Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Contents
Summary Acknowledgments Copyright notice 1 Introduction 1.1 Development proposal and commission 1.2 Location and geology 1.3 Historical and archaeological background 2 Methodology 3 Results 4 The finds 5 Conclusions References
Appendix I: Context index Appendix II: Finds index Figures Figure 1 Site location Figure 2 Plan with position of trenches and sites of archaeological interest Plates Plate 1 Trench 6, looking southeast showing former cobbled road surface Plate 2 Trench 7, looking southeast showing industrial/occupation deposits Plate 3 View to southeast along Isca Road in the 1930s (sketch by Lucie Gibbons)

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3 3 3 6 8 13 14 15 16 21

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10 11 14

Front cover View to southeast along Isca Road, Caerleon © GGAT

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Summary An archaeological watching brief was carried out on trial excavations undertaken to examine ground conditions in advance of a drainage scheme on Isca Road and Bulmore Road, the Village, Caerleon. The remains of the former road and pavement surfaces were noted at a number of locations on Isca Road, and also a post-medieval level on Bulmore Road. There was some evidence locally of industrial and domestic activity that may belong to the Roman period, although the only finds of likely Roman date, a small quantity of ceramic roof-tile, occurred residually.

Acknowledgments The project was managed by Richard Lewis BA MIfA, Head of Projects, and the report was prepared by S H Sell BA, Project Officer, of the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Projects Division (GGAT Projects), with the artwork being undertaken by Paul Jones of GGAT Illustration Department. Thanks are due to Steve Button, Nigel Purcell and staff of Morgan Est, the contractors, for their help during the project, and to Nigel Young for permission to reproduce the sketch of Isca Road by Lucie Gibbons.

Copyright Notice The copyright to this report is held by GGAT Projects, which has granted an exclusive licence to Atkins Limited Ltd to reproduce the material contained herein. Ordnance Survey maps are reproduced under licence (AL 10005976) unless otherwise stated; annotations are GGAT copyright.

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

1 Introduction
1.1 Development proposal and commission A programme of ground investigation work, consisting of a total of nine trenches, was carried out at Isca Road and Bulmore Road, the Village, Caerleon, between NGR ST 3445 9020 and 3455 9006. This initial phase of trial work was required in order to examine ground conditions and establish the location of existing services, in advance of the installation of new mains drainage. The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd, Projects Division (GGAT Projects) was commissioned by Atkins Limited to carry out a watching brief during the initial phase of works, which took place between April 20th and May 11th 2009, and is the subject of this report. 1.2 Location and geology The trial trenches were located along Isca Road, the main street in the settlement on the southern side of the River Usk known as The Village or Caerleon at between 7.5m and 11.7m OD. One trench was located in Bulmore Road, close to the junction with Isca Road, at 12.6m OD (Figure 1). The development site lies 3.75km to the northeast of Newport and 0.5km to the southeast of Caerleon. The underlying geology is river gravels overlying Triassic marls and clays. At its closest to the southwest bank of the Usk the position of the road has been strengthened with additional material. 1.3 Historical and archaeological background The current development area lies a little over 400m to the southeast of the Roman legionary fortress of Isca, on the south bank of the River Usk. Isca Road itself is thought to represent a continuation to the southeast of the via praetoria, the main north-south road through the fortress, which is represented by the line of the present High Street and to have continued to the civilian settlement at Bulmore, 2km to the northeast, although its exact course is not known. It is most likely to have crossed the river at the location used by subsequent bridges preceding the present structure, which is sited a short distance downstream. The civil settlement, or canabae, at Caerleon extended both to east and west of the fortress, reaching across the river to the area known during the medieval period as Ultra Pontem, but now referred to as the Village. During the medieval period continued use of the line of Isca Road is indicated by the position of a tower at its northwestern end, where Castle Cottage now stands. This feature appears to have marked the southern end of an earlier bridge over the River Usk lying just to the east of the quay, which was sited adjacent to the present Hanbury Arms. Caerleon was a thriving port during the medieval and later periods, until a direct link with Newport was established with the opening of the Monmouthshire Canal at the end of the 18th century. Archaeological investigation on the southern side of the River Usk has largely been confined to limited evaluation work or to watching briefs in advance of minor developments, (Figure 2). At Isca Grange, however, a building or buildings represented by walls of coursed rubble 0.75m in width were noted during trial
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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

excavation in 1984, in association with rubbish pits containing pottery of 2nd century date. (Frere 1984, 258-9). At Lulworth House, to the west of the present development, a surface of broken brick and tile of Roman date was noted during a watching brief in 1990 (Evans 2000, 512), and some indications of Roman activity were noted in a pipe-line trench on the line of New Road in 1987 (ibid). More recently, structural and ceramic evidence for a pottery kiln of medieval date was recovered during excavation for an extension at Isca Grange in 2001 (Monmouth Archaeology 2001), and residual Roman pottery was noted during groundwork at Riverside Cottage in April 2002 (Monmouth Archaeology 2002). During recent flood alleviation work on the river bank along Isca Road, the foundations of the timber bridge swept away in 1772 were exposed, together with evidence for earlier structures spanning the River Usk, and finds dating from the Roman period (Lewis 2004). During evaluation work to the rear of the Mission Chapel in Bulmore Road the remains of three ceramic altars of Roman date were recovered (Clarke and Bray 2007).

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

2 Methodology
The watching brief was undertaken in accordance with the requirements of the Institute for Archaeologists’ Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Watching Briefs (1994). A full written, drawn and photographic record was made of all archaeological deposits, in accordance with the GGAT Manual of Excavation Recording Techniques. Contexts were recorded using a single continuous numbering system, and are summarised in Appendix I. All significant contexts were photographed using a Pentax Optio E40 8.1 megapixel digital camera. All classes of finds were retained, cleaned and catalogued, in line with the requirements of the Institute for Archaeologists’ Standard and guidance for the collection, documentation, conservation and research of archaeological materials (2001) and in accordance with the GGAT Manual of Excavation Recording Techniques. No material from this project has been retained within the site archive. The project archive will be deposited with an appropriate receiving organisation, in accordance with the UKIC and IfA Guidelines (Archaeological Archives: a guide to best practice in creation, compilation, transfer and curation (2007)). A copy of the report and archive index will be deposited with the regional Historic Environment Record, curated by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Swansea, and a further copy of the report and archive index will be deposited with the National Monuments Record, Royal Commission on the Archaeological and Historical Monuments of Wales (RCAHMW), Aberystwyth. The groundwork was undertaken using a three tonne mini-excavator with toothless bucket and breaker for the tarmac. The trenches averaged 0.60m in width, and up to a maximum of 0.90m in depth. The intention was to locate the position and depth of all services, or establish their absence, but to excavate no further than the minimum required, hence the variability in depth from one trench to another and also within each trench. The excavated trenches were carefully inspected for evidence of archaeological features, and the excavated spoil was checked for the presence of artefacts. Any artificial material was recovered for examination, and the presence of any features of archaeological significance was noted, photographed and recorded as appropriate.

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

3

Results

Trenches within Isca Road (Nos 1-8) were orientated generally southwest-northeast and crossed the full width of the road and pavement(s); the trench in Bulmore Road was orientated northwest-southeast. Full details of the contexts for each trench may be found in the Context Index, Appendix I, and details of the finds recovered are given in Appendix II, below. Results are summarised below. Trench 1 (outside ‘Beckscott’, where Isca Road runs beside the river) Beneath tarmac surfacing and intermittent sub-base make-up was a homogenous general layer containing all manner of materials, principally small to medium stone with a little bricks (1004), presumably a general make-up layer, cut by the fill of a service trench for gas (1003) on the northwestern side of the road. General make-up layer 1004 overlay an intermittent layer of loam (1005), which was more substantial on the river side of the road. Close to the inner edge of the pavement, the remains of an earlier revetment wall (1006) was noted c1.35m within the line of the present river defences, at a depth of 0.65m. It was overlain by a deposit of sand and gravel (1007), probably connected to the construction of the kerb above or to the foundations for the present wall to the northeast. Close to the housing on the southwestern side of the street the remnants of a cobbled surface (1011) were noted at a depth of c0.40m. Evidence for the former road and pavement surfaces (see Plate 2, below) were noted in several of the trial trenches, but the greater depth of what is assumed to be part of the same surface may be attributable to the proximity of the river to this section of Isca Road with the consequent need to raise the levels to a greater extent here than elsewhere. Context 1011 had been cut by a service trench for electricity (1010); in the centre of the road considerable disturbance accompanied the presence of a cast iron water main (1009). A thin deposit of sandy, charcoal-rich material (1012) at a depth of 0.75m directly overlay the natural gravel (1013), at a depth of 0.85m, over the main part of this trench, but at the southwestern end the pinkish marl subsoil (1014) was noted at a depth of 0.65m. Trench 2 (outside Usk Cottage, where Isca Road runs beside the river) The results from this trench were broadly similar to those from Trench 1, will the three main services again present. The riverside revetment wall, however, was not exposed and natural gravel was not reached. Sub-base for the road emerged as two distinct layers, which formed the standard in other trenches, with a blackish, ashy deposit (2004) overlying a lighter-coloured, buff or pinkish, deposit (2005). Traces of the former cobbled road surface were also noted (2007), and beneath a residue of loam (2008) underlying the cobble remnant was a layer of pinkish silty clay with broken stone (2013). The limit of excavation was 0.75m; other deposits relate to modern or recent services. Trench 3 (opposite the junction of No 1, Grange Cottage and the house to the southeast) To allow more space for manoeuvre this trench was cut to cross the road at an angle, its orientation being more nearly north-south. The lower layer of sub-base for the road (3003) appeared to form part of a larger, more general layer of make-up, probably more akin to 1004. Natural river gravels (3005) were reached at a minimum
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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

depth of 0.45m. As elsewhere, the fill of the cast-iron water main (3006) was not clearly defined, rather contributing to a general sense of disturbance of the levels in the middle of the road. The main was reached at a depth of 0.80m, the same depth as the gas main on the northern side of the road (3007). Excavation to the north of 3007 was not carried out owing to the location of all the expected services. Trench 4 (at the northwestern end of the car-parking space belonging to Ivy Cottage) This trench, in the narrowest part of Isca Road, was the shortest, c3.7m in length, and was dominated by service trenches. Beneath a minimal depth of sub-base was a certain amount of pinkish silty material with broken stone, probably redeposited natural (4003), overlying a more substantial, dirtier, more mixed layer, apparently the backfill/disturbance caused by excavation for the cast iron water main (4006), which occupied much of the central part of the road, as in Trench 3. Both the main, and the gas main to the northwest (4007), lay at a depth of 0.60m. Trench 5 (orientated north-south, just to the southeast of ‘Glandwr’) Trench 5 also contained remains of the former road, a line of elongated stones (5002), probably part of a former kerb, that lay directly below the tarmac on the southwestern side of the street. Below the matrix for the cobbles lay a very stony pinkish silty clay layer (5006) much like 1014, 2013 and 4003, but almost certainly disturbed by the proximity of services. This overlay another, similar layer (5007) at a depth of 0.25m, with a possible stone surface at a depth of 0.35m (5008), itself overlying coarse sandy gravel, a natural deposit (5009). It is likely that this composite layer (5007/8) may be part of the geological sequence, interleaved with coarse sand and gravels, as was found just across the river at Tan House Drive, during monitoring of recent groundwork (Sell 2008), although there may well be an element of redeposition. To the north of the cast iron water main (5010) layer 5009 underlay a substantial layer of backfill (5011) at a depth of 0.60m, with the gas main (5012), also overlying layer 5009, further to the north. Remains of the former cobbled surfaces, smaller sets for the pavement (5013) and large ones for the road (5014) were noted at the northern end of the trench. Between these and the position of the gas main a further stone surface (5017), at a depth of 0.40m, may be the upper part of the geological sequence, equivalent to 5008. Surfaces such as these appeared too clean to be artificial, but could nonetheless have been utilised as a base level for a metalled surface or perhaps even a structure. Trench 6 (outside the property division between Greenfield Cottage and Peartree House) A remnant of the earlier cobbled street, in a black ashy matrix (6002/3), was noted at the southeastern end of Trench 6, on both sides of the modern kerb (see Plate 1, below), with the natural sequence of silty clay and stone over coarse sandy gravel (6004/5) occurring at a depth of 0.50m. The disturbance for the cast iron water main (6007) occupied the upper levels in the central part of the trench, with natural marl and sandstone bedrock (6008/9, the equivalent of 6004/5) at a depth of 0.60m.
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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Further to the northeast the gas main (6010) lay at a depth of 0.70m, which was taken as the limit of excavation. Beneath the northeastern pavement the service trench for electricity cables (6014) had ensured that there was little trace of the former cobbled road surface (6012/3) remaining. Part of a Roman tegula, one of the principal elements of a ceramic roof of the Roman period, was recovered from context 6013, the first and only diagnostic artefact of certain Roman date to be collected during the watching brief.

Plate 1 Trench 6, looking southeast showing former cobbled road surface. Ranging rod in 0.20m gradations © GGAT

Trench 7 (outside No 2 Church Cottages) Remains of the cobbled street/pavement surface were noted just below the tarmac outside No 2 Church Cottages (7002, with matrix 7004). The cobbles were cut by a telephone service trench (7003) and overlay a pinkish-brown silty clay with stone (7005), possibly the upper natural surface, equivalent to 1014, at a depth of c0.30m. After the discovery of the telephone cable duct the limit of excavation here was set at approximately this level. The sequence within the road differed in that below a dirty mixed stony make up layer (7007), similar to and probably the equivalent of 1004, was a brown sandy ferruginous deposit (7008), at a depth of 0.20m, becoming ever more loamy and charcoal-rich and giving way to a blackish fused slag-rich surface (7010) at a depth of 0.50m (see Plate 2, below). The sequence, which was broken to the northeast by the disturbance for the cast iron water main (7009), continued with a very dirty, charcoalrich layer, with some stone and clay, (7011) overlying a pink clay surface, perhaps part of a floor, at a depth of 0.60m. Pink, clean natural clay (7013) lay beneath, at a depth of 0.70m. Unfortunately no dating material was associated with this sequence, but evidence of activity during the Roman period seems likely.

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Plate 2 Trench 7, looking southeast showing industrial/occupation deposits. Ranging rod in 0.20m gradations. © GGAT

To the northeast of 7009 the equivalent of layer 7008 (7018) overlay a layer of broken slag, clinker etc (7019) probably identical in composition to 7010. Natural clay lay at a depth of 0.70m, with the gas main (7020) at 0.75m. The northeastern pavement had been largely disturbed by a service trench for electricity (7015), but traces of the formed cobbled road surface were noted here also (7014, equivalent to 7002). Trench 8 (at the junction of Isca Road and Bulmore Road) The sequence of layers beneath the southwestern pavement was straightforward, with two make-up layers (8002/3), rich in brick and small stone, less compact and more ashy below, cut through by a telephone service trench. The two main layers overlay a brownish sand and ?natural subsoil deposit at a depth of 0.55m (8005), with pink clay with stone (8006) at 0.60m, which was taken as the limit of excavation here. Elements of the former cobbled road surface (8008) survived to the northeast of the modern kerb, within the upper part of a similar sequence to 8002/3 (8009/10) although 8009 was somewhat more mixed and less compact, and 8010 characterised by a mixture of slag, ash and stone. This layer appeared to be the main deposit, presumably for make-up, beneath the road, and overlay pink sandy clay with stone (8012), the equivalent of 8006 and similarly capped by a thin deposit of sandy gravel (8011), at a depth of 0.58m. At the northeastern end of the trench a deposit of building rubble and mortar (8014) underlying the ashy equivalent of sub-base, may well have been derived from repairs or rebuilding of the adjacent property boundary. Below the road, to the southwest of this deposit, the main deposit (8018) was consistent with backfill, having elements of 8002, 8003 and 8005. Among brick/tile fragments recovered from this deposit some are almost certainly Roman, and include what may possibly be part of a Caerleonware mortarium, although there was no suggestion that this was anything but a secondary deposit, as beneath this general level lay the gas main and a number of subsidiary feeds.

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Several fragments of undiagnostic tile/fired clay were recovered from context 8018. Some of the tile could be of Roman date, but one piece is somewhat finer in fabric and may belong to a Caerleon-ware mortarium rather than to a tile. Trench 9 (in Bulmore Road, 50m to northeast of junction with Isca Road, opposite Bush House) Beneath the tarmac and sub-base lay a mixed make-up layer probably similar to and the equivalent of 1004 and other mixed deposits, with small stone, brick/tile etc (9003), grading to a pinker layer with a high percentage of broken stone (9004), probably a layer of redeposited make-up material similar to 2013. This overlay a brownish pink silty loam (9005), probably a residual upper subsoil, or ‘cultivation’ layer similar to 1014, from which was recovered a sherd from a ‘local’ red earthenware vessel of 17th/18th century date. As expected, this deposit overlay a brownish-pink, clean layer (9009) identified as natural subsoil, at a depth of 0.80m. In the southeastern part of the trench a very solid stone surface (9010), at the same depth, appears to represent bedrock. A total of eight services were exposed during the excavation of this trench.

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

4

The finds

Full details of the assemblage may be found in Appendix II, to which reference should be made. Apart from obviously recent deposition within any of the many service trenches and evidence of a post-medieval horizon from Trench 9, in Bulmore Road, most of the assemblage appears to be associated with backfill or make-up of the levels, and thus of a residual/redeposited nature. The only diagnostic artefact of Roman date is the flange from a tegula, the principal element of a Roman roof, from Trench 6, but ceramic tile of likely Roman date was also present in Trench 8, and perhaps in other trenches. It is possible that one of the undiagnostic fragments from Trench 8 could be part of a redware vessel, a Caerleon-ware mortarium, as the fabric seems finer than the other undiagnostic tile present.

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

5

Conclusions

Evidence for the existence of an earlier road and pavement level was noted in a number of trial trenches (Trenches 2, 5-8, and Plate 3 below). In the stretch of Isca Road that runs alongside the river, part of an earlier revetment wall for the road, together with evidence for terracing with made ground to raise the levels, was apparent. Elsewhere levels had been raised to a lesser extent with the use of redeposited material. There was little reliable dating evidence for any but the most recent disturbances, which took the form of numerous services reflecting the development of the area and the increasing complexity of modern living.

Plate 3: View to southeast along Isca Road during the 1930s. Note the cobbled surfaces of the road and pathway. (Sketched by Lucie Gibbons, and reproduced here by permission of Nigel Young, www.caerleon.net)

No evidence was noted for the Roman road thought to set the line of Isca Road, probably largely due to the extent of modern disturbance and the ephemeral nature of its construction and potential for survival in the environment of subsequent road infrastructure. At least one piece of Roman tile, the flange from a tegula, was recovered from Trench 6, and what may possibly be part of a Caerleon-ware mortarium, together with other undiagnostic pieces of ?Roman tile, were collected from Trench 8. All are thought to be residual, and otherwise there was no certain evidence for Roman occupation. The possible exception to this lay in Trench 7, where what may be a clay floor level was noted. It was overlain by charcoal-rich occupation detritus, and sealed by a solid layer of fused industrial material. Unfortunately no dating material was available for any of these deposits, but their presence would not be unexpected within the
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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

sometimes squalid setting of a vicus or even as an outlier to the canabae that grew up around and in consequence of the establishment of the Roman fortress just across the river. Evidence for post-medieval occupation, possibly a ‘cultivation’ layer, was noted in Trench 9, on Bulmore Road; other horizons were unaccompanied by dating evidence. The sample provided by these trial trenches is very small and yet provides at least one location where there is evidence for activity during an earlier period, and given the proximity of the Roman fortress, and the already existing evidence to the south of the river, in ultra pontem, this may well be fresh evidence of a Roman presence. The proposed open-cut trench for main drainage, running the full length of Isca Road before turning along Bulmore Road to the northeast, may well increase our understanding of the extra-mural settlement at Caerleon to a significant degree, although establishment of the line of the Roman road may be more problematic.

References
Clarke, S, and Bray, J, 2007 Mission Chapel, Bulmore Road, Caerleon. An archaeological evaluation, Monmouth Archaeology Report No MA33.07 Evans, E, 2000 The Caerleon Canabae, Britannia Monograph series No.16, London Frere, S S, 1984 Roman Britain in 1984 I. Sites Explored, Britannia 16, 252316 Lewis, R, 2004 Caerleon Bridge, Newport: excavation report, GGAT Report No 2004/105 Monmouth Archaeology, 2001 Isca Grange, Caerleon, Newport, Monmouth Archaeology Report No. MA05.01 Monmouth Archaeology, 2002 River Cottage, Isca Road, Caerleon, Monmouth Archaeology Report No. MA14.0 Sell, S H, 2008 Tan House Drive, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief, GGAT Report No 2007/067

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Appendix I Inventory of contexts
Note: The first digit in each context number denotes the trench from which it originated Context No 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Structure Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Description Tarmac road/pavement surface Sub-base for 1001, intermittent. Two layers. Total depth 0.10-0.35m Sub-base trench fill (gas) Dirty mixed make-up layer, stone brick etc Soft loam below 1004 deeper on river side Wall remnant, river-side of road, d 0.65m Sand/gravel over 1006, ?foundation under pavement for new retaining wall or kerb As 1002, SW side Mixed fill of service trench (old water main) ill of service trench, SW side (electric) Cobble surface d 0.40, ?old road Sandy, charcoal-rich, below 1004 Mixed sand and gravel, natural Pinkish charcoal-flecked subsoil ?post-medieval Period Modern Modern Modern ?modern ?post-medieval Post-medieval Modern Modern Modern Modern Post-medieval Unknown

Context No 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description Tarmac road/pavement surface Sub-base fill of service trench (electric) Coarse sand fill of service trench (BT) Sub-base for 2001, blackish, as 1002 Lower 2004, pinkish Concrete dry mix?, NW side of trench only Cobbles, remnant of former road Silty loam under 2007, equivalent to 1005 Mixed stony below 2008 As 1009 Equivalent to 1008 Sub-base: fill of service trench (gas)

Period Modern Modern Modern Modern Modern Modern Post-medieval ?post-medieval ?post-medieval Modern Modern Modern

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Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Context No 3001 3002 3003 3004 3005 3006 3007

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description Tarmac road/pavement surface Blackish uppe4r sub-base Buff lower sub-base/mixed layer as 1004 Sub-base fill of service trench (electric) Sandy gravel below 3003; natural gravel Service trench (water); mixed backfill Service trench (gas), fill as 3004

Period Modern Modern Modern Modern

Modern Modern

Context No 4001 4002 4003 4004 4005 4006 4007

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description Tarmac road/pavement surface Blackish upper sub-base Pinkish stony, disturbed/redeposited Service trench (BT) Duct at 0.50m Sub-base fill of service trench (gas) Backfill of water-main trench Sub-base fill of service trench (gas) Pipe at 0.60m

Period Modern Modern Unknown Modern Modern Modern Modern

Context No 5001 5002 5003 5004 5005 5006 5007 5008 5009 5010 5011

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description Tarmac road/pavement surface Cobble remnant, former road, below 5001 Upper sub-base as 2004 Lower sub-base as 2005 Gritty ashy matrix for 5002 Pinkish stony disturbed/redeposited, as 4003 As 5006 but larger stone. Also ?crushed brick/tile Lower 5007, larger stone, possibly a surface, cleaner, possibly weathered natural Coarse sandy more yellow below 5008, ?natural As 1009, 2010 Mixed ?backfill similar/equivalent to 1004 17

Period Modern Post-medieval Modern Modern Post-medieval Unknown Unknown

Modern ?modern

Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Context No 5012 5013 5014 5015 5016 5017 5018 5019

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description As 2012 Small cobbles former pavement surface, disturbed by 5018 As 5002 As 5005 Charcoal-rich lens below 5014 Surface of large rounded stone similar to 5008 but rounder, ?natural Backfill of service trench (electric) Similar/equivalent to 5006

Period Modern Post-medieval Post-medieval Post-medieval ?post-medieval

Modern Unknown

Context No 6001 6002 6003 6004 6005 6006 6007 6008 6009 6010 6011 6012 6013 6014

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Structure Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description Tarmac road/pavement surface Cobble remnant below 6001 Matrix for 6002 Pink stone/clay, ?upper natural Yellow gravel/coarse sand, natural Kerb/foundation As 1009 As 6008; upper natural As 6005; lower natural Service trench/pipe (gas) Sub-base levelling, cut by 6014 As 6002, remnant only As 6003 Service trench/cables (electric)

Period Modern Post-medieval Post-medieval

Modern Modern

Modern Modern Post-medieval Post-medieval Modern

Context No 7001 7002 7003 7004 7005 7006

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Structure

Description Tarmac road/pavement surface Cobble remnant below 7001, as 6002 etc Sub-base fill of service trench (BT) Matrix/bedding for 7002, as 6003 etc Pinkish brown silty with flat stone, poss upper natural Kerb/foundation 18

Period Modern Post-medieval Modern Post-medieval

Modern

Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Context No 7007 7008 7009 7010* 7011* 7012 7013 7014 7015 7016 7017 7018 7019 7020

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Structure Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description Dirty mixed stony, similar to 1004 Sandy ferrous deposit below becoming more loamy with charcoal 7007,

Period ?modern Unknown Modern Unknown ?Roman ?Roman

Service trench fill/pipe (old water-main) Fused slag surface, ?metalling, d 0.50m Mixed ?occupation layer, charcoal-rich, with some pink clay, stone and ?tile fragments Pink clay ?floor below 7011, d 0.60m Clay marl natural d 0.70m As 7002 Service trench fill/duct (electric) Kerb/foundation Sub-base As 7008 Material as 7010 but layer broken up Sub-base fill of service trench (gas)

Post-medieval Modern Modern Modern Unknown Unknown Modern

Context No 8001 8002 8003 8004 8005 8006 8007 8008 8009 8010 8011 8012 8013 8014

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Structure Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description Tarmac road/pavement surfacer Mixed redeposited under SW pavement; brick ash and loam, very compact Lower 8002, looser Service trench/cable (BT), part of 8002/3 Brownish sandy/gravelly below 8003, to 0.55m Pink sandy clay/stone, clean; natural Kerb/foundation Cobbles, SW side of road, to 0.25m As 8002 but less brick, solid, where 8008 absent Loose ashy slaggy below 8008; main lower layer c0.25m-0.60m Buff sandy/gravelly with charcoal; similar to 8005, above 8006 Partial tarmac surface NE pavement Black ashy below 8012 Stone building debris below 8013, perhaps from rebuilding of adjacent wall 19

Period Modern Modern Modern Modern Unknown

Modern Post-medieval ?modern Post-medieval Unknown Modern Modern Modern

Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Context No 8015 8016 8017 8018 8019

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description ?cobble remnant, redeposited, part of 8014 Service trench/cable (electric) d 0.30m Service trench/brick cover (electric) d 0.40m Mixed backfill over 8019 Greyish sub-base lower fill of service trenches, network of electric cables/gas main

Period Modern Modern Modern Modern Modern

Context No 9001 9002 9003 9004 9005 9006 9007 9008 9009 9010 9011 9012

Type Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit Deposit

Description Tarmac road/pavement surface Sub-base, various Mixed backfill/make up 0.07m- 0.25m As 9003 but with more broken stone, pinker Charcoal flecked brownish pink clayey loam, a little small stone; ?PM cultivation. Service trench/pipe (gas), not defined Service trench/duct (?electric) Service trench/twin ceramic pipes (?BT) As 9005 but cleaner, below 9005 at d.0.80m, natural subsoil Solid stone surface, ?bedrock d 0.80m (SE) Service trench/pipe (?electric) Service trench/pipe (water);sub-base fill

Period Modern Modern ?modern ?modern Post-medieval Modern Modern Modern

Modern Modern

20

Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Appendix II: Finds index
Note: u/s = unstratified, prefixed by number of relevant trench Context No T1 u/s Material type Pottery Pottery Context No T2 u/s 2005 Context No T3 u/s Context No T4 u/s Material type Pottery Pottery Material type Brick/tile Material type Stone Brick/tile Context No 5007 Context No 6013 Material type Brick/tile Material type Stone Brick/Tile Pottery Context No 7010* 7011* Context No T8 u/s 8002 8003/4 Material type Slag Stone etc Material type Pottery Pottery Ceramic Description Brown-glazed buffware ‘Local’ red earthenware Description Red earthenware with gold lustre ‘Local’ red earthenware, large pan Description Brick fr u/d Description Flat sandstone piece ?bakestone Brick frags u/d Description U/d frags Description Roof-tile frag Tegula flange ‘Local’ red earthenwares Description Sample 001 Sample 002 Description Misc modern ceramics Misc modern ceramics incl plate and teapot frags Drainpipe frag 21 Qty 1 3 1 Qty 1 1 Qty 1 1 Qty 1 Qty 1 2 Qty 4 Qty 1 1 2 Qty Weight (kg) 0.012 0.062 Weight (kg) 0.034 0.044 Weight (kg) 0.038 Weight (kg) 0.126 0.126. Weight (kg) 0.078 Weight (kg) 0.408 0.158 0.026 Weight (kg) 1.460 0.970 Weight (kg) 0.014 0.074 0.074 Period C18 Post-medieval Period C19 Post-medieval Period Modern Period Unknown Modern Period P-Med/Roman Period ?post-medieval Roman Post-medieval Period Unknown Unknown Period C19 C19 Modern

Isca Road, Caerleon, Newport: archaeological watching brief

Context No 8005 8018

Material type Bone Plastic Brick/tile

Description Sheep teeth/?jaw frag Cord/line frag U/d frags (one piece may be abraded pottery rather than tile) Description Sheep ?tibia ‘Local’ red earthenware

Qty 3 1 7

Weight (kg) 0.014

Period Unknown Modern

0.428

P-Med/Roman

Context No 9005

Material type Bone Pottery

Qty 1 1

Weight (kg) 0.086 0.022

Period Unknown Post-medieval

*samples taken for analysis

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