Reservoir Simulation

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Reservoir Simulation

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SIMULATION

GEOPET, HCMUT, Vietnam

Jan, 2014

COURSE OBJECTIVE

COURSE OUTLINE

REFERENCES

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Course Objective

simulation with an intensive focus on what and how

things are done in reservoir simulations

Microsoft Excel

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

COURSE OUTLINE

INTRODUCTION

FLOW EQUATIONS FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD & NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR

FLOW EQUATIONS

SINGLE-PHASE FLOW SIMULATION

MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION

References

SPE, Texas

Houston, Texas.

Texas.

16-Jan-2014

INTRODUCTION

NUMERICAL SIMULATION AN OVERVIEW

RESERVOIR SIMULATION BASICS

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Mathematical Formulation

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

10

Computer Code

Physical Model

Reservoir

Simulator

Mathematical Model

16-Jan-2014

Numerical Model

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

11

with the purpose of establishing a sound field

development plan

the petroleum recovery process and searching for

appropriate solutions to the problems

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

12

The reservoir is divided into a number of cells

Wells are positioned within the cells

The required well production rates are specified as a

function of time

The equations are solved to give the pressure and

each phase from each well.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

13

Flow from one grid block to the next

Flow from a grid block to the well completion

Flow within the wells (and surface networks)

Flow = Transmissibility * Mobility * Potential Difference

Geometry &

Properties

16-Jan-2014

Fluid

Properties

Well

Production

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

14

SINGLE-PHASE FLOW

EQUATIONS

ESSENTIAL PHYSICS

CONTINUITY EQUATION

MOMENTUM EQUATION

CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION

GENERAL 3D SINGLE-PHASE FLOW EQUATION

BOUNDARY & INITIAL CONDITIONS

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

15

Essential Physics

The basic differential equations are derived from the

following essential laws:

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

16

Conservation of Mass

Mass conservation may be formulated across a control element with one fluid

of density r, flowing through it at a velocity u:

u

r

Dx

element

at

x

element

at

x

+

Dx

inside

the

element

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

17

Continuity Equation

Based on the mass conservation law, the continuity equation can be

expressed as follow:

Ar u A r

x

t

For constant cross section area, one has:

r u r

x

t

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

18

Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of momentum for fluid flow in porous materials

is governed by the semi-empirical Darcy's equation, which for

one dimensional, horizontal flow is:

k P

u

x

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

19

The behaviors of rock and fluid during the production

phase of a reservoir are governed by the constitutive

In general, these equations express the relationships

between rock & fluid properties with respect to the

reservoir pressure.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

20

The behavior of reservoir rock corresponding to the

pressure declines can be expressed by the definition of the

formation compaction

1

cf

P T

For isothermal processes, the constitutive equation of rock

becomes

d

c f

dP

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

21

The behavior of reservoir fluids corresponding to the

pressure declines can be expressed by the definition of fluid

1 V

cl

, l o, w, g

V P T

For natural gas, the well-known equation of state is used:

PV nZRT

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

22

Normally, in single-phase reservoir simulation, we would

deal with one of the following fluids:

Fluid System

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

23

Single-Phase Gas

The gas must be single phase in the reservoir, which means

that crossing of the dew point line is not permitted in order

to avoid condensate fall-out in the pores. Gas behavior is

governed by:

r gs

constant

rg

Bg

Bg

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

24

Single-Phase Water

One phase water, which strictly speaking means that the

reservoir pressure is higher than the saturation pressure of

the water in case gas is dissolved in it, has a density

described by:

r ws constant

rw

Bw

Bw

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

25

Single-Phase Oil

In order for the oil to be single phase in the reservoir, it

must be undersaturated, which means that the reservoir

pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure. In the

Black Oil fluid model, oil density is described by:

ro

16-Jan-2014

r oS r gS Rso

Bo

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

26

For all three fluid systems, the one phase density or

constitutive equation can be expressed as:

constant

r

B

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

27

The continuity equation for a one phase, one-dimensional system of

constant cross-sectional area is:

ru r

x

t

The conservation of

momentum for 1D,

horizontal flow is:

k P

u

x

constant

r

B

Substituting the momentum equation and the fluid model into the

continuity equation, and including a source/sink term, we obtain the

single phase flow in a 1D porous medium:

k P qsc

x B x Vb t B

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

28

Compressible Fluids

c f d (1/ B) P

k P qsc

t

x B x Vb

B

dP

the formation volume factor as:

d (1/ B)

cl B

, l o, g , w

dP

Then, an alternative form of the flow equation is:

k P qsc

P ct P

c f cl

x B x Vb B

t

B t

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

29

Fluids

k P qsc

x B x Vb t B

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

30

Mathematically, there are two types of boundary conditions:

are specified or given.

Neumann BCs: The values of the first derivative of the

unknown are specified or given.

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

31

From the reservoir engineering point of view:

specified as known constraints.

Neumann BCs: The flow rates are specified as the known

constraints.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

32

For the one-dimension single phase flow, the Dirichlet boundary

conditions are the pressure the pressures at the reservoir boundaries,

such as follows:

Px 0, t 0 PL

Px L, t 0 PR

pressure of a production or injection well, at some position of the

reservoir.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

33

In Neumann boundary conditions, the flow rates at the end faces of the

system are specified. Using Darcy's equation, the conditions become:

kA P

Q0

x x 0

kA P

QL

x x L

injection rate of a well, at some position of the reservoir, or it is

specified as a zero-rate across a sealed boundary or fault, or between

non-communicating layers.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

34

The general equation for 3D single-phase flow in field units (customary

units) is as follows:

Ax k x

Ay k y

Dy

c

Dx c

x

B x

y

B y

Vb

Az k z

c

Dz qsc

z

B z

c t B

p Z

cr g

16-Jan-2014

c, c, c: Unit conversion factors

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

35

Horizontal Reservoirs

The equation for 3D single-phase flow in field units for horizontal

reservoir is as follow:

Ax k x p

Ay k y p

Dy

c

Dx c

x

B x

y

B y

Vb

Az k z p

c

Dz qsc

z

B z

c t B

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

36

Depth Gradient

Vb

Ax k x p

c

Dx qsc

x

B x

c t B

Ax k x Z

Dx

c

x

B x

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

37

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

38

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

39

NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SINGLE-PHASE

FLOW EQUATIONS

FUNDAMENTALS OF FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

40

The equations describing flui flows in reservoirs are of

Finite difference method (FDM) is traditionally used for

the numerical solution of the flow equations

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

41

Fundamentals of FDM

In FDM, derivatives are replaced by a proper difference formula based on

the Taylor series expansions of a function:

(Dx)1 f

(Dx) 2 2 f

f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x

2! x 2

(Dx)3 3 f

3

3!

x

x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4

4!

x

x

f

f ( x Dx) f ( x) Dx 2 f

x x

Dx

2! x 2

(Dx) 2 3 f

3

3!

x

x

f

f ( x Dx) f ( x)

O(Dx)

x x

Dx

The difference formula above is of order 1 with the truncation error being

proportional to Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

42

To obtain higher order difference formula for the first derivative, Taylor series

expansion of the function is used from both side of x

(Dx)1 f

(Dx) 2 2 f

f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x

2! x 2

(Dx)1 f

(Dx) 2 2 f

f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x

2! x 2

(Dx)3 3 f

3

3!

x

x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4

4!

x

x

(Dx)3 3 f

3

3!

x

x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4

4!

x

x

f

f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx) (Dx) 2 3 f

x x

2Dx

3! x3

The difference formula above is of order 2 with the truncation error being

proportional to (Dx)2

f

f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx 2 )

x x

2Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

43

Forward difference for first derivatives (1D)

f

f ( x Dx) f ( x)

O(Dx)

x x

Dx

or in space index form

fi 1 fi

f

O(Dx)

x i

Dx

i-1

i+1

Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

44

Backward difference for first derivatives (1D)

f

f ( x) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx)

x x

Dx

or in space index form

fi fi 1

f

O(Dx)

x i

Dx

i-1

i+1

Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

45

Centered difference for first derivatives (1D)

f

f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx 2 )

x x

2Dx

or in space index form

f f

f

i 1 i 1 O(Dx 2 )

x i

2Dx

i-1

i+1

Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

46

Centered difference for second derivatives (1D)

2 f

x 2

f ( x Dx) 2 f ( x) f ( x Dx)

2

O

(

D

x

)

2

Dx

fi 1 2 fi fi 1

2 f

2

O

(

D

x

)

2

2

x i

Dx

i-1

i+1

Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

47

Forward difference for first derivatives (2D)

f

f ( x, y Dy ) f ( x, y )

O(Dy )

y ( x , y )

Dy

or in space index form

fi , j 1 fi , j

f

O(Dy )

y (i , j )

Dy

i,j+1

i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

48

Backward difference for first derivatives (2D)

f

f ( x, y ) f ( x, y Dy )

O(Dy )

y ( x , y )

Dy

or in space index form

fi , j fi , j 1

f

O(Dy )

y (i , j )

Dy

i,j+1

i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

49

Centered difference for first derivatives (2D)

f

y

( x, y )

f ( x, y Dy ) f ( x, y Dy )

O(Dy 2 )

2Dy

i,j+1

fi , j 1 fi , j 1

f

O(Dy 2 )

y (i , j )

2Dy

i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

50

Centered difference for second derivatives (2D)

2 f

y 2

( x, y )

f ( x, y Dy ) 2 f ( x, y ) f ( x, y Dy )

2

O

(

D

y

)

2

Dy

i,j+1

2 f

y 2

(i , j )

fi , j 1 2 fi , j fi , j 1

Dy

O(Dy 2 )

i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

51

Divide the computational domain into subdomains

Derive the difference formulation for the given PDE by replacing all

derivatives with corresponding difference formulas

Apply the difference formulation to every inner points of the

computational domain

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

52

Exercise 1

Solve the following Poisson equation:

2 p

2

16

sin(4 x)

2

x

0 x 1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

53

Exercise 2

Solve the following Poisson equation:

2u sin( x)sin( y )

0 x 1, 0 y 1

subject to the boundary conditions:

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

54

Newmann BCs:

p

C

x b

p1 p0

p

C

x 11/2 x1 x0

pnx 1 pnx

p

C

x nx 1/2 xnx 1 xnx

p0 p1 C Dx1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

55

Dirichlet BCs:

pb C

1 p1 p2 C

Dx1

Dx1 Dx2

16-Jan-2014

1 pn

pnx 1 C

Dxnx

Dxnx Dxnx 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

56

Exercise 3

Solve the following Poisson equation:

2u ( 2 2 ) exp( x y )

0 x 1, 0 y 1, 2, 3

subject to the boundary conditions:

u exp( x y); y 0, y 1

u

exp( x y ); x 0, x 1

x

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

57

Divide the computational domain into subdomains

Derive the difference formulation for the given PDE by replacing all

derivatives with corresponding difference formulas in both space

and time dimensions

Apply the initial condition

Apply boundary conditions to the points on the domain boundaries

Apply the difference formulation to every inner points of the

computational domain

Solve the resulting algebraic system of equations

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

58

Exercise 4

Solve the following diffusion equation:

u 2u

2 , 0 x 1.0, t 0

t x

subject to the following initial and boundary conditions:

u( x 0, t ) u( x 1, t ) 0, t 0

u( x, t 0) sin( x),0 x 1

Hints: Use explicit scheme for time discretization

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

59

Explicit Scheme

The difference formulation of the original PDE in Exercise 4 is:

Dt

(Dx)2

where

n=0,NT: Time step

i =1,NX: Grid point index

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

60

Implicit Scheme

The difference formulation for the original PDE in Exercise 4

n 1

i

n 1

i 1

u

u

Dt

n

i

n 1

i

2

n 1

i 1

2u u

(Dx)

where

n=0,NT: Time step

i =1,NX: Grid point index

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

61

Semi-Implicit Scheme

Semi-Implicit Scheme for the Diffusion Equation in Exercise 4 is

uin1 uin

uin11 2uin1 uin11

uin1 2uin uin1

(1 )

2

Dt

(Dx)

(Dx)2

where

01

n=0,NT: Time step

i =1,NX: Grid point index

When =0.5, we have Crank-Nicolson scheme

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

62

P

f ( x)

x

x

i-1

i+1

Dx

P

P

f

(

x

)

f

(

x

)

P

x i 1/2

x i 1/2

2

f

(

x

)

O

D

x

x

x i

Dxi

Pi 1 Pi

P

1

O(Dx)

x

(

D

x

D

x

)

i 1/2 2

i

i 1

P

f ( x)

x

x i

16-Jan-2014

2 f ( x)i 1/2

Pi Pi 1

P

O(Dx)

1

x i 1/2 2 (Dxi Dxi 1 )

( Pi 1 Pi )

( Pi Pi 1 )

2 f ( x)i 1/2

(Dxi 1 Dxi )

(Dxi Dxi 1 )

O(Dx)

Dxi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

64

FD Spatial Discretization

FD Temporal Discretization

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

65

For slightly compressible fluids (Oil)

Vb ct p

Ax k x p

c

Dx qsc

x

B x

c B t

Vb

Ax k x p

c

Dx qsc

x

B x

c t B

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66

Equations

FD Spatial Discretization

FD Temporal Discretization

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

67

Discretization of the left side term

P

f

(

x

)

x

x i

where

P

P

f ( x )i 1 f ( x )i 1

2

2

x i 1

x i 1

Ak

f ( x) c x x

B

Dxi

O(Dx)

( Pi 1 Pi )

( Pi Pi 1 )

P

P

1

(Dxi 1 Dxi ) / 2 x i 1 (Dxi 1 Dxi ) / 2

x i

2

Ax k x

Ax k x

Ax k x p

D

x

(

P

P

)

i 1

i

c

i c

c

( Pi Pi 1 )

x

B x i

BDx i 12

BDx i 12

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

68

Transmissibility

Define transmissibility as the coefficient in front of the

pressure difference:

Tx

i 1

2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

69

FD Spatial Discretization

The left side term of the 1D single-phase flow equation is

now discritized as follow:

Ax k x P

c

Dxi Txi 12 ( Pi 1 Pi ) Txi 12 ( Pi 1 Pi )

x

B x i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

70

Transmissibility

Tx

i 1

2

Ax k x 1

c

1

Dx i B i

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

71

Transmissibility (contd)

1

Ax k x

c

1

D

x

1

1

1 Ax k x

Ax k x

c

c

2

Dx i 1

Dx i

or

Ax k x i 1 Ax k x i

Ax k x

c Dx 1 2 c A k Dx A k

x x i i 1 x x i 1 Dxi

i

2

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72

1

2

i 1

16-Jan-2014

Dxi 1i 1 Dxi i

Dxi 1 Dxi

Dxi 1i 1 Dxi i

Dxi 1 Dxi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

73

Discretized Transmissibility

Tx

i 1

2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

Tx

1

2

Ax k x i 1 Ax k x i

2 c

Ax k x i Dxi 1 Ax k x i 1 Dxi

Dxi 1 Dxi

16-Jan-2014

1

1

Dxi 1

D

x

i

i 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

74

FD Temporal Discretization

Explicit Method

Implicit Method

n 1

n

Vb ct pi pi

Dt

c B i

Semi-implicit Method

0 1

n 1

n

p

p

Vb ct i

i

Dt

c B i

n 1

n

p

p

Vb ct i

i

n

n

n

n

n

n

1 Txi1/2 pi 1 pi Txi1/2 pi pi 1

B

Dt

c i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

75

Exercise 5

For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,

production. The initial reservoir pressure is 6000 psia. The

rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

B 1RB/STB; =10cp;

k x =15md; =0.18; c t =3.5 10 6 psi -1;

Use time step sizes of =10, 15, and 30 days.

Assume B is unchanged within the pressure range

of interest.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

76

Exercise 5 (contd)

1000 ft

p

0

x

p

0

x

75 ft

1000 ft

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

77

Exercise 6

For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,

determine the pressure distribution during the first year of

production. The initial reservoir pressure is 6000 psia. The

rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

B 1RB/STB; =10cp;

k x =15md; =0.18; c t =3.5 106 psi -1;

Use time step sizes of =10, 15, and 30 days.

Assume B is unchanged within the pressure range

of interest.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

78

Exercise 6 (contd)

1000

ft

p 6000psia

16-Jan-2014

p

0

x

75

ft

1000

ft

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

79

Equations

FD Spatial Discretization

FD Temporal Discretization

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

80

Compressible Fluids

Same as that for slightly compressible fluids

Ax k x p

c

Dxi Txi 12 ( pi 1 pi ) Txi 12 ( pi 1 pi )

x

B x i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

80

Transmissibility

Tx

i 1

2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

82

1

16-Jan-2014

1

2

i 1

if pi 1 pi

if pi 1 pi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

82

Compressible Fluids

Vb

c t B i

n 1

n

Vb

c Dt B

i

ref 1 c f p p ref

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

83

Exercise 7

For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,

determine the pressure distribution during the first year of

rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

k x =15md; =0.18; ct =3.5 106 psi -1

Use time step sizes of =10 days.

16-Jan-2014

85

Exercise 7 (contd)

PVT data table:

p (psia)

16-Jan-2014

(cp)

B (bbl/STB)

5000

0.675

1.292

4500

0.656

1.299

4000

0.637

1.306

3500

0.619

1.313

3000

0.600

1.321

2500

0.581

1.330

2200

0.570

1.335

2100

0.567

1.337

2000

0.563

1.339

1900

0.560

1.341

1800

0.557

1.343

86

Exercise 7 (contd)

1000 ft

p

0

x

p

0

x

1

75 ft

1000 ft

16-Jan-2014

87

MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS

FINITE DIFFERENCE APPROXIMATION TO MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS

NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

88

Continuity equation for each fluid flowing phase:

Arl ul A rl Sl

x

t

l o, w, g

kkrl Pl

ul

l x

l o, w, g

16-Jan-2014

Pcow Po Pw

Pcog Pg Po

l o, w, g

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

89

Considering the fluid phases of oil and water only, the

flow equations for the two phases are as follows:

k ro Po

Vb So

Z

qosc

o

Dx

c k x Ax

x

o Bo x

x

c t Bo

k rw Pw

Vb S w

Z

qwsc

w

Dx

c k x Ax

x

w Bw x

x

c t Bw

So S w 1

16-Jan-2014

Pw Po Pcow

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

90

k ro Po

Vb 1 S w

Z

qosc

o

Dx

c k x Ax

x

o Bo x

x

c t Bo

k rw Po Pcow

Vb S w

Z

qwsc

Dx

c k x Ax

x

w Bw x

x

x

c t Bw

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

91

Left side flow terms

kro Po

Z

o

Dxi

c k x Ax

x

o Bo x

x i

Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i ) Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i )

2

krw Po Pcow

Z

Dxi

c k x Ax

x

w Bw x

x

x i

Txw i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i ) Txw i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i )

2

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

92

Phase Mobility

k ro

o

o Bo

k rw

w

w Bw

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

93

Upstream:

i i

o

1

2

Qw

weighted average:

o i

1

2

Dxi o i Dxi 1o i 1

Dxi Dxi 1

OIL

Sw

1-Swir

exact

average

upstream

Swir

x

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

94

wi

oi

16-Jan-2014

1

2

1

2

wi 1 if Pwi 1 Pwi

wi if Pwi 1 Pwi

oi 1 if Poi 1 Poi

oi if Poi 1 Poi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

95

Equation

Left side flow terms

kro Po

Z

o

c k x Ax

Dxi

x

o Bo x

x i

Txo 1 ( Po i1 Po i ) Txo 1 ( Po i1 Po i )

i

krw Po Pcow

Z

w

c k x Ax

Dxi

x

w Bw x

x

x i

Txw 1 ( Po i1 Po i ) Txw 1 ( Po i1 Po i )

i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

96

Right side flow terms

S o S o

So

t Bo Bo t

t Bo

The second term:

i So

So

t Bo i

Dt

cr d (1 / Bo) n1

n

(

P

P

o

oi

i )

Bo

dPo i

n 1

So 1 Sw

16-Jan-2014

S o

Bo t i

i

Boi Dti

( S wni1 Swin )

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

97

So

t Bo i

Where:

and

16-Jan-2014

Cpooi

i (1 Swi ) cr

Cswoi

Dt

d (1 / Bo)

Bo dPo

i

i

Boi Dti

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

98

Right side flow terms

S w S w

S w

t Bw Bw t

t Bw

Pw

Po Pcow

t Bw Pw Bw t

Pw Bw t

t

Pcow dPcow S w

t

dSw t

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

99

S w

t Bw i

Where:

Cpowi

i Swi cr

d (1 / Bw )

Dt Bw

dPw i

and

Cswwi

16-Jan-2014

dPcow

Cpowi

Bwi Dti dSw i

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

100

2

Cswoi

n 1

wi

Swin

osci

n

n

n 1

n

n

n

T

xw

P

P

1

cow

o

o

cow

cow

i 2

i 1

i

i 1

i

i 1

i

2

n 1

wi

Swin qwsci

i 1,..., N

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

101

First, the pressure is found by solving the following equation:

xo

n

i 12

iTxwin 1

n 1

oi 1

n 1

oi 1

n

n

n

n

n

iTxwin 1 Pcow

T

xw

P

P

cowi

i

cowi 1

cowi

i 1

i 1

Cswwin

i

Cswoin

16-Jan-2014

Poni 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

102

Wi

Wi

n 1

n 1

n 1

oi 1

n

xo 1

i 2

n 1

n 1

oi

Ci P

Ei

2

n 1

oi 1

Ei P

n 1

n

xw

i

i 12

n 1

n

xo 1

i 2

n 1

gi

iT

n

xw 1

i 2

n

swwi

n

swoi

C

i

C

iTxwin 1 ( Pcowin1 Pcowin ) iTxwin 1 ( Pcowin1 Pcowin )

2

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

103

Once the oil pressures have been found, water saturations

can be obtained by either the oil-phase equation or the

water-phase equation.

n

n 1

n 1

n

n 1

n 1

n 1

n

S wi Swi

n

Cswoi qosc Cpooin Pon1 Poin

i

i

i 1,..., N

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

104

Exercise 8

A homogeneous, 1D horizontal oil reservoir is 1,000 ft long

with a cross-sectional area of 10,000 ft2. It is discretized into

four equal gridblocks. The initial water saturation is 0.160

Water is injected at the center of cell 1 at a rate of 75 STB/d

and oil is produced at the center of cell 4 at the same rate.

Bw=1.02 bbl/STB.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

105

Exercise 8 (contd)

The gridblock dimensions and properties are: Dx=250ft,

Dy=250ft,

Dz=40ft,

kx=300md,

=0.20.

PVT

data

given as in Table 1 as the functions of pressure. The

saturation functions including relative permeabilities and

capillary pressure.

Using the IMPES solution method with Dt=1 day, find the

pressure and saturation distribution after 100 days of

production.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

106

Exercise 8 (contd)

Ax=10,000 ft2

p

0

x

Qo=-75 STB/d

Qw=75 STB/d

4

250 ft

p

0

x

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

107

Exercise 8 (contd)

The relative permeability data:

Sw

Krw

0.16

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

16-Jan-2014

Kro

0

0.01

0.035

0.06

0.11

0.16

0.24

0.42

1

0.7

0.325

0.15

0.045

0.031

0.015

0

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

108

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