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FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

Lab sheet for laboratory class


4.
Equipment set up, experimental
procedure and supporting
theory
Version 1.0

FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

DO NOT REMOVE THIS FROM


THE LABORATORY! Hydrostatic force
apparatus

Objective
To determine the hydrostatic thrust acting on a plane surface immersed in water when the
surface is partially submerged or fully submerged.

FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

To determine the position of the line of action of the thrust and to compare the position
determined by experiment with the theoretical position. 1. Initial equipment set up
1.1 Levelling the flotation tank
Before taking readings it is important to level the flotation tank so that the knife edges are level
from side to side and the level indicator is at the same height as the knife edges. The tank stands
on three height adjustable feet to aid levelling. These should be raised or lowered as required
until the bubble is central in the spirit level.
1.2 Adjusting the counterbalance weight
Before filling the tank with water it is important to balance the quadrant / balance arm in air by
adjusting the counterbalance weight. Adjust the position of the counterbalance weight until the
balance arm is horizontal, indicated by the central mark on the level indicator. The weight hangar
should be in position. Note that the weight hanger must not be included when calculating the
total weights added because the weight of the hanger has been counterbalanced during setup.

Figure 1. Hydrostatic force equipment

FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

1.3 Baseline measurements


Use the supplied tape measure to measure the following dimensions of the equipment. Note: you
will need these values in order to calculate the theoretical and measured forces / moments.
Width of end face, B
Height of end face, D
Distance from knife edge to notch for weigh hanger, L
Distance from knife edge to bottom of end face, H

Figure 2. Nomenclature of key dimensions of equipment


The forces shown are F, the hydrostatic thrust, and m.g, the weight.

1.4 Water supply


Water should be taken from the bench sump. If this does not already contain water do the
following:
Close the black control valve on the front of the fluids bench and place the ball valve in the sump
drain hole. Ensure the end of the flexible outlet pipe from the bench is positioned in the sump.
Turn the power supply to the bench on and slowly open the control valve (anticlockwise) until
water flows into the sump. Turn off the bench power and close the control valve when there is
approximately 30cm of water in the sump.

FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

2. Measurement procedure
Add 60g mass to the hangar. Fill the flotation tank with water (using the supplied 500ml beaker)
until the balance arm rises above the horizontal.
Gradually drain water from the flotation tank by opening the quarter-turn drain valve until the arm
is horizontal.
The level of the water on the end face which counterbalances the weight on the weight hanger
can be measured using the scale on the side of the quadrant. Allow time for the water to settle
before taking readings. Ensure that there is no water spilled on the upper surfaces of the
quadrant or the sides, above the water level. Care should be taken to ignore the meniscus by
moving the head up and down until the eye is sighing along the true surface of the water. Record
the depth (d) and mass applied.
Repeat the above procedure for 20g mass increments up to 400g (18 measurements) recording
mass and depth at each point. Note the point at which the vertical face of the quadrant becomes
fully submerged.

3. Finishing the class


Drain the water from the apparatus back into the fluids bench sump. Ensure that the apparatus
quarter-turn drain valve is closed. Check that you have a full set of 18 points recorded for mass
applied and depth. Also that you have values for B, D, L & H as described above.

FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

4. Theory and lab report write up


Having recorded a set of results for the increasing mass (m) and depth (d) you are
required to calculate both experimental and theoretical values for the moment and
distance to the centre of pressure on the vertical face of the quadrant. You will do this for
cases where the vertical face of the quadrant was partially and fully submerged. Ensure
all your calculations are performed using standard SI units e.g. metres, Newtons,
kilograms etc.
4.1 Partially submerged case

Figure 3 Nomenclature of partially submerged case

Where:
L is the horizontal distance between the pivot point and the weight hanger,
H is the vertical distance between the pivot and the base of the quadrant,
D is the height of the quadrant face
B is the width of the quadrant face
d is the depth of water from the base of the quadrant
h' is the vertical distance between the surface and the centre of pressure
h is the vertical distance between the pivot and the centre of pressure
The forces shown are F, the hydrostatic thrust, and m.g, the weight

FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

The hydrostatic thrust can be defined as:


F = gAh (Newtons)
Where:
A is the area = A = Bd
h is the mean depth of immersion = h = d/2
Therefore:

The experimental depth to the centre of pressure h can be evaluated through calculating the
moment, M:
M = Fh" (Newtons)
A balancing moment is produced by the weight, W, applied to the hanger at the end of the
balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm, L.
For static equilibrium the two moments are equal, i.e.
Fh" = WL = mgL
Substituting in the expression for the thrust force you should be able to derive values of h in
metres for each measurement point.

To calculate theoretical values of moment and distance to the centre of pressure we start with the
theoretical result for depth of pressure P below the free surface:

Where Ix is the 2nd moment of area of immersed section about an axis in the free-surface. By
use of the parallel axes theorem:

FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

The depth of the centre of pressure below the pivot point is therefore given by:
h" = h + H - d (m)
Hence:

The theoretical turning moment can then be calculated.

4.2 Fully submerged case

Figure 3 Nomenclature of fully submerged case

The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as

FEEG1003 Thermofluids (2014-15)

Laboratory class 4

In a similar manner to the partially submerged case the distance to the centre of pressure can be
evaluated through the moment, M:
M = Fh" (Nm)
A balancing moment is produced by the weight, W, applied to the hanger at the end of the
balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm, L.
For static equilibrium the two moments are equal, i.e.:
Fh" = WL = mgL
And again we can substitute in the expression for the thrust force to derive values of h in metres
for each measurement point.

To calculate theoretical values of moment and distance to the centre of pressure we start with the
theoretical result for depth of pressure P below the free surface:

Where Ix is the 2nd moment of area of immersed section about an axis in the free-surface.
By use of the parallel axes theorem:
Ix = Ic + Ah

The depth of the centre of pressure below the surface is


h" = h' + H d (m)
Substitution as before then gives the theoretical result of:

The theoretical turning moment can then be calculated.