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APUSH Unit 10 & 11

Cold War Study Guide


1. What was the fundamental disagreement at the beginning of the Cold War between the Allied countries?
Postwar Europe: free democratic elections in satellite Eastern European countries under the U.S.S.R.s
temporary control after WWII (b/c of Potsdam Conference)
2. Why was the USSR angry at the US immediately after WWII?
b/c the U.S. refused to extend Lend-Lease (loan $) to U.S.S.R. after war in ended in Europe
3. **List 4 things agreed upon at the Yalta Conference:
1. USSR would join US to defeat Japan in Aug. 1945
2. Creation of the UN
3. Free elections in postwar Europe
4. Divide Germany into administrative zones
5. Who was the leader of the USSR when the Cold War began?
Stalin (Stalin dies in 1953 & replaces him in 1955)
6. When was the Cold War roughly?
1946-1989 (Berlin Wall falls) or 1991 (when USSR falls)

Trumans Administration (1945-1952)


7. Post WWII American foreign policy toward Japan brought what transition to Japans governmental
structure?
Democracy
Constitution
Civil rights
No military allowed
Japan is a U.S. protectorate
8. Why was Trumans (& Ikes) approach to foreign policy similar to Wilsons?
Moral: Wilson make the world safe for democracy & Truman pledges to contain the spread of
communism to protect democratic countries
9. Who developed the containment policy and why?
George Kennan: he foresaw the U.S.S.R. feeling threatened & wanting to spread communism to protect
itself to be isolated after WWII
10. What was Trumans foreign policy known as?
Containment
o Examples: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Korean War
11. What was the Truman Doctrine & what country originally asked for aid?
Truman Doctrine = financial & military aid (particularly advisors) to countries asking & needing it fight off
communism (Europe)
1st countries that received it under this doctrine = Greece & then Turkey
12. How did the USSR respond to containment initially?
Initially ignored it!!!!
But then the U.S.S.R. tested it by blockading West Berlin to try to spread communism into the U.S., French
& British zones of West Berlin.
13. How did Truman respond to the USSR sealing off the city of Berlin in 1948?
Airlift contain communism w/o starting a war w/ U.S.S.R. it works U.S.S.R. backs down & lifts the
blockade but it took a year
14. What was the ANNOUNCED purpose of the Marshall Plan?
To rebuild Europe economically & industrially to expand U.S. trade
U.S. offered Eastern & Western countries in Europe financial aid to rebuild but only Western European
countries accepted. Why? U.S.S.R. refused to accept any $ after we denied them money in 1945 & they
knew the real reason the U.S. was doing this.
15. What was the REAL purpose of the Marshall Plan?

To contain/stop the spread of communism by building up the economy of Europe!


16. What is NATO & why was it created?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization = a non-secret military alliance of countries in the North Atlantic that
came together to protect each other & militarily stop the spread of communism into member countries if
necessary.
Created b/c of the Berlin Crisis (1948-49)
17. How does NATO represent a departure from traditional American isolationism?
NATO countries are required to use military force to protect member countries. If one member is attacked
then all members will unite & attack!
Opposite of isolationism!
Irony = NATO is similar to the League of Nations (created by Wilson after WWI) that U.S. didnt join!
18. When was the Air Force created?
September 1947
19. Why did the Air Force become the dominant branch of the Armed Forces during the Cold War?
More bang for the buck; needed to drop nuclear bombs, spying
20. What did the National Security Act of 1947 establish?
The Air Force, the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), and the NSC (National Security Council)
21. What was NSC-68?
U.S. blueprint for the Cold War issued by the NSC in 1950 = massive military buildup (even when not in a
hot war) so the US possessed "superior overall military power" and "in dependable combination with other
like-minded nations
NSC-68 was very expensive & is proof that Truman was willing to spend whatever was necessary to win
the Cold War (to avoid a hot war)
22. What major country falls to Communism in 1949?
China
23. Who does the US Republican Senators blame for this country falling to communism & how does the U.S.
respond?
Truman They also blamed the American diplomats saying they sabotaged the Chinese Nationalist
government. (There was 100% inflation in China when Mao Zedong defeated Chiang-Kai-Shek)
After China falls to communism, the U.S. decided to focus on Japan as its major Asian ally.
24. When was the Korean War?
1950-1953
25. What kind of war was the Korean War?
United Nations coalition police action; UN coalition forces led by the U.S. (Commander = MacArthur)
26. Why did the Korean War occur?
North Korea invaded South Korea by crossing the 38th parallel
27. What was the USs 1st response to the outbreak in Korea?
To use the UN to contain the spread of communism & to aid South Korea.
28. How did the UN Security Council unanimously agree to send in forces to protect South Korea?
The U.S.S.R. was boycotting the Security Council at the time b/c The Peoples Republic of China (Red
Communist China) was denied the China Security Council seat & Chiang-Kai-Shek was allowed to keep it.
29. Why did the US care so much about S. Korea falling to Communism?
China had recently fallen to communism in 1949 (HUGE loss for democracy!)
In 1950, Truman was determined to save South Korea (which had been a protectorate area for the U.S. after
WWII) & contain/stop the spread of communism before it infected all of the Pacific (Domino Theory)
30. Before the Korean War, what countries supported N. Korea and S. Korea?
U.S.S.R. supported North Korea before the Korean War (but not with military forces like China during the
war!!!!!!)
U.S. supported South Korea before the Korean War (and w/ military aid during the war!!!)
31. The Chinese threatened to enter the Korean War on the side of N. Korea if what happened?
If North Korea was invaded by UN forces.
32. What was the UN (Trumans) original goal for winning the Korean War? (Hint: limited war)

To contain the spread of communism & push the North Koreans above the 38 th parallel.
33. Why did Truman change his goal mid-war to spreading democracy and invading N. Korea?
Douglas MacArthur gave him bad advice! MacArthur told Truman the Chinese would not invade & that the
U.S. would never have to fight the Chinese.
34. Why did Truman return to his original goal for the war?
China did join North Korea in fighting UN forces.
So, Truman announced it was a limited war.
35. Why did Truman fire Gen. MacArthur? How did the American people respond to this?
In April 1951 MacArthur was removed from command by President Truman for publicly disagreeing with
Truman's limited war Korean War Policy. (insubordination)
MacArthur believed "In war, there is no substitute for victory" & he wanted to bomb China w/ nuclear
weapons to win & take North Korea.
American people supported MacArthur (gave him a heroes welcome home) & not Truman!
36. What was the most significant result of the Korean War?
The massive American rearmament that occurred due to NSC-68. **
37. What was Trumans domestic program known as?
Fair Deal (announced in 1949 inaugural address)
38. Briefly explain Trumans domestic program.
Fair Deal = wanted to extend the New Deal with social improvements like universal health care, civil rights
for black Americans, full employment, federal housing, & more Social Security beneficiaries
39. How was Truman able to expand on FDRs New Deal programs after WWII? Explain.
Truman wasnt able to expand on FDRs New Deal very much. He really just maintained the New Deal.
Why? Democrats regained control of the HR & Senate in the 1948 election BUT the Southern Democrats
(Dixiecrats) & Republicans created a coalition to protect states rights & weaken the federal government.
(The Fair Deal expanded the federal govt even more.)
40. What was the purpose of the Employment Act of 1946?
To end unemployment completely. This obviously did not occur.
41. Who was the first president to seriously attempt to alter racial discrimination? WHY?
Pres. Truman appointed the first federal civil rights committee responsible for investigating discrimination
based on race or religion. Its report, To Secure These Rights, clearly showed African-Americans' secondrate legal status, and Truman used it to push for his civil rights reforms.
42. By 1960, the military is the most integrated institution in America. Explain why.
Truman integrated the armed forces with Executive Order 9981 in 1948.
43. Who pushed Truman to issue an executive order integrating the military?
A. Philip Randolph (Pres. of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters) & the NAACP. Why? Truman
instituted the 2nd peacetime military draft w/ the Selective Service Act of 1948 & Randolph started a civil
disobedience campaign against the segregated military.
o A. Philip Randolph got the military defense industry integrated under FDR w/ threat of march on
Washington, D.C.
o He will late organize the March on Washington in 1963 & invite MLK wholl give the I Have a
Dream Speech there.
44. The Smith Act (1940) is used by the federal govt in the 1940s and 1950s to attack whom?
Communists & communist supporters
45. What was the Taft-Hartley Act (1947)?
It amended the Wager (National Labor Relations Act) of 1935.
It greatly restricted the activities & powers of labor unions. How?
o 80 day cooling-off period before labor unions can go on strike
o No closed shops
46. Why did Truman veto it?
This was passed by the Republican held do nothing Congress over Trumans veto.
Republicans are pro-big business & tend to be anti-labor
47. Who loved him for not supporting the Taft-Hartley Act?

Labor unions
48. In 1946, American labor nicknamed Truman what?
Give em hell, Harry
49. In 1948, why did the Democrat Party spilt apart?
Civil Rights & progressive (liberal) issues
Truman was supportive of using the federal government to protect the civil rights of African Americans
which upset the Southern Democrats
The South wanted states rights protected & wanted to keep Jim Crow state laws promoting segregation =
States Rights Party = Dixiecrats = Strom Thurmond.
Democrats who wanted more progressive legislation & executive actions broke off & voted for Henry
Wallace = Progressive Party
50. Who ran for president representing the Dixiecrat (States Rights Party)?
Strom Thurmond
51. What did the Dixiecrats stand for?
Pro-segregation; anti-civil rights legislation; pro-states rights
52. Who did the newspaper declare the presidential winner in 1948?
Thomas Dewey (Pres.) & Ear Warren (VP)
53. Why did Truman win the election of 1948?
Black support, farmers, labor & old New Deal supporters
54. Who wanted Truman to give the bness owners & Republican leaders Hell?
labor
55. List 4 Reasons for the economic boom after WWII (1940s & 1950s) in the US.
1. Korean War
2. Consumer demand for goods
3. $37 billion in savings
4. Massive govt spending during Cold War
56. What was the purpose of the HUAC?
It was a House of Representatives investigative committee (1938-1975) with the goal of finding
communists & U.S.S.R. spies in the federal government & bringing them to justice.
57. Who was the most famous communist spy of the 1940s?
Alger Hiss
58. Who became famous for exposing and bring this spy to justice?
Republican HR member Richard Nixon
59. What was Alger Hiss convicted of? (Why not treason?)
Convicted of perjury (lying under oath)
Not treason b/c found not guilty before Pumpkin Papers evidence discovered by HUAC & cant retry
due to double jeopardy
60. Who was Joseph McCarthy and why did he rise to fame between 1950 and 1954?
He was a Republican Senator from Wisconsin who said he had a list of 200 Communists in the State
Department & then led a Senate Committee in accusing & investigating alleged communists in the federal
government & in high ranking areas of society.
McCarthy witch-hunt Hearings (1950-1954)
61. List 4 reasons McCarthyism spread in the 1950s:
1. Revelations about Soviet spies in the U.S. & Great Britain (Rosenbergs)
2. U.S.S.R. got the atomic bomb in 1949
3. China fell to communism in 1949
4. Trumans foreign policy (containment)
62. Who brought down McCarthy?
The U.S. Army attorney
63. Why were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg executed?
They were found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information of the
American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

In 1951, they were found guilty under the Espionage Act of 1917 and sentenced to death.
o This helped fuel the McCarthy Senate hearings (1950-1954).
They were executed in 1953.
64. What is the 22nd Amendment and why was it passed?
Limits presidency to a maximum of 10 years (normally 2 terms)
Why? Republicans wanted to limit the power of the Democrats. Its an Anti-FDR Amendment b/c he had
4 terms.

Eisenhowers Administration (1953-1961)


65. What did Ike pledge to do in Korea?
End the war (w/ nuclear weapons if necessary)
He visited Korea 2 weeks after being elected.
66. Who was Ikes Secretary of State?
John Foster Dulles
67. Who was the good cop and who was the bad cop?
Good cop = Ike (moderate)
Bad cop = Dulles (extremist)
68. Explain Brinkmanship. How is this different from containment (Trumans Doctrine)?
Brinkmanship = Push communists to the brink/edge of war (WWIII). Never back down! Always on the
brink of war to stop communism! Threaten with & be prepared for massive retaliation if attacked to stop
communism.
o Belief that communism is morally evil. Dont just contain communism DESTROY it. Spread
democracy into communist areas.
Trumans containment = stop the spread of communism w/ military & financial aid BUT not spread
democracy into communist areas with military & financial aid.
o Example: Truman limited Korean War & backed down to North Korea. He didnt spread
democracy there.
69. What was massive retaliation?
Revenge (nuclear) 10X
70. How does the US and USSR H-bombs effect brinkmanship and massive retaliation?
The H-bomb puts the U.S. & U.S.S.R. as equals for atomic power (superpowers) & equals for possible
world destruction (MAD)
Brinkmanship & massive retaliation not as feasible due to M.A.D.
71. Who died in March of 1953 and what effect did this have on the Korean War?
Stalin
Effect = ends the U.S.S.R. stalling of the peace negotiations
72. How did the Korean War end and what is the border b-w N. & S. Korea?
Armistice
Border = DMZ zone at the 38th parallel
73. Explain the CIA overthrow of Iran in 1953.
CIA covertly put the Shah back in power of Iran to protect oil reserves.
74. Explain how the CIA overthrow of Guatemala in 1954 was a different form U.S. intervention in Central
America than earlier in U.S. history.
Guatemala was a covert (secret spy) CIA action
Early 1900s (TR, Taft, Wilson) U.S. was blatantly intervening in Latin American affairs.
75. Who replaces Stalin as leader of the USSR in 1955? (Did he like Stalin?)
Khrushchev; NO
76. When Khrushchev said we will bury you to the U.S., what did he mean?
Economics; Communism will economically bury & defeat capitalism
What was peaceful coexistence?
o This was the foreign policy of Khrushchev; U.S.S.R. will win Cold War peacefully through
economic domination.

77. The 1st satellite in space ever: Sputnik in what year? 1957
78. The 1st U.S. satellite in space Explorer I in what year? 1958
79. When did the Space Race begin?
1957
80. What is NASA?
Federal agency controlled by the President. It was created by Congress with the National Aeronautics and
Space Act (1958) under Pres. Eisenhower.
National Aeronautics Space Agency in charge of the space program, military & civilian scientific &
aeronautic research.
81. What is another type of satellite in the 1950s & 1960s besides the ones in space?
Satellite countries (like Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain controlled by the U.S.S.R
during the Cold War.)
82. Why was the National Defense Educational Act (1958) passed?
U.S. scared b/c Soviets beat us in the Space Race by putting Sputnik (1 st artificial unmanned satellite in
orbit)
83. What did the National Defense Education Act do?
Federal money put in all levels of public & private education to advance math, science & foreign language
skills to compete w/ the Soviets after they launched Sputnik.
84. What was the Hungarian Crisis? (Did brinkmanship work?)
Democratic Hungarian Nationalist forces try to overthrow the Hungarian Communist govt in power
controlled by the U.S.S.R.
The U.S. does not come to the Hungarian Nationalists aid (like we implied we would) b/c massive
retaliation brinkmanship foreign policy was overkill & we arent willing to start WWIII over Hungary.
Brinkmanship proves a failure in Hungary. Proves U.S. needs military special forces for jobs like this.
85. What were the 1959 Kitchen Debates?
Televised conversations between VP Nixon and Khrushchev concerning which economic system was
better: communism or capitalism.
86. What was the U-2 incident?
U.S. U2 spy plane crashes in U.S.S.R. (Gary Powers)
U.S. refuses to apologize for the incident & U.S.S.R. calls over the Paris Summit
87. Explain the domino theory. Who came up with it? Who is associated w/ it?
Domino Theory = If one country falls to communism then it will cause a chain reaction & before long the
world will be communist! So, even small countries matter b/c they can cause a chain reaction.
Idea started with Trumans administration (Truman Doctrine)
Most famously used as justification for Vietnam War w/ LBJ
88. How is Ikes presidency characterized best as?
A time of political moderation. (MODERATE)
89. Who invented the mass construction of suburban homes & where?
Levitt; original is in Levittown, NY
90. How did the Federal Interstate Hwy Act of 1957 help suburbs develop?
Commuting to and from home & work
91. Why was the Federal Interstate Hwy Act created?
Defense purposes. Military access into and out of cities.
92. Who wrote Baby and Child Care (1946)?
Dr. Spock
93. B-w 1940 & 1960, why were American wives increasingly required to take jobs outside the home?
To keep up with the Jones = to conform & fit-in and be a middle-class affluent family many women
needed to work as well.
94. What kind of education did everyone agree was needed to compete economically in the 1950s?
College education
95. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954):
Lawyer representing Brown = Thurgood Marshall

Chief Justice = Earl Warren


NAACP sponsored case financially
Constitutional Question = Does separate public facilities based on race violate the 14 th Amend. Equal
Protection Clause? YES.
Holding of case = separate but equal is inherently unequal & violates the 14 th Amend. Equal
Protection Clause
Orders States to desegregate with all deliberate speed (Jim Crow Laws)
Courts new interpretation of the 14th Amend. reverses Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
96. How did the South respond to the Brown decision?
Massive Resistance state laws: refused to enforce the Brown decision
97. How did Ike feel about desegregation and his appointment of Warren to the Supreme Court after the
Brown decision?
Ike personally felt that desegregation shouldnt be forced by the federal government.
He appointed Warren Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1953 thinking Warren was a conservative.
After The Brown decision in 1954, Ike said the appointment was the biggest damnfool mistake I ever
made.
98. Where did African American protest against discrimination begin in1955?
Montgomery, AL
99. How long did the Montgomery Bus boycott last?
lasted from December 1, 1955, to December 20, 1956
100. Who came to fame as a Civil Rights leader because of this boycott?
Martin Luther King, Jr.
101. MLK, Jr. founds the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) to promote peaceful nonviolent resistance after what event?
Montgomery Bus Boycott
102. When was the Civil Rights Commission created to investigate & report cases involving discrimination in
the States to the federal government?
It was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
103. What did the Civil Rights Commission report about Arkansas in 1957?
That it was not desegregating its public schools with all deliberate speed, thus violating the Brown
decisions.
104. Explain the Little Rock, Arkansas Crisis (1957).
Gov. of Arkansas = Orville Faubus
Gov. Faubus refused to integrate the public schools!!! Defied Brown v. BOE and Ikes executive order
to integrate public schools.
Gov. called in the Ark. National Guard to prevent the Little Rock 9 (9 black students) from
integrating into the formerly all-white Central High School.
Gov. refused to obey the President of the U.S. = state vs. federal showdown
Ike in response, to execute the law, nationalized/federalized the Ark. National Guard and sent in the
U.S. Army to protect the Little Rock 9 while entering the school.
For a year the Little Rock 9 had federal escorts to school, at school, and home from school.
Education is a right reserved to the states in the constitution NOT a federal right. States have the right
NOT to offer public education BUT if they decide to use its right of offering public education they
must NOT discriminate based on race, color, creed, etc. b/c of the 14 th Amend. Equal Protection Clause.
So, the next school year Little Rock, Ark. decided to abolish its public school system. The only schools
that existed were private schools. For over a year, most white kids went to private school and black
students did not receive an education. Eventually, Ark. got a clue and reinstituted their public
schools by integrating them.
105. What was the Civil Rights Act of 1960?
Ike strengthened the voting rights section of the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
106. What was the Greensboro Sit-in in 1960?

4 North Carolina A&T State Univ. freshman boys challenged segregation Jim Crow laws by sitting down at
a Woolworths lunch counter that only had chairs/stools for whites, while blacks had to stand and eat.
Although they were refused service, they were allowed to stay at the counter. The next day there was a total
of 27 students at the Woolworth lunch counter for the sit in. On the third day, there were 300 activists, and
on the fourth day, around 1000. This was a non-violent protest for civil rights.
107. What is the AFL-CIO & when did it merge?
American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations
Largest federation of labor unions in the U.S. (almost every union in U.S. is part of the AFL-CIO)
Merged in 1955

108. What was Ikes domestic policy for the economy & society?
Accepts New Deal social programs (doesnt cut them)
Moderate expansion of government social programs
Wanted a balanced annual federal budget & tax cuts at the top for big businesses and wealthy
individuals
Quote: dynamic conservatism = conservative Republic economic policy (Mellon supply-side
trickle down) AND a semi-liberal social policy for the benefit of the people.
109. What is the service sector of the economy and when did it sky-rocket?
Since the 1950s, the service economy (service workers like the people who serve you) has had the
largest growth.
110. Rock-n-Roll dev. from what form of music? Where did Elvis get his first big break?
African American jazz, soul & blues music.
Elvis became famous after appearing on the Ed Sullivan Show in 1956.
111. Who was David Reisman?
Harvard sociologist; criticized American suburbia middle-class conformity of the 1950s.
Americans had lost individuality & were not thinking for themselves. Fear & conformity dominated
culture. (Stepford Wives idea)
112. Why did Eisenhower win the 1952 and 1956 elections?
Vital Center vote; Most people liked Ike; affluent society = society
113. 1950s = conformity, conservative & affluent society
114. 1950s non-conformists = Elvis, Marilyn Monroe, James Dean, Beatniks
115. Who were the Beatniks and what did they do?
Beat Generation = young American men writers who criticized conformity, middle-class conformity of the
1950s; they advocated rebellion: drugs, sex, rock-n-roll, eastern religions (Buddhism) & the vagabond
lifestyle; called beatniks
Beat writers = Allen Ginsberg's Howl (1956) and Jack Kerouac's On the Road (1957).
116. Major domestic developments under Eisenhower:
1. rise in the GNP
2. peaking of postwar baby boom
3. exodus/migration of blacks to northern/urban areas
4. creation of the interstate highway system
117. Reasons for the US federal deficit in the 1950s and 1960s:
1. foreign aid (Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan)
2. investment abroad (Marshall Plan)
3. industrial exports (industry moving overseas)
4. military spending (NSC-68)
118. What problem did farmers have in the 1950s that they had before the creation of the AAA?
Overproduction & over-supply of farm products = low farm product prices
Why did this happen? Few federal subsidies.

119. What did Eisenhower say in his Farewell Address?


Beware of the military-industrial complex because it could easily get out of control
Military-industrial complex = composed of a nation's armed forces, its suppliers of weapons systems,
supplies and services, and its civil government.
120. What was the Eisenhower Doctrine and where was it used first?
After the Suez Crisis, the U.S. became the protector of most Western interests in the Middle East. As a
result, Ike proclaimed the "Eisenhower Doctrine" in January 1957.
Eisenhower Doctrine = U.S. will use military force if necessary to stop the spread of communism
into the Middle East.
On July 15, 1958, Ike sent just under 15,000 soldiers to Lebanon (a combined force of Army and
Marine Corp.) to stabilize the pro-Western government & to stop the spread of communism there

Kennedys Administration (1961-1963)


121. Who won the 1 televised presidential debate in US history? Why is this important?
Kennedy
Importance: TV will become a VERY important part of politics & election campaigns afterwards.
TV appearances can win an entire campaign.
122. What was Kennedy & McNamaras flexible response and how was it different from Ikes massive
retaliation?
st

123. Explain the Berlin Crisis of 1961. What did the USSR want during the Berlin Crisis of 1961?

124. What was Kennedys response to the crisis?


$3 billion increase in defense & he called up 150,000 reservists to duty
125. Which country wins the crisis? U.S.
Did we actually win? Explain.

126. What did the USSR do after backing down from the crisis to protect/isolate them further from
the West?
The U.S.S.R. had the East Germans build a wall separating East & West Berlin to isolate & protect
themselves (also to keep East Berliners from escaping into the western zone. )
What was the purpose of Kennedys Ich bin ein Berliner speech?

What did the Berliners think JFK really said?


I am a donut
127. Who originally organized the Bay of Pigs invasion?
Eisenhower
Who executed it?
Kennedy
128. What was the purpose of the Bay of Pigs invasion (1961)?
To have a secret covert assassinate of Castro & replace him w/ a pro-democracy leader without
having the U.S. being blamed for it.
129. Was the Bay of Pigs invasion a failure? Yes
Who took public national responsibility for it? Kennedy
130. What was the 1962 Cuba Missile Crisis exactly?
9

U.S.S.R. placed missiles 90 miles from the U.S. in Cuba pointed at the U.S. to supposedly protect
Cuba (and Castro) from the U.S.
U.S.S.R. refused to remove them or back down from U.S. originally
131. Why did the USSR really place missiles in Cuba to begin with?
To even the score with the U.S. for placing missiles in Turkey pointed at the U.S.S.R.;
Castro asked for protection (after the Bay of Pigs Invasion fiasco) from the spread of democracy.
132. How did Kennedy respond to Soviet missiles being in Cuba & the Soviets refusing to remove
them?
U.S. blockaded Cuba to stop the U.S.S.R. from delivering anymore missiles. U.S. stated if the
U.S.S.R. crossed the blockade the U.S. would massively retaliate.
133. Who backed down/offered a compromise from the crisis 1st? Explain how the Cuban Missile
Crisis was resolved/ended.
U.S.S.R. 1st offered a compromise
Kennedy accepts U.S.S.R.s 1st offer for a compromise which was: U.S.S.R. will remove the
missiles from Cuba and in exchange the U.S. will promise never to invade or attack Cuba & the
U.S. will remove its missiles from Turkey.
134. Did the US ever remove its missiles from Turkey pointed at the USSR?
Yes, the U.S. removed them secretly (so, the U.S. public was unaware) after U.S.S.R. removed
missiles from Cuba & the U.S. promised never to invade Cuba.
135. Two positive results of the Cuban Missile Crisis:
(1) hot-line installed and
(2) Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963
136. What is the hot-line?
Direct line from the U.S. to the U.S.S.R.(to be used quickly in an emergency)
137. What did the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 do?
U.S. & U.S.S.R. agreed to no atmospheric nuclear tests (only underground)
138. What was the Kennedy administrations Marshall Plan for Latin America?
Alliance for Progress = $ given to Latin America to build up their economy/industry to stop the
spread of communism there! U.S. worried b/c of Cuba falling to communism.
Alliance for Progress is really just an extension of Ikes eco. plans for Latin America.
139. Why did Kennedy create the Peace Corp? What was its purpose?
To peacefully (with civilian volunteers instead of the military) aid 3rd world countries to stop the
spread of communism in them.
Volunteers: doctors, teachers, missionaries
Purpose to stop the spread of communism in 3rd world countries
140. What leader did the Kennedy administration originally support in Vietnam?
Diem
141. Why did the Kennedy admin. later support a coup having him assassinated on Nov.1, 1963?
The South Vietnamese did not support Diem. Actually they hated his guts. Why? He was Catholic
and the majority of his country was Buddhists. Diem led a brutal campaign to wipe the Buddhists
out of South Vietnam & make it a Catholic nation. Buddhist monks set themselves on fire in the
streets in protest while the world watched in horror. Diem had to go.
142. Who set themselves on fire in protest in Vietnam? Buddhist monks in S. Vietnam Why?
Protesting Diems anti-Buddhist actions.
143. Did Kennedy send in troops or advisors to S. Vietnam in 1961?
advisors
144. Did Kennedy plan to pull out of Vietnam in 1964? Explain.
Maybe; we will never know b/c he was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963.
10

145. What social programs did Kennedy advocate in his New Frontier domestic program?
Hes a Democrat & he wanted to expand the New Deal programs!
He wanted:
o a federal income tax cut for the middle/lower class
o more federal $ for education LBJ does this
o urban renewal programs
o Medicare for the elderlypassed by LBJ
o Creation of a Department of Urban Affairs passed by LBJ
o Raise minimum wage Kennedy does this
o Housing Act of 1961 Kennedy does this
o Kept steel prices constant Kennedy does this
146. Was Kennedy able to get his legislative agenda passed through Congress? Explain.
Not really. Even though the Democrats had a majority of both houses of Congress it wasnt by
very many seats. The conservative Southern Democrats & the Republican coalition log jammed &
blocked most of Kennedys liberal New Deal expansive acts.
This is the same problem Truman had. (Very interesting.their presidencies sure do have a lot in
common.)
147. What helped stimulate the economy during Kennedys administration?
Increased appropriations for defense ($6 billion) and space ($25 billion) stimulated the economy
148. How did Kennedy convince the U.S. steel companies to rollback its steel prices and not
increase them in 1962?
Kennedy yelled & threatened them!
Kennedy said he would cut off all Pentagon steel orders & he threatened them w/ an anti-trust suit
149. Why was the stock market of 1962 labeled the Kennedy Market?
Business blamed the sharp decline in the market on the president after he manipulated the steel
companies into not raising their prices.
150. What goal did Kennedy set for NASA to reach in a decade for the Space Race?
To land on the moon within 10 years
151. Two proposals by Kennedy that are later enacted by LBJ as a tribute to Kennedy:
(1) massive tax cut and (2) civil rights legislation
152. What dilemma did Kennedy have over the issue of civil rights?
If he strongly supported civil rights (like he implied in his campaign for president that he would do
if elected) then he would lose the support of the Southern Democrats & possibly lose re-election
bid in 1964.
153. What position did Robert (Bobby) Kennedy have in the Kennedy Administration?
Attorney General (attorney for the U.S.)
154. How did Bobby Kennedy use the Justice Department to help civil rights?
Protected the Freedom Riders & CORE
Used the ICC to ban segregation in interstate commerce activities (this victory ended the
Freedom Riders)
Used the federal marshals to protect James Meredith (Univ. of Miss. 1961) & in the March
on Birmingham
155. In, May of 1961 CORE sponsored a freedom ride. What was this and what was the result?
Integrated buses from the north drove throughout the South to expose segregation &
discrimination
Result = buses burned , beatings of Freedom Riders & ICC banning segregation in interstate
commerce
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156. In Sept. 1961, Bobby Kennedy convinced the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) to do what
ending the need for freedom rides?
Banned segregation in interstate commerce (buses & bas terminals)
157. What happened when James Meredith enrolled at the Univ. of Mississippi in 1961?
Gov. Barnett said he would cooperate w/ Pres. JFK & allow Meredith to attend BUT violence at
the Univ. of Miss. Erupted & the federal govt had to send in federal marshals to protect Meredith
158. What happened in 1963, when Gov. George Wallace of Alabama refused to integrate the Univ. of
AL?
Federal govt (JFK) threatened force & Wallace backed down
159. Why was Martin Luther King, Jr. arrested and placed in a Birmingham jail in 1963?
Eugene Bull Connor (Police Commissioner of Birmingham) jailed the people protesting
segregation even though they were only using their 1st Amendment right to peacefully protest
160. What did MLK write while in jail?
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
161. Who was the police commissioner of Birmingham who used dogs, fire hoses, clubs, and electric
cattle prods on the civil rights protesters on national television on May 3, 1963?
Bull Connor; MLK used children in legal protests & people horrified watching it on tv
162. How did Kennedy respond to the Birmingham protest?
Intervened to end the violence & got the leaders of Birmingham to grant the civil rights
protesters most of their demands, like integrating public facilities.
Angered Kennedy into being ACTIVE! He proposed a package of civil rights legislation to
Congress providing equal access to all public accommodations as well as an extension of
voting rights for African Americans.
163. What was the purpose of the March on Washington (Aug. 28, 1963)?
To guarantee JFK & Congress passed the promised federal civil rights legislation
164. What is the March on Washington famous for?
I have a dream speech by MLK
largest peaceful protest in U.S. history up to that point
165. Was the March on Washington peaceful or did it end in violence?
peaceful
166. Did Kennedys civil rights legislation pass before he died?
No
Does it ever pass?
Yes. In 1964.
167. The most progressive branch in the federal government for social change in the 1950s & 1960s was
the Judicial Branch. Why is this different than previously in U.S. History?
Since Reconstruction the Supreme Court had been the most conservative (Republican appointed
justices) & was resistant to change/not progressive at all! Now it is controlled & led by a
liberal/progressives (Warren) who promotes civil rights & rights of the people including the
accused.
168. Who did Kennedy appoint to the Supreme Court to give the progressives a majority in 1962?
Thurgood Marshall
169. The Warren Court decisions extending rights to the accused by incorporating the 14th Amendment
to the States:
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) = accused have to be provided with lawyers
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) = indigent (poor) criminal defendants have to be provided counsel at
trial
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Miranda v. Arizona (1966) = accused have to be informed of their constitutional rights & can not
be interrogated or induced to confess to a crime w/o an attorney being present if asked for
170. The Warren Court decisions involving legislative reapportionment:
Baker v. Carr (1962) = one man, one vote case; outlawed gerrymandering; required states to
redraw districts to redistribute their legislative seats based on population (not simply geography)
to give equal representation.
171. What the Supreme Courts 1962 decision in Engel v. Vitale do?
No prayer in school b/c it violates the 1st Amendment Establishment Clause
172. What did the 23rd Amendment (1961) do?
Washington D.C. gets Electoral College votes (3) for presidential elections
173. The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was created in 1962. What was it?
It was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life,
notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split
apart at the end of the 1960s.
174. Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring in 1962, what was this book about?
Environmental destruction, DDT & other chemical agents (Agent Orange) causing cancer &
destroying the environment
175. What was banned because of this book? DDT
176. Betty Freidan wrote The Feminine Mystique in 1963, what was it about?
Women inequality & lack of satisfaction w/ being a housewife
The home is a conformable concentration camp
177. What impact did The Feminine Mystique have on the womens movement of the 1960s & 1970s?
Led to Freidan creating N.O.W. (National Organization of Women) pushing to equality and an
Equal Rights Amendment (extending Alice Pauls crusade)
Freidan provides leadership to a new popular cause
178. Who assassinated JKF on Nov. 22, 1963?
Lee Harvey Oswald (allegedly)
179. Who assassinated the person who was arrested for assassinating JFK the following day?
Jack Ruby
180. Where is LBK sworn in as president of the U.S. on Nov. 22, 1963?
Air force One
181. Why did LBJ create the Warren Commission?
To get rid of doubt & conspiracy theories; to determine once & for all who assassinated JFK
182. What did the Warren Commission Report state?
JFK was assassinated by a lone shooter = Lee Harvey Oswald
LBJs Administration (1963-1969)
183. LBJ asked Congress 5 days after taking office to Let us continue. What did he mean?
To continue to pass Kennedys tax and civil rights bills as a tribute to Kennedys memory
Lets do this so Kennedy did not have to die in vain.
184. What was the Johnson treatment?
Abrasive in your face persuasion to make people do what LBJ wanted them to
185. What ability did LBJ have that Kennedy didnt have regarding Congress?
To manipulate & get legislation passed
LBJ had been in Congress 30 years & new ho the system worked and could get a
consensus/agreement passed
186. How did the 1964 personal income tax cut of over $10 billion effect the economy?
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Economic boom that lasted for years!


Consumer spending went up
More jobs created (more than 1 million in 1 year )
187. Was LBJ willing to compromise on the Kennedys civil rights bill?
NO
188. What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do and create?
Made it illegal for states or the federal govt to segregate in public facilities (restaurants, theaters,
bathrooms)
Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to lessen discrimination in
hiring
Protected a few voting rights of Americans
Title VII = cant discriminate based on gender = promotes the Womens Movement
189. What did Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act do?
Prohibited discrimination based on gender; allows women to attack economic inequality b/c now
illegal to discriminate in employment
190. In the Election of 1964, what new agenda/issue of his own did LBJ advocate?
War on Poverty
191. Why did Michael Harringtons 1962 book, The Other America, attract national attention?
Claimed 1/5 of nation (35 million Americans lived in poverty)
3 groups dominated poor: blacks, elderly & single mothers
Problem = poor are invisible (living outside of mainstream America) & poverty is a cycle
192. Who does LBJ defeat in 1964 for president?
Barry Goldwater (father of conservatism)
193. In LBJs 1964 inaugural address, what did he declare war on?
poverty
194. How did the new Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) fight the war on poverty?
Giving federal $ to help people help themselves mostly w/ education: relief on poverty,
education & job training
Headstart, VISTA, Job Corp
195. How successful was LBJ in lowering poverty between 1964 and 1967?
Very; 10 million less poor
196. Who did LBJ pick as his Vice-Pres. (instead of RFK)?
Hubert Humphrey
197. Would you categorize LBJ as a social reformer?
Yes
Other presidents who were social reformers?
TR = Square Deal
FDR = New Deal
Truman = Fair Deal
Kennedy = New Frontier
198. What was the name of LBJs social reform program?
The Great Society
199. Describe how the 1964 election benefited the Democratic Party.
In the 1964 election, it was a landslide for the Democratic Party. They gained large majorities of
the HR & the Senate as well as controlling the presidency.
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As a result of this, LBJ will be able to get the majority of his legislation passed through Congress
with ease. (This is similar to TR & FDRs presidencies. Truman & Kennedy were unable to get
the majority of their legislation passed b/c Congress was either controlled by the Republicans or
the majority was too slim.)
200. Congress passed 89 bills within its 1st session in 1965. Within 9 moths, LBJ had passed his ENTIRE
Democratic reform agenda. WOW!!! Give several examples of the Great Society legislation passed
within his 1st 100 days:
Medicare; Elementary & Secondary Act (1965); Voting Rights Act of 1965
Acts to provide for hwy safety & clean air; large appropriations for higher edu., public housing,
and the continuing war on poverty; an sweeping immigration reform.
201. What is the difference between Medicare and Medicaid? What president proposed it originally?
Medicare = health insurance for elderly (65+) & disabled (This is part of the Social
Security program)
Medicaid = health insurance for poor (indigent)
202. What did the Elementary & Secondary Act of 1965 do?
Federal funds for public & private schools
Title I schools = poor schools that get extra $ & resources
203. What 3 things did LBJ do when MLKs March from Selma to Montgomery in 1965 was brutally
attacked on TV by Selma police?
Federalized the Alabama National Guard to protect demonstrators
Had the Justice Department make a new Voting Rights Act
Personally addressed Congress on need for more civil rights protection (voting rights)
204. What piece of legislation was passed b/c of the Selma march in 1965?
Voting Rights Act of 1965
205. What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 do?
Provided federal registrars (from the North) to assure black people are being allowed to register
to vote
Banned literacy tests in state & county elections where less than of their populations voted in
1964
206. What effect did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 have within a year?
Voting registration went up 400% in Mississippi
24th Amendment later = bans poll taxes
207. Was LBJ popular with the people for these sweeping liberal reforms for society?
No
Did the majority of people like these reforms?
Yes
So, why didnt they like LBJ? Explain.
Press portrayed him as a Texas hillbilly & the American people didnt warm up to him
208. List three countries the U.S. intervened in Latin America to contain communism b-w 1963-1966.
Brazil
Panama
Dominican Republic
209. After JFK and Diem were assassinated, what did LBJ initially do to aid South Vietnam?
Added more advisors like Kennedy had done (indirect involvement)
210. Explain the Gulf of Tonkin Affair (Aug.2-4, 1964).
Who started it? U.S. says North Vietnam attacked the U.S. boat the USS Maddox (no one dies) in
the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam in international waters
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How does the U.S. respond? LBJ orders an ariel attack on N. Vietnam & their gunboats
Did the Pres. have all the info? No. He is going to tell the American people we were attacked
unprovoked. NOT true. The USS Maddox provoked the North Vietnamese gunboats in the Gulf
of Tonkin.
When do the American people find out the truth? 1971 with the publishing of the Pentagon
Papers
211. What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
Congress gave LBJ more authority to widen the war effort w/o waiting for Congress to declare
war
Pres. can use any force he wanted (unlimited military intervention)
212. Did LBJ actually need the resolution? Why?
No. LBJ had already ordered the retaliatory raid on North Vietnam.
This resolution is going to allow LBJ to continue & escalate troops in Vietnam!
213. Why did LBJ want it?
To demonstrate to North Vietnam the American determination in defending South Vietnam at any
cost!
Also to take the Vietnam issue out of the 1964 election.
214. What year did the U.S. become fully involved in the Vietnam War?
1965
215. Why did the US start aerial bombings of N. Vietnam in 1965?
Raise morale in South Vietnam
To block North Vietnam
To hurt or destroy Hanoi
216. Why did LBJ send in ground troops to protect S. Vietnam in addition to the air strikes later in 1965?
To protect American air bases
217. What was LBJs goal in Vietnam?
To contain the spread of communism. To protect South Vietnam!!!!
218. LBJ was torn between McNamara and Balls advise regarding Vietnam. Which advisers advise did
he choose?
McNamara
219. Why did LBJ settle for a limited war in Vietnam being in July of 1965 while pretending it was a
minor engagement?
LBJ didnt want to risk his social domestic programs being squashed by an all-out war in
Vietnam. So, he was trying to protect his domestic policy Great Society.
220. Was LBJ solely responsible for the Vietnam War?
No. Vietnam indirect involvement began with Truman
221. What is LBJ responsible for exactly?
Failure to confront the American people with the stark choices the nation faced in Vietnam
The insistence on secrecy and deceit
The refusal to acknowledge that he had committed the U.S. to a dangerous military involvement
His lack of self-confidence in foreign policy
Fear of domestic reaction hurting his Great Society
222. Why was American bombing of N. Vietnam ineffective between 1965 and 1968?
Mostly rural (little industry & cities), thus it was hard to hit big targets
223. Who were the Vietcong and how did they hamper the war effort in South Vietnam?
South Vietnamese communists & North Vietnamese spies in the south
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They tried to sabotage the Americans & South Vietnamese


Ho Chi Minh Trail = route that communists traveled into South Vietnam
224. In what year of the Vietnam War did the U.S. have the most troops involved?
1968
225. Why was the Vietnam War a stalemate by 1968?
U.S. only holding their own; Vietcong still held much of South Vietnams countryside; bombing
of North Vietnam still mostly ineffective
226. What did Gen. Westmorelands search-and-destroy tactics lead to at My Lai in 1968?
Americans slaughtered 200+ innocent unarmed villagers
227. What was Gen. Westmorelands strategy for winning the war in Vietnam? Did it work? (p.880)
Constant and relentless was w/ heavy casualties for North Vietnam
More North Vietnamese deaths than new recruits
Strategy will NOT work!
228. What two communist countries secretly supplied arms to North Vietnam?
USSR & China
229. Why were the youth of the 1960s ready to create a counterculture?
sex drugs and rock-n-roll people felt alienated by the bureaucracy, materialism & Vietnam
War
Many of the youth turned away from politics in favor of an alternate society
Hippies, Woodstock Music Festival, flower children, communes, LSD, drugs
In the 60s Movie the character Katie represents the Counterculture!!!!
230. Why are the years 1965-1986 significant?
The years 1965-1968 were the height of protest and agitation.
They were also the years that marked the escalation of the Vietnam War.
231. Where was the first student rebellion on a college campus in 1964?
Univ. of California at Berkley
Led by Mario Savio: Youve got to put your body upon the gears, upon the wheels, upon the
leversyouve got to make it stop.
232. What was the SDS and what did they advocate?
Students for a Democratic Society
Wanted to rid society of poverty, racism & violence
Wanted a participatory democracy
233. What caused the elitist political SDS to split apart in 1970?
Lack of leadership & advocacy of violence
234. What did the 1920s flappers and the 1960s rebellious youth have in common?
Upper middle class children participating in a cultural insurgency
Sex, drugs, experimentation, clothes & music (jazz v. rock-n-roll)
235. What was a teach-in?
Conference to teach about a particular issue (civil rights & Vietnam War)
236. How did the draft affect college students?
Many deferred until 1968 when the lottery starts
Guilt leads to student activism against the war (protests)
237. During what years of the Vietnam War did the protests become extreme like, Hey, Hey, LBJ, how
many kids did you kill today?
1966 & 1967
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238. During what 1967 antiwar protest did students place flowers in MPs rifles and stage a sit-down in
the Pentagon parking lot?
March on the Pentagon
239. What was the climax of the antiwar protests in 1968?
240. How did college students in the 1960s impact education?
Students didnt stop the war but they did succeed in gaining a voice in their education. Students
earned a voice in curriculum and control of their social lives.
241. The most important impact students had in the 1960s was what?
Creating a cultural change that altered the manners and morals of America!!!!!
242. Who led the cultural revolution of the 1960s?
243. List 4 cultural changes of the 1960s:
Clothing = jeans, love beads, long hair, braless, bare feet; Hippies
Communes for flower children
Music = folk music (Bob Dylan & Joan Baez), rock groups (Beatles), acid rock (Grateful Dead),
and others like Jimi Hendrix & Janis Joplin; music festivals =Woodstock 1969
Drugs = marihuana, LSD
244. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 were passed, what problem did
the civil rights movement tackle next? (p.883)
Economic inequality
245. Why did the Los Angeles Watt Riots occur during the summer of 1965?
Police brutality, lingering anger over past discrimination, economic inequality & dissatisfaction
with the urban ghetto black neighborhood
246. Who took over SNCC in 1966 and soon reversed MLKs insistence on nonviolence advocating
black power after James Meredith was shot?
Stokley Carmichael black power
247. Who were the Black Panthers and what did they believe?
Black empowerment & black power
248. Did MLK support the Vietnam War? NO
249. MLK decided to focus on and attack poverty in 1968. What march did he have planned before his
death?
Poor Peoples March on Washington, D.C.
250. Who assassinated MLK on April 4, 1968?
James Earl Ray
251. How did the American people react to MLKs assassination throughout the urban areas of the
country?
Over 125 riots; the worst in Washington D.C.; the country was screaming in agony.
252. What was the positive result of Black Nationalism in the 1960s? (p.884)
Pride in being black
Black History programs & being taught in schools
Negro replaced by Afro-American or black
253. What other ethnic groups emulated/copied the African American civil rights movement?
Native Americans, Hispanics, women, Gay & Asians
254. Who was Cesar Chavez and why is he important? (p.884)
Chavez was a Hispanic who organized poorly paid grape & lettuce pickers (migrant workers) in
California
Led a boycott of grapes to get higher wages, better working conditions
Founded the UFW (United Farm Workers) & the NFWA (National Farm Workers Association)
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The Counterculture supported Chavezs cause


Chavez reached hi goal by 1970
255. Why did 10,000 LA high school students walk-out of school in 1968? Did it work?
To get a better education (equal to the white higher income schools)
Students wanted Chicano teachers and money for equal education
It worked.
256. Was the position of women in society better in the 1920s or the 1960s? Explain. (p.885)
Better in the 1920s in some ways = lower % of women in college & professional schools in
1960s, women stereotyped professions (nurses, teachers); less women doctors & lawyers in 1960s
compared to the 1920s. (Hard to believe isnt it!)
257. Who called the American home a comfortable concentration camp for women in her 1963 book,
The Feminine Mystique?
Betty Freidan
258. How did the 1964 Civil Rights Act help women attack economic inequality?
Women can sue if not hired or paid less only b/c they are a woman.
Title 7 = cant discriminate based on gender.
259. What was the National Organization for Women (NOW)?
A moderate womens equal rights organization created by Betty Freidan in 1966 to fight for
equality.
260. How did Ti-Grace Atkinson and Susan Brownmillers extreme views (like no sex with men b/c its a
form of male domination) influence the womens movement?
Backlash causing many women to back away from the womens movement and express
satisfaction with their lives.
261. Since most women agreed women were equal to men, what did Congress send to the state
legislatures to vote on for ratification in 1972?
ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)
Unfortunately 3/4th of the states are needed to ratify an amendment & it wasnt met!
262. In what year of the 1960s did the dominant events, the Vietnam War and the cultural insurgency,
reach their peak of craziness?
1968
263. What was the turning point in the Vietnam War breaking the stalemate?
Tet Offensive (1968)
264. What was Tet and why didnt the U.S. expect an attack on this day?
Lunar New Year
265. Who actually (physically) won the coordinated attacks of the Tet Offensive?
U.S.
266. Who did the American people believe had won the Tet Offensive because of the media spin on the
attacks?
Vietcong (Vietnamese communists in the South)
267. Who was Walter Cronkite and what did he tell the American people on TV?
Highly respected TV newscaster loved by the American people
Cronkite will report after the Tet Offensive that the U.S. lost it! He will say that Tet was a failure
& that the U.S. couldnt win the war! The war would end in a stalemate, he said.
Later LBJ will say, If Ive lost WalterIve lost the American peopleand I have lost this
war.
268. The American experience in the Tet Offensive led LBJ to do what?
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limit the bombing of N. Vietnam to begin an effort to open peace negotiations with the
Communists
269. Why did LBJ withdraw from the presidential race after the Tet Offensive in a speech to the American
people on March 31, 1968?
To show sincerity for peace efforts at ending war
U.S. was losing the war in Vietnam
Losing political support for the war on Capital Hill (Fulbright)
Sen. Eugene McCarthy (Demo)almost beat LBJ in the New Hampshire primary in early March
Popular Demo. Sen. Robert Kennedy entered presidential race
270. Who were the three Democrats vying for the Demo. Partys nomination in 1968?
Eugene McCarthy, Bobby Kennedy & Hubert Humphrey
271. Of the three candidates, who was not accepted by the anti-war portion of the population?
Hubert Humphrey
272. Who seemed to be the Democratic front-runner after winning the California primary but was then
assassinated by a Palestinian immigrant, Sirhan Sirhan?
Robert F. Kennedy
273. What happened at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago after it was announced that
Hubert Humphrey had won the nomination? (Why?)
Protestors (w/ expired permits) beaten by police while shouting the whole world is watching
Many of the protestors were SDS (Student Democratic Society) members
274. List all the horrific things of 1968:
MLK is assassinated
Tet Offensive, decision to lose war
LBJ doesnt seek another term
RFK is assassinated
Democratic National Convention police riot
275. Who was the Republican presidential and v-p nominee in 1968?
Nixon & Spiro Agnew
276. Did Nixon take an official stand (pro-war or anti-war) on the war in Vietnam while running for
president? (p.888)
No. He said he had a secret plan = Peace with honor in Vietnam
277. What did Nixon mean by the U.S. should end the war and win the peace in Vietnam?
U.S. will hold the cards in the peace negotiations; contain communism to North Vietnam (save
South Vietnam)
278. Who was the third party candidate running for president in 1968 (as the American Independent Party
candidate) that cut deeply into the normal Democratic majority hurting Humphrey?
George Wallace
279. What was the American Independent Party candidate famous for?
Former Gov. of Alabama who had a showdown with JFK over integration of the Univ. of
Alabama. Wallace said, Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever.
280. When Nixon wins in 1968, how much did he win by?
Nixon wins with the smallest popular vote victory since what president in 1916
281. What does the election of 1968 symbolize a rejection of?
The election of 1968 was a rejection of the politics of protest and the cultural insurgency of the
mid-1960s.
282. Who were the silent majority in the election of 1968 and what did they want?
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These were the people who voted for Nixon and Wallace; they wanted a return to normalcy;
they were sick of the violence, drugs, free sex, yelling, etc.
283. Nixons victory ends what two concepts that had guided American life since the 1930s?
1. Americans dont want the federal govt to get any bigger anymore= no brand new liberal
reforms
o New Deal reforms reached their height with the Great Society in 1965
2. No more containment of communism on a global scale b/c it didnt work!!!
o Containment only worked in areas under U.S. control originally.

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