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Louis Armstrong: The Jazz Legend

Senior Group Website
Janae Billingsley and Audree Hernandez

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Primary Sources
Personal Interviews
"Dan Morgenstern." E-mail interview. 17 Apr. 2015.

When we were looking for more jazz historians to contact, we came across an

article about Dan Morgenstern. The article was discussing how Mr. Morgenstern had
knew Armstrong for a good 20 years and was retiring from Rutgers University. After
reading more about Mr. Morgensterns accomplishments, we needed to interview him.
Mr. Morgenstern helped us compare life when Armstrong was alive to now. He also
gave us personal insight on our website and helped us reach Ricky Riccardi (director at
the Louis Armstrong House Museum). We are very thankful for the interview and all
the extra help from Mr. Morgenstern.
"Ed Kopp." E-mail interview. 20 Feb. 2015.

When we were searching for information about the blues, we came across this

informational article. We wanted to know if this author was still alive, and if it was
possible to have his input on our website and what he thought about Armstrong. After
researching on the website, we found Ed Kopp. Ed Kopp is a jazz historian and editor
for Jazziz Magazine in New York. He was really friendly and we were happy to
including his opinion on our blues section
Elaine Hayes. E-mail Interview. 21 Feb. 2015.

Mrs. Hayes is a Jazz Historian. Although she specializes on female vocalists of

the 1940s she was still a great help. She didnt acquire much knowledge about Louis

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Armstrong but she helped us learn more about segregation holding back colored
musicians. She was a big piece of our Historical Content page.
"Helga Rosser." Telephone interview. 9 Apr. 2015.

Thanks to our history teacher, Mrs. Krause, we were able to interview a family

friend of hers who happened to have a personal experience with Louis Armstrong
herself. As it turns out in her teen years in Germany, right after WWII, Mrs. Rosser
went to see the very loved and famous Armstrong in Germany. Our interview was held
on the phone but recorded on document. She still remembered every detail so vividly
despite her age. Through those same years she had travelled immensely back and forth
between Germany and America so she knew the cultural differences very clearly. We
added some of her quotes in our website as well for a personal type of spin.
"Steven Harris." E-mail interview. 21 Apr. 2015.

He is a jazz historian, archivist, author, and producer. We found him through a

jazz radio station sharing his ideas about the works of Louis Armstrong. We were on the
search for interviewing Jazz Historians for a more professional input to our project and
we had the chance to interview him at the right time. From Mr. Harris we learned more
information about the negative effects of the civil rights era on Armstrong as well as a
bigger image of who at the time disliked Armstrongs work. We did happen to use some
of his quotes throughout our website.
"Wendell Kelly." E-mail interview. 1 Feb. 2015.

When we started our research we wanted to find someone that is currently

involved in the jazz movement. After talking to our jazz teacher at school, he referred
us to Wendell Kelly. He is a professional musician that plays all kinds of instruments.

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Mr. Kelly helped us gain insight on the current jazz movement and where Armstrongs
methods are used.

Official Documents
Armstrong, Louis. Telegram to Eisenhower. 1957. Louis Armstrong House Museum.
Digital file.

This was the official letter that Armstrong sent to Eisenhower after hearing in

the news that someone was preventing nine black children from entering a school in
Little Rock Arkansas. Armstrong was furious when he sent the letter. Many people
believe that it was Armstrongs letter that made Eisenhower react to the nonsense.
United States House of Foreign Affairs. Recognizing "International Jazz Day." House
Resolution 179. 24 April 2013. 113th Congress: Rep. Conyers, John Jr., 2013. Library of
Congress. Web. 22 April 2015.

This is the official document making International Jazz day officially on April

30. This was made in honor of all the jazz ambassadors that promoted American music
on worldwide tours. The tour featured many artists that included Armstrong and a few
other legends.

Bankhead, Tallulah. The Worlds Greatest Musician. Ebony [New York] Dec. 1952:
Cover page. Print.

This magazine article showed Tallulah Bankheads love for Louis Armstrong.

She did a special tribute to The Worlds Greatest Musician and said some inspiring
words about him. We also used this article for the portrait of her and Louis Armstrong
on the cover.

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Meryman, Richard. "An Authentic American Genius." Life 15 Apr. 1966: 92-116. Print.

We used the interview in this tribute for quotes. We also used the interview as a

source to learn about how people felt about Armstrong when he died, compared to
when he was alive. Many fans unexpectedly showed up when he died, so we wanted to
know how many of them were real.
Saal, Hubert. "Good-by Louis." Newsweek 19 July 1971: 76. Print.

We gained some information from this article of how Armstrong impacted the

society. This tribute was beneficial to knowing how Armstrong impacted the people of
New Orleans and the nation as a whole.

Armstrong, Louis. "Satchmo Collection." Letter to President Eisenhower. 24 Sept. 1957.
Louis Armstrong House Museum. Eisenhower Presidential Library, n.d. Web. 19 Apr.

This telegram was sent to President Eisenhower after Armstrong made a

desegregation statement about Little Rock Nine. Armstrong was furious after finding
that someone was preventing the children from entering the Central High School. When
Armstrong reacted, people were surprised and he immediately made headlines.People
believe that his opinion is what made Eisenhower react to the situation by sending
troops to let the children in the school.
Armstrong, Lucille. Cairo - United Arab Republic - January 28, 1961. 1961. Louis
Armstrong Collection, New Orleans. Louis Armstrong House Museum. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

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This photo showed many happy children in Cairo surrounding Armstrong while

he is playing his trumpet. While Armstrong was touring the world as a Jazz
Ambassador he was able to inspire people all around the world. Armstrong was chosen
to tour the world and spread American music, and did a very good job at that.
Baldwin, Davarian L. "The Civil Rights Movement." Africana Age. Andrew W. Mellon
Foundation, 2008. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

This photo shows black people protesting during the Jim Crow era. This photo

is deep because it shows them protesting in a nice neighborhood. Seeing this shows me
that people who were determined on what they wanted, went through the extremes to
get it.
Counts, Wilmer Ira, Jr. Elizabeth Eckford and Hazel Bryan. 1957. Indiana University.
Indiana University - Bloomington. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

This photo has so much value to it. It was known as The Screaming Image

only because it shows a white girl, Hazel Bryan, yelling at African American, Elizabeth
Eckford, while she is walking inside of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
This photo is what Armstrong saw on TV before his famous statement with reporter,
Larry Lubenow. Years after the incident, Hazel has apologized and the girls are now
Cunningham, DeVon C. Louis Armstrong. 2004. Smithsonian Institution. National Portrait
Gallery. Smithsonian Institution. Web. 18 Apr. 2015.

This photo is another piece of art done by someone inspired by Armstrong. The

photo is pretty unique showing Armstrong blowing his horn with the American flag and

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a brick wall in the background. Although, the photo includes some foreign language, it
still shows the self expression of the artist.
Highsmith, Carol M. Entrance arch to Louis Armstrong Park in the Treme neighborhood
of New Orleans, Louisiana. c2006. Photograph. Lib. of Cong., Washington D.C. Lib. of
Cong. Web. 10 Feb. 2012

This photo is of the entrance to Louis Armstrong Park. This photo was one that

we found on the Archives to show how Armstrong has impacted many people after he
Highsmith, Carol M. Louis Armstrong Statue, New Orleans, Louisiana.c2006.
Photograph. Lib. of Cong., Washington D.C. Lib. of Cong. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

We used the statue in the park to demonstrate how Armstrong impacted the

people of New Orleans after he died. The statue sits in Louis Armstrong park in New
Orleans, LA.
Hirschfeld, Al. Louis Armstrong. 1996. The Al Hirschfeld Foundation, New York, NY.
National Portrait Gallery. Smithsonian Institution. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.

This caricature was different than other caricatures of black figures. The artist

didnt emphasize on stereotypes, but on Armstrongs specialties. He emphasized how

big Armstrongs satchelmouth was and how he held his trumpet. This shows that
people didnt only view him as an average black man, but the biggest inspiration of
jazz, Louis Armstrong.
Pilgrim, David. " The Tom Caricature." JCM: The Tom Caricature. Ferris State
University, 2012. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

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From this site we obtained the photo of the advertisement for the Uncle Toms

Cabin play. We added this photo to our other side page because people frequently
referred to Armstrong as Uncle Tom. Uncle Tom is someone who is often accused of
pleasing whites only to elevate themselves -- socially, politically, and economically. On
the other side page we explain how that label wasnt true.
Ross, John. Louis Armstrong. 2003. Smithsonian Institution. National Portrait Gallery.
Smithsonian Institution, 23 Dec. 2011. Web. 18 Apr. 2015.

This is another piece of art done by someone who was inspired by Armstrong.

When looking for photos on the National Portrait Gallery we came across this piece of
art along with many others. It was fascinating to see what most people emphasize on
when drawing Armstrong.
Shahn, Ben. Louis Armstrong. 1956. Gouache on paper. Smithsonian Institution, New
York, NY. National Portrait Gallery. Estate of Ben Shahn, 02 Mar. 2006. Web. 18 Apr.

This is a piece of art done by someone who was inspired by Armstrong. We

included art in our website to show that people were able to demonstrate self expression
in many different ways.
Wang, Wendy. Sunrise Concert on International Jazz Day. 2012. New York, New York.
Jazz Day. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

This is the official website of International Jazz Day. This website provided us

with information of how the jazz ambassadors impacted the government so much that
they designated an international day for jazz. International Jazz Day is celebrated on
April 30 every year all across the world.

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Wynn, Ron. "LOUIS ARMSTRONG Greatest Performances of the '30s, '40s, '50s and
'60s American Songwriter." American Songwriter. N.p., 1 July 2008. Web. 03 Dec. 2014.

We used the Armstrong magazine cover from this website. Although Armstrong

was pretty popular for articles, we was rarely found on magazine covers until after he
died. Therefore, the articles are something special about him.
6 year old - Ruby Bridges. c1960. Photograph. Lib. of Cong., Washington D.C. Lib. of
Cong. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

Ruby Bridges was the first black child to go to a previously all white school. I

used her in our website because of the events that were happening in New Orleans,
while Armstrong was alive. By choosing historical content events we learn that
Armstrong wasnt the main picture during that period.
"Satchmo." Neatorama. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.
- From this website we were able to see a variety of photos to use on our website.
We found the picture of the Colored Waifs Home and an interesting Satchmo CD
cover. The information of this page was about Armstrongs legacy on and off the

Armstrong, Louis. Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1954.

This book was our main resource for information. It was written by Louis

Armstrong and it was the first biography of (and by) a jazz musician. We really enjoyed
seeing Armstrong's world through his own eyes. We also enjoyed being able to double
check certain events to make sure we dont get any false information.

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Bennett, Lerone. "Louis Armstrong." Ebony Pictorial History of Black America. Vol. 5.
Chicago: Johnson, 1973. 262-67. Print. The 1973 Yearbook.

This source provided a brief biography on Armstrong and many sourceful

pictures of his family and lifestyle. Some important information mentioned was how
people think that he contributed to the Civil Right's Movement.
Blumenthal, Bob. Jazz: An Introduction to the History and Legend Behind America's
Music. New York: HarperCollins, 2007. Print.

From this book we used the biography of Louis Armstrong with some of the

quotes and a reference to Armstrongs leadership and the legacy he left behind.
Boyce, Rubert W. Yellow Fever Prophylaxis in New Orleans, 1905. London: Committee of
the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 1906. Print.

This book provided me information about the yellow fever in 1905 during the

outbreak in New Orleans. We were able to understand how it was for people and how
the yellow fever affected many citizens during the time period of Armstrong being
Jones, Max, and John Chilton. Die Louis-Armstrong-Story: 1900-1971. Freiburg (im
Breisgau), Basel, Wien: Herder, 1972. Print.

We used many photos from this book and some quotes. This book provided

some beneficial information to the hardships of Armstrong and his life. Also, the
accomplishments that followed.
Shapiro, Nat, and Nat Hentoff. "Edmond Hall." Hear Me Talkin' to Ya; the Story of Jazz
as Told by the Men Who Made It. New York: Dover Publications, 1966. 22. Print.

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This book is literally made by the people who influenced jazz to its fullest. This

book includes a great amount of useful quotes and information about other artists
during the jazz era. The book includes people who do like other artists and also the ones
who dont. The book also has a lot of information about Armstrong and the background
of New Orleans from the people who lived there.
Teachout, Terry. Pops: A Life of Louis Armstrong. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,
2009. Print.

This source had a lot of great interviews from people who personally knew

Armstrong. This book had beneficial information about the depths of Armstrongs life.
This book was the best biography of Armstrong we have found thus far.

Betty Boop: I'll Be Glad When You're Dead, You Rascal You Photog. Max Fleischer.
Paramount Publix Corporation, 1932. Lib. of Cong. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

This video is a betty boop cartoon that features Louis Armstrong and his band.

This cartoon has a negative showing of Armstrong as he features as a gorilla with a big
grin. This gives people the wrong impression of African Americans and what they are
in reality.

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Diet Coke Commercial. Perf. Louis Armstrong and Elton John. Coca Cola Company,
1992. 30 Jan. 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

This commercial is an example of Armstrongs role in the film industry. When

looking at the actors and actresses in the commercial you notice that they are all white.
Louis Armstrong was one of the few blacks that was able to work with the other race
faithfully. By doing this, Armstrong was slowly breaking the desegregation barrier.
Jacobs, Phoebe. "Louis Armstrong Jazz Oral History Project." Interview. New York
Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, 11 Sept. 1996. Web. 23
Feb. 2015.

Phoebe Jacobs gives a fantastic interview about Louis Armstrong. In this

interview she is able to show how Armstrong inspired others through his positive
mindset. We really enjoyed this interview and chose to insert it on our interview page.
Suzy Cute Doll Commercial. Prod. Topper Toys. Perf. Louis Armstrong. Topper Toys,
1964. Suzy Cute Doll with Louis Armstrong. Public Domain, 31 Dec. 2014. Web. 22 Apr.

This film shows how much whites trusted Armstrong around their kids. During

this time period most people believed that blacks had diseases that whites couldnt
obtain, and wouldnt allow them around their kids. Armstrong allowed people to gain a
new outlook on blacks and to not follow stereotypes.
"Louis Armstrong, "A Rhapsody in Black and Blue" n.p. 5 Oct. 2008. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

This video shows Armstrong in a film that has more black actors/actresses. We

used this film as an example of showing how film went to mainly white to some blacks

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and then to a balance of blacks and whites. Armstrong was a figure that helped the
segregation within the entertainment industry.

Householder, Mike. "The Origins of Jim Crow." Jim Crow Museum: Origins of Jim Crow.
Associated Press, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2014.

This website has some great information about the Jim Crow Era that we can

use to expand on. Also, we are able to understand how segregation was during the Jim
Crow Era. The Jim Crow era was hard for many people because of the many rules set
into place, but once people started to voice their opinion things started changing.
Hudson, Sara. "Satchmo SummerFest: A New Orleans Style Birthday Bash." N.p., 22 July 2013. Web. 03 Dec. 2014.

This website describes an event in New Orleans that celebrates Louis

Armstrongs birthday. The event demonstrates how people of New Orleans still
appreciate Armstrongs legacy even after he died. This event is also used to recognize
people who were inspired by Armstrong.
Nelson, Dr. D M. "Conflicting Views on Segregation." The White Citizens Council. N.p.,
Oct. 1955. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

This white 1955 newspaper has an article that describes the segregation issues

during that era. It was very beneficial to our historical content page about how people
felt about segregation during that time. Also, to notice how people recognized each
other when writing about political issues.

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New Orleans Celebrate the Life of Armstrong." Intercontinental New Orleans. N.p., 14
July 2014. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.

This website describes an event in New Orleans that celebrates Louis

Armstrongs Birthday. Louis Armstrong was a great influence on New Orleans. They
gladly celebrate his birthday every year as a form of remembrance and gratitude of the
Patricia, Richard. "Louis Armstrong: Original FBI Files: Interesting FBI Paperwork
Involving Cases Surrounding This Person. Really Neat!"Google Books. FBI File, 8 Aug.
1962. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

This FBI file was very beneficial to finding quotes to support why people didnt

like Armstrong. It was very interesting to find an actual case against Armstrong and
how that may have affected peoples views of him.
Sutton, Isaac. Mourners at Louis Armstrong Funeral Rally. 1971. Ebony Collection, New
Orleans, LA. All Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

Louis Armstrong had many fans that came to his funeral. This photos shows a

section of the people that paid their respects to the legend at his funeral. This picture is
very inspiring and touching to show how many people appreciated Armstrong.
"Louis Armstrong House Museum - Multimedia." Louis Armstrong House Museum Multimedia. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.

Louis Armstrong used to enjoy making audio clips while doing anything.

Armstrong has a collection of different audio clips that are publically available for
people to personally connect with Armstrong. By listening to these clips you not only
learn of his life, but how to see his life through his eyes.

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Secondary Sources
Antos, Jason D. "Louis Armstrong On Civil Rights, 1957." Louis Armstrong Broke
Silence On Civil Rights In 1957. Queens Gazette, 03 Mar. 2010. Web. 22 Apr. 2015

This article speaks of the day Louis Armstrong made noise in 2010. The article

explains the impact that this day had on segregation til this day. The fact that people
still write articles about this day 53 years later is amazing. Armstrong wasnt too
involved in the segregation events, but if no one had said anything to the President, he
might not have taken action.
Armstrong, Louis, and Thomas David. Brothers. Louis Armstrong, in His Own Words:
Selected Writings. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999. Print.

This is the edited version of Louis Armstrong, in His Own Words. Armstrong

tells of his journey from poverty to fame. These writings reveal Armstrongs honest, and
often controversial, opinions about racism, bebop, and fellow jazz artists.
Brothers, Thomas David. Louis Armstrong, Master of Modernism. First ed. New York:
W.W. Norton, 2014. Print.

Louis Armstrong, Master of Modernism blends cultural history and personal

accounts from Armstrong's acquaintances to reveal his enduring contributions to jazz

and popular music at a time when he and his bandmates couldnt count on food or even
a friendly face on their travels across the country.
Cooker, Jeremy. "Birthplace of Jazz." Birthplace of Jazz. New Orleans Tourism
Marketing Corporation, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2014.

This source describes The birthplace of jazz as being New Orleans. We used this

source because of how it describes that Jazz wasn't born on a particular day, it was

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created over a period of time. Also, it wasn't just one person or one race that was
responsible for creating it.
Crouch, Stanley. "Louis Armstrong | The 20 Most Influential Americans of All Time |" NewsFeed Most Influential Americans. Time Magazine, 24 July 2012.
Web. 25 Oct. 2014.

The author of this article definitely uses descriptive words to describe the plot of

Armstrongs life. He keeps it very short and gets to the point. I like this article because
it was written recently and shows that people still remember Armstrongs legacy.
Daniels, Patricia. "What Do You Know About Louis Armstrong?" About. Web. 06 Nov.

This source has information about what Louis Armstrong did during some

important events (such as World War 2 and The Great Depression). We used this for
some of our background information to explain how he continued to inspire and spread
his music to others when times weren't their best.
George, Charles. Life under the Jim Crow Laws. San Diego: Lucent, 2000. Print.

From this book we were able to find a lot of information about the background

of the Jim Crow era. We also were able to find the last connection to the Jim Crow Era
and the events that impacted the African American society, such as, Harlem
Renaissance, Civil Rights, etc.
Hicks, Amanda. "International Jazz Day: Living Legacy of the U.S. Jazz Ambassadors."
U.S. Department of State Official Blog. N.p., 29 Apr. 2015. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

This website provided a historical view on the purpose of International Jazz

Day. I was able to learn the background of the event and who was all involved. We also

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learned the legacy of the Jazz Ambassador Tours and how it has impacted jazz today by
the establishment of International Jazz Day.
Hughes, Glenn. "Jazz Sucks: A Rant." SMART as Hell RSS. SMARTasHELL, 14 Feb.
2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

We enjoyed the opinion on this page about the cross-cultural empathy about the

jazz. Hughes was really open about the topic and provided us with a reasonable reason
why he didnt like the Jazz.
Kopp, Ed. "A Brief History of the Blues." All About Jazz. All About Jazz, 16 Aug. 2005.
Web. 12 Feb. 2015.

After reading this article we told the writer about using it in our website. He was

very appreciated and we offered to interview him finding out that he was a writer and
editor in New York. This really surprised us to know that from one good informational
article, we were able to find a writer who also loves Armstrong.

Margolick, David. "The Day Louis Armstrong Made Noise." The New York Times. The
New York Times, 22 Sept. 2007. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

This article focuses on the details of the day Louis Armstrong made noise. I

included this article because it was published 50 years after Armstrong made headlines.
This shows the profound impact the this day had on the world during that time and
Moyer, Justin. "All That Jazz Isnt All That Great." Washington Post. The Washington
Post, 8 Aug. 2014. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.

This article started with, Jazz is boring. Jazz is overrated. Jazz is washed up.

This really caught our eye because we wanted to understand why he thought that way

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and include it into our website. Moyer had a beneficial argument to show both sides of
the jazz story.
Schuman, Michael. Louis Armstrong: "Jazz Is Played from the Heart" Berkeley Heights,
NJ: Enslow, 2008. 7-111. Print.

This book goes into dept of Louis Armstrongs life more than our secondary

sources. We were able to get more precise dates, and precise information on different
events that occurred during Armstrongs life.
PBS. PBS. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.

This gives a mini timeline of jazz over time. This source has some videos about

jazz that we used to get a greater understanding about the history of Jazz. This also has
some information about the blues that we can incorporate into our historical content.
Shapiro, Nat, and Nat Hentoff. The Jazz Makers. New York: Rinehart, 1957. Print.

We used the description of Louis Armstrong as a reference and the information

about the other jazz artists as evidence about what people thought of Armstrong. Most
of the artists included personally knew Armstrong, therefore we also gained insight on
what people thought of Armstrong.
TJ. "Trumpet History by Great Jazz Trumpet Players." Jazz Music History. Web. 11 Nov.

This source provided us with a list of great trumpet players before and after

Louis Armstrong. This also provided us with some ancient history of Jazz itself. We
enjoyed reading about some of the jazz influences before Armstrong to get an idea of
who he might have been influenced by.

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Tyle, Chris. "The 1920s in Jazz." Jazz History: The Standards (1920s). N.p., 1992. Web.
11 Feb. 2015.

This website is by a few jazz historians who describe the jazz age and how jazz

musicians have impacted the era to change the style of music. We have used this page
to get interviews with other jazz historians.
Variety Magazine. "Rock N Roll in the Press." Rock N Roll in the Press. University of
Missouri - Saint Louis, 22 Jan. 1958. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.

We used this source for our our modern culture connections page. We learned

that individual councils have formed action committees to call on owners of

establishments with roll and roll music on their jukeboxes. We also learned that the
people who sponsor the music and the people who promote Negro bands, play for
Woodward, C. Vann. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. New York: Oxford UP, 1974.

From this book we were able to find a lot of information about the background

of the Jim Crow era. We also were able to find the last connection to the Jim Crow Era
and the events that impacted the African American society, such as, Harlem
Renaissance, Civil Rights, etc.
Armstrong's Film Roles."Armstrong's Film Roles. Web. 02 Dec. 2014.

This website explains Armstrongs film roles starting in the 1930s. Armstrong

starred in many films which helped end racial discrimination. Even though many
people still didnt watch Armstrongs films because of the discrimination between

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blacks and whites, Armstrongs racial tolerance helped gear people away from racial
"Louis Armstrong Centennial - Satchmo Photo Gallery." Louis Armstrong Centennial Satchmo Photo Gallery., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.

This source provided us with some pictures to use in our project. From this

website we used the Ebony magazine cover featuring Louis Armstrong, and we tried to
find the originals of the other pictures.
"Louis Armstrong: 'The Man and His Music,' Part 2." NPR. NPR. Web. 02 Dec.
- This website gave us some insightful interviews of Louis Armstrong and photos
that we can use on the website. The overall website had a biography of Armstrong
and his accomplishments that we can use as proof to our evidence.
"Jazz: W. W. Norton StudySpace." Chapter 6: Louis Armstrong and the First Great
Soloists. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.

This website went into depth of Armstrongs main achievements. The website

describes the main achievement and then lists the information about that achievement.
We found this really helpful when making our timeline before we started making our

"Louis Armstrong." Biography. Web. 23 Oct. 2014.

This website is a biography of Armstrongs life. The website doesnt go into

deep details; however, it does include some useful information about Armstrongs

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songs. For example, we never knew that When its Sleepy Time Down South was
Armstrongs theme song until we read the information of this source.

"Louis Armstrong Timeline."Louis Armstrong Timeline. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.


This is a timeline regarding important events during Armstrongs life and the

time period. We used this timeline along with the others as evidence to prove most the
events that happened in Armstrongs life.
"The Harlem Renaissance." Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 11
Nov. 2014.

This article provided us with a small amount of information of how Armstrong

contributed during the Harlem Renaissance. However, this website provided us with a
great amount of information about how the Harlem Renaissance impacted the African
American society as a whole. We used this information in the Historical Content page
by connecting the Harlem Renaissance to the Jim Crow Era.
"History of Jazz | Black History in America |" History of Jazz |
Black History in America | Web. 30 Nov. 2014.

This website explains the evolution of jazz and how Armstrong was involved in

improvising jazz solos. This website has a variety of historical content that we have
used for our project. This source also includes detailed information about Armstrongs
influences on society.