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FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR

SIMULATION

Dr. Mai Cao Lan,


GEOPET, HCMUT, Vietnam
Jan, 2014

ABOUT THE COURSE


COURSE OBJECTIVE
COURSE OUTLINE
REFERENCES

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Course Objective

To review the background of petroleum reservoir


simulation with an intensive focus on what and how
things are done in reservoir simulations

To provide guidelines for hands-on practices with


Microsoft Excel

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

COURSE OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
FLOW EQUATIONS FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS
FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD & NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR

FLOW EQUATIONS
SINGLE-PHASE FLOW SIMULATION
MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION

References

T. Eterkin et al., 2001. Basic Applied Reservoir Simulation,


SPE, Texas

J.H. Abou-Kassem et al., 2005. Petroleum Reservoir

Simulation A Basic Approach, Gulf Publishing Company,


Houston, Texas.

C.Mattax & R. Dalton, 1990. Reservoir Simulation, SPE,


Texas.

16-Jan-2014

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

INTRODUCTION
NUMERICAL SIMULATION AN OVERVIEW

COMPONENTS OF A RESERVOIR SIMULATOR


RESERVOIR SIMULATION BASICS

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Numerical Simulation An Overview

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Mathematical Formulation

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Numerical Methods for PDEs

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Numerical Methods for Linear Equations

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

10

Components of a Reservoir Simulator


Computer Code

Physical Model

Reservoir
Simulator

Mathematical Model

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Numerical Model

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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What is Reservoir Simulation?

A powerful tool for evaluating reservoir performance


with the purpose of establishing a sound field

development plan

A helpful tool for investigating problems associated with


the petroleum recovery process and searching for
appropriate solutions to the problems

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

12

Reservoir Simulation Basics


The reservoir is divided into a number of cells

Basic data is provided for each cell


Wells are positioned within the cells
The required well production rates are specified as a
function of time
The equations are solved to give the pressure and

saturations for each block as well as the production of


each phase from each well.
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

13

Simulating Flow in Reservoirs


Flow from one grid block to the next
Flow from a grid block to the well completion
Flow within the wells (and surface networks)
Flow = Transmissibility * Mobility * Potential Difference
Geometry &
Properties

16-Jan-2014

Fluid
Properties

Well
Production

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

14

SINGLE-PHASE FLOW
EQUATIONS
ESSENTIAL PHYSICS

CONTINUITY EQUATION
MOMENTUM EQUATION
CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION
GENERAL 3D SINGLE-PHASE FLOW EQUATION
BOUNDARY & INITIAL CONDITIONS
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Essential Physics
The basic differential equations are derived from the
following essential laws:

Mass conservation law

Momentum conservation law

Material behavior principles

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Conservation of Mass
Mass conservation may be formulated across a control element with one fluid
of density r, flowing through it at a velocity u:

u
r
Dx

Mass into the Mass out of the Rate of change of mass

element
at
x
element
at
x
+
Dx
inside
the
element

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Continuity Equation
Based on the mass conservation law, the continuity equation can be

expressed as follow:

Ar u A r
x
t
For constant cross section area, one has:

r u r
x
t
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of momentum for fluid flow in porous materials
is governed by the semi-empirical Darcy's equation, which for
one dimensional, horizontal flow is:

k P
u
x

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Equation Governing Material Behaviors


The behaviors of rock and fluid during the production
phase of a reservoir are governed by the constitutive

equations or also known as the equations of state.


In general, these equations express the relationships
between rock & fluid properties with respect to the
reservoir pressure.

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Constitutive Equation of Rock


The behavior of reservoir rock corresponding to the
pressure declines can be expressed by the definition of the

formation compaction

1
cf
P T
For isothermal processes, the constitutive equation of rock
becomes

d
c f
dP
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

21

Constitutive Equation of Fluids


The behavior of reservoir fluids corresponding to the
pressure declines can be expressed by the definition of fluid

compressibility (for liquid)

1 V
cl
, l o, w, g
V P T
For natural gas, the well-known equation of state is used:

PV nZRT
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Single-Phase Fluid System


Normally, in single-phase reservoir simulation, we would
deal with one of the following fluids:
Fluid System

One Phase Gas

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One Phase Water

One Phase Oil

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

23

Single-Phase Gas
The gas must be single phase in the reservoir, which means
that crossing of the dew point line is not permitted in order
to avoid condensate fall-out in the pores. Gas behavior is

governed by:

r gs

constant
rg

Bg
Bg
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

24

Single-Phase Water
One phase water, which strictly speaking means that the
reservoir pressure is higher than the saturation pressure of
the water in case gas is dissolved in it, has a density

described by:

r ws constant
rw

Bw
Bw

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

25

Single-Phase Oil
In order for the oil to be single phase in the reservoir, it
must be undersaturated, which means that the reservoir
pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure. In the
Black Oil fluid model, oil density is described by:

ro
16-Jan-2014

r oS r gS Rso
Bo

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

26

Single-Phase Fluid Model


For all three fluid systems, the one phase density or
constitutive equation can be expressed as:

constant
r
B

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

27

Single-Phase Flow Equation


The continuity equation for a one phase, one-dimensional system of
constant cross-sectional area is:

ru r
x
t
The conservation of
momentum for 1D,
horizontal flow is:

k P
u
x

The fluid model:

constant
r
B

Substituting the momentum equation and the fluid model into the
continuity equation, and including a source/sink term, we obtain the
single phase flow in a 1D porous medium:

k P qsc

x B x Vb t B
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

28

Single-Phase Flow Equation for Slightly


Compressible Fluids
c f d (1/ B) P
k P qsc

t
x B x Vb
B
dP

Based on the fluid model, compressibility can now be defined in terms of


the formation volume factor as:

d (1/ B)
cl B
, l o, g , w
dP
Then, an alternative form of the flow equation is:

k P qsc
P ct P
c f cl

x B x Vb B
t
B t
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

29

Single-Phase Flow Equation for Compressible


Fluids

k P qsc

x B x Vb t B

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Boundary Conditions (BCs)


Mathematically, there are two types of boundary conditions:

Dirichlet BCs: Values of the unknown at the boundaries


are specified or given.
Neumann BCs: The values of the first derivative of the
unknown are specified or given.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

31

Boundary Conditions (BCs)


From the reservoir engineering point of view:

Dirichlet BCs: Pressure values at the boundaries are


specified as known constraints.
Neumann BCs: The flow rates are specified as the known
constraints.

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

32

Dirichlet Boundary Conditions


For the one-dimension single phase flow, the Dirichlet boundary
conditions are the pressure the pressures at the reservoir boundaries,
such as follows:

Px 0, t 0 PL

Px L, t 0 PR

A pressure condition will normally be specified as a bottom-hole


pressure of a production or injection well, at some position of the
reservoir.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

33

Newmann Boundary Conditions


In Neumann boundary conditions, the flow rates at the end faces of the
system are specified. Using Darcy's equation, the conditions become:

kA P
Q0
x x 0

kA P
QL
x x L

For reservoir flow, a rate condition may be specified as a production or


injection rate of a well, at some position of the reservoir, or it is
specified as a zero-rate across a sealed boundary or fault, or between

non-communicating layers.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

34

General 3D Single-Phase Flow Equations


The general equation for 3D single-phase flow in field units (customary
units) is as follows:

Ax k x
Ay k y
Dy
c
Dx c
x
B x
y
B y
Vb
Az k z
c

Dz qsc
z
B z
c t B
p Z
cr g
16-Jan-2014

Z: Elevation, positive in downward direction


c, c, c: Unit conversion factors

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

35

3D Single-Phase Flow Equations for


Horizontal Reservoirs
The equation for 3D single-phase flow in field units for horizontal
reservoir is as follow:

Ax k x p
Ay k y p
Dy
c
Dx c
x
B x
y
B y
Vb
Az k z p
c

Dz qsc
z
B z
c t B

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

36

1D Single-Phase Flow Equation with


Depth Gradient

Vb
Ax k x p
c
Dx qsc

x
B x
c t B
Ax k x Z
Dx
c

x
B x

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

37

Quantities in Flow Equations

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Quantities in Flow Equations

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

39

FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD &


NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SINGLE-PHASE
FLOW EQUATIONS
FUNDAMENTALS OF FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

FDM SOLUTION OF THE SINGLE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

40

Numerical Solution of Flow Equations


The equations describing flui flows in reservoirs are of

partial differential equations (PDEs)


Finite difference method (FDM) is traditionally used for
the numerical solution of the flow equations

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

41

Fundamentals of FDM
In FDM, derivatives are replaced by a proper difference formula based on
the Taylor series expansions of a function:

(Dx)1 f
(Dx) 2 2 f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x
2! x 2

(Dx)3 3 f

3
3!

x
x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4
4!

x
x

The first derivative can be written by re-arranging the terms:

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x) Dx 2 f

x x
Dx
2! x 2

(Dx) 2 3 f

3
3!

x
x

Denoting all except the first terms by O (Dx) yields

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

O(Dx)
x x
Dx
The difference formula above is of order 1 with the truncation error being
proportional to Dx
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

42

Fundamentals of FDM (cont.)


To obtain higher order difference formula for the first derivative, Taylor series
expansion of the function is used from both side of x
(Dx)1 f
(Dx) 2 2 f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x
2! x 2

(Dx)1 f
(Dx) 2 2 f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x
2! x 2

(Dx)3 3 f

3
3!

x
x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4
4!

x
x

(Dx)3 3 f

3
3!

x
x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4
4!

x
x

Subtracting the second from the first equation yields

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx) (Dx) 2 3 f

x x
2Dx
3! x3

The difference formula above is of order 2 with the truncation error being
proportional to (Dx)2

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx 2 )
x x
2Dx
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

43

Typical Difference Formulas


Forward difference for first derivatives (1D)

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

O(Dx)
x x
Dx
or in space index form

fi 1 fi
f

O(Dx)
x i
Dx
i-1

i+1

Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

44

Typical Difference Formulas


Backward difference for first derivatives (1D)

f
f ( x) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx)
x x
Dx
or in space index form

fi fi 1
f

O(Dx)
x i
Dx
i-1

i+1

Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

45

Typical Difference Formulas


Centered difference for first derivatives (1D)

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx 2 )
x x
2Dx
or in space index form

f f
f
i 1 i 1 O(Dx 2 )
x i
2Dx
i-1

i+1

Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

46

Typical Difference Formulas


Centered difference for second derivatives (1D)

2 f
x 2

f ( x Dx) 2 f ( x) f ( x Dx)
2

O
(
D
x
)
2
Dx

or in space index form

fi 1 2 fi fi 1
2 f
2

O
(
D
x
)
2
2
x i
Dx
i-1

i+1

Dx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

47

Typical Difference Formulas


Forward difference for first derivatives (2D)

f
f ( x, y Dy ) f ( x, y )

O(Dy )
y ( x , y )
Dy
or in space index form

fi , j 1 fi , j
f

O(Dy )
y (i , j )
Dy

i,j+1
i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

48

Typical Difference Formulas


Backward difference for first derivatives (2D)

f
f ( x, y ) f ( x, y Dy )

O(Dy )
y ( x , y )
Dy
or in space index form

fi , j fi , j 1
f

O(Dy )
y (i , j )
Dy

i,j+1
i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

49

Typical Difference Formulas


Centered difference for first derivatives (2D)

f
y

( x, y )

f ( x, y Dy ) f ( x, y Dy )
O(Dy 2 )
2Dy

or in space index form


i,j+1

fi , j 1 fi , j 1
f

O(Dy 2 )
y (i , j )
2Dy

i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

50

Typical Difference Formulas


Centered difference for second derivatives (2D)

2 f
y 2

( x, y )

f ( x, y Dy ) 2 f ( x, y ) f ( x, y Dy )
2

O
(
D
y
)
2
Dy

or in space index form


i,j+1

2 f
y 2

(i , j )

fi , j 1 2 fi , j fi , j 1
Dy

O(Dy 2 )

i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

51

Solving time-independent PDEs


Divide the computational domain into subdomains
Derive the difference formulation for the given PDE by replacing all
derivatives with corresponding difference formulas

Apply boundary conditions to the points on the domain boundaries


Apply the difference formulation to every inner points of the
computational domain

Solve the resulting algebraic system of equations

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

52

Exercise 1
Solve the following Poisson equation:

2 p
2

16

sin(4 x)
2
x

0 x 1

subject to the boundary conditions:

p=2 at x=0 and x=1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

53

Exercise 2
Solve the following Poisson equation:

2u sin( x)sin( y )
0 x 1, 0 y 1
subject to the boundary conditions:

u 0 along the boundaries x 0, x 1, y 0, y 1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

54

Boundary Condition Implementation


Newmann BCs:

p
C
x b

p1 p0
p

C
x 11/2 x1 x0

pnx 1 pnx
p

C
x nx 1/2 xnx 1 xnx

p0 p1 C Dx1

pnx 1 pnx C Dxnx

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

55

Boundary Condition Implementation


Dirichlet BCs:

pb C

1 p1 p2 C
Dx1

Dx1 Dx2

16-Jan-2014

1 pn

pnx 1 C

Dxnx
Dxnx Dxnx 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

56

Exercise 3
Solve the following Poisson equation:

2u ( 2 2 ) exp( x y )
0 x 1, 0 y 1, 2, 3
subject to the boundary conditions:

u exp( x y); y 0, y 1
u
exp( x y ); x 0, x 1
x
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

57

Solving time-dependent PDEs


Divide the computational domain into subdomains
Derive the difference formulation for the given PDE by replacing all
derivatives with corresponding difference formulas in both space
and time dimensions
Apply the initial condition
Apply boundary conditions to the points on the domain boundaries
Apply the difference formulation to every inner points of the
computational domain
Solve the resulting algebraic system of equations

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

58

Exercise 4
Solve the following diffusion equation:

u 2u
2 , 0 x 1.0, t 0
t x
subject to the following initial and boundary conditions:

u( x 0, t ) u( x 1, t ) 0, t 0

u( x, t 0) sin( x),0 x 1
Hints: Use explicit scheme for time discretization
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

59

Explicit Scheme
The difference formulation of the original PDE in Exercise 4 is:

uin1 uin uin1 2uin uin1

Dt
(Dx)2
where
n=0,NT: Time step
i =1,NX: Grid point index

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

60

Implicit Scheme
The difference formulation for the original PDE in Exercise 4

n 1
i

n 1
i 1

u
u

Dt
n
i

n 1
i
2

n 1
i 1

2u u
(Dx)

where
n=0,NT: Time step
i =1,NX: Grid point index

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

61

Semi-Implicit Scheme
Semi-Implicit Scheme for the Diffusion Equation in Exercise 4 is

uin1 uin
uin11 2uin1 uin11
uin1 2uin uin1

(1 )
2
Dt
(Dx)
(Dx)2
where
01
n=0,NT: Time step
i =1,NX: Grid point index
When =0.5, we have Crank-Nicolson scheme
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

62

Discretization in Conservative Form



P
f ( x)

x
x

i-1

i+1

Dx

P
P

f
(
x
)

f
(
x
)

P
x i 1/2
x i 1/2
2
f
(
x
)

O
D
x

x
x i
Dxi

Pi 1 Pi
P
1
O(Dx)

x
(
D
x

D
x
)
i 1/2 2
i
i 1


P
f ( x)

x
x i
16-Jan-2014

2 f ( x)i 1/2

Pi Pi 1
P

O(Dx)

1
x i 1/2 2 (Dxi Dxi 1 )

( Pi 1 Pi )
( Pi Pi 1 )
2 f ( x)i 1/2
(Dxi 1 Dxi )
(Dxi Dxi 1 )
O(Dx)
Dxi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

64

FDM for Flow Equations


FD Spatial Discretization
FD Temporal Discretization

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

65

Single-Phase Flow Equations


For slightly compressible fluids (Oil)

Vb ct p
Ax k x p
c
Dx qsc
x
B x
c B t

For compressible fluids (Gas)

Vb
Ax k x p
c
Dx qsc
x
B x
c t B
16-Jan-2014

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

66

FDM for Slightly Compressible Fluid Flow


Equations
FD Spatial Discretization
FD Temporal Discretization

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

67

FD Spatial Discretization of the LHS


Discretization of the left side term

P
f
(
x
)

x
x i

where

P
P
f ( x )i 1 f ( x )i 1
2
2
x i 1
x i 1

Ak
f ( x) c x x
B

Dxi

O(Dx)

( Pi 1 Pi )
( Pi Pi 1 )
P
P


1
(Dxi 1 Dxi ) / 2 x i 1 (Dxi 1 Dxi ) / 2
x i
2

The discretization of the left side term is then

Ax k x

Ax k x
Ax k x p

D
x

(
P

P
)

i 1
i
c
i c

c
( Pi Pi 1 )
x
B x i
BDx i 12
BDx i 12
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

68

Transmissibility
Define transmissibility as the coefficient in front of the
pressure difference:

Tx

i 1
2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

69

FD Spatial Discretization
The left side term of the 1D single-phase flow equation is
now discritized as follow:

Ax k x P
c
Dxi Txi 12 ( Pi 1 Pi ) Txi 12 ( Pi 1 Pi )
x
B x i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

70

Transmissibility

Tx

i 1
2

Ax k x 1
c

1
Dx i B i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

71

Transmissibility (contd)
1

Ax k x
c
1
D
x

1
1

1 Ax k x
Ax k x
c
c

2
Dx i 1
Dx i

or

Ax k x i 1 Ax k x i
Ax k x
c Dx 1 2 c A k Dx A k
x x i i 1 x x i 1 Dxi

i
2

16-Jan-2014

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

72

Weighted Average of Mobility

1
2

i 1

16-Jan-2014

Dxi 1i 1 Dxi i

Dxi 1 Dxi

Dxi 1i 1 Dxi i

Dxi 1 Dxi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

73

Discretized Transmissibility
Tx

i 1
2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

Tx

1
2

Ax k x i 1 Ax k x i
2 c
Ax k x i Dxi 1 Ax k x i 1 Dxi

Dxi 1 Dxi
16-Jan-2014

1
1
Dxi 1

D
x
i

i 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

74

FD Temporal Discretization
Explicit Method

Txni1/2 pin1 pin Txni1/2 pin pin1 qsc i


Implicit Method

n 1
n
Vb ct pi pi

Dt
c B i

Txni1/21 pin11 pin 1 Txni1/21 pin 1 pin11 qsc i


Semi-implicit Method

0 1

n 1
n
p

p
Vb ct i
i

Dt
c B i

qsc i Txni1/21 pin11 pin 1 Txni1/21 pin 1 pin11

n 1
n
p

p
Vb ct i
i
n
n
n
n
n
n

1 Txi1/2 pi 1 pi Txi1/2 pi pi 1

B
Dt
c i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

75

Exercise 5
For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,

determine the pressure distribution during the first year of


production. The initial reservoir pressure is 6000 psia. The
rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

Dx 1000ft; Dy 1000ft; Dz 75ft


B 1RB/STB; =10cp;
k x =15md; =0.18; c t =3.5 10 6 psi -1;
Use time step sizes of =10, 15, and 30 days.
Assume B is unchanged within the pressure range
of interest.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

76

Exercise 5 (contd)

1000 ft

p
0
x

qsc 150 STB/D


p
0
x
75 ft

1000 ft

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

77

Exercise 6
For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,
determine the pressure distribution during the first year of
production. The initial reservoir pressure is 6000 psia. The
rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

Dx 1000ft; Dy 1000ft; Dz 75ft


B 1RB/STB; =10cp;
k x =15md; =0.18; c t =3.5 106 psi -1;
Use time step sizes of =10, 15, and 30 days.
Assume B is unchanged within the pressure range
of interest.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

78

Exercise 6 (contd)

1000
ft

p 6000psia

16-Jan-2014

p
0
x

qsc 150 STB/D

75
ft

1000
ft

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

79

FDM for Slightly Compressible Fluid Flow


Equations
FD Spatial Discretization
FD Temporal Discretization

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

80

FD Spatial Discretization of the LHS for


Compressible Fluids
Same as that for slightly compressible fluids

Ax k x p
c
Dxi Txi 12 ( pi 1 pi ) Txi 12 ( pi 1 pi )
x
B x i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

80

Transmissibility

Tx

i 1
2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

82

Upstream Average of Mobility


1

16-Jan-2014

1
2

i 1

if pi 1 pi
if pi 1 pi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

82

FD Spatial Discretization of the RHS for


Compressible Fluids

Vb


c t B i

n 1
n

Vb

c Dt B
i

ref 1 c f p p ref

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

83

Exercise 7
For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,
determine the pressure distribution during the first year of

production. The initial reservoir pressure is 5000 psia. The


rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

Dx 1000ft; Dy 1000ft; Dz 75ft


k x =15md; =0.18; ct =3.5 106 psi -1
Use time step sizes of =10 days.

16-Jan-2014

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

85

Exercise 7 (contd)
PVT data table:
p (psia)

16-Jan-2014

(cp)

B (bbl/STB)

5000

0.675

1.292

4500

0.656

1.299

4000

0.637

1.306

3500

0.619

1.313

3000

0.600

1.321

2500

0.581

1.330

2200

0.570

1.335

2100

0.567

1.337

2000

0.563

1.339

1900

0.560

1.341

1800

0.557

1.343

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

86

Exercise 7 (contd)

1000 ft

p
0
x

qsc 150 STB/D


p
0
x
1

75 ft

1000 ft

16-Jan-2014

Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

87

MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION


MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS
FINITE DIFFERENCE APPROXIMATION TO MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

88

Multiphase Flow Equations


Continuity equation for each fluid flowing phase:

Arl ul A rl Sl
x
t

l o, w, g

Momentum equation for each fluid flowing phase:

kkrl Pl
ul
l x
l o, w, g
16-Jan-2014

Pcow Po Pw

Pcog Pg Po

l o, w, g

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

89

Oil-Water Flow Equations


Considering the fluid phases of oil and water only, the
flow equations for the two phases are as follows:

k ro Po
Vb So

Z

qosc
o

Dx
c k x Ax
x
o Bo x
x
c t Bo
k rw Pw
Vb S w

Z

qwsc
w

Dx
c k x Ax
x
w Bw x
x
c t Bw
So S w 1

16-Jan-2014

Pw Po Pcow

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

90

Oil-Water Flow Equations

k ro Po
Vb 1 S w

Z

qosc
o

Dx
c k x Ax
x
o Bo x
x
c t Bo

k rw Po Pcow
Vb S w

Z

qwsc

Dx
c k x Ax
x
w Bw x
x
x
c t Bw

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

91

Discretization of the Flow Equation


Left side flow terms

kro Po

Z
o

Dxi
c k x Ax
x
o Bo x
x i
Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i ) Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i )
2

krw Po Pcow

Z

Dxi
c k x Ax
x
w Bw x
x
x i
Txw i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i ) Txw i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i )
2

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

92

Phase Mobility

k ro
o
o Bo

k rw
w
w Bw
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

93

Averaging of Phase Mobility


Upstream:

i i
o

1
2

Qw

weighted average:

o i

1
2

Dxi o i Dxi 1o i 1

Dxi Dxi 1

OIL
Sw
1-Swir
exact
average
upstream

Swir
x
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

94

Upstream Average of Mobility

wi

oi

16-Jan-2014

1
2

1
2

wi 1 if Pwi 1 Pwi

wi if Pwi 1 Pwi

oi 1 if Poi 1 Poi

oi if Poi 1 Poi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

95

Discretization of Multiphase Flow


Equation
Left side flow terms

kro Po

Z
o
c k x Ax
Dxi

x
o Bo x
x i
Txo 1 ( Po i1 Po i ) Txo 1 ( Po i1 Po i )
i

krw Po Pcow

Z

w
c k x Ax
Dxi

x
w Bw x
x
x i
Txw 1 ( Po i1 Po i ) Txw 1 ( Po i1 Po i )
i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

96

Discretization of the Oil-Phase Equation


Right side flow terms

S o S o


So
t Bo Bo t
t Bo
The second term:

i So
So
t Bo i
Dt

cr d (1 / Bo) n1
n

(
P

P
o
oi
i )
Bo

dPo i

The first term:


n 1

So 1 Sw
16-Jan-2014

S o

Bo t i

i
Boi Dti

( S wni1 Swin )

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

97

Discretization of Oil-phase RHS


So

Cpooi ( Poni 1 Poin ) Cswoi ( Swin1 Swin )


t Bo i

Where:

and

16-Jan-2014

Cpooi

i (1 Swi ) cr

Cswoi

Dt

d (1 / Bo)
Bo dPo
i

i
Boi Dti

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

98

Discretization of Water-Phase Equation


Right side flow terms

S w S w


S w
t Bw Bw t
t Bw

Pw
Po Pcow


t Bw Pw Bw t
Pw Bw t
t

Pcow dPcow S w

t
dSw t
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

99

Discretization of Water-phase RHS


S w

Cpowi ( Poni 1 Poin ) Cswwi ( Swin1 Swin )


t Bw i
Where:

Cpowi

i Swi cr

d (1 / Bw )

Dt Bw
dPw i

and

Cswwi
16-Jan-2014

dPcow

Cpowi
Bwi Dti dSw i

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

100

Fully Discrete Oil-Water Flow Equations

Txoi 1 Poni1 1 Poni Txoi 1 Poni1 1 Poni Cpooi Poni 1 Poin


2

Cswoi

n 1
wi

Swin

osci

n
n
n 1
n
n
n

Txwi 1 Poni1 1 Poni Pcow

T
xw
P

P
1
cow
o
o
cow
cow
i 2
i 1
i
i 1
i
i 1
i
2

C powi Poni 1 Poin Cswwi

n 1
wi

Swin qwsci
i 1,..., N

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

101

IMPES Solution of Oil-Water Flow Equations


First, the pressure is found by solving the following equation:

xo

n
i 12

iTxwin 1

n 1
oi 1

Poni 1 Txo in 1 iTxwin 1

n 1
oi 1

n
n
n
n
n
iTxwin 1 Pcow

T
xw
P

P
cowi
i
cowi 1
cowi
i 1
i 1

Cpooin i Cswoin Poni 1 Poin qosci i qwsci

Cswwin
i
Cswoin
16-Jan-2014

Poni 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

102

IMPES Pressure Solution


Wi
Wi

n 1

n 1

n 1
oi 1

n
xo 1
i 2

n 1

n 1
oi

Ci P

Ei

C in 1 Txoin 1 Txoin 1 Cpooin

i Txwin 1 Txwin 1 Cpowin


2

n 1
oi 1

Ei P

n 1

n
xw
i
i 12

n 1

n
xo 1
i 2

n 1

gi

iT

n
xw 1
i 2
n
swwi
n
swoi

C
i
C

g in1 (Cpooin i Cpowin ) Poin qosci i qwsci


iTxwin 1 ( Pcowin1 Pcowin ) iTxwin 1 ( Pcowin1 Pcowin )
2

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

103

IMPES Water Saturation


Once the oil pressures have been found, water saturations
can be obtained by either the oil-phase equation or the
water-phase equation.

n
n 1
n 1
n
n 1
n 1

1 Txoi 12 Poi1 Poi Txoi 12 Poi1 Poi


n 1
n

S wi Swi
n
Cswoi qosc Cpooin Pon1 Poin
i
i

i 1,..., N

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

104

Exercise 8
A homogeneous, 1D horizontal oil reservoir is 1,000 ft long
with a cross-sectional area of 10,000 ft2. It is discretized into
four equal gridblocks. The initial water saturation is 0.160

and the initial reservoir pressure is 5,000 psi everywhere.


Water is injected at the center of cell 1 at a rate of 75 STB/d
and oil is produced at the center of cell 4 at the same rate.

Rock compressibility cr=3.5E-6

psi-1 . The viscosity and

formation volume factor of water are given as w=0.8cp and


Bw=1.02 bbl/STB.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

105

Exercise 8 (contd)
The gridblock dimensions and properties are: Dx=250ft,
Dy=250ft,

Dz=40ft,

kx=300md,

=0.20.

PVT

data

including formation volume factor and viscosity of oil is


given as in Table 1 as the functions of pressure. The
saturation functions including relative permeabilities and
capillary pressure.

Using the IMPES solution method with Dt=1 day, find the
pressure and saturation distribution after 100 days of
production.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

106

Exercise 8 (contd)
Ax=10,000 ft2

p
0
x

Qo=-75 STB/d

Qw=75 STB/d

4
250 ft

p
0
x

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

107

Exercise 8 (contd)
The relative permeability data:

Sw

Krw
0.16
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8

16-Jan-2014

Kro
0
0.01
0.035
0.06
0.11
0.16
0.24
0.42

1
0.7
0.325
0.15
0.045
0.031
0.015
0

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

108

The End