THE NATURAL EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

f ( x) ! ln x 

f 1 ( x) ! e x

f ( x) ! e x
is known as the Natural Exponential Function.

Note the inverse relationships:

ln(e x ) ! x and
Example 1:

e ln x ! x

Solve the exponential equation:

7 ! e x 1 
Take the natural log of both sides: ln 7 ! ln e  Apply the inverse property:
x 1

ln 7 ! x  1  Solve for x and approximate: x !  1  ln 7 } . 946

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Example 2: Solve the logarithmic equation:

ln( 2 x  3 ) ! 5 

Exponentiate both sides:

e ln( 2 x  3 ) ! e 5
1 2

2 x  3 ! e5  Apply the inverse property: 
Solve for x and approximate: x !
( e 5  3 ) } 75 . 707

OPERATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
eaeb ! eab 1. ea ! eab 2. e b

PROPERTIES OF THE EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
x 1. The domain of f ( x) ! e is (g, g) ;and the range (0, g) .

2. The function f ( x) ! e is continuous, increasing, and 1-to-1 on its entire domain.
x 3. The graph of f ( x) ! e is concave up on (g, g) .

x

4.

x p g

lim e x ! 0 and

x pg

lim e x ! g

.
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THE DERIVATIVE OF THE NATURAL EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
d 1. dx

[e ] ! e

x

x

d 2. dx

[e ] ! e  u d

u

u

Proof:

ln e x ! x
1 d e x dx

Inverse property Take derivative of both sides d [e x ] Isolate dx

(e x ) ! 1

d dx

[e x ] ! e x

Example 3:
d dx

Differentiate the following:

a)

[ e 2 x 1 ] ! 2 e 2 x 1 
3

d b) dx
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[e 

3x

]!

3 x2

e 

3x

!

3e x2

x

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Example 4:

Locating Relative Extrema

f ( x) ! xe x   f d ) ! xe x  e x (1) ! e x ( x  1) (x

e x ( x  1) ! 0   @ x ! 1
Neg -1 Relative Minimum at: (-1, e-1) Pos

fd

Example 6:

Rate of increase of MDs in U.S.

At what rate are the MD¶s increasing in 1988? (1980; t = 0)

y ! 476,260e 0.026663t
y d .026663  476,260e 0.026663t ! 12,699e 0.026663t !
yd 12,699e0.026663(8) } 15,718 doctors per year !
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THE INTEGRAL OF THE NATURAL EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
1.

´

e x dx ! e x  C

2.

´

e u du ! e u  C

Example 7:
1 3

´e ´

3 x 1

dx

u ! 3x  1 du ! 3 dx
1 3

3 e 3 x 1 dx ! eu  c ! 
x2 1 3

´

e u du

!

1 3

e 3 x 1  c
u ! x2 du !  2 xdx

Example 8:

´ 5 xe
dx ! 5 (

dx

5 xe

´ 

x2 

1 ) 2

´ 

2 xe 

x2
2

dx ! 

5 2

´

e u du

! 

5 u e 2 

C ! 

5  x e 2 

C

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Example 9: a)

´ 

e dx 2 x
x

1

u !

1 x 1 x2

du ! 
u

dx
1 x

´

e du !  e  C !  e

u 

C

b)

´ 

sin x(e cos x )dx

u ! cos x du !  sin xdx
x

´

e u du !  e u  C !  e cos 

C

Example 10:

a)

´

1 0

e dx 

x

!e 

x

1 0

! e 1  ( e 0 ) ! e 1  ( 1)

1  1 } 0.632 e
1

1
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b)

´ 1 e
0

1

ex

x

dx

! ln(1  e )

x

1 0

! ln(1  e1 )  ln(1  e 0 )

! ln(1  e)  ln(2) ! ln 1e } 0.620 2
1

1

c)

´

0 1

e x cos(e x )dx
x 0 1

! sin(e )

! sin(e 0 )  sin(e 1 ) } 0.482
1

-1
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