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UNDERSTANDING BAHASA

INDONESIA AND ENGLISH


SENTENCE PATTERNS

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

By the end of this lecture, you will be able


to answer questions about:
1. Components that build up a sentence in
English
2. Components that build up a sentence in
Bahasa Indonesia
3. Common errors found in writing
sentences in Bahasa Indonesia

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

THE ENGLISH SENTENCE


CONSTRUCTION
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

English sentences have two basic components:


a subject and a predicate

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

Winters in Maine

can be extremely difficult.

Temperatures

frequently drop below zero.

Heavy snowfalls

make travel risky.

Being self-reliant and


resourceful

helps a person to survive


through the winter.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

In its simplest form, an English sentence has two


parts: a subject and a verb that express a complete
thought when they are together.

ENGLISH SENTENCE

Subject

A COMPLETE
THOUGHT

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

Verb

SUBJECT
The subject is sometimes called the
naming part of a sentence or clause.
The subject usually appears before
the predicate to show
(a) what the sentence is about, or
(b) who or what performs the
action.

SUBJECT
The subject is commonly
a) a noun
b) a pronoun
c) a noun phrase
d) compound subject
e) a noun clause
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

VERB
The verb shows the action or the
state of being

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

VERB
I must make an A
in this class.

VERB PHRASE

Auxiliary Verb

We grew apart after high school.

Main Verb

Running on the wet floor, she slipped and broke her


arm.
Finally, I have saved enough to buy a car.

Functioning as
Adverb or
Adjective

COMPLEMENTS OF ACTIVITY VERBS

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

COMPLEMENTS OF LINKING VERBS

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

SENTENCE

SIMPLE

SUBJECT
AND
PREDICATE

COMPOUND

SUBJECT
AND
VERB

COMPLEX

S +V

SENTENCE

SIMPLE

COMPOUND

S +V

(S + V)
coordinate
conjunction

(S + V)

COMPOUNDCOMPLEX

COMPLEX

Main Clause
+
Sub Clause

(S + V)
subordinate
conjunction

(S + V)

S + V (+ Clause) +
coordinate conjunction +
(S + V)

(S + V)
containing
clauses

ADJECTIVE
CLAUSE, NOUN
CLAUSE, OR
ADVERB CLAUSE

SIMPLE SENTENCE
Mr. Potato Head eats monkeys.

I refuse.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

COMPOUND SENTENCE
Mr. Potato Head eats them for
breakfast every day, but I dont
see the attraction.
Eating them makes him happy;
however, he cant persuade me.

COMPLEX SENTENCE
He recommends them highly because they taste like chicken
when they are hot.
Although chicken always appeals to me, I still feel skeptical
about monkey.
Mrs. Potato Head, because she loves us so much, has offered
to make her special monkey souffl for us.

She can cook it however she wants.


Although I am curious, I am still skeptical.

COMPOUND-COMPLEX
SENTENCE

Mr. Potato Head said that he would share the


secret recipe; however, if he does, Mrs.
Potato Head will feed him to the piranhas, so
we are both safer and happier if I dont eat
monkeys or steal recipes.

ADJECTIVE AND PHRASE

The man looked angry few minutes ago.


The man with a scar on his face looked
angry few minutes ago.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

ADJECTIVE AND PHRASE

The man is calm now.


The man with a scar on his face is calm
indeed now.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

ADJECTIVE AND PHRASE

The man is in his office.


The man with a scar on his face is in his ofice
near the park.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

ADJECTIVE AND PHRASE

The girl understood my instruction easily.


The pretty girl in the red sweater
understood my instruction about how to set
the table without dificulty.

ADJECTIVE AND PHRASE

The girl cried loudly.


The small girl in the back of the room cried
loudly.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

APPOSITIVE PHRASE
An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that
renames another noun right beside it.
The insect, a cockroach, is crawling
across the kitchen table.

During the dinner conversation, Clifford, the


messiest eater at the table, spewed mashed
potatoes like an erupting volcano.

CLAUSES
The building looked empty last night.
The building that sits across from the park
looked empty when we drove past it.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

CLAUSES
The building is a museum now.
The building that used to belong to the
Briggs family has been a museum since Mr.
Briggs died in 1986.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

CLAUSES
The building is on Fifth Avenue.
The building which contains the legislative
offices is on Fifth Avenue because the
senators need to be able to walk to the
State Building across the street.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

CLAUSES
The child cried loudly.
The child who was sitting in the back of the
room cried loudly so that the teacher could
hear him.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

CLAUSES
The child understood my question easily.
The child who was wearing the red sweater
understood my question easily although it
was very difficult.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

COMPOUND SUBJECT
Javier and his colleagues collaborated on
the research article.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

COMPOUND VERBS

Javier conducted the experiment and


documented the results.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

COMPOUND
SUBJECT AND VERB
Javier, his colleagues, and their advisor
drafted and revised the article several
times.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

THE SENTENCE
CONSTRUCTION OF
BAHASA INDONESIA
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

In Bahasa Indonesia, sentence construction refers to


several types which are based on either form or
meaning.

MEANING

FORM

DECLARATIVE SENTENCE
SIMPLE SENTENCE

COMPOUND SENTENCE

(Kalimat Tunggal)

(Kalimat Majemuk)

(KALIMAT BERITA)

INTEROGATIVE SENTENCE
(KALIMAT TANYA)

PREDICATE
Nouns/Noun Phrase (nomina/frasa nomina)
Verbs/Verb Phrase (verba/frasa verba)
Adjectives/Adjective Phrase (Ajektiva/frasa ajektiva)
Other categories (kategori lain)

COMPUND SENTENCE
Kalimat Majemuk Setara

COMPLEX SENTENCE
Kalimat Majemuk Bertingkat

COMPOUND-COMPLEX
SENTENCE
Kalimat Majemuk Campuran

IMPERATIVE SENTENCE
(KALIMAT PERINTAH)

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE
(KALIMAT SERU)

The following is the examples of simple sentence


(kalimat tunggal) with its various kinds of predicates.
SUBJECT

PREDICATE

Bapak

menulis.

Wanita itu

cantik.

Rumahnya

di atas gunung.

Ia

dokter.

Ayamnya

lima ekor.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

The following is the examples of compound sentence


(kalimat majemuk setara)
S+P
Sisca anak yang
baik
Bapak minum teh
Dia sangat rajin,

CONJUNCTION
lagi pula
atau
tetapi

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

S+P
ia sangat pandai.
Bapak makan nasi.
adiknya sangat
pemalas.

The following is the examples of complex sentence


(kalimat majemuk bertingkat)
S+P

CONJUNCTION

S+P

Diakuinya

bahwa

ia yang memukul
anak itu.

Katanya

bahwa

ia tidak sengaja
menjatuhkan gelas
itu.

Mereka sudah
mengetahui

bahwa

saya yang
mengambilnya.

Ayah pulang

ketika

kami makan malam

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

The following is the examples of


compound-complex sentence
(kalimat majemuk campuran)

Major Pattern
Ketika ia duduk
minum-minum,

Minor 1
datang seorang
pemuda
berpakaian bagus

Minor 2
dan menggunakan
kendaraan roda
empat.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

There are some conditions that may lead to common


errors when writing sentences in Bahasa Indonesia.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Influenced by local languages


Influenced by foreign languages
Ambiguity
Ineffectiveness
Fragments
Illogical Sentences
Reduncance/Pleonasm

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

INFLUENCED BY LOCAL
LANGUAGES
a. Buku itu dibeli oleh saya buku eta dipeser ku abdi
b. Apa kamu sudah membacanya Opo kowe . . . .
c. Atas perhatian Saudara kami haturkan terima kasih.
d. Teknologinya Jepang jauh lebih maju dari kita
e. Kita punya kemampuan terbaik.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

INFLUENCED BY FOREIGN
LANGUAGES
a. My name is Farah
b. He knows a restaurant where we can get a drink.
c. Aeroplanes which cross the Atlantic are jets.
d. The man to whom the letter was addressed had died months
before.
e. The travelers with whom I had spoken came from distant
town.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

Translated as follows:
Nama saya adalah Farah.
Dia tahu rumah makan di mana kita bisa mendapatkan
minuman.
Pesawat-pesawat yang mana mengarungi Lautan Atlantik
itu adalah jet.
Orang kepada siapa surat itu dialamatkan telah meninggal
beberapa bulan lalu.
Para pelancong dengan siapa saya telah berbicara datang
dari kota yang jauh.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

AMBIGUITY
a. Lukisan Jamilah dipajang juga dalam pameran itu.
b. Garasi mobil yang mewah itu selalu terpelihara.
c. Ibu Indra sakit

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

INEFFECTIVE SENTENCES
1. Sejumlah desa-desa yang dilalui Sungai Citarum dilanda
banjir.
2. Dalam pembangunan jembatan Pasupati, banyak persoalanpersoalan ekstern yang muncul.
3. Bersama surat ini saya lampirkan daftar nama-nama calon
anggota DPR.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

a. diperlebarkan
b. Seringkali
c. dan lain sebagainya
d. Kadangkala
e. zaman dahulu kala

dilebarkan/diperlebar
sering-sering/ berkali-kali
dan lain-lain/dan sebagainya
kadang-kadang/Adakala
zaman/kala

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

f. Dalam seminar itu membicarakan . . . .


Dalam seminar itu dibicarakan . . . .
Seminar itu membicarakan . . . . (X)
Pemakalah seminar itu membicarakan . . . .
g. Permasalahan negara dapat diatasi dengan cepat
tergantung dari pemimpinnya. (X)
Pada dinding itu tergantung lukisan.
Permasalahan negara dapat diatasi dengan cepat
bergantung pada pimpinannya.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

FRAGMENTS
a. Jika tidak ada dukungan masyarakat, tidak
akan terwujud.
b. Film produksi dalam negeri yang kurang
bermutu yang tidak mampu bersaing di
pasaran.
c. Dua orang mahasiswa jurusan Mesin yang
sedang mengadakan penelitian ke Bontang.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

ILLOGICAL SENTENCES
a. Yang kencing harus disiram orangnya yang
disiram
b. Dilarang keras membuang sampah ke sungai
c. Kepada yang tidak berkepentingan dilarang masuk
Siapa yang tidak berkepentingan? Kepada
d. Daerah bebas parkir berarti boleh parkir di mana saja.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

ILLOGICAL SENTENCES
e. Waktu dan tempat kami persilakan.
f. Bapak/Ibu/Saudara , kami persilakan.

g. Mereka tidak paham dan mengerti masalah


politik.

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

REDUNDANCE
Adalah merupakan
Mulai sejak
Ulang kembali
Naik ke atas
Turun ke bawah
Amat sangat sekali

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

REDUNDANCE
Berdasarkan pada

Berdasar pada . . . .
Berdasarkan . . . .

Disebabkan karena

Disebabkan . . .

Membicarakan mengenai/tentang

Berbicara
tentang/mengenai
Membicarakan . . . .

Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

a. Hasil daripada penjualan saham akan digunakan untuk


memperluas bidang usaha.
b. Baik pedagang ataupun konsumen masih menunggu
kepastian harga sehingga tidak terjadi transaksi jual beli.
c. Bukan harga sembilan bahan pokok yang mengalami
kenaikan harga tetapi harga produk yang menggunakan
bahan baku impor.
d. Sebagian pedagang tidak menaikkan harga melainkan
menimbun sebagian barang dagangannya.
e. Antara kemauan konsumen dengan kemauan pedagang
terdapat perbedaan dalam penentuan kenaikan harga.
Note:
seperti baikmaupun; bukanmelainkan; tidaktetapi.; antaradan.
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya

Rida Wahyuningrum
Rida Wahyuningrum
English Department
Adi Buana PGRI University, Surabaya