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# FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR

SIMULATION

## Dr. Mai Cao Lan,

GEOPET, HCMUT, Vietnam
Jan, 2014

COURSE OBJECTIVE
COURSE OUTLINE
REFERENCES

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Course Objective

## To review the background of petroleum reservoir

simulation with an intensive focus on what and how
things are done in reservoir simulations

## To provide guidelines for hands-on practices with

Microsoft Excel

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

COURSE OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
FLOW EQUATIONS FOR PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS
FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD & NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR

FLOW EQUATIONS
SINGLE-PHASE FLOW SIMULATION
MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION

References

SPE, Texas

Houston, Texas.

Texas.

16-Jan-2014

## Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

INTRODUCTION
NUMERICAL SIMULATION AN OVERVIEW

## COMPONENTS OF A RESERVOIR SIMULATOR

RESERVOIR SIMULATION BASICS

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

## Numerical Simulation An Overview

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

Mathematical Formulation

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

## Numerical Methods for PDEs

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

## Numerical Methods for Linear Equations

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## Components of a Reservoir Simulator

Computer Code

Physical Model

Reservoir
Simulator

Mathematical Model

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Numerical Model

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## A powerful tool for evaluating reservoir performance

with the purpose of establishing a sound field

development plan

## A helpful tool for investigating problems associated with

the petroleum recovery process and searching for
appropriate solutions to the problems

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## Reservoir Simulation Basics

The reservoir is divided into a number of cells

## Basic data is provided for each cell

Wells are positioned within the cells
The required well production rates are specified as a
function of time
The equations are solved to give the pressure and

## saturations for each block as well as the production of

each phase from each well.
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Simulating Flow in Reservoirs

Flow from one grid block to the next
Flow from a grid block to the well completion
Flow within the wells (and surface networks)
Flow = Transmissibility * Mobility * Potential Difference
Geometry &
Properties

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Fluid
Properties

Well
Production

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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SINGLE-PHASE FLOW
EQUATIONS
ESSENTIAL PHYSICS

CONTINUITY EQUATION
MOMENTUM EQUATION
CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION
GENERAL 3D SINGLE-PHASE FLOW EQUATION
BOUNDARY & INITIAL CONDITIONS
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Essential Physics
The basic differential equations are derived from the
following essential laws:

## Material behavior principles

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Conservation of Mass
Mass conservation may be formulated across a control element with one fluid
of density r, flowing through it at a velocity u:

u
r
Dx

## Mass into the Mass out of the Rate of change of mass

element
at
x
element
at
x
+
Dx
inside
the
element

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Continuity Equation
Based on the mass conservation law, the continuity equation can be

expressed as follow:

Ar u A r
x
t
For constant cross section area, one has:

r u r
x
t
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of momentum for fluid flow in porous materials
is governed by the semi-empirical Darcy's equation, which for
one dimensional, horizontal flow is:

k P
u
x

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## Equation Governing Material Behaviors

The behaviors of rock and fluid during the production
phase of a reservoir are governed by the constitutive

## equations or also known as the equations of state.

In general, these equations express the relationships
between rock & fluid properties with respect to the
reservoir pressure.

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## Constitutive Equation of Rock

The behavior of reservoir rock corresponding to the
pressure declines can be expressed by the definition of the

formation compaction

1
cf
P T
For isothermal processes, the constitutive equation of rock
becomes

d
c f
dP
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Constitutive Equation of Fluids

The behavior of reservoir fluids corresponding to the
pressure declines can be expressed by the definition of fluid

## compressibility (for liquid)

1 V
cl
, l o, w, g
V P T
For natural gas, the well-known equation of state is used:

PV nZRT
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## Single-Phase Fluid System

Normally, in single-phase reservoir simulation, we would
deal with one of the following fluids:
Fluid System

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## One Phase Oil

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Single-Phase Gas
The gas must be single phase in the reservoir, which means
that crossing of the dew point line is not permitted in order
to avoid condensate fall-out in the pores. Gas behavior is

governed by:

r gs

constant
rg

Bg
Bg
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Single-Phase Water
One phase water, which strictly speaking means that the
reservoir pressure is higher than the saturation pressure of
the water in case gas is dissolved in it, has a density

described by:

r ws constant
rw

Bw
Bw

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Single-Phase Oil
In order for the oil to be single phase in the reservoir, it
must be undersaturated, which means that the reservoir
pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure. In the
Black Oil fluid model, oil density is described by:

ro
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r oS r gS Rso
Bo

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Single-Phase Fluid Model

For all three fluid systems, the one phase density or
constitutive equation can be expressed as:

constant
r
B

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## Single-Phase Flow Equation

The continuity equation for a one phase, one-dimensional system of
constant cross-sectional area is:

ru r
x
t
The conservation of
momentum for 1D,
horizontal flow is:

k P
u
x

## The fluid model:

constant
r
B

Substituting the momentum equation and the fluid model into the
continuity equation, and including a source/sink term, we obtain the
single phase flow in a 1D porous medium:

k P qsc

x B x Vb t B
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Single-Phase Flow Equation for Slightly

Compressible Fluids
c f d (1/ B) P
k P qsc

t
x B x Vb
B
dP

## Based on the fluid model, compressibility can now be defined in terms of

the formation volume factor as:

d (1/ B)
cl B
, l o, g , w
dP
Then, an alternative form of the flow equation is:

k P qsc
P ct P
c f cl

x B x Vb B
t
B t
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Single-Phase Flow Equation for Compressible

Fluids

k P qsc

x B x Vb t B

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## Boundary Conditions (BCs)

Mathematically, there are two types of boundary conditions:

## Dirichlet BCs: Values of the unknown at the boundaries

are specified or given.
Neumann BCs: The values of the first derivative of the
unknown are specified or given.

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Boundary Conditions (BCs)

From the reservoir engineering point of view:

## Dirichlet BCs: Pressure values at the boundaries are

specified as known constraints.
Neumann BCs: The flow rates are specified as the known
constraints.

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

For the one-dimension single phase flow, the Dirichlet boundary
conditions are the pressure the pressures at the reservoir boundaries,
such as follows:

Px 0, t 0 PL

Px L, t 0 PR

## A pressure condition will normally be specified as a bottom-hole

pressure of a production or injection well, at some position of the
reservoir.
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Newmann Boundary Conditions

In Neumann boundary conditions, the flow rates at the end faces of the
system are specified. Using Darcy's equation, the conditions become:

kA P
Q0
x x 0

kA P
QL
x x L

## For reservoir flow, a rate condition may be specified as a production or

injection rate of a well, at some position of the reservoir, or it is
specified as a zero-rate across a sealed boundary or fault, or between

non-communicating layers.
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## General 3D Single-Phase Flow Equations

The general equation for 3D single-phase flow in field units (customary
units) is as follows:

Ax k x
Ay k y
Dy
c
Dx c
x
B x
y
B y
Vb
Az k z
c

Dz qsc
z
B z
c t B
p Z
cr g
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## Z: Elevation, positive in downward direction

c, c, c: Unit conversion factors

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## 3D Single-Phase Flow Equations for

Horizontal Reservoirs
The equation for 3D single-phase flow in field units for horizontal
reservoir is as follow:

Ax k x p
Ay k y p
Dy
c
Dx c
x
B x
y
B y
Vb
Az k z p
c

Dz qsc
z
B z
c t B

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## 1D Single-Phase Flow Equation with

Vb
Ax k x p
c
Dx qsc

x
B x
c t B
Ax k x Z
Dx
c

x
B x

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Quantities in Flow Equations

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## Quantities in Flow Equations

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD &

NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SINGLE-PHASE
FLOW EQUATIONS
FUNDAMENTALS OF FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

## FDM SOLUTION OF THE SINGLE-PHASE FLOW EQUATIONS

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Numerical Solution of Flow Equations

The equations describing flui flows in reservoirs are of

## partial differential equations (PDEs)

Finite difference method (FDM) is traditionally used for
the numerical solution of the flow equations

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Fundamentals of FDM
In FDM, derivatives are replaced by a proper difference formula based on
the Taylor series expansions of a function:

(Dx)1 f
(Dx) 2 2 f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x
2! x 2

(Dx)3 3 f

3
3!

x
x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4
4!

x
x

## The first derivative can be written by re-arranging the terms:

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x) Dx 2 f

x x
Dx
2! x 2

(Dx) 2 3 f

3
3!

x
x

## Denoting all except the first terms by O (Dx) yields

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

O(Dx)
x x
Dx
The difference formula above is of order 1 with the truncation error being
proportional to Dx
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Fundamentals of FDM (cont.)

To obtain higher order difference formula for the first derivative, Taylor series
expansion of the function is used from both side of x
(Dx)1 f
(Dx) 2 2 f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x
2! x 2

(Dx)1 f
(Dx) 2 2 f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

1! x x
2! x 2

(Dx)3 3 f

3
3!

x
x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4
4!

x
x

(Dx)3 3 f

3
3!

x
x

(Dx) 4 4 f

4
4!

x
x

## Subtracting the second from the first equation yields

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx) (Dx) 2 3 f

x x
2Dx
3! x3

The difference formula above is of order 2 with the truncation error being
proportional to (Dx)2

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx 2 )
x x
2Dx
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Typical Difference Formulas

Forward difference for first derivatives (1D)

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x)

O(Dx)
x x
Dx
or in space index form

fi 1 fi
f

O(Dx)
x i
Dx
i-1

i+1

Dx

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Typical Difference Formulas

Backward difference for first derivatives (1D)

f
f ( x) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx)
x x
Dx
or in space index form

fi fi 1
f

O(Dx)
x i
Dx
i-1

i+1

Dx

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Typical Difference Formulas

Centered difference for first derivatives (1D)

f
f ( x Dx) f ( x Dx)

O(Dx 2 )
x x
2Dx
or in space index form

f f
f
i 1 i 1 O(Dx 2 )
x i
2Dx
i-1

i+1

Dx

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Typical Difference Formulas

Centered difference for second derivatives (1D)

2 f
x 2

f ( x Dx) 2 f ( x) f ( x Dx)
2

O
(
D
x
)
2
Dx

## or in space index form

fi 1 2 fi fi 1
2 f
2

O
(
D
x
)
2
2
x i
Dx
i-1

i+1

Dx

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Typical Difference Formulas

Forward difference for first derivatives (2D)

f
f ( x, y Dy ) f ( x, y )

O(Dy )
y ( x , y )
Dy
or in space index form

fi , j 1 fi , j
f

O(Dy )
y (i , j )
Dy

i,j+1
i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Typical Difference Formulas

Backward difference for first derivatives (2D)

f
f ( x, y ) f ( x, y Dy )

O(Dy )
y ( x , y )
Dy
or in space index form

fi , j fi , j 1
f

O(Dy )
y (i , j )
Dy

i,j+1
i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Typical Difference Formulas

Centered difference for first derivatives (2D)

f
y

( x, y )

f ( x, y Dy ) f ( x, y Dy )
O(Dy 2 )
2Dy

## or in space index form

i,j+1

fi , j 1 fi , j 1
f

O(Dy 2 )
y (i , j )
2Dy

i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Typical Difference Formulas

Centered difference for second derivatives (2D)

2 f
y 2

( x, y )

f ( x, y Dy ) 2 f ( x, y ) f ( x, y Dy )
2

O
(
D
y
)
2
Dy

## or in space index form

i,j+1

2 f
y 2

(i , j )

fi , j 1 2 fi , j fi , j 1
Dy

O(Dy 2 )

i-1,j

i,j

i+1,j

i,j-1

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Solving time-independent PDEs

Divide the computational domain into subdomains
Derive the difference formulation for the given PDE by replacing all
derivatives with corresponding difference formulas

## Apply boundary conditions to the points on the domain boundaries

Apply the difference formulation to every inner points of the
computational domain

## Solve the resulting algebraic system of equations

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Exercise 1
Solve the following Poisson equation:

2 p
2

16

sin(4 x)
2
x

0 x 1

## p=2 at x=0 and x=1

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Exercise 2
Solve the following Poisson equation:

2u sin( x)sin( y )
0 x 1, 0 y 1
subject to the boundary conditions:

## u 0 along the boundaries x 0, x 1, y 0, y 1

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Boundary Condition Implementation

Newmann BCs:

p
C
x b

p1 p0
p

C
x 11/2 x1 x0

pnx 1 pnx
p

C
x nx 1/2 xnx 1 xnx

p0 p1 C Dx1

## pnx 1 pnx C Dxnx

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Boundary Condition Implementation

Dirichlet BCs:

pb C

1 p1 p2 C
Dx1

Dx1 Dx2

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1 pn

pnx 1 C

Dxnx
Dxnx Dxnx 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Exercise 3
Solve the following Poisson equation:

2u ( 2 2 ) exp( x y )
0 x 1, 0 y 1, 2, 3
subject to the boundary conditions:

u exp( x y); y 0, y 1
u
exp( x y ); x 0, x 1
x
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Solving time-dependent PDEs

Divide the computational domain into subdomains
Derive the difference formulation for the given PDE by replacing all
derivatives with corresponding difference formulas in both space
and time dimensions
Apply the initial condition
Apply boundary conditions to the points on the domain boundaries
Apply the difference formulation to every inner points of the
computational domain
Solve the resulting algebraic system of equations

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Exercise 4
Solve the following diffusion equation:

u 2u
2 , 0 x 1.0, t 0
t x
subject to the following initial and boundary conditions:

u( x 0, t ) u( x 1, t ) 0, t 0

u( x, t 0) sin( x),0 x 1
Hints: Use explicit scheme for time discretization
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Explicit Scheme
The difference formulation of the original PDE in Exercise 4 is:

## uin1 uin uin1 2uin uin1

Dt
(Dx)2
where
n=0,NT: Time step
i =1,NX: Grid point index

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

60

Implicit Scheme
The difference formulation for the original PDE in Exercise 4

n 1
i

n 1
i 1

u
u

Dt
n
i

n 1
i
2

n 1
i 1

2u u
(Dx)

where
n=0,NT: Time step
i =1,NX: Grid point index

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

61

Semi-Implicit Scheme
Semi-Implicit Scheme for the Diffusion Equation in Exercise 4 is

uin1 uin
uin11 2uin1 uin11
uin1 2uin uin1

(1 )
2
Dt
(Dx)
(Dx)2
where
01
n=0,NT: Time step
i =1,NX: Grid point index
When =0.5, we have Crank-Nicolson scheme
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## Discretization in Conservative Form

P
f ( x)

x
x

i-1

i+1

Dx

P
P

f
(
x
)

f
(
x
)

P
x i 1/2
x i 1/2
2
f
(
x
)

O
D
x

x
x i
Dxi

Pi 1 Pi
P
1
O(Dx)

x
(
D
x

D
x
)
i 1/2 2
i
i 1

P
f ( x)

x
x i
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2 f ( x)i 1/2

Pi Pi 1
P

O(Dx)

1
x i 1/2 2 (Dxi Dxi 1 )

( Pi 1 Pi )
( Pi Pi 1 )
2 f ( x)i 1/2
(Dxi 1 Dxi )
(Dxi Dxi 1 )
O(Dx)
Dxi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## FDM for Flow Equations

FD Spatial Discretization
FD Temporal Discretization

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65

## Single-Phase Flow Equations

For slightly compressible fluids (Oil)

Vb ct p
Ax k x p
c
Dx qsc
x
B x
c B t

Vb
Ax k x p
c
Dx qsc
x
B x
c t B
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## FDM for Slightly Compressible Fluid Flow

Equations
FD Spatial Discretization
FD Temporal Discretization

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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## FD Spatial Discretization of the LHS

Discretization of the left side term

P
f
(
x
)

x
x i

where

P
P
f ( x )i 1 f ( x )i 1
2
2
x i 1
x i 1

Ak
f ( x) c x x
B

Dxi

O(Dx)

( Pi 1 Pi )
( Pi Pi 1 )
P
P

1
(Dxi 1 Dxi ) / 2 x i 1 (Dxi 1 Dxi ) / 2
x i
2

## The discretization of the left side term is then

Ax k x

Ax k x
Ax k x p

D
x

(
P

P
)

i 1
i
c
i c

c
( Pi Pi 1 )
x
B x i
BDx i 12
BDx i 12
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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Transmissibility
Define transmissibility as the coefficient in front of the
pressure difference:

Tx

i 1
2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

69

FD Spatial Discretization
The left side term of the 1D single-phase flow equation is
now discritized as follow:

Ax k x P
c
Dxi Txi 12 ( Pi 1 Pi ) Txi 12 ( Pi 1 Pi )
x
B x i

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Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

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Transmissibility

Tx

i 1
2

Ax k x 1
c

1
Dx i B i

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71

Transmissibility (contd)
1

Ax k x
c
1
D
x

1
1

1 Ax k x
Ax k x
c
c

2
Dx i 1
Dx i

or

Ax k x i 1 Ax k x i
Ax k x
c Dx 1 2 c A k Dx A k
x x i i 1 x x i 1 Dxi

i
2

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## Weighted Average of Mobility

1
2

i 1

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Dxi 1i 1 Dxi i

Dxi 1 Dxi

Dxi 1i 1 Dxi i

Dxi 1 Dxi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

73

Discretized Transmissibility
Tx

i 1
2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

Tx

1
2

Ax k x i 1 Ax k x i
2 c
Ax k x i Dxi 1 Ax k x i 1 Dxi

Dxi 1 Dxi
16-Jan-2014

1
1
Dxi 1

D
x
i

i 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

74

FD Temporal Discretization
Explicit Method

Implicit Method

n 1
n
Vb ct pi pi

Dt
c B i

## Txni1/21 pin11 pin 1 Txni1/21 pin 1 pin11 qsc i

Semi-implicit Method

0 1

n 1
n
p

p
Vb ct i
i

Dt
c B i

## qsc i Txni1/21 pin11 pin 1 Txni1/21 pin 1 pin11

n 1
n
p

p
Vb ct i
i
n
n
n
n
n
n

1 Txi1/2 pi 1 pi Txi1/2 pi pi 1

B
Dt
c i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

75

Exercise 5
For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,

## determine the pressure distribution during the first year of

production. The initial reservoir pressure is 6000 psia. The
rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

## Dx 1000ft; Dy 1000ft; Dz 75ft

B 1RB/STB; =10cp;
k x =15md; =0.18; c t =3.5 10 6 psi -1;
Use time step sizes of =10, 15, and 30 days.
Assume B is unchanged within the pressure range
of interest.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

76

Exercise 5 (contd)

1000 ft

p
0
x

## qsc 150 STB/D

p
0
x
75 ft

1000 ft

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

77

Exercise 6
For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,
determine the pressure distribution during the first year of
production. The initial reservoir pressure is 6000 psia. The
rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

## Dx 1000ft; Dy 1000ft; Dz 75ft

B 1RB/STB; =10cp;
k x =15md; =0.18; c t =3.5 106 psi -1;
Use time step sizes of =10, 15, and 30 days.
Assume B is unchanged within the pressure range
of interest.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

78

Exercise 6 (contd)

1000
ft

p 6000psia

16-Jan-2014

p
0
x

## qsc 150 STB/D

75
ft

1000
ft

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

79

## FDM for Slightly Compressible Fluid Flow

Equations
FD Spatial Discretization
FD Temporal Discretization

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

80

## FD Spatial Discretization of the LHS for

Compressible Fluids
Same as that for slightly compressible fluids

Ax k x p
c
Dxi Txi 12 ( pi 1 pi ) Txi 12 ( pi 1 pi )
x
B x i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

80

Transmissibility

Tx

i 1
2

Ax k x 1

c

Dx i 1 B i 1

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

82

## Upstream Average of Mobility

1

16-Jan-2014

1
2

i 1

if pi 1 pi
if pi 1 pi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

82

## FD Spatial Discretization of the RHS for

Compressible Fluids

Vb

c t B i

n 1
n

Vb

c Dt B
i

ref 1 c f p p ref

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

83

Exercise 7
For the 1D, block-centered grid shown on the screen,
determine the pressure distribution during the first year of

## production. The initial reservoir pressure is 5000 psia. The

rock and fluid properties for this problem are:

## Dx 1000ft; Dy 1000ft; Dz 75ft

k x =15md; =0.18; ct =3.5 106 psi -1
Use time step sizes of =10 days.

16-Jan-2014

## Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

85

Exercise 7 (contd)
PVT data table:
p (psia)

16-Jan-2014

(cp)

B (bbl/STB)

5000

0.675

1.292

4500

0.656

1.299

4000

0.637

1.306

3500

0.619

1.313

3000

0.600

1.321

2500

0.581

1.330

2200

0.570

1.335

2100

0.567

1.337

2000

0.563

1.339

1900

0.560

1.341

1800

0.557

1.343

## Mai Cao Ln Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering - HCMUT

86

Exercise 7 (contd)

1000 ft

p
0
x

p
0
x
1

75 ft

1000 ft

16-Jan-2014

87

## MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION

MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS
FINITE DIFFERENCE APPROXIMATION TO MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

88

## Multiphase Flow Equations

Continuity equation for each fluid flowing phase:

Arl ul A rl Sl
x
t

l o, w, g

## Momentum equation for each fluid flowing phase:

kkrl Pl
ul
l x
l o, w, g
16-Jan-2014

Pcow Po Pw

Pcog Pg Po

l o, w, g

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

89

## Oil-Water Flow Equations

Considering the fluid phases of oil and water only, the
flow equations for the two phases are as follows:

k ro Po
Vb So

Z

qosc
o

Dx
c k x Ax
x
o Bo x
x
c t Bo
k rw Pw
Vb S w

Z

qwsc
w

Dx
c k x Ax
x
w Bw x
x
c t Bw
So S w 1

16-Jan-2014

Pw Po Pcow

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

90

## Oil-Water Flow Equations

k ro Po
Vb 1 S w

Z

qosc
o

Dx
c k x Ax
x
o Bo x
x
c t Bo

k rw Po Pcow
Vb S w

Z

qwsc

Dx
c k x Ax
x
w Bw x
x
x
c t Bw

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

91

## Discretization of the Flow Equation

Left side flow terms

kro Po

Z
o

Dxi
c k x Ax
x
o Bo x
x i
Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i ) Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i )
2

krw Po Pcow

Z

Dxi
c k x Ax
x
w Bw x
x
x i
Txw i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i ) Txw i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i )
2

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

92

Phase Mobility

k ro
o
o Bo

k rw
w
w Bw
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

93

## Averaging of Phase Mobility

Upstream:

i i
o

1
2

Qw

weighted average:

o i

1
2

Dxi o i Dxi 1o i 1

Dxi Dxi 1

OIL
Sw
1-Swir
exact
average
upstream

Swir
x
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

94

## Upstream Average of Mobility

wi

oi

16-Jan-2014

1
2

1
2

wi 1 if Pwi 1 Pwi

wi if Pwi 1 Pwi

oi 1 if Poi 1 Poi

oi if Poi 1 Poi

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

95

## Discretization of Multiphase Flow

Equation
Left side flow terms

kro Po

Z
o
c k x Ax
Dxi

x
o Bo x
x i
Txo 1 ( Po i1 Po i ) Txo 1 ( Po i1 Po i )
i

krw Po Pcow

Z

w
c k x Ax
Dxi

x
w Bw x
x
x i
Txw 1 ( Po i1 Po i ) Txw 1 ( Po i1 Po i )
i

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

96

## Discretization of the Oil-Phase Equation

Right side flow terms

S o S o

So
t Bo Bo t
t Bo
The second term:

i So
So
t Bo i
Dt

cr d (1 / Bo) n1
n

(
P

P
o
oi
i )
Bo

dPo i

## The first term:

n 1

So 1 Sw
16-Jan-2014

S o

Bo t i

i
Boi Dti

( S wni1 Swin )

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

97

So

## Cpooi ( Poni 1 Poin ) Cswoi ( Swin1 Swin )

t Bo i

Where:

and

16-Jan-2014

Cpooi

i (1 Swi ) cr

Cswoi

Dt

d (1 / Bo)
Bo dPo
i

i
Boi Dti

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

98

## Discretization of Water-Phase Equation

Right side flow terms

S w S w

S w
t Bw Bw t
t Bw

Pw
Po Pcow

t Bw Pw Bw t
Pw Bw t
t

Pcow dPcow S w

t
dSw t
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

99

S w

## Cpowi ( Poni 1 Poin ) Cswwi ( Swin1 Swin )

t Bw i
Where:

Cpowi

i Swi cr

d (1 / Bw )

Dt Bw
dPw i

and

Cswwi
16-Jan-2014

dPcow

Cpowi
Bwi Dti dSw i

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

100

2

Cswoi

n 1
wi

Swin

osci

n
n
n 1
n
n
n

T
xw
P

P
1
cow
o
o
cow
cow
i 2
i 1
i
i 1
i
i 1
i
2

## C powi Poni 1 Poin Cswwi

n 1
wi

Swin qwsci
i 1,..., N

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

101

## IMPES Solution of Oil-Water Flow Equations

First, the pressure is found by solving the following equation:

xo

n
i 12

iTxwin 1

n 1
oi 1

n 1
oi 1

n
n
n
n
n
iTxwin 1 Pcow

T
xw
P

P
cowi
i
cowi 1
cowi
i 1
i 1

## Cpooin i Cswoin Poni 1 Poin qosci i qwsci

Cswwin
i
Cswoin
16-Jan-2014

Poni 1

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

102

Wi
Wi

n 1

n 1

n 1
oi 1

n
xo 1
i 2

n 1

n 1
oi

Ci P

Ei

2

n 1
oi 1

Ei P

n 1

n
xw
i
i 12

n 1

n
xo 1
i 2

n 1

gi

iT

n
xw 1
i 2
n
swwi
n
swoi

C
i
C

## g in1 (Cpooin i Cpowin ) Poin qosci i qwsci

iTxwin 1 ( Pcowin1 Pcowin ) iTxwin 1 ( Pcowin1 Pcowin )
2

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

103

## IMPES Water Saturation

Once the oil pressures have been found, water saturations
can be obtained by either the oil-phase equation or the
water-phase equation.

n
n 1
n 1
n
n 1
n 1

## 1 Txoi 12 Poi1 Poi Txoi 12 Poi1 Poi

n 1
n

S wi Swi
n
Cswoi qosc Cpooin Pon1 Poin
i
i

i 1,..., N

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

104

Exercise 8
A homogeneous, 1D horizontal oil reservoir is 1,000 ft long
with a cross-sectional area of 10,000 ft2. It is discretized into
four equal gridblocks. The initial water saturation is 0.160

## and the initial reservoir pressure is 5,000 psi everywhere.

Water is injected at the center of cell 1 at a rate of 75 STB/d
and oil is produced at the center of cell 4 at the same rate.

## formation volume factor of water are given as w=0.8cp and

Bw=1.02 bbl/STB.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

105

Exercise 8 (contd)
The gridblock dimensions and properties are: Dx=250ft,
Dy=250ft,

Dz=40ft,

kx=300md,

=0.20.

PVT

data

## including formation volume factor and viscosity of oil is

given as in Table 1 as the functions of pressure. The
saturation functions including relative permeabilities and
capillary pressure.

Using the IMPES solution method with Dt=1 day, find the
pressure and saturation distribution after 100 days of
production.
16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

106

Exercise 8 (contd)
Ax=10,000 ft2

p
0
x

Qo=-75 STB/d

Qw=75 STB/d

4
250 ft

p
0
x

16-Jan-2014

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

107

Exercise 8 (contd)
The relative permeability data:

Sw

Krw
0.16
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8

16-Jan-2014

Kro
0
0.01
0.035
0.06
0.11
0.16
0.24
0.42

1
0.7
0.325
0.15
0.045
0.031
0.015
0

Dr. Mai Cao Lan, Faculty of Geology & Petroleum Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam

108

The End