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Laboratory Report

Group 5

Diaz, Louise, Don, Ma. Katherine Noelle, Duque, Maria Socorro, Galotera, Ayanna

Benita

Department of Biological Science

University of Santo Tomas, Espaa , Manila Philippines

Abstract

The overall focus of this

experiment expressed the relationship of

work, power and energy. Implications on

how acceleration due the gravity could

affect was shown in the two activities.

For the first activity the motion of going

up and down the stairs was demonstrated

how gravity can influence its work as

well as the power output. For the second

activity, a motion detector was used.

The computed work and power showed

that group member 2 got the highest

power output, followed by group

member 3,4,1 for both going up and

down the stairs.

storage of energy as the result of its

position. [1].

1. Introduction

that involves the activity of force and

displacement [2]. This can be positive,

negative or zero. When a particle

undergoes a displacement, it speeds up if

W>0, slows down if W<0 and maintains

the same speed if W=0 [2]. In activity 1,

work is computed by using the formula,

distance. This means that when the

object moves because of an applied

force, it is doing work. Work is

measured in Joules and it is a vector

quantity with both magnitude and

direction. On the other hand, energy, is

defined as the ability to do work, while

power is the amount of work done per

elapse or time [1].

In addition, mechanical energy, is scalar

quantity having both kinetic and

gravitational potential energy. The

difference between the two is due to

their energy in terms of the position and

motion. Kinetic energy is the amount of

work that object can do in relation to its

follows:

To demonstrate conservation of

mechanical energy

To measure change in kinetic and

potential energies as a ball was

move in free fall

To determine power output when

going up and downstairs (second

to third floor)

2. Theory

W =FdFdcos

displacement. The SI unit for work (WI

is Joules (J). The 2nd formula is used if

the angle between the force and this

displacement is given. There are three

scenarios that may explained fully the

used of [3].

an object as it is displaced rightward

where force and displacement will

exhibit the same direction resulting to 0

angle between F and d.

Scenario B: A force acts leftward upon

an object as it is displaced rightward

where force and displacement will

exhibit an opposite direction resulting to

180o angle between F and d.

Scenario C: A force acts upward upon

an object as it is displaced rightward

where force and displacement will

exhibit a perpendicular position resulting

to 90o angle between F and d.

After we compute the work, we may

now get the amount of power used.

Power describes as the time rate of doing

work. This is computed by using the

formula,

P=

W

t

The SI unit for power (P) is Watts (W).

Energy can be in two states: potential

energy or kinetic energy. It can be

transferred from one form (potential

energy) to another (kinetic energy) [2].

Kinetic energy describes as the amount

of work required to accelerate the object

from rest to speed [2]. This is computed

by using the following formula:

1

2

KE= m v

2

Where m is the mass of the object

and v is the speed of the object. The SI

unitof kinetic energy (KE) is in Joules

(J).

stored energy associated with the

position of an object [2]. Specifically, in

this activity, we are more concerned on

the potential energy associated with a

bodys weight and its height above the

ground. This kind of potential energy is

called gravitational potential energy [2].

This can be computed by using the

formula,

PE = mgh

Where m is the mass of the object, g

is the gravity (9.8 m/s) and h is the

height of the place where the object

resides. The SI unit of potential energy

(PE) is also in Joules (J).

In addition, the sum total of energy

would yield,

1

E=PE+ KE( mgh )+( m v 2)

2

This is also called as total mechanical

energy of the system where it is constant

during the motion of the system [2]..

This formula leads to the general

statement of law of conservation of

energy. Law of conservation of energy

states that energy is neither created nor

destroyed [2].

3. Methodology

The experiment was divided into two

parts.

Activity 1: Power

The first thing the group did is to

determine the weight of each of the

members. The main task was to time

each member going up and down the

stairs (second to third floor). Vertical

distance (h) was measured using a meter

stick to measure the length from the

heights of 3rd floor to 2nd floor was

measured by getting the height/distance

of the vertical line of each step then

multiply it with the number of stairs

used. The work done by gravity was

computed for each of the member who

did the activity. After computing the

work for each member, power output

was then calculated.

Activity 2: Energy of a Tossed Ball

(Physics with Computers)

Prediction and a sketched graphed of

potential energy versus time of ball

thrown vertically up from height of 50

cm was done. Same procedure was done

with the graph of kinetic energy versus

time of ball. A motion detector called

DIG/SONICI channel was used. The ball

was held directly above and 50.0 cm

from the motion detector. The ball was

tossed straight up once the motion

detector begins. Using the logger Pro,

Potential and kinetic energy versus time

graph as well as Total mechanical energy

versus time graph was determined.

These graphs were to compare with the

predicted graphs.

4. Results and Discussion

Activity 1: Power

Table 1. Comparison of power output

between members of the group in

going up and down the stairs.

Vertical distance between second floor

and third floor= 5.13m

Member

Weight (N)

Work in

going up (J)

Time to go

up (s)

Power

output in

1

490.0

N

-2513.7

J

7.30 s

2

813.4

N

4

421.4

N

8.14 s

3

556.8

N

-2856.4

J

8.20 s

-344.3

J

-512.6

J

-348.3

J

-352.1

J

-4172.7

J

-2161.8

J

going up

(W)

Work in

going down

(J)

Time to go

down (s)

Power

output in

going down

(W)

2513.7

J

4172.7

J

2856.4

J

2161.8

J

6.50 s

7.15 s

7.09 s

6.14 s

386.7 J

583.6 J

402.9 J

352.1 J

it is evident that time is inversely

proportional to power since more power

is needed to be exerted by a body as it

finishes a task at a faster time. Also,

weight has a great effect on the values of

work and power exerted by a body.

Member 4 had the lowest weight

followed by member 1, 3 and 2 in

increasing order. In relation to weight

and force, member 4 exhibited the least

amount of work while member 2 did the

highest amount of work. The value of

work going up is negative because of the

formula: PE=mgh. As the body moves

farther from the ground, it has a higher

negative value due to gravity (-9.8 m/s).

Time to go down the stairs is faster than

going up due to gravity. Because of this,

greater power was exerted by member 2

as compared to member 1, in relation to

time and all other factors that have an

influence on it.

The values presented on the table

show us that power varies directly with

force, as it is indirectly proportional with

time. Given that W is equal to force

times distance, in this case, the value of

work changes with weight and the

distance between second and third floor.

7.47 s

(Physics with Computer)

position versus time; The Blue

represents the motion versus time;

The red represents the total

mechanical energy versus time graph.

Predicted graphs:

versus time graph

potential energy, kinetic energy and

total mechanical energy inputted by a

body, in a graphical form. Graph of

Figure 2 presents a downward

parabola of potential energy, with

respect to position and time. As a

body reaches the maximum height,

its potential energy is at its

maximum since the body at rest at

that point in time. On the other hand,

Figure 3 shows an upward parabola

with respect to position and time.

Kinetic energy is initially at

maximum value. When it is

converted to potential energy at

maximum height, kinetic energy is

zero. It again increases with respect

ground.

This justifies the relationship

between potential energy and kinetic

energy that is; they are indirectly

related to each other. The total

mechanical energy is the sum of the

values of potential and kinetic

energies of a body. Because of the

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

principle, the mechanical energy of a

(isolated) system remains constant in

time and so it displays a horizontal

line on the graph.

5. Conclusion

The proponents of this experiment were

able to determine the power output when

going up and down the stairs as well

correlate it with the concept of force,

work and time. Gravity has an influence

on them and they are all interconnected

with each other. The relationship of force

and work are directly proportional,

however, power and time shows

otherwise. The relation among potential

energy, kinetic energy and total

mechanical energy of a body, using the

position vs. time graphs as presented

above. Total mechanical energy of a

system is conserved as long as friction

and other non-conservative forces do not

govern it.

6. Applications

1. Compare the work that you do

when you go upstairs to the work

you do in going downstairs. Based

on this, can you explain why it is

more difficult to go upstairs than

downstairs?

certain thing. As said earlier, it is a

vector quantity thus having both

magnitude and direction. Magnitude

of the work done going upstairs and

downstairs are the same. Meaning

regardless of the direction, the output

of magnitude is the same. However,

Work done going upstairs produces a

negative work since its gravitational

force is against the motion. While

work done going downstairs is a

positive work since, it has the same

direction with the gravitational force.

2. A certain professor finds it easy to

go upstairs from the ground floor

to the third floor of the Main

Building by going up the second

floor using the main stairs,

walking along the corridor of the

accounting division and using the

side stairs to go to the third floor.

Is there a basis to this from the

point of view of physics?

From the point of view of

physics, no there is no connection

since same amount of work was

done. Meaning either way, the

professor, goes up the stairs from the

ground to the third floor. However, if

sufficient data will be provided, the

amount of power output exerted by

the professor could be calculated and

compared.

3. It is 5 minutes before your 7:00AM

class in the fourth floor and you

are still in the ground floor. Will

you run or walk upstairs in order

not to be late? Assume that your

watts when walking and running,

respectively. The vertical distance

between the ground and the fourth

floor is 12m and that you weigh

750N.

Let us compare the time it takes

to walk and run by using the

following derivation to get the time.

w

P=

t

Fd

t=

P

The time it takes to walk is computed

by,

(750 N)(12 m)

t=

15 W

t=600 seconds

While the time it takes to run is

computed by,

(750 N)(12 m)

t=

20 W

t=450 seconds

Therefore, based on the result,

running or walking will not be

helpful and you will be marked as

late. However, you will arrive faster

when you run than you walk.

4. An object is thrown vertically up.

Neglecting air resistance, how is

of the object related to the change

in its kinetic energy.

When you throw a ball upward, it is

moving at maximum speed. Given the

equation

for

kinetic

energy

1

2

KE= m v , it has maximum kinetic

2

energy with minimum potential energy

(inversely proportional). As the ball

reaches the maximum height from the

ground, it slows down and stops for an

instant. Hence, kinetic energy changes to

KE=0

potential energy, rendering

along maximum potential energy.

7. References

[1] Cutnell, J. D. & Johnson, K. W.

(2012) Physics (9th ed.). USA: John

Wiley & Sons, Inc

[2] Freedman, R. A., Ford, L. & Young,

H.D. (2009). University Physics with

Modern Physics (12th ed.). Singapore:

Pearson Education, Inc.

[3] physcisclassrom. (2015). Work,

Energy, and Power. Retrieved by

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/

energy

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