, garbage, trees, communication) Communities (e.g. land-use, water, community leaders) Schools (e.g. teacher/student, student/student, parent/teacher) Not-for-profit groups (e.g. social service groups, churches, cultural support groups) Other community-based organizations (e.g. recreational sporting or hobby groups) Volunteer organizations/ societies Families (e.g. parent/child, couples, child/child) Referrals from our collaborative partnership agencies Referrals from municipal services departments

Box: Model Conflict Analysis Mapping

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Box: Types of conflict

Types of Conflict * Community conflict * diplomatic conflict * economic conflict * emotional conflict* environmental resources conflict * external conflict * group conflict* ideological conflict * international conflict * interpersonal conflict * inter societal conflict * Intrastate conflict (for example: civil wars, election campaigns) * intrapersonal conflict * organizational conflict* intra-societal conflict * military conflict* religious-based conflict * workplace conflict * data conflict* relationship conflict * racial conflict

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S.Rengasamy –Conflict in Community Setting Part I
Box: Conflict mapping & Community Conflict

Community Conflict The potential for community conflict exists whenever and wherever people have contact. Communities faces increasing community conflicts due to the cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity associated with its changing population. Communities and government services are being redefined and, at the same time, neighbors are facing unfamiliar lifestyles in their neighborhoods. Stresses caused by economic or social change can impact community resources, leaving groups feeling that they are being denied government services at the expense of other groups. Law enforcement, schools and local government officials are increasingly affected by resulting tensions and need to be prepared when serious conflict erupts. Community conflict also can occur when individuals or groups perceive or experience discriminatory behavior directed at them by an agency or its representative, by members of another group, or by members of their own group. For example, a high-profile case of police misconduct, an incident of violence on a college campus, a hate crime or case of discrimination can polarize a community. All of these events can produce stress on community residents, often resulting in disagreements over what should be done to solve these problems. This stress can even lead to open conflict within the community.

Conflict - Careers and education Conflict resolution is an expanding field of professional practice, both in the U.S. and around the world. The escalating costs of conflict for both organizations and individuals has led to the increased use of arbitrators, mediators, and other neutrals, including fact-finders, facilitators, and ombudsmen to resolve such conflicts. The expansion of the field has also resulted in the need for managers, union representatives, attorneys and advocates, administrators, and consultants to acquire the skills and expertise necessary to handle disputes effectively. Several universities offer programs of study pertaining to conflict management. The Cornell University ILR School houses the Scheinman Institute on Conflict Resolution, which offers undergraduate, graduate, and professional training on conflict resolution. Furthermore, the Pax Ludens Foundation based in the Netherlands is an organization that puts together conflict resolution simulations set in an International Relations scenario to help students learn about the intricacies of where conflict emerges in the world of international politics.

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Conflict resolution is a growing area of interest in UK pedagogy, with teachers and students both encouraged to learn about the mechanisms which lead people towards aggressive actions, and those which lead them towards peaceful resolution. In many schools in the UK, conflict resolution has now become an integral part of the SEAL (Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning) programme, chiming, as it does, with the SEAL principles of developing social skills and an understanding of one’s own feelings.
Box Examples of Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management .

Examples of Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management. Intra micro–micro conflicts: • Disputes over land and resource ownership, e.g. between private and communal land owners; • Disputes over land boundaries between individuals or groups; • Latent family and relationship disputes; • Disputes due to natural resource projects being captured by élites and/or those who happen to own Resources of a higher quality; • Breaking of CPR constitutional or operational rules, such as protection agreements for grazing areas, fish net sizes, forests, or misappropriation of funds, etc.; • Disputes over the unfair distribution of work and profits. Inter micro–micro conflicts: • Conflict between land-owners and resource users; • Conflict between indigenous CPR groups, and more recent settlers; • Disputes generated by jealousy related to growing wealth disparities; • Lack of co-operation between different community groups; • Disputes over renewal arrangements for leased land; • Internal land ownership disputes ignited by the speculation activities of commercial companies; • Resentment built up due to lack of representation on village committees. Micro–macro conflicts: • Contradictory natural resource needs and values, e.g. between wildlife habitat protection and local livelihood security; • Cultural conflicts between community groups and outsiders; • Disputes over project management between community groups and outside project-sponsors; • Disputes caused by political influence (national, provincial or local); • Disputes arising from differences between the aspirations of community groups and expectations of NGOs or commercial companies;

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What are community-based conflicts? (Example. Natural Resources)
People normally use resources like forests, water, common property resources and land, and want to manage them in different ways. Knowing about these different uses and management can help to inform successful management so that everyone benefits as much as possible. However, such differences can also lead to conflict when: there is competition over material goods, economic benefits, property or power; parties believe that their needs cannot be met; parties perceive that their values, needs or interests are under threat. Sometimes it is best to monitor a conflict without intervening. Such conflicts are problematic, but are unlikely to become disputes and are not dangerous. At other times, however, if a conflict is ignored, or attempts to manage it fail, it can grow into a dispute or some other form of confrontation. A dispute occurs when a conflict over a specific issue or event becomes public. A dispute can be a fight, an appeal to authorities, or a court case. The difference between disputes and conflict is important. All disputes reflect conflict, but not all conflicts develop into disputes. Some conflicts may develop into disputes quickly. Others remain latent for a long time until triggered or aggravated by something new, such as a development project or the arrival of outside interests. Community-based conflicts may occur at the local level, but often involve regional, national or even global actors. They range from conflicts among local men and women over the use of land, to conflicts among communities disputing control over common resources, or fishers disagreeing about the devices used for fishing. Community-level conflict might involve government agencies, domestic and multinational businesses, politicians, international development agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). A dispute may also break out at different levels. At one level, the main issue could be access to or control over the resources that people depend on. At another, the dispute could relate to more deeply rooted issues such as recognition, rights, identity or the ability to participate. The intensity of conflict also varies greatly - from confusion and frustration among members of a community about poorly communicated development policies, to violent clashes among

groups over resource ownership, rights and responsibilities. Community-based conflicts (natural resource) are often very complex. There are usually many causes and many interconnected issues, making it hard to identify the key issues in the conflict. It is sometimes helpful to think of conflict as having the following three elements: People: how people think about and relate to the conflict; their feelings, emotions and perceptions of the problems and of the other people involved; Process: the way decisions are made, and how people feel about this. The decision-making process is often overlooked as a key cause of conflict. However, resentment, feelings of being treated unfairly and a sense of powerlessness are often rooted in this area. Problems: the specific issues and differences among the people, groups and agencies involved. These often include different values, incompatible interests and needs, or concrete differences regarding the use, distribution or accessibility of scarce resources. They are often referred to as the "root causes" of conflict, about which people tend to take clear and strong positions. There are several factors that lead to conflicts Growing competition over natural resources Natural resources are increasingly subject to intense competition. In most cases, several factors are responsible for this, including: demographic change (e.g. population growth, migration and urbanization); market pressures (e.g. increased commercialization, intensification and privatization of local economies, growing integration of national and global economies, economic reforms); Environmental changes that force people to alter their livelihood strategies (e.g. floods, recurrent droughts, altered river flows, changes in wildlife migration). However, increased competition is not always the only cause of conflict. Four important conditions influence how access to resources could become contested. These are: the scarcity of a natural resource; the extent to which the supply is shared by two or more groups; the relative power of those groups;

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the degree of dependence on this particular resource, or the ease of access to alternative sources. Of course, increased demand for resources can result in responses other than conflict. For example, it can lead to agricultural intensification (using fertilizer, terracing, irrigation, multiple cropping, stall-feeding livestock, tree planting, etc), increased reliance on non-farm/off-farm income, or increased commercialization of production. These new adaptations may in turn generate conflicts, as resource use patterns are altered. Structural causes of conflict Established organizations and patterns govern how the law works, how education and health services are provided, and how women and men, old and young people live as families and communities. These could be described as the way in which society is organized or structured. Conflicts are often underpinned by this structure. A conflict may involve one issue - for example, a boundary dispute between two villages. This could be addressed by local people using customary law. But if someone wants to use State law, the conflict becomes more complicated. A structural conflict may arise because customary law and State law are organized differently; one is local and the other national. State law is usually stronger, and the conflict may then move from a boundary dispute to one about people's rights and identity. Deeper, structural issues such as this often have roots in long-standing conditions, such as the way in which wealth or power is produced, distributed or controlled in society. Broader social, political, economic or legal frameworks within a society may be perceived as unjust, ineffective or exclusionary. This makes it harder to solve the problem. Structural conflicts often lie dormant until awakened by other factors. Conflicts between official/statutory and customary tenure systems cause major concern. Even if the great majority of rural people obtain their rights to land through customary means, local land tenure arrangements often have an uncertain or insecure position within national policy frameworks. Customary land rights often remain unclear, even when they are acknowledged legally, so State law may continue to come into conflict with custom. Different authorities using different rules can then make decisions that are contradictory - one decision in customary law, another in statute law. Socio-economic change fuelling conflict When society and the economy undergo change, it is not surprising if the interests and needs of the community also change. Economic development often increases pressures on natural resources, and this can trigger conflict or make existing conflicts worse. The following are some examples: Introduction of new technologies, synthetic fertilizers, agricultural mechanization or permanent irrigation Commercialization of common property resources: Migration Perverse incentives: Policies, programmes and projects (Natural resource management) as sources of conflict New policies of decentralization, devolution and collaborative management increase the decisionmaking power and influence of local communities, households and individuals. Such policies encourage communities to become more involved in decisions affecting their own livelihoods and the resources on which those livelihoods are based. Although such policies are helpful for sustainable livelihoods, the successful introduction of greater power sharing among different groups is often challenging. Policies, programmes and projects themselves can serve as sources or arenas of conflict, even though their intention is to reduce conflicts or improve livelihoods. Reasons include the following (FAO, 2000): Policies imposed without local participation: Poor stakeholder identification and consultation: Uncoordinated planning: Inadequate or poor information sharing: Limited institutional capacity: Inadequate monitoring and evaluation of programmes: Lack of effective mechanisms for conflict management:

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References 1. www.usaid.gov 1. A. Community-Based Development in Conflict-Affected Areas Guide 1. B. Conducting a conflict assessment 1. C. Livelihoods & conflict 1. D. Conflict-Related Publications http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/crosscutting_programs/conflict/publications/index.html 2. Community Conflict: A Resource Pack. The Tavistock Institute www.tavinstitute.org 3. Overseas Development Institute www.odi.org.uk 3. A. Community Development and Local Conflict: A Resource Document for Practitioners in the Extractive Sector 3. B. Conflict Management in Community-Based Natural Resource Projects: Experiences from Fiji and Papua New Guinea 3. C. Power, livelihoods and conflict: case studies in political economy analysis for humanitarian action 4. Alternative dispute resolution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_dispute_resolution 5. Conflict http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conflict 6. Frequently Asked Questions about Conflict Resolution http://www.acrnet.org/ 7. Negotiation and mediation techniques for natural resource management http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0032e/a0032e04.htm 8. Conflict Management In Community Organizations Ohio State University Fact Sheet http://ohioline.osu.edu/cd-fact/index.html 9.Managing Conflict A Guide for Watershed Partnerships http://www2.ctic.purdue.edu/KYW/nwn/nwn.html

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